1 JOURNAL Vol. 12 ( 3). September 2013 P u b l i c a t i o n o f T e r n o p i l N a t i o n a l E c o n o m i c U n i v e r s i t y 309 European Economics Angela BESANA ADVERTISING AND INTANGIBLES OF ITALIAN VISUAL ARTS AND LANDSCAPE Abstract Advertising expense and intangible assets are the accounting lines that give evidence of the promotion efforts of any entrepreneur. At hard times cultural entrepreneurs have to maximize their promotion efforts, which are addressed to private stakeholders and audiences, in order to survive in a very competitive arena, where the State and public administrations cannot confirm their past times grant-making. Using a recent microeconomic database we empirically estimate the relation between advertising expenses, intangibles, net assets and profitability (gain or loss/total assets) for Italian Visual Arts and Landscape. This sample is defined referring to the latest legislative definition of Italian Arts. Italian Arts traditionally include performing and visual arts. In our investigation, performing arts are excluded but we include the «landscape» according to the national Code of Cultural Heritage and Activities the Italian Parliament approved in The landscape is the human landscape of villas, castles, archeological sites, etc. and the natural landscape of parks and other environment where the anthropological impact is less important than in the human landscape. The sample includes the Event Managers too: these ones are innovative entrepreneurs who do not directly perform cultural events but they support, manage, advertise and promote them. Angela Besana, Besana Angela, Associate Professor of Economics, Institute of Economics and Marketing, IULM University, Milan, Italy.
2 310 A n g e l a B e s a n a Advertising and Intangibles of Italian Visual Arts and Landscape The research gives evidence that Italian Visual Arts and Landscape are profitable despite of the financial crisis, when advertising expenses are one fourth of program service expenses and intangibles are minimized. Key words: Advertising; intangible; visual art; landscape; cluster analysis. JEL: C38, D22, L15, Z Advertising, intangible assets and their signalling The advertising expense is essential in order to promote cultural seasons, exhibitions and institutions. If it is deferred in time, it can impact on the whole reputation and brand of the cultural institution and with this meaning, it is one example of intangible assets. Intangible assets include research, development and advertising costs, concessions, licences, trademarks (branding) and similar rights, goodwill, etc. and, instead of spot advertising campaigns, they will produce economic benefits for several years. If Intangibles may count for communication investments, next to advertising expenses they can signal cultural activities and affect the range of private stakeholders so that these ones increase with revenues of ticketing and private contributions. As a consequence, profits can increase as well as net assets or fund balances 1. If public grants are nowadays diminishing, in order to signal their qualities (Buehler and Halbheer, 2011; Berger and Ward, 2010) and compete for private sponsorships, contributions and willingness-to-pay that generates ticketing, it is 1 It is here supposed that the State and the public stakeholders are less influenced or targeted by advertising and promotion efforts than audiences, consumers and private grant-makers or sponsors.
3 J O U R N A L September inevitable that cultural entrepreneurs maximize their advertising expense and the communication investment 2 (the intangible). On one side, public grants are mainly decreasing as for the «retrenchment» of «Public Welfare States» who are strongly restricting their spending after decades of exaggerate and, sometimes condemnable, spending. Social spending is still the highest public expenditure. Nevertheless, all other categories are now heavily cut as national debts are the priority of the so-called «deleveraging process». On the other side, the Private Welfare State is now emerging in several not-for-profit industries where grant-making foundations, associations, sponsors and philanthropists play very important subsidiary roles so that several «good causes» survive despite of the global financial crisis (Pitlik, 2007; Korpi, 2003; Palier and Sykes, 2001; Bonoli and Taylor-Gooby, 2000; Bowles and Wagman, 1997). This Private Welfare State is engaged in efficient screening of good causes and high intangible assets could count for reputation, so that sponsors look for high intangible assets in Financial Statements of cultural firms as signals of «High-Quality Cultural Initiatives», a merit good that is worth sponsorships. The importance of advertising the advertising expense and the investment of intangibles received attention by the literature of industrial organization and applied economics as for signaling qualities (Dorfman and Steiner 1954; Kihlstrom and Riordan 1984), market structure and performances (Comanor and Wilson 197; Sutton 1991, Daves and Tucker 1993; Daughety and Reinganum 2008) brand recognition and information (Caves and Green 199). Especially, the famous Dorfman-Steiner condition can be recalled in order to estimate the correlation between advertising, intangibles and revenues. In the economic theory the Dorfman-Steiner condition (1954) states that the advertising to sales ratio should equal the ratio for advertising elasticity to price elasticity. This condition is here referred to advertising and intangibles, considering A&I as the comprehensive promotion effort of accounting lines «advertising expense» and «intangible assets»: Where P ηa I A I = (1) η TR P η ηa I is the elasticity of demand with respect to advertising and intangibles relative to the elasticity of demand with respect to price and advertising and intangibles to sales ratio. A I TR is 2 The «investment» is related to effects that are deferred in time. The «expense» has no deferred impact.
