Counselor emotional exhaustion and turnover intention in therapeutic communities

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Counselor emotional exhaustion and turnover intention in therapeutic communities"

Transcription

1 Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 31 (2006) Regular article Counselor emotional exhaustion and turnover intention in therapeutic communities Hannah K. Knudsen, (Ph.D.) a, 4, Lori J. Ducharme, (Ph.D.) a, Paul M. Roman, (Ph.D.) a,b a Center for Research on Behavioral Health and Human Services Delivery, The University of Georgia, 101 Barrow Hall, Athens, GA , USA b Department of Sociology, 119 Baldwin Hall, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA , USA Received 14 November 2005; received in revised form 28 March 2006; accepted 17 April 2006 Abstract Counselor turnover is a significant problem facing substance abuse treatment agencies. Understanding the role of organizational culture in predicting burnout and turnover intention may yield important information on how to address turnover in treatment organizations. Using data collected from 817 counselors employed in a national sample of 253 therapeutic communities (TCs), structural equation modeling was used to estimate the associations between emotional exhaustion, turnover intention, and three measures of organizational culture: centralized decision making, distributive justice, and procedural justice. The model controlled for counselor demographics, credentials, and earnings. Counselors emotional exhaustion scores were higher in TCs with greater centralized decision making ( p b.01) but lower in TCs where greater distributive justice ( p b.05) and procedural justice ( p b.001) were reported. Likewise, turnover intention was positively associated with centralized decision making ( p b.05) and inversely associated with the workplace justice measures ( p b.001). These data suggest that management practices in TCs and perhaps in other types of substance abuse treatment facilities likely play a substantial role in counselors well-being and in their decisions to leave their jobs. Because these practices are not structural features of organizations, they may be targeted for intervention and change. D 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Turnover intention; Emotional exhaustion; Counselor burnout; Workplace justice 1. Introduction Although voluntary employee turnover is a concern for most types of organizations, the loss of counseling staff in substance abuse treatment facilities has especially strong impacts. Loss or change in counselors has implications for both the quality of care delivered and the program management. The loss of these employees disrupts patient care (Barak, Nissly, & Levin, 2001; Lum, Kervin, Clark, Reid, & Sirola, 1998) and increases costs for organizations that must then attract, hire, and train additional counseling staff. The rate of voluntary turnover is notably high among substance abuse treatment counselors (McLellan, Carise, & Kleber, 2003). These negative consequences of counselor 4 Corresponding author. Tel.: ; fax: address: (H.K. Knudsen). turnover as well as their high rates have generated considerable interest among program managers in understanding its causes and reducing its incidence (Gallon, Gabriel, & Knudsen, 2003; Hser, 1995; Laundergan, Flynn, & Gaboury, 1986). Data from both treatment settings and other types of human service organizations suggest that emotional exhaustion, a key component of burnout, and turnover intention are key precursors of actual turnover. Therefore, understanding the predictors of emotional exhaustion and turnover intention may offer important insights into how treatment organizations can reduce counselor turnover. Drawing on theoretical principles of social exchange and using data from 817 counselors employed by therapeutic communities (TCs), this research examines the associations between emotional exhaustion, turnover intention, and three aspects of organizational culture: centralized decision making, procedural justice, and distributive justice. The TC setting /06/$ see front matter D 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. doi: /j.jsat

2 174 H.K. Knudsen et al. / Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 31 (2006) is particularly appropriate for testing these ideas because it involves substantial intensity of interaction between counselors and clients and often is involved in treating clients with a broad range of deeply seated problems in addition to their substance abuse (De Leon, 2000). TCs represent one of the five major substance abuse treatment modalities in the United States (Prendergast, Podus, Change, & Urada, 2002). Given their significance in the delivery of substance abuse treatment services in the United States, it is important that the parameters of their operation be documented. Emotional exhaustion is defined as the perception that one s emotional resources have been completely expended (Cordes & Dougherty, 1993; Maslach & Jackson, 1981). It is one of the three dimensions in Maslach and Jackson s (1981) classic model of employee burnout. The present research focuses on this dimension because emotional exhaustion may better encompass the true nature of burnout than the other two dimensions of depersonalization and diminished personal accomplishment (Cropanzano, Rupp, & Byrne, 2003; Shirom, 1989; Wright & Cropanzano, 1998). Further, a focus upon emotional exhaustion builds on a prior set of literature that has documented the positive association between this dimension and turnover intention (Barak et al., 2001; Blankertz & Robinson, 1997; Lee & Ashforth, 1996). The negative consequences of emotional exhaustion are wide reaching. Negative organizational outcomes include poor job performance (Cropanzano, Rupp, & Byrne, 2003; Wright & Cropanzano, 1998) and reduced client satisfaction with the services they have received (Garman, Corrigan, & Morris, 2002; Vahey, Aiken, Sloane, Clarke, & Vargas, 2004). Emotional exhaustion also has negative consequences in terms of illness, fatigue, and depression for the employees themselves (Burke & Deszca, 1986; Cherniss, 1980; Kahill, 1988; Pines & Maslach, 1978). Individual-level emotional exhaustion is consequential for other employees who interact with the burned-out individual, as there is a bsocial contagionq effect where burnout spreads among organizational members (Bakker, Schaufeli, Sixma, & Bosveld, 2001; Halbesleben & Buckley, 2002). Finally, longitudinal studies have demonstrated that emotional exhaustion is significantly associated with voluntary turnover (Maslach & Jackson, 1986; Wright & Cropanzano, 1998). Given the constraints of cross-sectional research methods, it is difficult to study directly the process of employee turnover; hence, turnover intention has been identified as a useful proximal measure (Farkas & Tetrick, 1989). Selfreported intentions to quit have repeatedly been demonstrated to predict actual turnover (Tekleab, Takeuchi, & Taylor, 2005). The validity of this approach is further supported by the meta-analytic work of Griffeth, Hom, and Gaertner (2000) who demonstrated that the effect size of intention to quit on actual turnover is considerably larger than the predictive power of other job-related factors on turnover behavior. Thus, understanding the aspects of work and organizational culture that are associated with turnover intention is critical if the larger issue of counselor turnover is to be addressed Conceptualizing predictors of emotional exhaustion and turnover intention An extensive literature suggests that stressful experiences in the workplace have implications for the well-being of employees (Barling, Kelloway, & Frone, 2005). Substance abuse treatment counselors face a wide range of stressors that result from organizational conditions and the social interactions they have with their clients. Certain stressors within the substance abuse treatment profession are difficult to mitigate (Shoptaw, Stein, & Rawson, 2000). For example, substance abuse treatment agencies face an increasingly turbulent environment where they are expected to deliver more and higher quality services with fewer resources (Lamb, Greenlick, & McCarty, 1998). In particular, TCs have been impacted by a newly demanding regulatory environment as they have become increasingly mainstreamed within the substance abuse treatment system (De Leon, 1999, 1995). Melnick and De Leon (1999) note that TCs have been impacted by the managed care environment that has sought to reduce treatment costs. In this environment, most programs cannot simply increase tangible rewards such as wages to increase the retention of counselors. Similarly, counseling involves substantial bemotional laborq (Hochschild, 1983) in building therapeutic relationships with clients, many of whom have not voluntarily entered treatment (Hiller, Knight, Broome, & Simpson, 1998). Additionally, these clients are often recidivists because of the chronic, relapsing nature of addiction (McLellan, Lewis, O Brien, & Kleber, 2000). Further, they typically have complex mental and physical needs that require counselors to coordinate the delivery of additional health services (Kessler, Chiu, Demler, & Walters, 2005; Sacks et al., 1998). These clinical complexities are likely to be highly prevalent in TC settings, as clients in residential programs tend to report more severe problems (Melnick, De Leon, Thomas, & Kressel, 2001). As Cordes and Dougherty (1993) observe, human service occupations such as counseling are at high risk of burnout bbecause they are constantly dealing with other people and their problemsq (p. 628). These challenges that are based on therapeutic relationship are intrinsic to the occupation and, therefore, are not as amenable to intervention as other organizational factors. In contrast, certain management practices within treatment organizations have the potential to reduce employee exhaustion and turnover intention through changes in the social interactions between management and counselors. The primary advantage of an emphasis on change within an organization s culture is that it does not require infusion of costly resources. Instead, these management practices, facilitated within the social interactions of everyday organizational life, develop perceptions among employees

