Voice-Over IP Monitoring Best Practices Deployment Guide for CAD 6.0/6.1

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1 Voice-Over IP Monitoring Best Practices Deployment Guide for CAD 6.0/6.1 Corporate Headquarters Cisco Systems, Inc. 170 West Tasman Drive San Jose, CA USA Tel: NETS (6387) Fax: Customer Order Number: Text Part Number: NN-NNNN-NN

2 CCIP, CCSP, the Cisco Arrow logo, the Cisco Powered Network mark, Cisco Unity, Follow Me Browsing, FormShare, and StackWise are trademarks of Cisco Systems, Inc.; Changing the Way We Work, Live, Play, and Learn, and iquick Study are service marks of Cisco Systems, Inc.; and Aironet, ASIST, BPX, Catalyst, CCDA, CCDP, CCIE, CCNA, CCNP, Cisco, the Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert logo, Cisco IOS, the Cisco IOS logo, Cisco Press, Cisco Systems, Cisco Systems Capital, the Cisco Systems logo, Empowering the Internet Generation, Enterprise/Solver, EtherChannel, EtherFast, EtherSwitch, Fast Step, GigaDrive, GigaStack, HomeLink, Internet Quotient, IOS, IP/TV, iq Expertise, the iq logo, iq Net Readiness Scorecard, LightStream, Linksys, MeetingPlace, MGX, the Networkers logo, Networking Academy, Network Registrar, Packet, PIX, Post-Routing, Pre-Routing, ProConnect, RateMUX, Registrar, ScriptShare, SlideCast, SMARTnet, StrataView Plus, SwitchProbe, TeleRouter, The Fastest Way to Increase Your Internet Quotient, TransPath, and VCO are registered trademarks of Cisco Systems, Inc. and/or its affiliates in the United States and certain other countries. All other trademarks mentioned in this document or Website are the property of their respective owners. The use of the word partner does not imply a partnership relationship between Cisco and any other company. (0403R) CAD 6.0/6.1 Voice-Over IP Monitoring Best Practices Deployment Guide Copyright 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

3 Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction VoIP Monitoring Desktop Monitoring Server Monitoring Monitoring Remote Agents and Supervisors VoIP Monitoring Administration Scalability Monitoring Modes Best Practices Deployments Single Switch Collapsed Core One Logical Contact Center Multi-Tiered Complex Network Deployment Planning VoIP Monitoring Assumptions Server Monitoring Desktop Monitoring VoIP Monitor Service Deployment Strategies Voice VLANs IP Phone Switch Ports Voice Gateway and CallManager Ports References App A SPAN Overview App B Switch Capabilities B.1 SPAN Support B.2 RSPAN Support B.3 Network Traffic Restrictions June 21, 2004 i

4 B.4 Ingress and Egress Monitoring B.5 VSPAN Support B.6 Number of SPAN Sessions App C Using Multiple NICs with the VoIP Monitor Service C.1 Overview C.2 Limitations C.3 Issues C.4 Installing a Second NIC on a VoIP Monitor Service Computer 30 C.5 Installing Cisco Desktop App D Example of a Simple Network Deployment App E Example of a Collapsed Core Network Deployment ii June 21, 2004

5 June 21, 2004 Voice-Over IP Monitoring Best Practices Deployment Guide for CAD 6.0/ Introduction This document is intended to provide enough information about the abilities and requirements of voice-over IP (VoIP) monitoring for Cisco Agent Desktop (CAD) v6.0/6.1 so that it can be effectively deployed. This document contains the following information: An overview of VoIP monitoring and how this functionality is provided by CAD software Descriptions of recommended deployments based on several typical network configurations, from simple to complex, which include references to features, issues, and limitations Detailed explanations of desktop and server monitoring features, issues, and limitations Descriptions of the deployment issues that need to be worked through to realize a successful deployment Reference information Examples of deployments using real switches to help you decide how desktop and server monitoring should be deployed in your environment 1 of 34

6 VoIP Monitoring 2.0 VoIP Monitoring In a VoIP environment, voice and data are transmitted over the network using well-known network protocols. If you know which protocols are used to package a phone call s data, it is possible to capture (copy) those data packets as they traverse the network (often referred to as packet sniffing) and then unpackage and reassemble them into a voice stream that can be listened to in real time or stored to be listened to at a later time. This process is referred to as VoIP monitoring. VoIP monitoring is invisible to the persons on the phone. Agents on calls are not aware that they are being monitored or recorded unless the Notification feature has been enabled from within Cisco Desktop Administrator. VoIP monitoring software looks only for Realtime Transport Protocol (RTP) packets. RTP is the protocol used to package and transmit voice over the network. RTP packets are encapsulated by the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), which in turn is encapsulated by the Ethernet protocol, which is encapsulated by the Internet Protocol (IP). The VoIP monitoring software knows the Media Access Control (MAC) addresses of the IP phones it is monitoring/recording. It uses these MAC addresses to find the voice packets going to or coming from the appropriate device to determine whether or not to redirect the RTP packet to the receiver. CAD software has two ways of monitoring IP phone calls: Desktop monitoring Server monitoring You may use either method or both simultaneously. The method used is based upon your functional requirements and the network configuration. NOTE There are two types of agents: CAD agents, who use Cisco Agent Desktop on their PCs, and IPPA agents, who use the IP Phone Agent service on their IP phones and who do not use PCs. CAD agents can be monitored by either desktop or server monitoring; IPPA agents can be monitored by server monitoring only. The method used to monitor agents is configured in Cisco Desktop Administrator and stored in LDAP. When a supervisor requests a monitoring session for an agent, or a supervisor or agent request a recording session for a call, the software on their PCs reads the configuration information in LDAP to decide where to send the request. If the agent with the call is configured to use desktop monitoring, the request is sent to the Desktop Monitor service on the 2 of 34 June 21, 2004