4 312 A n g e l a B e s a n a Advertising and Intangibles of Italian Visual Arts and Landscape If A&I are able to connect the cultural entrepreneur with private grantmakers, sponsors and customers, these ones will be more reactive elastic and will positively reply to marketing and fundraising efforts. Revenues which include box-office, grants, contributions and sponsorships, will therefore increase. When revenues increase, profit can also increase though the advertising expense spot or deferred as it is in intangibles should be under budgetary control. Exaggerate expenses can affect the profitability and, especially, at hard times it is questioned if it is better to allocate scarce resources to spot advertising campaigns or branding and goodwill. This debate, considering that the signaling quality of advertising and the impact of brands on stakeholders can be hardly estimated with coefficients, ratios and ratings that are today among marketing skills of cultural entrepreneurs (Polegato, Bjerke and Ind, 2011; Pusa and Uusitalo, 2011; Preece and Wiggins Johnson, 2011; Neil and Rego Lopo, 2009; Keller and Lehmann, 200; O Reilly, 2005). In the following section we will introduce the sample of Italian Arts we investigated. The accounting lines of advertising expenses, intangibles, profits, net assets will be here focused in order to profile who is dedicating most of resources to advertising or intangibles and who is profitable or not profitable according to the promotion effort, either advertising or intangible. 2. The empirical research: the sample and the methodology If A&I can positively affect total revenues and, as a consequence, profitability, it must be considered as a strategic priority in order to widen audiences and stakeholders of cultural industries, especially when Public Welfare States are declining in their spending (Pusa and Usitalo 2011, Polegato, Bjerke and Ind 2011, and Haarich 2011, Preece and Wiggins Johnson 2011, O Reilly 2005). A&I becomes, as a matter of fact, a binding commitment for the Italian Culture at this time, when competition is particularly keen both for public and private grants (the so-called Private Welfare State) to be maximized next to revenues from ticketing. The following analysis investigates the weight of Intangible Assets in Financial Statements and the weight of Advertising Expenses in Statements of Revenues and Expenses of well-known Italian Visual Arts in order to estimate the following relationship. If Cultural Entrepreneurs invest in A&I, this is supposed to positively and ultimately affect revenues and profitability (profits/total assets). Their reputation is much more signaled than in previous times to several audiences. Several audiences may count: consumers, sponsors, private supporters so that revenues and grants can only increase, especially when States are de-
5 J O U R N A L September leveraging their cultural expenditure. The analysis will be concentrated on fiscal year 2009 and though economic performances are negatively conditioned by the financial crisis, advertising and branding efforts will prove to be still in consideration for their signaling added value. The analysis refers to a sample of 138 visual arts whose reports are available in AIDA repository, a database of business reports of several Italian firms, cultural foundations included. The sample refers to the 2002 ATECO code 9252 and 9253 «Museums and firms supporting the cultural heritage» and «Gardens, parks and firms supporting the cultural heritage», the whole sample comprehensive of core visual arts like museums, historical gardens, villas, parks and archeological sites. Particularly the first category refers to traditional visual arts, the second one includes the «Landscape», an innovative item for the definition of culture. This item has been present in the Italian Code of Cultural Heritage and Activities since The Code does not only refer to the landscape as the environment. The landscape includes the human landscape of villas, castles, archeological sites, etc. and the natural landscape of parks and other environment where the anthropological impact is less important than in the human landscape (Fowler, 2003; European Council, 2000). With regard to «firms support the cultural heritage» for both the mentioned categories of visual arts and landscape, they include managers of events, restoration and conservation of heritages. Among them, Beni culturali S.p.A., Civita, Fabbrica Arte, Grandi Giardini and Zetema, they are the biggest «Event Managers» in the Italian cultural industry, counting the highest revenues. These firms manage events, projects, activities whose budget varies from modest estimates to «great expectations». These firms supply their organizing competences both for the Visual Arts and the Landscape. First of all, following quotients have been calculated: Gain or Loss/Total Assets, Net Assets/Total Assets, Advertising Expense/Program Service Expenses, Intangibles/Tangible and Intangible Assets. The first two ratios relate to profitability and solvency of any entrepreneurial activity. The other ratios are the estimate of the promotion efforts. Secondly, a K-means clustering of these quotients has allowed to classify three main groups. K-means clustering is an iterative follow-the-leader strategy. First, the number of clusters, k, must be specified. Then a search algorithm goes out and finds k points in the data, called seeds, that are not close to each other. Each seed is then treated as a cluster center. The routine goes through the points (rows) and assigns each point to the cluster it is closest to. For each cluster, a new cluster centre is formed as the means (centroid) of the points currently in the cluster. This process continues as an alternation between assigning points to clusters and recalculating cluster centres until the clusters become stable. The
6 314 A n g e l a B e s a n a Advertising and Intangibles of Italian Visual Arts and Landscape main tests are the F test that is the variance between groups divided by the variance inside of groups and the Significance test (Sig. less than 0.05). K-means clustering allows to appreciate average performances of the sample. In Final Cluster Centers the above-mentioned quotients are average and separating qualities of six clusters. Three of them are the most crowded of the sample. 3 K-means clustering is here implemented with SPSS Statistics Software, with the analysis of final cluster centers and ANOVA. The analysis will be concentrated on the most crowded clusters. 3. The empirical research: results Table 1 shows the total magnitude of intangibles (as weight of total assets) and advertising expense (as weight of program service expenses, not comprehensive of financial and extraordinary costs) of the sample (all the 138 firms listed in the 2002 ATECO code 9252 and 9253) we investigated. The table 1 shows main performances (ratios) according to IAS standards from 2004 to 2009, too. The crisis has affected main performances especially if we consider Turnover /Employee or Profit per employee, return on total assets and current ratio. Solvency is nevertheless quite consistent. The crisis caused diminishing intangible investments but advertising expenses have been permanently representing a 30 percent of program service expenses. The intangible has been diminishing of 7 percent in investments since 2004; advertising expenses have been remaining 30 percent, quite an impressive share of program service expenses. The k-means cluster analysis refers to the 2009 quotients that are mentioned in the previous paragraph. Table 2, Table 3 and Table 4 show clusters performances: apart of less crowded clusters 2, 3 and 5 whose performances are negatively and heavily affected by the crisis, three main groups are emerging. Cluster 1 represents 18.84% of the sample, Cluster % and Cluster refers to 42.75% of the sample. Most of members of Cluster 1 are villas, archeological sites and other human landscape; Cluster 2 is the natural landscape and the most crowded Cluster includes Visual Arts and Event Managers. 3 Extra-ordinary clusters include firms that suffer of heavy losses, debts or exaggerate spending. In this investigation, clusters 2, 3 and 5.