3 H.K. Knudsen et al. / Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 31 (2006) about the distribution of power and the presence of workplace fairness. When these perceptions are positive, they are likely associated with reduced emotional exhaustion and turnover intention among counselors. Organizations can be described as having centralized, hierarchical power structures or decentralized, participatory power structures. In the centralized form, employees are not free to make relevant decisions about their work; nearly all decisions must be referred up a bchain of commandq to supervisors for approval (Hage & Aiken, 1967; Hall, 1963). Participatory structures place significant amounts of decision making in the hands of employees (Hodson, 2001; Osterman, 2000). These participatory forms of organization have been shown to increase job satisfaction (Finlay, Martin, Blum, & Roman, 1995; Mortimer & Lorence, 1995). However, in organizations where power is centralized, employees likely feel greater stress due to having little control over their work; a lack of job control is well established as a significant work stressor (Karasek, 1979). Thus, we hypothesize that centralization is positively associated with counselor burnout and turnover intention. Strong emphasis on rigid hierarchical control within the treatment process is part of the TC tradition (De Leon, 2000) and would be expected to spill over into patterns of organizational management. Related to, but distinct from, the distribution of power is the concept of workplace justice. The theoretical underpinning of justice s likely effects on employee well-being is drawn from equity theory. According to equity theory, feelings of disadvantage in social relationships translate into psychological distress (Adams, 1965; Van Dierendonck, Schaufeli, & Buunk, 2001). Recent work on organizational justice suggests that experiencing injustice in the workplace can be a significant source of stress and, hence, may be linked to a variety of negative outcomes (Cropanzano et al., 2005; Elovainio, Kivimaki, & Vahtera, 2002). Organizational justice is multifaceted; two aspects that have been studied in a variety of different types of organizations are distributive justice and procedural justice. Distributive justice refers to perceptions about how fairly the workload and rewards are distributed across members of the organization (Adams, 1965). These perceptions of distributive justice may matter more than objective levels of such justice (Bloom & Michel, 2002). Recent reviews of the literature have suggested that perceived distributive injustice is positively associated with employee withdrawal behaviors including burnout (Halbesleben & Buckley, 2004) as well as intention to quit (Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001; Colquitt, Conlon, Wesson, Porter, & Ng, 2001). These associations have also been demonstrated in samples of workers in human service occupations (Schaufeli, Van Dierendonck, & Van Gorp, 1996; Van Dierendonck et al., 2001). Procedural justice describes the extent to which the processes through which organizational decisions are made are perceived to be fair (Leventhal, 1980). Procedural justice is typically the consequence of collecting relevant information from employees before decisions are made and then applying these decisions fairly across employees (Niehoff & Moorman, 1993). Recent meta-analyses found that perceptions of procedural justice were associated with a constellation of positive work attitudes, including job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intention to quit (Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001; Colquitt et al., 2001). To summarize, we hypothesized that centralized decision making, distributive justice, and procedural justice are significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. It is also expected that there is a positive correlation between exhaustion and turnover intention. These hypotheses are examined in a large sample of counselors employed in TC settings. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Sample A nationally representative sample of 380 self-identifying TCs was drawn in A two-stage sampling process was utilized. First, U.S. counties were allocated to 1 of 10 strata based on population, and counties were randomly sampled within strata. All substance abuse treatment facilities within the sampled counties were enumerated using published directories, including federal and state provider listings. From these lists, treatment organizations were then randomly selected proportionate to the total number of centers in the sampled counties. A brief telephone interview was conducted to assess eligibility for the study. Facilities that were ineligible or refused to participate were replaced with organizations randomly selected from the same geographic stratum. The resulting sample of TCs was located in 42 states, including urban, suburban, and rural areas. Three criteria determined eligibility for the study, and this information was collected during the brief telephone screening interview. First, the organization was required to provide substance abuse treatment. Second, the facility must be community based; facilities that operated within the Veteran s Administration Health System or in correctional settings were not eligible for the study. Third, the center needed to self-identify as a TC. Although data such as membership in Therapeutic Communities of America and adherence to the classic TC model developed by De Leon (2000), Melnick and De Leon (1999), and Melnick, De Leon, Hiller, and Knight (2000) were collected during the in-depth interviews, such criteria were not employed during sample selection. This approach allowed for measurement of the variation among facilities that self-identified as TCs, thereby capturing the diversity of TCs within the United States. The 380 TCs included in these analyses represent 86% of the facilities that met these eligibility criteria and agreed to participate.

4 176 H.K. Knudsen et al. / Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 31 (2006) Data collection Data collection utilized two methods: face-to-face interviews and mailed questionnaires. Organizational-level data about the TC were collected during face-to-face interviews with the TC s administrator, clinical director, or both. These interviews averaged about 2 hours in length, and participating TCs received a US$100 honorarium. At the conclusion of the interview, the respondent was asked to provide a list of counselors at the facility who provide services to substance-abusing clients. All listed counselors were mailed a questionnaire and an informed consent form. Counselors who returned a completed questionnaire received US$40 for their participation. These questionnaires were mailed to 1,779 counselors, and 1,053 completed questionnaires were received for a response rate of 59.2%. This rate of participation was similar to recent data collection from counselors at public and private treatment facilities (Knudsen, Ducharme, Roman, & Link, 2005) as well as other workforce studies (Forman, Bovasso, & Woody, 2001; Mark, Kranzler, & Song, 2003; Thomas, Wallack, Lee, McCarty, & Swift, 2003). At least one counselor questionnaire was received from 253 (66.6%) of the TCs in the total sample. Complete data on all indicators for the present analyses were available from 817 counselors Measures Two dependent variables were examined: emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. Emotional exhaustion was measured by nine items from the well-established scale developed by Maslach and Jackson (1986). Each item used a Likert response format where 1 represented not at all true and 7 represented very true. Turnover intention was measured by three items, adapted from Walsh, Ashford, and Hill (1985). Counselors were asked to indicate their agreement using a Likert response format where 1 represented strongly disagree and 7 represented strongly agree. The text for these items and all other scales used in the analyses appear in Table 1. The three independent variables of interest were centralized decision making, distributive justice, and procedural justice. Centralized decision making was measured by five items; this classic organizational measure was developed by Hage and Aiken (1967). Counselors were asked how true each statement was with regard to the TC where they were employed; responses ranged from 1 (not at all true) to 7(very true). The five indicators of procedural justice and four measures of distributive justice were adapted from Niehoff and Moorman (1993). Counselors were asked to rate their agreement with each item on a scale that ranged from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7(strongly agree). Eight control variables are included in the model of counselor burnout and turnover intention. These sociodemographic measures include the following: gender (1 = female, 0 = male), age (in years), and race (1 = racial/ethnic minority, 0 = White). Five additional control variables assessed other individual-level characteristics associated with counselors occupation, including certification status (1 = certified addictions counselor, 0 = not certified), personal recovery status (1 = in recovery, 0 = not in recovery), master s-level degree or higher (1 = yes, 0 = no), years in the substance abuse treatment field, and earnings. This measure of earnings consisted of one of nine categories (bus$15,000, US$15,000 20,000, US$20,000 25,000, etc.); the midpoint of each Table 1 Confirmatory factor model Item wording Factor loading Emotional exhaustion I feel emotionally drained from my work..748 I feel fatigued when I get up in the morning.754 and have to face another day on the job. Working with people all day is really a strain for me..596 I feel burned out from my work..820 Working directly with people puts.637 too much stress on me. I feel frustrated with my job..835 I feel used up at the end of the workday..809 I feel like I am working too hard on my job..731 I feel like I am at the end of my rope..753 Turnover intention As soon as I can find a better job,.915 I will leave this TC. I am actively looking for a job at another TC..725 I am seriously thinking of quitting my job..880 Centralized decision making There can be little action taken here until.714 a supervisor approves a decision. People who want to make their own.733 decisions would be quickly discouraged. Even small matters have to be referred.892 to someone higher up for approval. Employees have to ask their supervisors.914 before doing almost anything. Any decisions employees make must.854 have their boss s approval. Distributive justice Where you work, the amount of pay.702 employees receive is distributed fairly. Employees receive an amount of.663 fringe benefits that is fair. The workload at this center is fairly distributed..751 The overall rewards workers.837 receive are fairly distributed. Procedural justice The TC s management makes sure that employee.853 concerns are heard before decisions are made. Job decisions are applied consistently across.820 all affected employees. Employees are allowed to challenge or appeal.748 job decisions that are made by managers. When decisions are made, all the people who.836 will be affected are asked for their ideas. The TC s management clarifies decisions and provides.822 additional information when requested by employees.