7 VoIP Monitoring agent s PC. If the agent with the call is configured to use a VoIP Monitor service, the request is sent to that service. In either case, the appropriate voice packets are sent back to the requestor (Cisco Supervisor Desktop for silent monitoring or the Recording & Statistics service for recording) which then decodes the voice packets to an audible format. For silent monitoring, the voice data is streamed to the supervisor s PC sound card to be played over speakers or through headphones. For recording, the voice data is stored on disk. 2.1 Desktop Monitoring In most environments, desktop monitoring is the easiest way to provide VoIP monitoring. With desktop monitoring, software on each agent s desktop handles the recording and monitoring requests for that agent. To use desktop monitoring, the CAD agent must have either of the following setups: a PC running CAD and a Cisco IP phone (models 7910, 7940 or 7960), or a PC running CAD with Media Termination (the soft phone feature) If the agent is using an IP phone, that IP phone is connected to the switch through one network connection on the back of the phone and to the agent s PC through the other network connection on the back of the phone. The second network connection allows network traffic to be passed from the IP phone to the agent's PC, which enables the Desktop Monitor service to see voice traffic going to and from the agent s IP phone. This traffic can then be copied and sent to the monitoring/recording requester. A desktop-monitored agent s PC must have a NIC card that fully supports NDIS Promiscuous mode. This mode allows the desktop monitoring software to see the voice packets on the network. A small number of NIC cards are not fully NDIS-compliant, and will prevent desktop monitoring from working. IPPA agents cannot use desktop monitoring. If VoIP monitoring is required for these agents, they must be configured to use server monitoring. 2.2 Server Monitoring A CAD installation always includes one or more VoIP Monitor services, even if all agents are configured to use desktop monitoring. The installation requires a VoIP Monitor service in order to provide connectivity to the Cisco CallManager database for the desktop monitoring software. June 21, of 34

8 VoIP Monitoring The VoIP Monitor service also sniffs the network for voice packets, but it relies on the Switched Port Analyzer (SPAN) feature of the Cisco Catalyst line of switches to enable it to see the voice traffic for devices assigned to it. SPAN allows one or more ports or VLANs to be designated as source ports and a single port to be designated as the destination port. Source ports are any or all of the following: Ports used to connect IP phones to the switch Port used to connect the CallManager to the switch Port used by the voice gateway VLAN consisting of all the ports to be monitored by SPAN The destination port is the port used to connect the VoIP Monitor service to the switch. Once SPAN is properly configured, all network traffic traversing the source ports is copied and sent to the destination port. In this way, the VoIP Monitor service can see all the voice traffic to the IP phones and is able to capture voice streams from a particular agent's device for silent monitoring or recording. Some Catalyst switches have the Remote SPAN (RSPAN) advanced feature, which enables the VoIP Monitor service connected to one switch to see the voice traffic of a port on another Catalyst switch VoIP Monitor Domains A VoIP Monitor service is limited in the number of calls it can monitor simultaneously. This is due to the speed of the server on which the service runs and on the speed of the network that delivers packets to it. For a contact center that has more agents than can be monitored by a single VoIP Monitor service, additional VoIP Monitor services can be installed. Each of these services is referred to as a monitor domain, and represents a pool of monitoring resources that can be assigned to monitor particular IP phones. Each VoIP Monitor service requires its own SPAN configuration on the switch to which it is connected. 2.3 Monitoring Remote Agents and Supervisors Remote agents and supervisors are connected to the contact center s local network via a wide area network (WAN) or virtual private network (VPN). 4 of 34 June 21, 2004

9 VoIP Monitoring Monitoring Via VoIP Monitor Service The VoIP Monitor service can support remote agents and supervisors only if they are connected via a WAN with the necessary ports opened up in the WAN s firewall. There can be no routers between the remote agent s or supervisor s IP or soft phone and the VoIP Monitor service assigned to that device. Routers (including VPN concentrators used for VPN connectivity) change the MAC address of packets routed through them. If a voice stream packet s MAC address is changed, the VoIP monitoring service is unable to recognize the voice packets for a particular device. Connection through a WAN can be as slow as 56 Kbps or as fast as Mbps (T1 line). Even a T1 connection is much slower than the normal 100 Mbps connection of a PC connected to the network via a NIC card Monitoring Via Desktop Monitoring Desktop monitoring fully supports remote agents using either WAN or VPN connectivity. This is possible because the desktop monitoring service runs on the agent s PC. Once the traffic is captured by the desktop monitoring software, it no longer cares about the MAC address. The captured packets are sent to the object requesting the monitoring (the Recording and Statistics service or a supervisor) with no regard to routing devices. CAVEAT Voice streams require a certain amount of network bandwidth. If several supervisors attempt to silently monitor or record a remote agent, the quality of the received speech may be low due to the lack of bandwidth between the agent and the supervisor. Each monitoring request results in two voice streams (one for speech going to the agent and one for speech coming from the agent). This is in addition to the bandwidth of the actual phone call itself. If voice packets cannot be sent out due to network congestion, the packets are dropped and will not be received by the supervisor requesting the monitoring. 2.4 VoIP Monitoring Administration By default, CAD is configured to use desktop monitoring after installation. However, if there are IP phone agents in the contact center, they must be configured to be monitored using a VoIP Monitor service. All properly installed and started VoIP Monitor services can be seen in Desktop Administrator. From there they can be assigned to monitor specific devices. June 21, of 34