7 J O U R N A L September Table 1 Performances of the sample with magnitude of intangible assets and advertising expense, Current ratio Liquidity ratio Solvency ratio (%) Gearing (%) Working capital/employee (Th.) Total assets/employee (Th.) Intangible assets/total assets Advertising expense/program Service Expenses Pre tax profit Margin (%) Return on Shareh. funds (%) Return on Cap. employed (%) Return on Total assets (%) Cost of employees/turnover (%) Turnover/Employee (Th.) Av. remuneration per year (Th.) Profit per employee (Th.) Source: our elaboration on Reports of the sample. Table 2 Final Cluster Centers: average performances of Italian Visual Arts and Landscape Gain or Loss/Total Assets Net Assets/Total Assets Advertising Expense/Program Service Expenses Intangibles/ Tangible and Intangibile Assets 1, the Human Landscape: archaeology, villas, castles and other human landscape Clusters of Italian Visual Arts and Landscape 2 3 4, the Natural Landscape: parks and other natural landscape 5, Visual Arts and Event Managers
8 31 A n g e l a B e s a n a Advertising and Intangibles of Italian Visual Arts and Landscape Table 3 ANOVA Cluster Error Mean Mean F Sig. df df Square Square Gain or Loss/Total Assets Net Assets/Total Assets Advertising Expense/Program Service Expenses Intangibles/Tangible and Intangibile Assets Table 4 Number of Cases with prevailing categories Clusters Number of Cases Category of Arts and Landscape 1 2 The Human Landscape The Natural Landscape Visual Arts and Event Managers Number of Valid Cases 138 Source: our elaboration with SPSS Statistics Software. The list of cases is in the Appendix. All clusters are suffering of a loss apart of the Natural Landscape of Cluster 4, with the highest Gain/Total Assets and 45% of Net Assets/Total Assets. The Intangible are only 8% of Tangibles and Intangibles and the Advertising Expense is one fourth of Program Service Expenses, more or less matching with the percentage in the Table 1. The profitability and the solvency are then positively correlated to the advertising expense of one fourth of total expenses and minimized investments of Intangibles. It can be inferred that the Intangible represents an asset that can limit profitability and solvency. These ratios should be paid particular attention at hard times: financial resources should not be constrained to assets.
9 J O U R N A L September As a matter of fact, when advertising expenses and intangibles are exaggerated as it is in the Cluster 1 43% and 81% the Human Landscape suffers of a loss. The cluster Visual Arts and Event Managers is similar to the cluster 1 as firms are affected by a loss, though Intangibles are only 8%. Intangibles are not worth at hard times and the advertising must not be exaggerated too, 3% of Total Expenses. The «Landscape» is sustaining the signaling effort both in expense and investment, but constraining resources to assets is not profitable at hard times though the loss is not so heavy. The promotion effort of the sample is, as a consequence, profitable if related to advertising expenses of one fourth. If most resources are allocated to exaggerated intangible and advertising, it is not profitable. 5. Conclusions, limitations and future research The research gives evidence that Intangible Assets are a constraint to resources. The advertising is, instead, profitable if it is one fourth of expenses. Signaling propensities are confirmed in Visual Arts, Landscapes and Event Managers, especially in a crowded arena where substitute entertainment supplies and the strenuous competition for diminishing grants from public supporters, they are both growing. The Dorfman-Steiner condition is confirmed in the correlation between A&I and profitability in the Natural Landscape, but the financial crisis is generally affecting performances for all other clusters. Reputation is much more related to advertising expenses than to advertising investments, these ones estimated as intangible. When Intangibles are an important share of Assets as it is in the Human Landscape, profits are absent. The research could be enlarged to the full period or separated to two periods: , before the financial crisis and , during it. The research could also include performing arts or festivals that are impressively growing in the Italian Cultural Industry, supplying entertainment substitutes to Visual Arts. Further research might estimate substitution effects if data were available for demand elasticities. The investigation, otherwise, reveals itself as a first attempt to focus on the positive relationship between advertising, intangibles and profitability.