5 H.K. Knudsen et al. / Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 31 (2006) category, and the method of Parker and Fenwick (1983) for estimating the value of the final open-ended category (NUS$50,000), were used for analytic purposes. The resulting earnings measure is expressed in thousands of U.S. dollars Data analysis The relationships between the variables were estimated using Mplus version 3.01, a structural equation modeling software package (Muthen & Muthen, 2004). This software allows for the estimation of a measurement model and a structural model of hypothesized relationships. The measurement model was developed based on an exploratory factor analysis that produced a five-factor solution (not shown). This model (of the two dependent variables and three independent variables) produced five factors with eigenvalues over 1, and none of the items cross-loaded. The next step was to conduct the analysis of the confirmatory factor and structural models, which were estimated simultaneously using the Mplus software. The confirmatory factor analysis yields a measurement model of latent variables from the shared variance between individual items, which has the advantage of parceling out the error components from the items. The result is an unobserved measure that is more reliable and valid. Some residual errors within constructs were allowed to be correlated to improve model fit. Using these unobserved measures, Mplus estimates the structural model of hypothesized relationships between latent variables. This software produces measures of overall model fit, estimates of the hypothesized associations (unstandardized and standardized coefficients, standard errors, and t tests), and measures of the proportion of variance explained for each dependent variable. 3. Results 3.1. Preliminary analyses Although 1,053 TC counselors responded to the survey, only 817 counselors provided complete data on all variables of interest. Therefore, it was important to consider the issue of response bias before conducting the structural equation model of emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. To examine possible response bias, we compared the demographic characteristics of the 817 counselors with administrator reports regarding the composition of their TC s counseling staff. The counselor questionnaire data revealed that most TC counselors (59.1%) were female and 43.1% reported of having a racial/ethnic minority background. The average age was 43 years (M = 43.17, SD = 10.55), and the average TC counselor had spent about 7 years in the treatment field (M = 7.08, SD = 6.23). More than half (57.4%) were personally recovering from substance abuse. About 46.1% of the sample were certified in addiction treatment and about one quarter (26.8%) had attained a master s-level degree or higher. The average salary was about or roughly US$27,000 per year (SD = 9.30). Notably, these descriptive statistics were remarkably consistent with the reports of administrators who were asked to describe the characteristics of their counseling staff. The averages for these TC-level counselor characteristics were as follows: 56.7% were female, 44.0% were racial/ ethnic minorities, 57.1% were personally in recovery, 46.9% were certified, and 29.0% had a master s-level degree or higher. The average counselor salary, as reported by administrators, was about US$28,400. This high congruence between the characteristics of the counselor respondents and the reports of TC administrators suggests that response bias was not a significant problem in the counselor-level data. Table 2 Structural model of counselor emotional exhaustion and turnover intention (N = 817) Emotional exhaustion Turnover intention Variables b (SE) b b (SE) b Centralized decision making.118 (.038) (.048)4.078 Distributive justice.115 (.055) (.070) Procedural justice.267 (.053) (.067) Gender (1 = female).192 (.092) (.116).074 Age in years.023 (.005) (.006).051 Race (1 = non-white).269 (.090) (.113).087 Certified in addictions.069 (.092) (.116).056 Recovering.088 (.097) (.123).083 Master s degree or higher.241 (.112) (.141) Years in the treatment field.007 (.008) (.010).028 Earnings.009 (.005) (.007).015 Association between emotional exhaustion.635 (.073) and turnover intention Latent variable, R p b.05 (two tailed). 44 p b.01 (two tailed). 444 p b.001 (two tailed).

6 178 H.K. Knudsen et al. / Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 31 (2006) Structural equation model of emotional exhaustion and turnover intention The confirmatory factor model for the measures of organizational culture, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention appears in Table 1. All items had loadings exceeding.50 and loaded significantly on their intended factors. Overall, the model fit the data very well. Hu and Bentler (1999) suggest that the Tucker Lewis Index and the Comparative Fit Index should exceed.95. For this model, the values were.952 and.960, respectively. In addition, the root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA) was.040 and the standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) was.039. Excellent model fit is indicated by RMSEA and SRMR values under.05 (Kelloway, 1998). The structural model supported the hypothesized relationships between the variables. First, there was a positive association between centralized decision making and emotional exhaustion (b =.127, p b.01). Counselors who reported working in TCs where decisions were required to go through a hierarchical chain of command were significantly more emotionally exhausted than counselors working in TCs where decision making was less centralized. In addition, there was a significant positive association between centralized decision making and turnover intention (b =.078, p b.05), such that counselors indicated greater intentions to quit when the TC placed greater emphasis on a hierarchical model of decision making (Table 2). Second, distributive justice was significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and turnover intention in the expected directions. The negative association between distributive justice and emotional exhaustion (b =.116, p b.05) suggests that when counselors perceive that the workload and rewards within the TC are more fairly distributed among its employees, they are less likely to report feelings of emotional exhaustion. Additionally, there was a significant negative association between this form of justice and intentions to quit (b =.251, p b.001), such that greater perceived distributive justice was associated with lower levels of turnover intention. Procedural justice was significantly associated with both dependent variables. Counselors who perceived that workplace procedures were fair reported significantly less emotional exhaustion than counselors who reported lower levels of procedural justice (b =.302, p b.001). Turnover intention was also negatively associated with procedural justice; higher counselor reports of procedural justice were associated with lower levels of turnover intention (b =.347, p b.001). It was hypothesized that there would be a significant positive correlation between emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. As expected, there was a significant positive association between these dependent variables (b =.247, p b.001). The control variables were more predictive of emotional exhaustion than turnover intention. Four variables were associated with emotional exhaustion. Greater emotional exhaustion was reported by counselors who were male, were Caucasian, were younger, and held a master s-level degree or higher. Only one of the control variables was associated with turnover intention. Counselors with at least a master s-level degree reported significantly greater intentions to quit. Altogether, these variables explained a considerable amount of the variance in both emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. Nearly 30% of the variance in the latent variable of emotional exhaustion was explained by centralized decision making, distributive justice, procedural justice, and the control variables. For turnover intention, about 38% of the variance was explained by the model. 4. Discussion Although turnover among counselors in substance abuse treatment organizations has been identified as a significant issue by program managers, research examining the precursors of turnover has been rare. Using theoretical propositions derived from studies conducted in other types of organizations, this research applied the concepts of centralized decision making, distributive justice, and procedural justice to self-reported emotional exhaustion and turnover intention among counselors employed by TCs. This study of emotional exhaustion and turnover intention is the first to be conducted among counselors working in a national sample of TC settings. Data collected from 817 TC counselors provided support for the hypothesized relationships between the variables. As expected, centralized decision making was positively associated with emotional exhaustion and turnover intention, whereas the two forms of organizational justice were negatively associated with these dependent variables. In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between exhaustion and intention to quit. Several limitations associated with this research should be noted. First, the data are cross-sectional in nature, making it difficult to establish causal relationships between the variables. Second, the data are only representative of one modality within the American substance abuse treatment system. However, the consistency of these results with management research conducted in other types of organizations suggests that these findings may have applicability to other treatment organizations. Some caution regarding the extent to which these results will generalize due to rates of response may be warranted. However, it is notable that the characteristics of the counselors from whom complete data were available are highly consistent with the description of the TC workforce provided by administrators. Finally, the models explain a considerable amount of the variance in emotional exhaustion and turnover intention, but future research should continue to explore other variables that contribute to these outcomes to build a more thorough understanding of the burnout and turnover processes.

7 H.K. Knudsen et al. / Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 31 (2006) Although all three independent variables were significantly associated with emotional exhaustion and intention to quit, there were noticeable differences in the magnitudes of the associations. The standardized coefficients reveal that procedural justice was more strongly associated with emotional exhaustion than centralized decision making and distributive justice. This finding is consistent with other research that has shown that procedural justice is more important than distributive justice in predicting burnout (Brotheridge, 2003; Schmike, Ambrose, & Cropanzano, 2000). The standardized coefficients for the two forms of justice were closer in magnitude when predicting turnover intention, although procedural justice remains larger. Although centralized decision making was significantly associated with intention to quit, the association was quite small compared with the measures of organizational justice. This may also be reflective of the fact of historically institutional hierarchy within the TC therapeutic model (De Leon, 2000). These findings suggest that program managers may gain substantial benefits from examining perceptions of procedural justice within their organizations. Perceptions among counselors that managers will listen to their opinions and will apply decisions fairly across workers are strongly associated with emotional exhaustion and intentions to quit. Program managers may be able to address, in part, problems of high turnover within their organizations through social interactions with their counseling staff. Further attention to these documented sources of organizational instability should lead to relatively straightforward and inexpensive interventions to reduce their prevalence. Acknowledgment The authors gratefully acknowledge the research support of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (Grant No. R01DA14976). References Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.) Advances in experimental social psychology (vol. 2, pp ). New York7 Academic Press. Bakker, A. B., Schaufeli, W., Sixma, H. J., & Bosveld, W. (2001). Burnout contagion among general practitioners. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 20, Barak, M. E. M., Nissly, J. A., & Levin, A. (2001). Antecedents to retention and turnover among child welfare, social work, and other human service employees: What can we learn from past research? A review and metaanalysis. Social Service Review, 75, Barling, J., Kelloway, E. K., & Frone, M. R. (Eds.). (2005). Handbook of work stress (pp ). Thousand Oaks, CA7 Sage. Blankertz, L. E., & Robinson, S. E. (1997). Turnover intention of community mental health workers in psychosocial rehabilitation services. Community Mental Health Journal, 33, Bloom, M., & Michel, J. G. (2002). The relationship between organizational context, pay dispersion, and managerial turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 45, Brotheridge, C. M. (2003). The role of fairness in mediating the effects of voice and justification on stress and other outcomes in a climate of organizational change. International Journal of Stress Management, 10, Burke, R. J., & Deszca, E. (1986). Correlates of psychological burnout phases among police officers. Human Relations, 39, Cherniss, C. (1980). Professional burnout in human service organizations. New York7 Praeger. Cohen-Charash, Y., & Spector, P. E. (2001). The role of justice in organizations: A meta-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86, Colquitt, J. A., Conlon, D. E., Wesson, M. J., Porter, C. O. L. H., & Ng, K. Y. (2001). Justice at the millennium: A meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, Cordes, C. L., & Dougherty, T. W. (1993). A review and integration of research on job burnout. Academy of Management Review, 18, Cropanzano, R., Goldman, B. M., & Benson, L. (2005). Organizational justice. In J. Barling, E. K. Kelloway, & M. R. Frone (Eds.), Handbook of work stress (pp ). Thousand Oaks, CA7 Sage. Cropanzano, R., Rupp, D. E., & Byrne, Z. S. (2003). The relationship of emotional exhaustion to work attitudes, job performance, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, De Leon, G. (1995). Residential therapeutic communities in the mainstream: Diversity and issues. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 27, De Leon, G. (1999). Therapeutic communities. In M. Galanter, & H. Kleber (Eds.), The American Psychiatric Press textbook of substance abuse treatment (2nd ed., pp ). Washington7 American Psychiatric Press. De Leon, G. (2000). The therapeutic community: Theory, model, and method. New York7 Springer Publishing Company. Elovainio, M., Kivimaki, M., & Vahtera, J. (2002). Organizational justice: Evidence of a new psychosocial predictor of health. American Journal of Public Health, 92, Farkas, A. J., & Tetrick, L. E. (1989). A three-wave longitudinal analysis of the causal ordering of satisfaction and commitment on turnover decisions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, Finlay, W., Martin, J. K., Blum, T. C., & Roman, P. M. (1995). Organizational structure and job satisfaction: Do bureaucratized organizations produce more satisfied employees? Administration and Society, 27, Forman, R. F., Bovasso, G., & Woody, G. (2001). Staff beliefs about addiction treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 21, 1 9. Gallon, S. L., Gabriel, R. M., & Knudsen, J. R. W. (2003). The toughest job you ll ever love: A pacific northwest treatment workforce survey. Journal of Substance Abuse, 24, Garman, A. N., Corrigan, P. W., & Morris, S. (2002). Staff burnout and patient satisfaction: Evidence of relationships at the care unit level. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7, Griffeth, R. W., Hom, P. W., & Gaertner, S. (2000). A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: Update, moderator tests, and research implications for the next millennium. Journal of Management, 26, Hage, J., & Aiken, M. (1967). Program change and organizational properties: A comparative analysis. American Journal of Sociology, 72, Halbesleben, J. R. B., & Buckley, M. R. (2004). Burnout in organizational life. Journal of Management, 30, Hall, R. (1963). The concept of bureaucracy: An empirical assessment. American Journal of Sociology, 69, Hiller, M., Knight, K., Broome, K., & Simpson, D. (1998). Legal pressure and treatment retention in a national sample of long-term residential programs. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 25, Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley, CA7 University of California Press.