10 VoIP Monitoring It is possible to enable desktop monitoring and also assign a VoIP Monitor service to a device. With this configuration, the VoIP Monitor service becomes a failover service that is used in the event that the desktop monitor is unable to monitor the agent s device. 2.5 Scalability Desktop monitoring is infinitely scalable. Each instance of CAD that is installed contains its own VoIP monitoring software. Monitor domains provide scalability for VoIP Monitor services. The only limit to the number of VoIP Monitor services that can exist in a contact center s system is the number of SPAN configurations that the Catalyst switches can support. Once that limit is reached, no more VoIP Monitor services can be added. 2.6 Monitoring Modes Due to different SPAN configuration options, it is necessary to differentiate between caller-to-agent monitoring and agent-to-agent monitoring: Caller-to-agent monitoring is the ability to monitor a call between a single agent and a caller from outside the contact center (a customer). Agent-to-agent monitoring is the ability to monitor a call between two agents within the contact center. NOTE A conference call consisting of an outside caller and multiple agents is treated as a caller-to-agent call, since the mixing of voice streams is performed by the Cisco CallManager and merged into a single stream. These modes, and how to configure the system to support them, are shown in the deployment examples for the VoIP Monitor service (see Section 3.0 on page 8). Desktop Monitoring If desktop monitoring is used, both modes are automatically supported, since the desktop monitoring software captures the voice streams going to and coming from the agent s IP phone. Server Monitoring If server monitoring is used, the ability to support a monitoring mode is based on the configuration of SPAN, the capabilities of the switch, and the location of the switches that contain the IP phone ports. If you want to monitor only caller-to-agent calls, configure SPAN to copy both ingress and egress packets for all the source ports. The source ports include only the agent s IP phones. 6 of 34 June 21, 2004

11 VoIP Monitoring If, however, you also want to monitor agent-to-agent calls, SPAN must be configured to copy only ingress packets or egress packets from the port used by the agents IP phones. You then must also monitor the port used by the voice gateway to connect the contact center with the PSTN. If this is not done, then only one side of the conversation with an outside caller can be monitored (only the customer side, if copying ingress packets, or the agent side, if copying egress packets). In addition, the port used by the Cisco CallManager must be a source port, so that conference calls can be monitored. June 21, of 34

12 Best Practices Deployments 3.0 Best Practices Deployments The following sections describe best practices deployment strategies for VoIP monitoring, based on common network configurations. 3.1 Single Switch In this network configuration (see Figure 1 on page 9), the CallManager, voice gateway, VoIP Monitor service, and all IP phones are connected to a single switch. There are a small number of agents. Data and voice are on separate VLANs. See Appendix D on page 32 for an example of a simple configuration of this network layout using a Catalyst 3524 switch. Option 1: Agent-to-Agent Monitoring Enable desktop monitoring on each agent s desktop. You can use this configuration if the agents to be monitored/recorded: Use CAD with an IP phone Use CAD with Media Termination Option 2: Agent-to-Agent Monitoring SPAN is configured on the switch to monitor the voice VLANs. It is configured to copy only ingress packets. CAVEAT If your switch does not support VLAN monitoring (see Section B.5 on page 26), use Option 3. Option 3: Agent-to-Agent Monitoring Set up SPAN to monitor each IP phone s switch port, copying only ingress packets. Option 4: Caller-to-Agent Monitoring Only Set up SPAN to monitor the voice gateway and CallManager ports, copying both ingress and egress packets. If your switch does not support monitoring ports on other VLANs, then the voice gateway, CallManager, and all IP phones must be on the same VLAN. 8 of 34 June 21, 2004

13 Best Practices Deployments FIGURE 1. Single Switch Deployment June 21, of 34

14 Best Practices Deployments 3.2 Collapsed Core One Logical Contact Center In this configuration (see Figure 2), Switch A comprises both the core and distribution layers. Switches B, C, and D are access layer switches. All the agent IP phones are attached to Switches B and C. Only a supervisor is attached to Switch D. Data and voice traffic is separated by data and voice VLANs. All agent IP phones are members of the voice VLAN. The VoIP Monitor service can be attached to Switch A, B, or C. Where it is placed, and how many services are used, depends on: the functionality the customer wishes; the number of agents to be monitored; and the features available on the switches. Refer to Appendix E for a configuration example of this network layout using a Catalyst 6000 switch as the core/distribution switch, and a Catalyst 3524 switch for the access layer switch. Option 1: Agent-to-Agent Monitoring (Desktop Monitoring) Enable desktop monitoring on each agent s desktop. You can use this configuration if the agents to be monitored/recorded: Use CAD with an IP phone Use CAD with Media Termination Option 2: Agent-to-Agent Monitoring (1 VoIP Monitor Service, VLAN RSPAN) You can use this configuration if: There are 400 or fewer agents Switches B and C support VLAN RSPAN (see Section B.2 on page 24) To Implement this configuration: Install a VoIP Monitor service on a PC that is directly connected to a switch that supports RSPAN. Configure an RSPAN destination port on that switch to monitor the agent voice VLANs on switches B and C, copying only ingress packets. The RSPAN destination port is the port to which the VoIP Monitor service is connected. CAVEAT If your switches do not support RSPAN monitoring, you will not be able to use this configuration. 10 of 34 June 21, 2004