10 318 A n g e l a B e s a n a Advertising and Intangibles of Italian Visual Arts and Landscape Policy implications are at least three. First of all, screening of good causes and sustainable projects should impose signalling that can assure matching grants. Cultural firms may maximize grants if they increase in their qualities signalling. Secondly, cultural policies should encourage and stimulate intangible investments that can generate collateral revenues, for example, royalties from the brand exposure. Thirdly, urban policies should consider the social capital that is contained in affirmed cultural brands that could be relevant for city-destination branding. Advertising and intangibles are attracting increased attention in the literature and the empirical research. Creative industries may be a benchmark in order to test brand awareness and performances. Bibliography 1. Berger, J. Ward, M. (2010). Subtle signals of inconspicuous consumption. Journal of Consumer Research, 37, Bonoli, G., George, V.- P. Taylor-Gooby (2000). European welfare futures: Towards a theory of retrenchment. Cambridge: Polity Press. 3. Bowles, P., Wagman, B. (1997). Globalisation and the welfare state: Four hypotheses and some empirical evidence. Eastern Economic Journal, 23(3), Buehler, S. Halbheer, D. (2011). Selling when brand image matters. Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 17, Caves, R. E., Green, D. P. (199). Brands quality levels, prices and advertising outlays: Empirical evidence on signals and information costs. International Journal of Industrial Organization, 14, Comanor, W. S., Wilson, T. A. (197). Advertising market structure and performance. Review of Economics and Statistics, 49, Daves, P. R., Tucker, A. L. (1993). Information release, signalling and market competition. Applied Financial Economics, 2, Daughety, A. F., Reinganum, J. F. (2008) Imperfect competition and quality signalling. RAND Journal of Economics, 39, Dorfman, R., Steiner, P. O. (1954). Optimal advertising and optimal output. American Economic Review, 44, European Council (2000). European convention on the landscape. 11. Fowler, P. J. (2003). World Heritage Cultural Landscapes UNESCO World Heritage Centre.
11 J O U R N A L September Keller, K. L., Lehmann, D. R. (200). Brands and branding: Research findings and future priorities. Marketing Science, 25, Kihlstrom, R., Riordan, M. (1984). Advertising as a signal. Journal of Political Economy, 92, Korpi, W. (2003). Welfare state regress in Western Europe: politics, institutions, globalization and Europeanization. Working Paper 5/2003 of the Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University. 15. Neil, M. A., Rego Lopo, L. (2009). Brand portfolio strategy and firm performance. Journal of Marketing, 73, O Reilly, D. (2005). Cultural brands/branding culture. Journal of Marketing Management, 21, Palier, B., Sykes, R. (2001). Challenges and change: Issues and perspectives in the analysis of globalization and the European welfare states. In: B. Palier, P.M. Prior & R. Sykes (Eds.), Globalization and European Welfare States: Challenges and Change Basingstoke. Palgrave, pp Pitlik, H. (2007). A race to liberalization? Diffusion of economic policy reform among OECD-economies. Public Choice, 132, Polegato, R., Bjerke, R., Ind, N. (2011). The before and after: Audience perceptions of brand dimensions of cultural products. Proceedings of the 11 th International Conference on Arts and Cultural Management. Antwerp, Preece, S. B., Wiggins, Johnson, J. (2011). Web Strategies and the Performing Arts: A Solution to Difficult Brands. International Journal of Arts Management, HEC Montreal, 14, Pusa, S., Uusitalo, L. (2011). Creating brand indentity in art museums. A case study. Proceedings of the 11 th International Conference on Arts and Cultural Management, Antwerp, Sutton, J. (1991). Sunk Costs and Market Structure. Cambridge, MA: the MIT Press. Appendix Members of clusters Ragione Sociale Cluster ARCHEOPARK S.R.L. 1 ARCHEOTOUR SOCIETA COOPERATIVA 1 ASTER ARCHEOLOGIA STORIA E TERRITORIO SRL DETTA AS- TER SRL 1