8 180 H.K. Knudsen et al. / Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 31 (2006) Hodson, R. (2001). Dignity at work. New York7 Cambridge University Press. Hser, Y. I. (1995). Drug treatment counselor practices and effectiveness: An examination of literature and relevant issues in a multilevel framework. Evaluation Review, 19, Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indices in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, Kahill, S. (1988). Symptoms of professional burnout: A review of the empirical evidence. Canadian Psychology, 29, Karasek, R. A. (1979). Job demands, job decision-latitude, and mental strain: Implications for job redesign. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, Kelloway, E. K. (1998). Using LISREL for structural equation modeling: A researcher s guide. Thousand Oaks, CA7 Sage. Kessler, R. C., Chiu, W. T., Demler, O., & Walters, E. (2005). Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, Knudsen, H. K., Ducharme, L. J., Roman, P. M., & Link, T. (2005). Buprenorphine diffusion: The attitudes of substance abuse treatment counselors. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 29, Lamb, S., Greenlick, M. R., & McCarty, D. (Eds.). (1998). Bridging the gap between practice and research: Forging partnerships with community-based drug and alcohol treatment (pp. 1 15). Washington, DC7 National Academy Press. Laundergan, J. C., Flynn, D., & Gaboury, J. D. (1986). An alcohol and drug counselor training program: Hazelden Foundation s trainee characteristics and outcomes. Journal of Drug Education, 16, Lee, R. T., & Ashforth, B. E. (1996). A meta-analytic examination of the correlates of the three dimensions of job burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, Leventhal, G. S. (1980). What should be done with equity theory? In K. J. Gergen, S. Greenberg, & R. H. Willis (Eds.), Social exchange: Advances in theory and research (pp ). New York7 Plenum. Lum, L., Kervin, J., Clark, K., Reid, F., & Sirola, W. (1998). Explaining nursing turnover intent: Job satisfaction, pay satisfaction or organizational commitment? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, Mark, T., Kranzler, H. R., & Song, X. (2003). Understanding US addiction physicians low rate of naltrexone prescription. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 71, Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2, Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1986). Maslach burnout inventory manual. (2nd ed.). Palo Alto, CA7 Consulting Psychologists Press. McLellan, A. T., Carise, D., & Kleber, H. D. (2003). Can the national addiction treatment infrastructure support the public s demand for quality care? Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 25, McLellan, A. T., Lewis, D., O Brien, C., & Kleber, H. (2000). Drug dependence, a chronic medical illness: Implications for treatment, insurance, and outcome evaluation. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284, Melnick, G., & De Leon, G. (1999). Clarifying the nature of therapeutic community treatment: The survey of essential elements questionnaire (SEEQ). Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 16, Melnick, G., De Leon, G., Thomas, G., & Kressel, D. (2001). A clienttreatment matching protocol for therapeutic communities: First report. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 21, Melnick, G., De Leon, G., Hiller, M. L., & Knight, K. (2000). Therapeutic communities: Diversity in treatment elements. Substance Use and Misuse, 35, Mortimer, J. T., & Lorence, J. (1995). Social psychology of work. In K. S. Cook, G. A. Fine, & J. S. House (Eds.), Sociological perspectives on social psychology (pp ). Boston, MA7 Allyn and Bacon. Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (2004). Mplus user s guide. (3rd ed). Los Angeles7 Muthen & Muthen. Niehoff, B. P., & Moorman, R. H. (1993). Justice as a mediator of the relationship between methods of monitoring and organizational citizenship behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 36, Osterman, P. (2000). Work reorganization in an era of restructuring: Trends in diffusion and effects on employee welfare. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 55, Parker, R. N., & Fenwick, R. (1983). The Pareto curve and its utility for open-ended income distributions in survey research. Social Forces, 61, Pines, A., & Maslach, C. (1978). Characteristics of staff burnout in mental health settings. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 29, Prendergast, M. L., Podus, D., Chang, E., & Urada, D. (2002). The effectiveness of drug treatment: A meta-analysis of comparison group studies. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 67, Sacks, S., De Leon, G., Balistreri, E., Liberty, H. J., McKendrick, K., Sacks, J., et al. (1998). Modified therapeutic community treatment for homeless mentally ill chemical abusers: Sociodemographic and psychological profiles. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 15, Schaufeli, W. B., Van Dierendonck, D., & Van Gorp, K. (1996). Burnout and reciprocity: Towards a dual-level social exchange model. Work & Stress, 10, Schmike, M., Ambrose, M. L., & Cropanzano, R. (2000). The effect of organizational structure on perceptions of procedural fairness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, Shirom, A. (1989). Burnout in work organizations. In C. L. Cooper, & I. Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial organizational psychology (pp ). New York7 Wiley. Shoptaw, S., Stein, J. A., & Rawson, R. A. (2000). Burnout in substance abuse counselors: Impact of environment, attitudes, and clients with HIV. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 19, Tekleab, A., Takeuchi, R., & Taylor, M. S. (2005). Extending the chain of relationships among organizational justice, social exchange, and employee reactions: The role of contract violations. Academy of Management Journal, 48, Thomas, C. P., Wallack, S. S., Lee, S., McCarty, D., & Swift, R. (2003). Research to practice: Adoption of naltrexone in alcoholism treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 24, Vahey, D. C., Aiken, L. H., Sloane, D. M., Clarke, S. P., & Vargas, D. (2004). Nurse burnout and patient satisfaction. Medical Care, 42 (2, Suppl), Van Dierendonck, D., Schaufeli, W. B., & Buunk, B. P. (2001). Burnout and inequity among human service professionals: A longitudinal study. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, Walsh, J. P., Ashford, S. J., & Hill, T. E. (1985). Feedback obstruction: The influence of the information environment on employee turnover intentions. Human Relations, 38, Wright, T. A., & Cropanzano, R. (1998). Emotional exhaustion as a predictor of job performance and voluntary turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83,

Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 35 (2008) 387 395. Regular article

Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 35 (2008) 387 395. Regular article Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 35 (2008) 387 395 Regular article Clinical supervision, emotional exhaustion, and turnover intention: A study of substance abuse treatment counselors in the Clinical

More information

Staff Turnover in Addiction Treatment: Toward Science-Based Answers to Critical Questions. William L. White, MA and Bryan R.

Staff Turnover in Addiction Treatment: Toward Science-Based Answers to Critical Questions. William L. White, MA and Bryan R. White, W. & Garner, B. (2011) Staff turnover in addiction treatment: Toward science-based answers to critical questions. Counselor, 12(3), 56-59. Staff Turnover in Addiction Treatment: Toward Science-Based

More information

Counselor Attitudes Toward Pharmacotherapies for Alcohol Dependence

Counselor Attitudes Toward Pharmacotherapies for Alcohol Dependence Counselor Attitudes Toward Pharmacotherapies for Alcohol Dependence Lori J. Ducharme, Ph.D. Hannah K. Knudsen, Ph.D. Paul M. Roman, Ph.D. University of Georgia 1 Counselors, Pharmacotherapies, and Alcohol

More information

Retaining counseling staff at substance abuse treatment centers: effects of management practices

Retaining counseling staff at substance abuse treatment centers: effects of management practices Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003) 129 135 Regular article Retaining counseling staff at substance abuse treatment centers: effects of management practices Hannah K. Knudsen, M.A. a, *, J.