15 Best Practices Deployments Option 3: Agent-to-Agent Monitoring (2 VoIP Monitor Services, VLAN SPAN) You can use this configuration if Switches B and C support VLAN SPAN. On Switches B and C: Install a VoIP Monitor service on a PC that is directly connected to the switch. Configure SPAN to monitor the agent voice VLAN(s), copying only ingress packets. The SPAN destination port is the port to which the VoIP Monitor service is connected. Use Desktop Administrator to associate agent phones with the VoIP Monitor service. If you want to have a redundant system, enable desktop monitoring for each agent phone. Option 4: Agent-to-Agent Monitoring (2 VoIP Monitor Services, Port SPAN) You can use this configuration if Switches B and C support Port SPAN. On Switches B and C: Install a VoIP Monitor service on a PC that is directly connected to the switch. Configure SPAN to monitor the agent IP phone ports, copying only ingress packets. The SPAN destination port is the port to which the VoIP Monitor service is connected. Use Desktop Administrator to associate agent phones with the VoIP Monitor service. If you want to have a redundant system, enable desktop monitoring for each agent phone. Option 5: Caller-to-Agent Monitoring (1 VoIP Monitor Service, VLAN SPAN) You can use this configuration if Switches B and C support VLAN SPAN. Install a VoIP Monitor service on a PC that is directly connected to Switch A. Configure SPAN to monitor the agent voice VLANs, copying only ingress packets. The SPAN destination port is the port to which the VoIP Monitor is connected. Option 6: Caller-to-Agent Monitoring (1 VoIP Monitor Service, Port SPAN) You can use this configuration if: Switch A supports Port SPAN. The voice gateways, CallManagers, and agent IP phones are in the same VLAN. To implement this configuration: Install a VoIP Monitor service on a PC that is directly connected to Switch A. June 21, of 34

16 Best Practices Deployments Configure SPAN to monitor the CAllManager and voice gateway ports, copying both ingress and egress packets. The SPAN destination port is the port to which the VoIP Monitor service is connected. FIGURE 2. Collapsed Core (Single LCC) 12 of 34 June 21, 2004

17 Best Practices Deployments 3.3 Multi-Tiered Complex Network In Figure 3, two redundant core switches are attached to two redundant distribution switches. These switches are, in turn, connected to two stacks of layer 2 switches at the access layer. The switches in the stacks are connected to each other through trunk ports. This is a common configuration for Cisco networks. It is configured for redundancy, load balancing, or both. With this configuration you have several choices on how to deploy the VoIP Monitor services, depending on the abilities of the various switches and whether the customer wishes to monitor only caller-to-agent calls or agent-toagent calls as well. Option 1: Agent-to-Agent Monitoring (Desktop Monitoring) Enable desktop monitoring on each agent s desktop. You can use this configuration if the agents to be monitored/recorded: Use CAD with an IP phone Use CAD with Media Termination Option 2: Agent-to-Agent Monitoring (1 VoIP Monitor Service, VLAN RSPAN) You can use this configuration if: There are 400 or fewer agents Switches on stacks X and Y support RSPAN (see Section B.2 on page 24) To implement this configuration: Install a VoIP Monitor service on a PC that is directly connected to a switch that supports RSPAN. Configure an RSPAN destination port on that switch to monitor the agent voice VLANs on all switches in stacks X and Y, copying only ingress packets. The RSPAN destination port is the port to which the VoIP Monitor service is connected. Option 3: Agent-to-Agent Monitoring (Multiple VoIP Monitor Services, VLAN SPAN) You can use this configuration if the switches on stacks X and Y support VLAN SPAN. On each switch in stacks X and Y: Install a VoIP Monitor service on a PC that is directly connected to the switch. June 21, of 34