12 320 A n g e l a B e s a n a Advertising and Intangibles of Italian Visual Arts and Landscape Ragione Sociale Cluster AUTENTICO SPORT SOCIETA A RESPONSABILITA LIMITATA IN BREVE AUTENTICO 1 CASTELLO DI DUINO S.R.L. 1 CLOROFILLA SOCIETA COOPERATIVA 1 GM SERVICE S.R.L. 1 GROTTE DI CASTELLANA S.R.L. 1 IL VALICO GESTIONI SOCIETA A RESPONSABILITA LIMITATA 1 L HISTORIALE S.R.L. 1 L ISOLA DEI RENAI S.P.A. 1 LA GIUNCHIGLIA SOCIETA COOPERATIVA 1 MONDO TRENI SRL % EISENBAHNWELT GMBH 1 MONTE MEANA SOCIETA COOPERATIVA 1 MOTORIUS SRL 1 MUSEO CAPPELLA SANSEVERO S.R.L. 1 MUSEUM PROJECTS S.R.L. 1 PARCO MINERARIO DELL ISOLA D ELBA SRL 1 SHORELINE SOCIETA COOPERATIVA 1 SIRTE S.R.L. 1 SOCIETA ZOOLOGICA DI PISTOIA S.R.L. 1 SYS SOCIETA COOPERATIVA A RESPONSABILITA LIMITATA 1 TURISMO IN MARMILLA SOCIETA COOPERATIVA 1 VAS AMBIENTE E RICERCA S.R.L. IMPRESA SOCIALE 1 VENEZIA ACCADEMIA SOCIETA PER I SERVIZI MUSEALI S.C.A R.L. 1 VILLA ALLIATA CARDILLO S.R.L. 1 TOSCANA TURISM SRL 2 ARCANDA SOCIETA COOPERATIVA 3 DIASPRO ROSSO SOCIETA COOPERATIVA A RESPONSA- BILITA LIMITATA 3 FEDERICO MUSEI SOC. CONSORTILE A R.L. 3 L OLEANDRO SOCIETA COOPERATIVA A R.L. 3 LA NUOVA LUNA SOCIETA COOPERATIVA A.R.L. 3 NEW GREEN SRL 3 S.I.L.T. COOPERATIVA SARDA INTERPRETI LINGUE E TUR- ISMO SOCIETA CO 3 A.R.T. OMNIA SOCIETA COOPERATIVA 4 ALES ARTE LAVORO E SERVIZI SPA 4 ARTEZETA COOP 4 BOSCO SACRO DI BOMARZO S.R.L. 4 CIVITA TRE VENEZIE SOCIETA A RESPONSABILITA LIMITATA 4 COCLEA SOCIETA COOPERATIVA SOCIALE 4 COLLEZIONE RATHSCHULER S.R.L. 4
13 J O U R N A L September Ragione Sociale Cluster CONSORTILE SANTA MARIA LA VETERE SRL 4 CONSORZIO I LUOGHI DELL ARCADIA 4 COOPERATIVA SOCIALE INTEGRATA IL FARO SOCIETA COOP- ERATIVA 4 COOPERATIVA SOCIALE LA FONTE A RESPONSABILITA LIMI- TATA 4 COOPERATIVA SOCIALE PAGANELLA SOCIETA COOPERA- TIVA SOCIALE 4 COSTA EDUTAINMENT S.P.A. 4 DARWIN SOCIETA COOPERATIVA 4 ETNALAND S.R.L. 4 FUTURA S.P.A. IN LIQUIDAZIONE 4 GENIUS S.R.L. 4 GROTTA DEL VENTO S.R.L. 4 ICHNOS SOCIETA COOPERATIVA 4 IL GIUNCO COOPERATIVA SOCIALE ONLUS 4 IL GUISCARDO SOCIETA COOPERATIVA 4 IL PONTE COOPERATIVA SOCIALE O.N.L.U.S. 4 IOLAO SOCIETA COOPERATIVA 4 LABORINTUS SOC. COOPERATIVA A R. L. 4 LE MACCHINE CELIBI SOC.COOP. 4 MERIDIANA S.R.L. 4 MUSEO DELLA CITTA DI BOLOGNA S.R.L. 4 NATURALIA SRL 4 OLTRE IL MURO SOCIETA COOPERATIVA SOCIALE 4 ORTICOLA PISTOIESE S.R.L. 4 PALEOTUR SOCIETA COOPERATIVA 4 PARCHI VAL DI CORNIA SPA 4 PARCO LE NAVI SOCIETA COOPERATIVA 4 PARCO TEGGE SOCIETA COOPERATIVA 4 PARCO ZOO PUNTA VERDE S.R.L. 4 PIERGARDEN S.R.L. 4 POMBIA PARK S.R.L. 4 SA JARA MANNA SOCIETA COOPERATIVA 4 SIGISMONDO CASTROMEDIANO SOCIETA COOPERATIVA 4 TERRE S.R.L. 4 VILL ALBA COOPERATIVA SOCIALE A R.L. 4 WORLD MUSEUM S.R.L. 4 ZOE GESTIONE SERVIZI CULTURALI SOCIETA COOPERA- TIVA 4 ZOOM TORINO S.P.A. 4 LESSINIA SERVIZI SOCIETA COOPERATIVA 5
14 322 A n g e l a B e s a n a Advertising and Intangibles of Italian Visual Arts and Landscape Ragione Sociale Cluster AGENZIA PARCO MINERARIO DELL ALTA VALLE TROMPIA SO- CIETA CONSORTILE A ANGELO ALAGIA SOCIETA COOPERATIVA AR.TUR.O. ARTE,TURISMO,ORGANIZZAZIONE SOCIETA CO- OPERATIVA A RESPONS ARCHEODROMO SRL ARCHEOLAB SOC.COOP. ART SANNIO CAMPANIA SOCIETA CONSORTILE PER AZIONI AUDIOVIDEOTOUR S.C.A R.L. BENI CULTURALI S.P.A. GESTIONI & SERVIZI- BILANCINO SOCIETA A RESPONSABILITA LIMITATA BUTTERFLY ARC SOCIETA A RESPONSABILITA LIMITATA CAPITOLIUM SOCIETA COOPERATIVA COOPERATIVA MULTISERVIZI-COOPERATIVA SOCIALE COOPERATIVA SAGRUS COOPERATIVA SOCIALE AZZURRA COOPERATIVA SOCIALE MUBA, MUSEO DEI BAMBINI O.N.L.U.S CON SIGLA MUBA C DIMENSIONE NATURA SOCIETA COOPERATIVA SOCIALE A R.L. DR MULTISERVICE SRL EARTH PICCOLA SOCIETA COOPERATIVA A R.L. ECO VERDE SOCIETA COOPERATIVA A R.L. FABBRICA ARTE SOCIETA COOPERATIVA DI BENI CULTURALI NO-PROFIT FORUM TRAIANI SOCIETA COOPERATIVA SIGLA: FORUM TRAIANI SOC. COOP. GIODO SOCIETA COOPERATIVA GIUBILARTE S.R.L. GRANDI GIARDINI ITALIANI S.R.L. UNIPERSONALE GROTTE DI CASTELCIVITA SRL HYLA S.R.L. IL COCCIO SOCIETA COOPERATIVA IN FORMA ABBREVIATA IL COCCIO SO ISOGEST SOCIETA COOPERATIVA A RESPONSABILITA LIMI- TATA KORE SOCIETA A RESPONSABILITA LIMITATA MAJELLA SOCIETA COOPERATIVA A R.L. IN BREVE MAJELLA SOC. COOP. A R.L MARE NOSTRUM ROMAE S.R.L. MONTEACUTO 85 SOCIETA COOPERATIVA A R. L. MUSEO S.R.L.