More information

FINAL: October 4, 2007. Susan M. Gordon Seabrook House Delaware Valley Node of the NIDA Clinical Trials Network

FINAL: October 4, 2007. Susan M. Gordon Seabrook House Delaware Valley Node of the NIDA Clinical Trials Network Page 1 of 11 Staff Turnover and Retention in Addiction Treatment Annotated Bibliography FINAL: October 4, 2007 Susan M. Gordon Seabrook House Delaware Valley Node of the NIDA Clinical Trials Network Jongserl

More information

A Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Workshop for Social Workers and Helping Professionals Experiencing Burnout: A Grant Proposal

A Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Workshop for Social Workers and Helping Professionals Experiencing Burnout: A Grant Proposal A Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Workshop for Social Workers and Helping Professionals Experiencing Burnout: A Grant Proposal Evelyn C. Howe California State University, Long Beach May 2015 Introduction

More information

Leadership, burnout, and job satisfaction in outpatient drug-free treatment programs

Leadership, burnout, and job satisfaction in outpatient drug-free treatment programs Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 37 (2009) 160 170 Regular article Leadership, burnout, and job satisfaction in outpatient drug-free treatment programs Kirk M. Broome, (Ph.D.), Danica K. Knight, (Ph.D.),

More information

Revenue Streams Associated with the Implementation of Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Dependence

Revenue Streams Associated with the Implementation of Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Dependence Revenue Streams Associated with the Implementation of Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Dependence Hannah K. Knudsen, Ph.D. Amanda J. Abraham, Ph.D. Lauren O Brien Paul M. Roman Acknowledgements

More information

10/14/2014. + = Low Treatment Access & Retention. Main Goal and Impact

10/14/2014. + = Low Treatment Access & Retention. Main Goal and Impact Organizational Capacity to Eliminate Outcome Disparities under Health care Reform Erick Guerrero, Ph.D. (USC) Investigative Team Lawrence Palinkas, Ph.D. (USC) Thomas D Aunno (Columbia U.) Christine Grella,

More information

Teachers Emotional Intelligence and Its Relationship with Job Satisfaction

Teachers Emotional Intelligence and Its Relationship with Job Satisfaction ADVANCES IN EDUCATION VOL.1, NO.1 JANUARY 2012 4 Teachers Emotional Intelligence and Its Relationship with Job Satisfaction Soleiman Yahyazadeh-Jeloudar 1 Fatemeh Lotfi-Goodarzi 2 Abstract- The study was

More information

Exploring Wellness and the Rural Mental Health Counselor

Exploring Wellness and the Rural Mental Health Counselor Exploring Wellness and the Rural Mental Health Counselor Kenneth M. Coll, Trista Kovach, Martin Michael Cutler & Megan Smith Boise State University INTRODUCTION Therapists in rural settings are faced with

More information

What are the correlates of substance abuse treatment counselor salaries?

What are the correlates of substance abuse treatment counselor salaries? Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 29 (2005) 181 189 What are the correlates of substance abuse treatment counselor salaries? Todd A. Olmstead, (Ph.D.) a, T, J. Aaron Johnson, (Ph.D.) b, Paul M. Roman,

More information

11/18/2014. Main Goal and Impact. Problem

11/18/2014. Main Goal and Impact. Problem Organizational Capacity to Eliminate Outcome Disparities under Health care Reform Erick Guerrero, Ph.D. (USC) Investigative Team Lawrence Palinkas, Ph.D. (USC) Thomas D Aunno (Columbia U.) Christine Grella,

More information

YOUNG ADULTS IN DUAL DIAGNOSIS TREATMENT: COMPARISON TO OLDER ADULTS AT INTAKE AND POST-TREATMENT

YOUNG ADULTS IN DUAL DIAGNOSIS TREATMENT: COMPARISON TO OLDER ADULTS AT INTAKE AND POST-TREATMENT YOUNG ADULTS IN DUAL DIAGNOSIS TREATMENT: COMPARISON TO OLDER ADULTS AT INTAKE AND POST-TREATMENT Siobhan A. Morse, MHSA, CRC, CAI, MAC Director of Fidelity and Research Foundations Recovery Network YOUNG

More information

The Current State of Addiction Treatment

The Current State of Addiction Treatment The Current State of Addiction Treatment Understanding characteristics & needs of the substance abuse treatment workforce in Washington. Jeffrey R.W. Knudsen RMC Research Corporation jknudsen@rmccorp.com

More information

The relationship among alcohol use, related problems, and symptoms of psychological distress: Gender as a moderator in a college sample

The relationship among alcohol use, related problems, and symptoms of psychological distress: Gender as a moderator in a college sample Addictive Behaviors 29 (2004) 843 848 The relationship among alcohol use, related problems, and symptoms of psychological distress: Gender as a moderator in a college sample Irene Markman Geisner*, Mary

More information

National Mental Health Survey of Doctors and Medical Students Executive summary

National Mental Health Survey of Doctors and Medical Students Executive summary National Mental Health Survey of Doctors and Medical Students Executive summary www.beyondblue.org.au 13 22 4636 October 213 Acknowledgements The National Mental Health Survey of Doctors and Medical Students

More information

Impact of Nurses Burnout on Patients Satisfaction with Nursing Care in Al-Najaf City

Impact of Nurses Burnout on Patients Satisfaction with Nursing Care in Al-Najaf City International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 6, Issue 1, January 2016 186 Impact of Nurses Burnout on Patients Satisfaction with Nursing Care in Al-Najaf City Diaa K. Abed-Ali

More information

NEDS A NALYTIC SUMMARY

NEDS A NALYTIC SUMMARY N ATIONAL E VALUATION D ATA SERVICES NEDS A NALYTIC SUMMARY Summary #21 July 2001 Highlights Effectiveness of Women s Substance Abuse Treatment Programs: A Meta-analysis The meta-analysis revealed few

More information

Attitudes toward evidence-based pharmacological treatments among community-based addiction treatment programs targeting vulnerable patient groups

Attitudes toward evidence-based pharmacological treatments among community-based addiction treatment programs targeting vulnerable patient groups Attitudes toward evidence-based pharmacological treatments among community-based addiction treatment programs targeting vulnerable patient groups Center for Addictions Research and Services, Boston University

More information

State Policies and Adoption of Buprenorphine: Summary Results of Telephone Interviews with State Agency Staff

State Policies and Adoption of Buprenorphine: Summary Results of Telephone Interviews with State Agency Staff State Policies and Adoption of Buprenorphine: Summary Results of Telephone Interviews with State Agency Staff Funding Source: Grant No. 053773 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Substance Abuse Policy Research

More information

PORTLAND PUBLIC SCHOOLS Successful Schools Survey Summary Staff Results

PORTLAND PUBLIC SCHOOLS Successful Schools Survey Summary Staff Results PREPARED FOR: PORTLAND PUBLIC SCHOOLS Successful Schools Survey Summary Staff Results June 2015 PREPARED BY: DHM RESEARCH (503) 220-0575 239 NW 13 th Ave., #205, Portland, OR 97209 www.dhmresearch.com

More information

PII S0306-4603(97)00072-5 BRIEF REPORT

PII S0306-4603(97)00072-5 BRIEF REPORT Pergamon Addictive Behaviors, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 537 541, 1998 Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd Printed in the USA. All rights reserved 0306-4603/98 $19.00.00 PII S0306-4603(97)00072-5 BRIEF REPORT

More information

n The ACA Online Library is a member s only benefit. You can join today via the web: counseling.org and via the phone: 800-347-6647 x222.

n The ACA Online Library is a member s only benefit. You can join today via the web: counseling.org and via the phone: 800-347-6647 x222. VISTAS Online VISTAS Online is an innovative publication produced for the American Counseling Association by Dr. Garry R. Walz and Dr. Jeanne C. Bleuer of Counseling Outfitters, LLC. Its purpose is to

More information

Current Models of Recovery Support Services: Where We Have Data and Where We Don t

Current Models of Recovery Support Services: Where We Have Data and Where We Don t Current Models of Recovery Support Services: Where We Have Data and Where We Don t Richard Rawson, Ph.D. Integrated Substance Abuse Programs University of California, Los Angeles 1. Define recovery Talk

More information

SURVEYING THE INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE, ETHICAL CLIMATE

SURVEYING THE INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE, ETHICAL CLIMATE ALBERTIANA ISSN 0169-4324 2015; VOL. 82; SPECIAL ISSUE; PP. 237-242 SURVEYING THE INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE, ETHICAL CLIMATE AND ADMINISTRATIVE HEALTH ON JOB STRESS (EVIDENCE FROM IRAN) MANDAN

More information

A Comparison of Burnout Between Undergraduate Music and Non-Music Majors

A Comparison of Burnout Between Undergraduate Music and Non-Music Majors A Comparison of Burnout Between Undergraduate Music and Non-Music Majors By H. Christian Bernhard II, Ph.D. State University of New York at Fredonia Fredonia, NY Abstract The principal purpose of the study

More information

Trust, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and the Volunteer s Psychological Contract