18 Best Practices Deployments Configure SPAN to monitor the agent voice VLANs, copying only ingress packets. The SPAN destination port is the port to which the VoIP Monitor service is connected. Use Desktop Administrator to associate agent phones with the VoIP Monitor service. If you want to have a redundant system, enable desktop monitoring for each agent phone. Option 4: Agent-to-Agent Monitoring (n VoIP Monitor Services, Port SPAN) You can use this configuration if the switches on stacks X and Y support Port SPAN. On each switch in stacks X and Y: Install a VoIP Monitor service on a PC that is directly connected to the switch. Configure SPAN to monitor the agent IP phone ports, copying only ingress packets. The SPAN destination port is the port to which the VoIP Monitor service is connected. Use Desktop Administrator to associate agent phones with the VoIP Monitor service. If you want to have a redundant system, enable desktop monitoring for each agent phone. Option 5: Caller-to-Agent Monitoring (1 VoIP Monitor Service, RSPAN) You can use this configuration if: There are 400 or fewer agents Switches A and B support RSPAN For the top switch in each stack: Install a VoIP Monitor service on a PC that is directly connected to the switch. Configure SPAN to monitor the agent voice VLANs, copying only ingress packets. The SPAN destination port is the port to which the VoIP Monitor service is connected. Use Desktop Administrator to associate agent phones with the VoIP Monitor service. If you want to have a redundant system, enable desktop monitoring for each agent phone. Option 7: Caller-to-Agent Monitoring (2 VoIP Monitor Services, Port SPAN) You can use this configuration is: Each stack has 400 or fewer agents The top switches in stacks X and Y support Port SPAN 14 of 34 June 21, 2004

19 Best Practices Deployments For the top switch in each stack: Install a VoIP Monitor service on a PC that is directly connected to the switch. Configure SPAN to monitor the agent IP phone ports and the trunk port to the next switch in the stack, copying both ingress and egress packets. The SPAN destination port is the port to which the VoIP Monitor service is connected. Use Desktop Administrator to associate agent phones with the VoIP Monitor service. If you want to have a redundant system, enable desktop monitoring for each agent phone. FIGURE 3. Multi-Tiered Complex Network June 21, of 34

20 Deployment Planning 4.0 Deployment Planning You must make many decisions when planning for a VoIP Monitor service deployment. These decisions will dictate how many VoIP Monitor service installations will be needed, where they will be deployed, and how the switches will be configured. Table 1 summarizes the major decisions/features that must be taken into account when planning a deployment. These are expanded upon in Section 5.0. TABLE 1. Decisions/Features for Consideration in Deployment Planning Decision/Feature Number of Agents VLANs LCCs Router Placement Switch Capabilities Importance The VoIP Monitor service can support the phone traffic of 400 simultaneous calls. Loads greater than this cause performance degradation. As a general equation, use APT N = X where APT = average peak talk time N = number of agents X 400 This is a simplified formula. Real-world planning is more complex and should use Erlang tables to calculate the number of VoIP Monitor services needed to support a given contact center. Voice and data must be separated by using voice and data VLANs. This improves VoIP Monitor service capacity because it is not sniffing network traffic that is not related to calls. If the switch does not support VSPAN, or is constrained to sniffing only a single VLAN, the placement of the VoIP Monitor service will be limited. A single LCC can contain multiple VoIP monitor services (monitor domains). This implies multiple subnets and multiple VLANs, which can all affect how the VoIP Monitor services are deployed. There can be no routers between the ports being monitored and the IP phones. Doing so causes the speech packet MAC addresses to be changed, becoming invisible to the VoIP Monitor service. Different Catalyst switches have differing SPAN and RSPAN capabilities. These capabilities (or lack thereof) dictate where the VoIP Monitor service can be deployed. 16 of 34 June 21, 2004

21 Deployment Planning TABLE 1. Decisions/Features for Consideration in Deployment Planning (Continued) Decision/Feature Monitoring Requirements Number of Supervisors Importance Caller-to-agent call monitoring is generally less complex than agent-to-agent call monitoring. The requirements from the customer dictate where the VoIP Monitor service can be deployed. The number of simultaneous monitoring sessions by supervisors must not exceed a ratio of one monitoring session per 10 agent calls. If the ratio needs to be higher, separate LCCs and VoIP Monitor services must be installed to handle the monitoring load. June 21, of 34

22 VoIP Monitoring Assumptions 5.0 VoIP Monitoring Assumptions 5.1 Server Monitoring VoIP Traffic Exposure In order for monitoring and recording to function correctly, the VoIP Monitor service must be exposed to the IP traffic containing the RTP packets to be sniffed. This means the voice traffic must be presented to the VoIP Monitor service service s network interface. This is done by setting up SPAN or RSPAN on the switches to which the agent phones are connected. SPAN and RSPAN configurations specify one or more ports or VLANs on a switch as source ports and a single port as a destination port. The destination port is the port used by the machine running the VoIP Monitor service to connect to the switch. The IP traffic coming over the source ports is copied and sent to the destination port. The VoIP Monitor service examines each packet to see if it should be copied and sent to a supervisor for monitoring, or to the Recording & Statistics service for recording. Ideally, the VoIP Monitor service only needs to sniff the packets that it is interested in (voice packets). If voice VLANs are not used, or the switch only supports port sniffing (see Section B.5 on page 26), then it is sniffing the IP phone port directly, and more extraneous network traffic is processed by the VoIP Monitor service. This decreases the capacity of the service Layer 2 Switching Domains VoIP traffic is sniffed and copied using the designated IP phone MAC address. As a result, there can be no layer 3 routing performed on the VoIP packets because that changes the MAC address of the Ethernet frames. There can be no routers between the agent IP phones that are being monitored/recorded and the ports being sniffed (exposed via SPAN and RSPAN) Single Copy of VoIP Packets When configuring SPAN and RSPAN on the switch(es), it is important to verify that only a single copy of a VoIP packet is sent to the VoIP Monitor service. If SPAN is set up to monitor two agent ports, and those agents are on a call with each other, the voice packets exchanged between the two IP phones can be sent to the VoIP Monitor service twice once when it leaves Agent A s phone, and again when it is received by Agent B s phone. 18 of 34 June 21, 2004