15 J O U R N A L September Ragione Sociale Cluster OASI CERVARA SOCIETA DI GESTIONE SRL CON SIGLA OASI CERVARA SRL PARC ANIMALIER D INTROD S.R.L. PARMIGIANINO SOCIETA COOPERATIVA A RESPONSABILITA LIMITATA PASSATO E FUTURO SOCIETA A RESPONSABILITA LIMITATA ENUNCIABILE ANCHE PELAGOS SOCIETA COOPERATIVA RAMSAR MOLENTARGIUS ROCCA DI SORAGNA S.R.L. S EREMIGU SOCIETA COOPERATIVA S.ELIA 2003 SOCIETA COOPERATIVA SAFARI S.R.L. SE.GE.MO.SERVIZI GENERALI MORINO S.R.L SIENA VIVA SOCIETA COOPERATIVA SILVA S.R.L. SOC. COOP. NATURALISTI M. GORTANI SOCIETA COOPERATIVA AMARANTA SERVICE SOCIETA COOPERATIVA VISERAS STARTAL SOCIETA COOPERATIVA SOCIALE TENUTA VALSANZIBIO S.R.L. ULIXES SOCIETA COOPERATIVA SOCIALE VENEZIA MUSEI SOCIETA PER I SERVIZI MUSEALI S.C.R.L. VILLA ABBAS SOCIETA COOPERATIVA VIVERE MOLINA S.R.L. WMA S.R.L. WWF OASI SOCIETA UNIPERSONALE A R.L. ZETEMA PROGETTO CULTURA SRL ZOO PROJECT S.R.L. The article was received on June 2, 2013.
Centrale del Latte di Torino & C. S.p.A. - CLT Group Via Filadelfia 220 10137 Turin - Italy Tel. +39 011 3240200 - Fax +39 011 3240300 e-mail: posta @centralelatte.torino.it www.centralelatte.torino.it
BORGHI SRL Iniziative Sviluppo Locale Company Profile Incorporated in July 2008, BORGHI Ltd pursues the promotion of real estate and tourism development projects in borghi, historical towns and minor historical
PROJECT Roma Design Lab International Festival of Creativity PROMOTING COMPANY Cultural Association Opificio delle Arti Dates 22-26 October 2014 location ex-mattatoio, in Testaccio district Rome FREE ENTRANCE
Available online www.jocpr.com Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2014, 6(6):1191-1195 Research Article ISSN : 0975-7384 CODEN(USA) : JCPRC5 An empirical study on the profitability and its
English version OMI QUARTERLY REPORT Trends in Italian real estate market Q1 2016 Publication date: 7th June 2016 Reference period: Q1 2016 1st quarter 2016 Edited by Ufficio Statistiche e Studi Direzione
322 Information pursuant to Art. 149k of the Consob s Regulations on Issuers This table reports the 2011 fees due for the auditing and other than auditing services provided by the Audit firm or by other
Asian Economic and Financial Review journal homepage:http://aessweb.com/journal-detail.php?id=5002 AN EXAMINATION OF THE FACTORS THAT DETERMINE THE PROFITABILITY OF THE NIGERIAN BEER BREWERY FIRMS Okwo
Citta come grandi attrattori di turismo culturale Accoglienza e gestione dei visitatori nel Centro Storico di Firenze Sara Levi Sacerdotti Andrea Bruno Marco Cavallero Massimiliano Coda Zabetta Emanuela
EXPO MILANO 2015 Expo 2015 is the Universal Exhibition that Italy host in Milan, a global showcase where contries will show the best of their technology on nutrition. In addition to the exhibitor nations,
1. World Heritage Property Data 1.1 - Name of World Heritage Property Villa Romana del Casale 1.2 - World Heritage Property Details State(s) Party(ies) Italy Type of Property cultural Identification Number
ENTREPRENEURIAL FINANCE: Strategy Valuation and Deal Structure Chapter 7. Methods of Financial Forecasting: Integrated Financial Modeling Questions and Problems 1. The cash cycle is the time between when
Turin, 9 November 2012 PRESS RELEASE INTERMEDIATE MANAGEMENT REPORT OF SIAS GROUP AS AT 30 SEPTEMBER 2012 The Intermediate management report of the SIAS Group as at 30 September 2012 was approved by the
The Academy of Economic Studies Master DAFI RISK ANALYSIS ON THE LEASING MARKET Coordinator: Prof.Dr. Radu Radut Student: Carla Biclesanu Bucharest, 2008 Table of contents Introduction Chapter I Financial
HOW TO READ THE BUSINESS INFORMATION REPORT The Business Information Report (BIR) is the most widely used Dun & Bradstreet report. The BIR attempts to provide information and analysis to help you evaluate
1 INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY RICCIA: BORGO DEL BENESSERE An innovative hospitality formula to take care of the elderly while promoting real estate development of public assets. THE PROJECT The City of Riccia
LIVING TOGETHER IN A SUSTAINABLE EUROPE MUSEUMS WORKING FOR SOCIAL COHESION 22 nd NEMO Annual Conference 6-8 November 2014 Biblioteca Salaborsa Bologna, Italy Thursday, 6 November 2014 19.30 h Reception
1 THE EFFECT OF FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE FOLLOWING MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS ON FIRM VALUE Edwin Yonathan, Universitas Indonesia Ancella A. Hermawan, Universitas Indonesia 2 THE EFFECT OF FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE
0 Learning Objectives: 14.1 Describe the important of accounting and financial information. 14.2 Differentiate between managerial and financial accounting. 14.3 Identify the six steps of the accounting
CUMULUS MEDIA INC. Cumulus Reports Operating Results for Third Quarter 2015 ATLANTA, GA November 5, 2015: Cumulus Media Inc. (NASDAQ: CMLS) (the Company, we, us, or our ) today announced operating results
FACTORIT S.p.A. SOCIETA DI FACTORING DELLE BANCHE POPOLARI ITALIANE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AT 31 DECEMBER, 2001 2 FACTORIT S.p.A. Balance sheets as at 31 December, 2001 and 2000 (in Lire/million) Notes Assets
School of Public and Environmental Affairs Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis V560 Public Budgeting and Financial Management Dr. Alfred Ho Fall 2007 SPEA/BS 4076 BS3015 TH 6pm- 8:40PM Phone:
I. Learning Objectives In this chapter students will learn: A. The significance of resource pricing. B. How the marginal revenue productivity of a resource relates to a firm s demand for that resource.