Trust, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and the Volunteer s Psychological Contract Trust, Job Satisfaction, Commitment, and the Volunteer s Psychological Contract Becky J. Starnes, Ph.D. Austin Peay State University Clarksville, Tennessee, USA starnesb@apsu.edu Abstract Studies indicate

More information

Evidence-Based Treatment for Opiate-Dependent Clients: Availability, Variation, and Organizational Correlates

Evidence-Based Treatment for Opiate-Dependent Clients: Availability, Variation, and Organizational Correlates The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 32: 569 576, 2006 Copyright Q Informa Healthcare ISSN: 0095-2990 print/1097-9891 online DOI: 10.1080/00952990600920417 Evidence-Based Treatment for Opiate-Dependent

More information

Turnover on Information Security Professionals: Findings from Korea

Turnover on Information Security Professionals: Findings from Korea HyeWon Yoo, TaeSung Kim 169 Turnover on Information Security Professionals: Findings from Korea HyeWon Yoo *, TaeSung Kim Department of Management Information Systems College of Business, Chungbuk National

More information

The Field of Counseling. Veterans Administration one of the most honorable places to practice counseling is with the

The Field of Counseling. Veterans Administration one of the most honorable places to practice counseling is with the Gainful Employment Information The Field of Counseling Job Outlook Veterans Administration one of the most honorable places to practice counseling is with the VA. Over recent years, the Veteran s Administration

More information

[Provider or Facility Name]

[Provider or Facility Name] [Provider or Facility Name] SECTION: [Facility Name] Residential Treatment Facility (RTF) SUBJECT: Psychiatric Security Review Board (PSRB) In compliance with OAR 309-032-0450 Purpose and Statutory Authority

More information

Course Description. SEMESTER I Fundamental Concepts of Substance Abuse MODULE OBJECTIVES

Course Description. SEMESTER I Fundamental Concepts of Substance Abuse MODULE OBJECTIVES Course Description SEMESTER I Fundamental Concepts of Substance Abuse MODULE OBJECTIVES At the end of this course participants will be able to: Define and distinguish between substance use, abuse and dependence

More information

Minimum Insurance Benefits for Patients with Opioid Use Disorder The Opioid Use Disorder Epidemic: The Evidence for Opioid Treatment:

Minimum Insurance Benefits for Patients with Opioid Use Disorder The Opioid Use Disorder Epidemic: The Evidence for Opioid Treatment: Minimum Insurance Benefits for Patients with Opioid Use Disorder By David Kan, MD and Tauheed Zaman, MD Adopted by the California Society of Addiction Medicine Committee on Opioids and the California Society

More information

http://www.elsevier.com/locate/permissionusematerial

http://www.elsevier.com/locate/permissionusematerial This article was originally published in a journal published by Elsevier, and the attached copy is provided by Elsevier for the author s benefit and for the benefit of the author s institution, for non-commercial

More information

A national study of the substance abuse treatment workforce $

A national study of the substance abuse treatment workforce $ Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003) 51 57 Regular article A national study of the substance abuse treatment workforce $ Kevin P. Mulvey, Ph.D. a, *, Susan Hubbard, Ph.D. b, Susan Hayashi, Ph.D.

More information

http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos060.htm Social Workers

http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos060.htm Social Workers http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos060.htm Social Workers * Nature of the Work * Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement * Employment * Job Outlook * Projections Data * Earnings * OES Data * Related Occupations

More information

Mental Health 101 for Criminal Justice Professionals David A. D Amora, M.S.

Mental Health 101 for Criminal Justice Professionals David A. D Amora, M.S. Mental Health 101 for Criminal Justice Professionals David A. D Amora, M.S. Director, National Initiatives, Council of State Governments Justice Center Today s Presentation The Behavioral Health System

More information

RELATION BETWEEN TYPUS MELANCHOLICUS AND MEDICAL ACCIDENT IN JAPANESE NURSES

RELATION BETWEEN TYPUS MELANCHOLICUS AND MEDICAL ACCIDENT IN JAPANESE NURSES RELATION BETWEEN TYPUS MELANCHOLICUS AND MEDICAL ACCIDENT IN JAPANESE NURSES Yasuyuki YAMADA 1, Masataka HIROSAWA 1,2, Miyuki SUGIURA 1, Aya OKADA 1, Motoki MIZUNO 1,2 1 Department of Health and Sports

More information

Work strain, job dissatisfaction, and intent to leave among Home Health Care Registered Nurses: A mixed methods analysis

Work strain, job dissatisfaction, and intent to leave among Home Health Care Registered Nurses: A mixed methods analysis Work strain, job dissatisfaction, and intent to leave among Home Health Care Registered Nurses: A mixed methods analysis Presented by D. Paxson Barker, PhD, MS, RN Purpose The purpose of this study was

More information

Assessing the Perceptions and Usage of Substance Abuse among Teenagers in a Rural Setting

Assessing the Perceptions and Usage of Substance Abuse among Teenagers in a Rural Setting Journal of Rural Community Psychology Vol E12 No 2 Assessing the Perceptions and Usage of Substance Abuse among Teenagers in a Rural Setting Regina Fults McMurtery Jackson State University Department of

More information

Mental Health Nurses and their Employers See Enhanced Role for Nursing in Milwaukee County s Mental Health System

Mental Health Nurses and their Employers See Enhanced Role for Nursing in Milwaukee County s Mental Health System VOLUME 100, NUMBER 5 OCTOBER 2012 Mental Health Nurses and their Employers See Enhanced Role for Nursing in Milwaukee County s Mental Health System The Forum surveyed 120 mental health nurses and 34 employers

More information

Excellence in Prevention descriptions of the prevention programs and strategies with the greatest evidence of success

Excellence in Prevention descriptions of the prevention programs and strategies with the greatest evidence of success Name of Program/Strategy: Coping With Work and Family Stress Report Contents 1. Overview and description 2. Implementation considerations (if available) 3. Descriptive information 4. Outcomes 5. Cost effectiveness

More information

Addiction Counseling Competencies. Rating Forms

Addiction Counseling Competencies. Rating Forms Addiction Counseling Competencies Forms Addiction Counseling Competencies Supervisors and counselor educators have expressed a desire for a tool to assess counselor competence in the Addiction Counseling

More information

Criminal Justice Professionals Attitudes Towards Offenders: Assessing the Link between Global Orientations and Specific Attributions

Criminal Justice Professionals Attitudes Towards Offenders: Assessing the Link between Global Orientations and Specific Attributions Criminal Justice Professionals Attitudes Towards s: Assessing the Link between Global Orientations and Specific Attributions Prepared by: Dale Willits, M.A. Lisa Broidy, Ph.D. Christopher Lyons, Ph.D.

More information

ARTICLE IN PRESS. Predicting alcohol and drug abuse in Persian Gulf War veterans: What role do PTSD symptoms play? Short communication

ARTICLE IN PRESS. Predicting alcohol and drug abuse in Persian Gulf War veterans: What role do PTSD symptoms play? Short communication DTD 5 ARTICLE IN PRESS Addictive Behaviors xx (2004) xxx xxx Short communication Predicting alcohol and drug abuse in Persian Gulf War veterans: What role do PTSD symptoms play? Jillian C. Shipherd a,b,

More information

Customer Experience Survey Findings, 2014 Wisconsin s Publicly Supported Outpatient Substance Use Services

Customer Experience Survey Findings, 2014 Wisconsin s Publicly Supported Outpatient Substance Use Services Division of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services Customer Experience Survey Findings, 2014 Wisconsin s Publicly Supported Outpatient Substance Use Services P-01059 (06/2015) TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION

More information

EXCHANGE. J. Luke Wood. Administration, Rehabilitation & Postsecondary Education, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA

EXCHANGE. J. Luke Wood. Administration, Rehabilitation & Postsecondary Education, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 37: 333 338, 2013 Copyright# Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 1066-8926 print=1521-0413 online DOI: 10.1080/10668926.2012.754733 EXCHANGE The Community

More information

THE SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT SYSTEM: WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE AND WHOM DOES IT SERVE?

THE SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT SYSTEM: WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE AND WHOM DOES IT SERVE? E THE SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT SYSTEM: WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE AND WHOM DOES IT SERVE? Preliminary Findings from the Alcohol and Drug Services Study Constance M. Horgan and Helen J. Levine Institute for

More information

Contents. Introduction. Guiding Principles. Shifting Trends. Goals of the Standards. Definitions. Standards. Standard 1.