23 VoIP Monitoring Assumptions For most Catalyst switches, the SPAN can be configured to copy only ingress or egress packets. If agent-to-agent calls are to be monitored, the SPAN/ RSPAN must be configured to copy either ingress or egress packets, but not both. For switches that do not support this feature (see Section B.4 on page 26), agent-to-agent call monitoring is not possible IP Phone Compatibility The VoIP Monitor service works with the Cisco 7910, 7940, and 7960 IP phones and the CAD soft phone Voice Encoding Protocols The VoIP Monitor service supports the voice encoding protocols G.711 and G.729 (with and without silence suppression). Other encoding schemes are not recognized by the monitoring software. 5.2 Desktop Monitoring Remote Agent Bandwidth Considerations Even if a remote agent is accessing the Concentric services with a fast T1 line, no more than two simultaneous monitoring/recording sessions can be supported for the same agent due to bandwidth limitations IP Phone Compatibility The Desktop Monitoring service works with the CIsco 7910, 7940, and 7960 IP phones and the CAD soft phone Voice Encoding Protocols The Desktop Monitoring service supports the voice encoding protocols G.711 and G.729 (with and without silence suppression). Other encoding schemes are not recognized by the monitoring software. June 21, of 34

24 VoIP Monitor Service Deployment Strategies 6.0 VoIP Monitor Service Deployment Strategies This section describes, in general terms, the different sniffing configurations that can be used in successful VoIP Monitor service installations. The primary goal of these scenarios is to limit the amount of network traffic the VoIP Monitor service must sniff in order to serve the needs of the customer. Sniffing excessive network traffic incurs loads on the VoIP Monitor service machine, the switch(es), and the network. Using the correct sniffing strategies that match the customer s needs allows the system to work most efficiently. Using an invalid sniffing scenario negatively affects the VoIP Monitor service and the system as well. VoIP sniffing can be done at several locations in the system: Voice VLANs IP Phone/CAD switch ports Voice gateway and CallManager ports In this context, sniffing means to set up a SPAN or RSPAN to monitor one or more ports and/or VLANs. The sources used by the SPAN each have issues that affect VoIP monitoring, and need to be understood. 6.1 Voice VLANs Sniffing voice VLANs is the preferred sniffing method for two primary reasons: Voice and data network traffic are separated SPAN configuration and maintenance are easier It is strongly recommended that voice and data network traffic be separated by VLANs, and that the VoIP Monitor service sniffs only the voice VLAN. The less network traffic the VoIP Monitor service needs to process, the more capacity it has. 6.2 IP Phone Switch Ports If VLANs or VSPAN are not supported on the switch, SPAN must use individual ports as source ports rather than a VLAN. This is less desirable than VLAN sniffing because the VoIP Monitor service is exposed to both voice and data traffic. This additional traffic reduces the capacity of the service. 6.3 Voice Gateway and CallManager Ports If agent-to-agent call monitoring/recording is not required, it is possible to set up SPAN to monitor only the voice gateway port(s) and the CallManager port. 20 of 34 June 21, 2004

25 VoIP Monitor Service Deployment Strategies This allows the VoIP Monitor service to see all the voice packets that are exchanged in a call between an outside caller and the agent. Agent-to-agent calls cannot be monitored because the voice packets will not traverse the voice gateway port. An exception to this is if the agent is speaking to an outside caller and then conferences in another agent. In this case, the merging of the voice streams is handled by CallManager. Because the VoIP Monitor service is monitoring the CallManager port, this three (or more)-way call can be monitored successfully. June 21, of 34

26 References 7.0 References 1. Catalyst 1200 Installation and Configuration Guide, Chapter 3, Feature Configuration 2. Catalyst 2900 Series XL and Catalyst 3500 Series XL Software Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS Releases 12.0(5)WC4 and 12.0(5)WC5, May Catalyst 2950 Desktop Switch Software Configuration Guide, Chapter 20, Configuring SPAN 4. Catalyst 3550 Multilayer Switch Software Configuration Guide, Chapter 22, Configuring SPAN 5. Software Configuration Guide Catalyst 4000 Family, Catalyst 2948G, Catalyst 2980G, Chapter 25, Configuring SPAN and RSPAN 6. Catalyst 4224 Access Gateway Switch Software Configuration Guide, April Catalyst 5000 Family Software Configuration Guide, Chapter 27, Configuring SPAN 8. Catalyst 6000 Family Software Configuration Guide, Release Cisco IOS Switching Services Configuration Guide 10. Catalyst 1900 Series Software Configuration Guide, Chapter 3, Configuring and Monitoring from the Switch Manager 11. Catalyst 2820 Series Software Configuration Guide, Chapter 3, Configuring and Monitoring from the Switch Manager 12. Catalyst 2900 Series XL and Catalyst 3500 Series XL Command Reference 13. Catalyst 3000 Installation and Configuration Guide, Chapter 9, Monitoring Port Activity with Application Software 14. Catalyst 3200 Installation and Configuration Guide, Chapter 9, Monitoring Port Activity with Application Software 15. Configuring Catalyst 3500 XL Switches for AVVID/IP Telephony, Application note 22 of 34 June 21, 2004