Milan - May 13 th, 2015 TOD S S.p.A.: Sales growth: 1,5% in the first quarter of 2015 The Board of Directors approved Tod s Group Q1 2015 Interim Report Group s sales: 257.7 million Euros, +1.5% from Q1
SAMPLE COURSE OUTLINE ECONOMICS GENERAL YEAR 11 Copyright School Curriculum and Standards Authority, 2014 This document apart from any third party copyright material contained in it may be freely copied,
ROMA TIVOLI VILLE CASTELLI ROMANI TEVERE OSTIA ANTICA CASERTA POMPEI CAPRI COSTIERA AMALFITANA CALABRIA TAORMINA - ETNA The beauties of the Eternal City - Wellness - Tasting - Fun Tivoli - Villa d Este
Chiara Berichillo THE SMALL CENTRE OF PIEGARO AND ITS ANCIENT LINKS WITH GLASS PRODUCTION The small village of Piegaro, of medieval origins, rises among the green hills of Umbria in the western part of
Paper - Business Organization BLOCK- BLOCK-2 BLOCK-3 BLOCK-4 BLOCK-5 Nature and Scope of Business Forms of Business Organization I Forms of Business Organization II Business Promotion Methods of Raising
Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing, March 2015, Vol. 11, No. 3, 168-174 doi: 10.17265/1548-6583/2015.03.006 D DAVID PUBLISHING The Effect of Net Working Capital on Jordanian Industrial and Energy
Journal of Human Resources Management and Labor Studies June 2014, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 159-170 ISSN: 2333-6390 (Print), 2333-6404 (Online) Copyright The Author(s). 2014. All Rights Reserved. Published by
UNDERSTANDING FINANCE AND MEMBER EQUITY A Special Presentation for the Strengthening Cooperation Workshop February 21, 2006 by Brian Henehan Senior Extension Associate Cornell Cooperative Enterprise Program
Luxottica s net income from continuing operations for fiscal year 2006 rises by 100 million or by 30% Cash dividend for FY 2006 to increase by 45% Milan, Italy March 5, 2007 - Luxottica Group S.p.A. (NYSE:
Banco Santander s balance sheet and income statement 369 Balance sheet at 31 december 2015 with distribution of income ASSETS December 2015 1. Cash and balances with central banks 12,423,923,169 2. Financial
Enterprise Pension Risk Assessing Corporate Risk Profiles When Setting Long-Term Pension Strategies As many corporations try to determine the appropriate level of risk in their pension portfolios given
Olimpia OANCEA Mihaela DIACONU Amalia DUŢU University of Pitesti ANALYZING THE CONSUMER PROFILING FOR IMPROVING EFFORTS OF INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATION Empirical studies Keywords Market segmentation
B.A. PROGRAMME DISCIPLINE COURSE ECONOMICS COURSE CONTENTS (Effective from the Academic Year 2011-2012 onwards) DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS UNIVERSITY OF DELHI DELHI 1 Syllabus for B.A. Programme - Economics
EMMEGI is an international press agency based in Florence and gathering freelance reporters both from Italy and from abroad. Established in 1996 Editorial Staff online 3 journalists 6 Italian freelance
FROM ACCOUNTING REGULATIONS TO VALUATION PRACTICE - THE APPRAISER S ROLE IN TANGIBLE ASSETS REVALUATION Crian Sorana Adina Babe-Bolyai University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Tangible
For immediate release Herzogenaurach, May 6, 2014 First Quarter 2014 Results: Group sales stable on a currency-neutral basis Results significantly impacted by negative currency effects adidas Group confirms
GE Capital Interbanca Corso Venezia 56 20121 Milano T +39 02 77311 F +39 02 784321 PRESS RELEASE GE Capital Interbanca: Consolidated Financial Results 12.31.2009 (In accordance with IAS/IFRS - International
MACROECONOMIC AND INDUSTRY ANALYSIS VALUATION PROCESS BUSINESS ANALYSIS INTRODUCTION To determine a proper price for a firm s stock, security analyst must forecast the dividend & earnings that can be expected
Bachelor of Business International Event Unit name Aim Topics covered Level 1 BUS101 Accounting Fundamentals The aim of the unit is to provide students with the fundamental skills and knowledge to understand
DETERMINANTS OF PROFITABILITY UNDERLINING THE WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT AND COST STRUCTURE OF SRI LANKAN COMPANIES Prabath Suranga Morawakage Graduate of B.B. Mgt (Finance) Special 356,Doranagoda,Bemmulla,Sri
What Can You Expect From A Sponsorship With A Charity? Brent Barootes September 19, 2012 WHITE PAPER Presented by Partnership Group Sponsorship Specialists WHAT CAN YOU EXPECT FROM A SPONSORSHIP WITH A
Creating a Successful Financial Plan Basic Financial Reports Balance Sheet - Estimates the firm s worth on a given date; built on the accounting equation: Assets = Liabilities + Owner s Equity Income Statement
La Porta delle Meraviglie We offer great travel recommendations for your trip through one of the most beautiful and captivating places in Italy: The Abruzzo Region La Porta delle Meraviglie offices are