Contents. Introduction. Guiding Principles. Shifting Trends. Goals of the Standards. Definitions. Standards. Standard 1. Contents Introduction Guiding Principles Shifting Trends Goals of the Standards Definitions Standards Standard 1. Ethics and Values Standard 2. Qualifications Standard 3. Assessment Standard 4. Intervention

More information

Alcohol and Drug Counseling Certificate Program

Alcohol and Drug Counseling Certificate Program Alcohol and Drug Counseling Certificate Program ALCOHOL AND DRUG COUNSELING CERTIFICATE PROGRAM The Program The Alcohol and Drug Counseling Certificate Program is designed to help individuals acquire the

More information

The Effects of Parent Trust on Perceived Influence and School Involvement

The Effects of Parent Trust on Perceived Influence and School Involvement The Effects of Parent Trust on Perceived Influence and School Involvement Laura L. B. Barnes, Roxanne M. Mitchell, Patrick B.Forsyth, & Curt M. Adams Oklahoma State University A Paper Presented at the

More information

CORRELATES AND COSTS

CORRELATES AND COSTS ANOTHER LOOK AT MENTAL ILLNESS AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE INVOLVEMENT IN TEXAS: CORRELATES AND COSTS Decision Support Unit Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services Another Look at Mental Illness and Criminal

More information

Self-Determination Theory and the Theory of Planned Behaviour Applied to Substance Abuse Treatment in a Therapeutic Community Setting

Self-Determination Theory and the Theory of Planned Behaviour Applied to Substance Abuse Treatment in a Therapeutic Community Setting 180 Substance Abuse Treatment Self-Determination Theory and the Theory of Planned Behaviour Applied to Substance Abuse Treatment in a Therapeutic Community Setting Stefanie Klag B.A. (Japanese), B.Psych

More information

Kerri R. Rittschof, PhD and Vincent J. Fortunato, PhD Walden University

Kerri R. Rittschof, PhD and Vincent J. Fortunato, PhD Walden University Kerri R. Rittschof, PhD and Vincent J. Fortunato, PhD Walden University Child Protective Services (CPS) Case Managers Roles Respond to allegations of child abuse and/or neglect Ensure child safety Provide

More information

Re-Entry Modified TC in Community Corrections for Offenders with COD: Crime Outcomes at 12-Months Post-Prison Release

Re-Entry Modified TC in Community Corrections for Offenders with COD: Crime Outcomes at 12-Months Post-Prison Release Re-Entry Modified TC in Community Corrections for Offenders with COD: Crime Outcomes at 12-Months Post-Prison Release Stanley Sacks, PhD Center for the Integration of Research & Practice (CIRP) National

More information

PLEASE READ. (g) Trainees must notify the Board in writing of any changes in employment and change in address of residence.

PLEASE READ. (g) Trainees must notify the Board in writing of any changes in employment and change in address of residence. PLEASE READ WHAT YOU NEED TO DO PRIOR TO SENDING YOUR APPLICATION: Before you submit any documentation make copies of all your documents. All materials, once received, become the property of the Board

More information

Performance Standards

Performance Standards Performance Standards Co-Occurring Disorder Competency Performance Standards are intended to provide a foundation and serve as a tool to promote continuous quality improvement and progression toward best

More information

research Reward Fairness

research Reward Fairness Reward Fairness research A report by WorldatWork Dow Scott, Ph.D., Loyola University Chicago Tom McMullen, Hay Group Mark Royal, Ph.D., Hay Group May 2011 Contact: WorldatWork Customer Relations 14040

More information

The relationship between nurses' perceptions of empowerment and patient satisfaction

The relationship between nurses' perceptions of empowerment and patient satisfaction Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Applied Nursing Research 21 (2008) 2 7 Original Articles The relationship between nurses' perceptions of empowerment and patient satisfaction Moreen O. Donahue,

More information

LICENSED SOCIAL WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES, 2004 SUPPLEMENT. Chapter 2 of 5. Who Are Licensed Social Workers?

LICENSED SOCIAL WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES, 2004 SUPPLEMENT. Chapter 2 of 5. Who Are Licensed Social Workers? LICENSED SOCIAL WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES, 2004 SUPPLEMENT Chapter 2 of 5 Who Are Licensed Social Workers? Prepared by Center for Health Workforce Studies School of Public Health, University at Albany

More information

Appendix D. Behavioral Health Partnership. Adolescent/Adult Substance Abuse Guidelines

Appendix D. Behavioral Health Partnership. Adolescent/Adult Substance Abuse Guidelines Appendix D Behavioral Health Partnership Adolescent/Adult Substance Abuse Guidelines Handbook for Providers 92 ASAM CRITERIA The CT BHP utilizes the ASAM PPC-2R criteria for rendering decisions regarding

More information

IMPACT OF CORE SELF EVALUATION (CSE) ON JOB SATISFACTION IN EDUCATION SECTOR OF PAKISTAN Yasir IQBAL University of the Punjab Pakistan

IMPACT OF CORE SELF EVALUATION (CSE) ON JOB SATISFACTION IN EDUCATION SECTOR OF PAKISTAN Yasir IQBAL University of the Punjab Pakistan IMPACT OF CORE SELF EVALUATION (CSE) ON JOB SATISFACTION IN EDUCATION SECTOR OF PAKISTAN Yasir IQBAL University of the Punjab Pakistan ABSTRACT The focus of this research is to determine the impact of

More information

Classification Appeal Decision Under section 5112 of title 5, United States Code

Classification Appeal Decision Under section 5112 of title 5, United States Code U.S. Office of Personnel Management Division for Human Capital Leadership & Merit System Accountability Classification Appeals Program Chicago Field Services Group 230 South Dearborn Street, Room 3060

More information

College of Education. Rehabilitation Counseling

College of Education. Rehabilitation Counseling * 515 MEDICAL AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ASPECTS OF DISABILITIES I. (3) This course is designed to prepare rehabilitation and mental health counselors, social works and students in related fields with a working

More information

Mobile Stock Trading (MST) and its Social Impact: A Case Study in Hong Kong

Mobile Stock Trading (MST) and its Social Impact: A Case Study in Hong Kong Mobile Stock Trading (MST) and its Social Impact: A Case Study in Hong Kong K. M. Sam 1, C. R. Chatwin 2, I. C. Ma 3 1 Department of Accounting and Information Management, University of Macau, Macau, China

More information

Organizational Commitment among Public and Private School Teachers

Organizational Commitment among Public and Private School Teachers The International Journal of Indian Psychology ISSN 2348-5396 (e) ISSN: 2349-3429 (p) Volume 2, Issue 3, Paper ID: B00381V2I32015 http://www.ijip.in April to June 2015 ABSTRACT: Organizational Commitment

More information

Early Employer Response to Workplace Injury: What Injured Workers Perceive as Fair and Why These Perceptions Matter

Early Employer Response to Workplace Injury: What Injured Workers Perceive as Fair and Why These Perceptions Matter Journal of Occupational Health Psychology 2010, Vol. 15, No. 4, 409 420 2010 American Psychological Association 1076-8998/10/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/a0021001 Early Employer Response to Workplace Injury: What

More information

Social Worker Overview The Field - Preparation - Day in the Life - Earnings - Employment - Career Path Forecast - Professional Organizations

Social Worker Overview The Field - Preparation - Day in the Life - Earnings - Employment - Career Path Forecast - Professional Organizations Social Worker Overview The Field - Preparation - Day in the Life - Earnings - Employment - Career Path Forecast - Professional Organizations The Field Social work is a profession for those with a strong

More information

Opiate Addiction, Pharmacological Treatment Approaches CO-OCCURRING MENTAL HEALTH DISORDERS JOSEPH A. BEBO MA, CAGS, LADC1

Opiate Addiction, Pharmacological Treatment Approaches CO-OCCURRING MENTAL HEALTH DISORDERS JOSEPH A. BEBO MA, CAGS, LADC1 Opiate Addiction, Pharmacological Treatment Approaches CO-OCCURRING MENTAL HEALTH DISORDERS JOSEPH A. BEBO MA, CAGS, LADC1 Disclosure Statement Prevalence of Opioid Addiction 100 Individuals Die Every

More information

Effects of Distance to Treatment and Treatment Type on Alcoholics Anonymous Attendance and Subsequent Alcohol Consumption. Presenter Disclosure

Effects of Distance to Treatment and Treatment Type on Alcoholics Anonymous Attendance and Subsequent Alcohol Consumption. Presenter Disclosure Effects of Distance to Treatment and Treatment Type on Alcoholics Anonymous Attendance and Subsequent Alcohol Consumption Jamie L. Heisey, MA Katherine J. Karriker-Jaffe, PhD Jane Witbrodt, PhD Lee Ann

More information

Measuring Organizational Support for Training: The Establishment of the Organizational Training Support Inventory (OTSI)

Measuring Organizational Support for Training: The Establishment of the Organizational Training Support Inventory (OTSI) Measuring Organizational Support for Training: The Establishment of the Organizational Training Support Inventory (OTSI) Dr. Mark A. McKnight, Assistant Professor of Business Communication, University

More information

NATIONAL TREATMENT CENTER STUDY SUMMARY REPORT

NATIONAL TREATMENT CENTER STUDY SUMMARY REPORT NATIONAL TREATMENT CENTER STUDY SUMMARY REPORT A comprehensive report detailing the findings of the first wave of on-site interviews with a nationally representative sample of publicly funded drug and

More information

2013 Program Evaluation Report Hofstra University Rehabilitation Counseling Program

2013 Program Evaluation Report Hofstra University Rehabilitation Counseling Program 02-19- 2013 2013 Program Evaluation Report Hofstra University Rehabilitation Counseling Program Dear Provost Berliner: As program director of the Rehabilitation Counseling (RC) Program, I am pleased to

More information

With Depression Without Depression 8.0% 1.8% Alcohol Disorder Drug Disorder Alcohol or Drug Disorder

With Depression Without Depression 8.0% 1.8% Alcohol Disorder Drug Disorder Alcohol or Drug Disorder Minnesota Adults with Co-Occurring Substance Use and Mental Health Disorders By Eunkyung Park, Ph.D. Performance Measurement and Quality Improvement May 2006 In Brief Approximately 16% of Minnesota adults

More information

Executive Summary. 1. What is the temporal relationship between problem gambling and other co-occurring disorders?