27 References Appendix A SPAN Overview The VoIP Monitor service relies on a SPAN (Switched Port ANalyzer) session configured on the Catalyst switch. A SPAN session is a feature of the Cisco Catalyst switches that allows one or more port s IP traffic to be copied and sent to another single destination port on the switch. The ports that are used for the input to a SPAN are referred to as source ports. The port where all the copied traffic is sent is called the destination port. NOTE On some switches, the SPAN destination port is referred to as the monitor port. In this document this port will always be referred to as the destination port. Think of SPAN as a funnel that collects network traffic from multiple ports and copies it to a single output port. The destination port of a SPAN is used by the VoIP Monitor service to sniff for voice traffic to and from agent phones. Depending on the switch model, the source ports used by SPAN can be ports or VLANs. Only certain types of ports can be used as source ports. Using switch ports as source ports is referred to as PSPAN (Port SPAN). Using VLANs as source ports are referred to as VSPAN (VLAN SPAN). Some switches support only PSPANs. Other switches support both PSPANs and VSPANs. Some switches support the use of both ports and VLANS in a single SPAN configuration. Local SPANs (LSPANs) are SPANs where all the source ports and the destination port are physically located on the same switch. Remote SPANs (RSPANs) can include source ports that are physically located on another attached switch. The number of SPANs that can be configured can vary by switch. SPAN configuration and functionality is not the same on all Cisco Catalyst switches. Some switches can have the SPAN destination port configured to only show packets that are incoming to the source port(s) (ingress traffic) or only packets that are outgoing to the source port(s) (egress traffic). The default for many switches is to show both ingress and egress packets hitting the source port(s). On some Catalyst switches, the destination port of a SPAN will not accept regular network traffic. In these cases, the machine running the VoIP Monitor service must have two NIC cards; one to send and receive normal network traffic, and another to receive voice traffic from the switch. For more information on SPAN and RSPAN, refer to your switch documentation. June 21, of 34

28 References Appendix B Switch Capabilities The VoIP Monitor service is targeted specifically for the Cisco line of Catalyst switches. It may work with other switches that offer VoIP traffic, but it has not been tested on other switches at this time. There are differences among the Cisco Catalyst switches that you need to be aware of when installing and configuring the VoIP Monitor service software. The switch issues that are known at this time are shown in the tables below. B.1 SPAN Support For certain switches, the ability to set up SPAN, or something similar in functionality, does not exist. In these cases, the VoIP Monitor service will not work because there is no method for giving the monitor software access to the voice traffic. The following Catalyst switches do not support SPAN: G-L3 4840G B.2 RSPAN Support In some cases, it is desirable to use RSPAN in a VoIP Monitor service deployment. Not all switches support RSPAN. In some cases, a switch may not support RSPAN, but may be an intermediate switch within an RSPAN configuration. The following Catalyst switches do not support RSPAN: XL 2926GS 2926F 2926T 24 of 34 June 21, 2004

29 References 2948G G XL 3524-PWR XL 3508GL XL B.3 Network Traffic Restrictions Some Catalyst switches do not allow the destination port of a SPAN configuration to act as a normal network connection. The only traffic that flows through this port is the traffic copied from the SPAN source ports. This means that the computer running the VoIP Monitor service must have two network connections to function properly. It needs one NIC to receive monitor and record requests and to interact with the other components of the CAD software, which reside on other machines within the network. The second NIC is dedicated to sniffing VoIP traffic for monitoring and recording. The following Catalyst switches do not support normal network traffic on SPAN destination ports: June 21, of 34

30 References The actions required to configure the system to use multiple NIC cards are shown in Appendix C. B.4 Ingress and Egress Monitoring In some configurations, the VoIP Monitor service can receive duplicate voice packets. This can potentially happen with many Cisco Catalyst switches. The problem occurs in agent-to-agent calls when SPAN/RSPAN is configured to sniff both ingress and egress packets from both parties on the call. As a voice packet leaves Agent A s port, SPAN copies it to the VoIP Monitor service port. When the voice packet arrives at Agent B s port, it is copied again and sent to the VoIP service. The same happens when Agent B speaks. All packets are seen twice by the VoIP Monitor service. This causes poor speech quality. To avoid this, only ingress packets to a port are sent to the VoIP Monitor service. This is a setting for SPAN. Some switches do not support this setting. The following Catalyst switches do not support ingress-only packet sniffing: XL XL B.5 VSPAN Support In some switches, SPAN cannot use VLANs as sources. In that case, SPAN must designate individual ports to use for monitoring. The following Catalyst switches do not support VSPAN: XL of 34 June 21, 2004

31 References XL 3524-PWR XL B.6 Number of SPAN Sessions There are limits to the number of SPAN/RSPAN sessions that can exist on a switch. TABLE 2. SPAN Session Limits for Catalyst Switches Switch Model Maximum SPAN Sessions Allowed XL GS GL T F G G XL PWR XL GL XL June 21, of 34

32 References TABLE 2. SPAN Session Limits for Catalyst Switches (Continued) Switch Model Maximum SPAN Sessions Allowed 2912G of 34 June 21, 2004