Executive Summary. 1. What is the temporal relationship between problem gambling and other co-occurring disorders? Executive Summary The issue of ascertaining the temporal relationship between problem gambling and cooccurring disorders is an important one. By understanding the connection between problem gambling and

More information

Survey on EHR/CPOE for Geisinger ICU Physicians, PAs and NPs

Survey on EHR/CPOE for Geisinger ICU Physicians, PAs and NPs Center for Quality and Productivity Improvement University of Wisconsin-Madison Survey on EHR/CPOE for Geisinger ICU Physicians, PAs and NPs 1 year after the implementation Letter to Geisinger Intensive

More information

So you Want to be a Counselor, Huh? Professional Identity. Professional Identity. Hagedorn MHS 6702 1

So you Want to be a Counselor, Huh? Professional Identity. Professional Identity. Hagedorn MHS 6702 1 So you Want to be a Counselor, Huh? Training, Licensure, Certification, & Professional Memberships W. Bryce Hagedorn, PhD, LMHC, NCC, MAC What do counselors do? ACA: [apply] mental health, psychological

More information

PROFESSIONAL SATISFACTION OF TEACHERS FROM KINDERGARTEN. PRELIMINARY STUDY

PROFESSIONAL SATISFACTION OF TEACHERS FROM KINDERGARTEN. PRELIMINARY STUDY Volume 7, Volume 4, 2014 PROFESSIONAL SATISFACTION OF TEACHERS FROM KINDERGARTEN. PRELIMINARY STUDY Valerica Anghelache Abstract. Professional development is a topic of great interest for all those who

More information

Facilitator s Guide Workload Management

Facilitator s Guide Workload Management Facilitator s Guide Workload Management Workload Management Slide # 1 For this slide, you want to ensure that you have already introduced: yourself your role within the organization, if unknown to the

More information

Online Stress Management Support Groups for Social Workers

Online Stress Management Support Groups for Social Workers Online Stress Management Support Groups for Social Workers Based on the work of Andrea Meier, Ph.D. Clinical Assistant Professor University of North Carolina School of Social Work Presentation developed

More information

Are School Level Supports for Teachers and Teacher Collegiality Related to Other School Climate Characteristics and Student Academic Performance?

Are School Level Supports for Teachers and Teacher Collegiality Related to Other School Climate Characteristics and Student Academic Performance? S3 Factsheet Are School Level Supports for Teachers and Teacher Collegiality Related to Other School Climate Characteristics and Student Academic Performance? Effective learning conditions for students

More information

DELAWARE DIVISION OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND MENTAL HEALTH 2010 CONSUMER/CLIENT SATISFACTION SURVEY

DELAWARE DIVISION OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND MENTAL HEALTH 2010 CONSUMER/CLIENT SATISFACTION SURVEY 6 DELAWARE DIVISION OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND MENTAL HEALTH 2010 CONSUMER/CLIENT SATISFACTION SURVEY JULY, 2011 Table of Contents Executive Summary... 5 Introduction... 6 Methodology... 8 Findings... 14 Demographic

More information

PARTICIPANT ORIENTATION COURSE

PARTICIPANT ORIENTATION COURSE a monitoring and recovery program for nurses PARTICIPANT ORIENTATION COURSE C R E AT E D B Y R O B I N A. L E W I S, E d D, M S N, F N P - B C, R N R E V I S E D B Y S A N D R A H U D S O N, R N, B S N,

More information

Predictors of student preference for online courses

Predictors of student preference for online courses VOLUME 2, NUMBER 1, 2013 Predictors of student preference for online courses Louis Charles Glover, EdD The University of Tennessee at Martin Veronica Evans Lewis, PhD The University of Louisiana at Monroe

More information

Page 1 of 6 Fresno County Substance Abuse Treatment and Mental Health Services KEY STAFFING STANDARDS

Page 1 of 6 Fresno County Substance Abuse Treatment and Mental Health Services KEY STAFFING STANDARDS Page 1 of 6 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services seeks a multidisciplinary team that includes an array of services organized to treat the interaction of mental health and substance use disorders

More information

MONROE COUNTY OFFICE OF MENTAL HEALTH, DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN SERVICES RECOVERY CONNECTION PROJECT PROGRAM EVALUATION DECEMBER 2010

MONROE COUNTY OFFICE OF MENTAL HEALTH, DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN SERVICES RECOVERY CONNECTION PROJECT PROGRAM EVALUATION DECEMBER 2010 MONROE COUNTY OFFICE OF MENTAL HEALTH, DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN SERVICES RECOVERY CONNECTION PROJECT PROGRAM EVALUATION DECEMBER 2010 Prepared For: Kathleen Plum, RN, PhD Director, Monroe County Office of Mental

More information

The Field of Counseling

The Field of Counseling Gainful Employment Information The Field of Counseling Job Outlook Veterans Administration one of the most honorable places to practice counseling is with the VA. Over recent years, the Veteran s Administration

More information

ADDICTION COUNSELOR COMPETENCIES Addiction Counseling Practice Domains

ADDICTION COUNSELOR COMPETENCIES Addiction Counseling Practice Domains 2014 Georgia Certified Addiction Counselor 180-Hour Preparation Course COURSE DESCRIPTION: This education program is designed to provide the coursework necessary for those seeking the certification as

More information

African American Women and Substance Abuse: Current Findings

African American Women and Substance Abuse: Current Findings African American Women and Substance Abuse: Current Findings Based on the work of Amelia Roberts, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, UNC School of Social Work and Iris Carleton-LeNay, Ph.D. Professor, UNC School

More information

Human Services Technician

Human Services Technician Human Services Technician Program Proposal Presented to the South Dakota State Board of Education March 2013 Mitchell Technical Institute 1800 E. Spruce St. Mitchell, SD 57301 Mitchell Technical Institute

More information

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Social Workers Summary Social workers help people in every stage of life cope with challenges, such as being diagnosed with depression. 2012 Median Pay Entry-Level Education

More information

Therapeutic Community Treatment: State of the Art and Science. Reflections on 40 Years of Drug Abuse Research

Therapeutic Community Treatment: State of the Art and Science. Reflections on 40 Years of Drug Abuse Research Therapeutic Community Treatment: State of the Art and Science Reflections on 40 Years of Drug Abuse Research Key Largo, Florida May 15-17, 2006 George De Leon, Ph.D. Center for Therapeutic Community Research

More information

Minnesota Co-occurring Mental Health & Substance Disorders Competencies:

Minnesota Co-occurring Mental Health & Substance Disorders Competencies: Minnesota Co-occurring Mental Health & Substance Disorders Competencies: This document was developed by the Minnesota Department of Human Services over the course of a series of public input meetings held

More information

JACKSON STATE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND REHABILITATION REHABILITATION COUNSELING PROGRAM

JACKSON STATE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND REHABILITATION REHABILITATION COUNSELING PROGRAM JACKSON STATE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF SCHOOL, COMMUNITY AND REHABILITATION REHABILITATION COUNSELING PROGRAM NATURE AND SCOPE Jackson State University in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Education,

More information

The Relationship between Social Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among MA and BA Teachers

The Relationship between Social Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among MA and BA Teachers Kamla-Raj 2012 Int J Edu Sci, 4(3): 209-213 (2012) The Relationship between Social Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among MA and BA Teachers Soleiman Yahyazadeh-Jeloudar 1 and Fatemeh Lotfi-Goodarzi 2

More information

Findings and Recommendations

Findings and Recommendations 6 Findings and Recommendations The committee s review of current research, models for collaboration between research and practice, community-based organizations, and dissemination strategies led to findings

More information

LEVEL III.5 SA: SHORT TERM RESIDENTIAL - Adult (DUAL DIAGNOSIS CAPABLE)

LEVEL III.5 SA: SHORT TERM RESIDENTIAL - Adult (DUAL DIAGNOSIS CAPABLE) LEVEL III.5 SA: SHT TERM RESIDENTIAL - Adult (DUAL DIAGNOSIS CAPABLE) Definition The following is based on the Adult Criteria of the Patient Placement Criteria for the Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders

More information

Running Head: INTERNET USE IN A COLLEGE SAMPLE. TITLE: Internet Use and Associated Risks in a College Sample

Running Head: INTERNET USE IN A COLLEGE SAMPLE. TITLE: Internet Use and Associated Risks in a College Sample Running Head: INTERNET USE IN A COLLEGE SAMPLE TITLE: Internet Use and Associated Risks in a College Sample AUTHORS: Katherine Derbyshire, B.S. Jon Grant, J.D., M.D., M.P.H. Katherine Lust, Ph.D., M.P.H.

More information

Economic Assessment of Providing Mental Health Services in Rural Health Clinics

Economic Assessment of Providing Mental Health Services in Rural Health Clinics Economic Assessment of Providing Mental Health Services in Rural Health Clinics Fred C. Eilrich Assistant State Extension Specialist Email: eilrich@okstate.edu Cheryl F. St. Clair Associate State Extension

More information