33 References Appendix C Using Multiple NICs with the VoIP Monitor Service C.1 Overview The VoIP Monitor service sniffs RTP traffic from the network and sends it to registered clients. This requires support from the switch to which the service is connected. The VoIP Monitor service must be connected to the destination port of a configured SPAN/RSPAN. Any traffic that crosses the SPAN/RSPAN source ports is copied to the SPAN/RSPAN destination port and consequently is seen by the VoIP Monitor service. Not all Catalyst switches allow the VoIP Monitor service to use the SPAN port for both receiving and sending traffic. There are switches that do not allow normal network traffic on a SPAN destination port. A solution to this problem is to use two NICs in the machine running the VoIP Monitor service: One NIC for sniffing the RTP streams, connected to the SPAN port One NIC for sending/receiving normal traffic, such as requests from clients and sniffed RTP streams, connected to a normal switch port not monitored by the above-mentioned SPAN port. C.2 Limitations Since Cisco CallManager does not support two NICs, using multiple NICs works only in configurations where CallManager is not co-resident with the VoIP Monitor service. SplkPCap 3.0, the packet sniffing library, works only with NICs that are bound to TCP/IP. Make sure the sniffing card is bound to TCP/IP. C.3 Issues The VoIP Monitor service does not specify which NIC should be used when sending out packets. This is not a problem when using a single NIC for both sniffing and normal traffic. With two NICs, however, normal traffic should be restricted so that it does not go through the NIC used for sniffing. Otherwise, the sniffed RTP streams of a currently-monitored call might not reach the supervisor because the SPAN destination port does not allow outgoing traffic. To resolve this, use the route command to customize the static routing table so that normal traffic does not go through the sniffing NIC. Contact your network administrator for details. June 21, of 34

34 References An alternative solution is to give the sniffing NIC an IP address that no other host on the network uses, and a subnet mask of Leave the default gateway field blank for this NIC s TCP/IP binding. C.4 Installing a Second NIC on a VoIP Monitor Service Computer This procedure applies only to computers running Windows Install the second NIC in the computer. 2. Start the computer. 3. Make sure that neither adapter is using DHCP to get its IP address. 4. Give the adapters valid IP addresses. 5. Determine which of the two adapters is to be used for sniffing. 6. Connect the sniffing adapter with the switch SPAN port. 7. Connect the second adapter with a normal switch port that is not monitored by the SPAN port. 8. Use the route command to customize the local routing table so that normal traffic does not go through the sniffing adapter. 9. Verify that the sniffing adapter is not registered with DNS and WINS by using the PING <local host name> command. This ensures that the local name always resolves to the normal traffic card IP address. C.5 Installing Cisco Desktop If a second NIC card is present before installing Cisco Desktop If the computer on which you are installing the VoIP Monitor service has two NICs before you install the service, follow these steps: 1. During the VoIP Monitor service installation, enter the normal traffic adapter s IP address when prompted for the machine IP address. 2. Enter the sniffing adapter s IP address when prompted for the VoIP Monitor Service. If a second NIC card is installed after installing Cisco Desktop If the computer on which you installed the VoIP Monitor service is upgraded to include a second NIC, follow these steps: 1. Open the registry and access the following key: HKey Local Machine\Software\Microsoft\WindowsNT\CurrentVersion\NetworkCards 2. Find the newly-inserted card entry. 3. Copy the value in the ServiceName key. 30 of 34 June 21, 2004

35 References 4. Paste this value to the following key: HKey Local Machine\Software\Spanlink\FastCall VoIP Monitor Server\Setup\MonitorDevice 5. Add \Device\Splkpc_ at the beginning of the string you pasted in the key. Be sure to use the correct case when typing this string it is case sensitive. NOTE An alternative to following this procedure is to use the Sniffing Adapter Update utility (UpdateSnifferNIC.exe) that is included on the CAD installation CD. See Test Programs in Service Information for either CAD 6.0 or CAD 6.1 for more information. June 21, of 34

36 References Appendix D Example of a Simple Network Deployment FIGURE 4. Example of a Simple Network Deployment To create a SPAN session on the switch: Assumptions: The switch ports are configured as shown in Figure 4 The voice VLAN used by the IP phones is VLAN 1 1. On the switch, type the command config t to enter configuration mode. 2. Type the command interface 0/3 to enter configuration mode for Ethernet port 0/3. 3. Type the command port monitor vlan 1 to set up SPAN to monitor voice VLAN 1. The VoIP Monitor service now sees all the voice traffic from the IP phones connected to the switch. Both caller-to-agent and agent-to-agent calls can be monitored and recorded. 32 of 34 June 21, 2004

37 References Appendix E Example of a Collapsed Core Network Deployment FIGURE 5. Example of a Collapsed Core Network Deployment To create a SPAN session on Switch B: Assumptions: The switch ports are configured as shown in Figure 4 The voice VLAN used by the IP phones on both switches is VLAN 1 1. On Switch B, type the command config t to enter configuration mode. 2. Type the command interface 0/1 to enter configuration mode for Ethernet port 0/1. 3. Type the command port monitor vlan 1 to set up SPAN to monitor voice VLAN Repeat Steps 1 3 for Switch C. The VoIP Monitor service now sees all the voice traffic from the IP phones connected to the switch. Both caller-to-agent and agent-to-agent calls can be monitored and recorded. June 21, of 34

38 References 34 of 34 June 21, 2004

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