1 Supplemental Unit 5: Fiscal Policy and Budget Deficits Fiscal and monetary policies are the two major tools available to policy makers to alter total demand, output, and employment. This feature will
Factoring and Banks International workshop Factoring around Europe: Italy - Spain Fausto Galmarini CEO UniCredit Factoring September 21 st 2007 International workshop Factoring around Europe: Italy - Spain
Profile BassmArt is an organization which specializes in implementing high-tech projects and services for the historic and artistic heritage, culture and leisure. It is a global consultant for developing
Ordinary and Extraordinary Annual Shreholders Meeting April 24th 2014 Abridged Version Group overview Vianini Lavori is one of the main Italian General Contractors and it operates in the large infrastructure,
Financial Statement Analysis Paper Example 1: Dell Computer Dell Inc. Current Year Prior Year Income Statement 3 Years Ago $ Percent $ Percent $ Percent Revenue 61,494 100.0% 52,902 100.0% 61,101 100.0%
The Equity Gap and Knowledge-based Firms: Executive Summary Nick Wilson Credit Management Research Centre Leeds University Business School Tel: +44 (0) 113 343 4472 Email: email@example.com Mike Wright
THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS APPROVES RESULTS AT 31 MARCH 2013 31/03/2013 31/03/2012 Amounts in millions of euro Amount % Revenues 223.5 151.2 72.3 47.8% Operating costs 156.7 146.6 10.1 6.9% Amortisation, write-downs
LIVE NATION ENTERTAINMENT REPORTS FOURTH QUARTER AND STRONG FULL YEAR 2009 FINANCIAL RESULTS - Live Nation and Ticketmaster complete Merger in January 2010 - - Live Nation grows adjusted operating income
Q1 Quarterly Report January March 2011 January March 2011 1 Operating income for the period of the Group was SEK 7,5 k. EBIT for the Group was SEK - 1 261,9 k. Earnings before tax for the Group was SEK
Fiscal federalism in Italy at a glance Distribution of fiscal revenues (2006) Local Governments 7% Distribution of public expenditure (2006) Local Governments 19% Regions 24% State 53% Source: Region of
2014 Consolidated Financial Statements and Draft Financial Statements of the Parent Company Convening of the Annual Shareholders Meeting Consolidated financial statements: net profit 1.29 billion; Separate
PRICE SENSITIVE PRESS RELEASE IN COMPLIANCE WITH THE FINANCE ACT AND CONSOB REGULATIONS Shareholders Meeting of Gruppo Editoriale L Espresso S.p.A.: Approval of 2009 Consolidated Financial Statements Renewal
The charming Lake Garda and the Opera House of Verona Taste and Slow Italy - Trasimeno Travel Sas, Via Novella 1/F, 06061 Castiglione del Lago, Perugia. Tel. 075-953969, Fax 075-9652654 www.tasteandslowitaly.com
4. Statement of financial activities Introduction 4.1. All charities preparing their accounts on an accruals basis to give a true and fair view of their financial activities and financial position must
Divergent Brand Building Strategies: How Do They Match Up? By Kirk L. Wakefield, PhD In competitive selling environments, brand identity is an important differentiator for both the sales professional and
Chapter 5 Estimating Demand Functions 1 Why do you need statistics and regression analysis? Ability to read market research papers Analyze your own data in a simple way Assist you in pricing and marketing
Chapter 4: Buying an Existing Business 1 Learning Objectives To understand that buying an existing business has several important advantages over starting one, including less risk, less time and effort,
Competency: Finance and Economics in Sports Industry 1. Describe the economic impact of sports and entertainment events in various areas: locally, regionally, nationally, and internationally. 2. Discuss
The Coca-Cola Company (KO) By Daniel Frank Section 00A http://assets.coca-colacompany.com/c4/28/d86e73434193975a768f3500ffae/2012-annual-reporton-form-10-k.pdf Introduction Chief Executive Officer: Muhtar
Insights&Trends I42/2014 Metrics Strong Brands, Profitable Brands: Estimation of a brand s value and its contribution to business has always been considered the main challenge in measuring intangible assets.
Journal of Applied Finance & Banking, vol.2, no.1, 2012, 105-125 ISSN: 1792-6580 (print version), 1792-6599 (online) International Scientific Press, 2012 The Impact of Company Characteristics on Working
COMPARATIVE STUDY REGARDING THE ACCOUNTING SYSTEM IN ROMANIA, FRANCE, GREAT BRITAIN AND USA MARIA MORARU, FRANCA DUMITRU WEST UNIVERSITY OF TIMIŞOARA, J.H.Pestalozzi Str., No.16, Timisoara, Romania TIBISCUS
ECE 3rd Year SEMAC in London 2014 - Proposed Program Semester Calendar Course Distribution 03/02/2014 UK Culture Seminar 10/02/2014 Classes 17/02/2014 Classes 24/02/2014 Classes 03/03/2014 Classes 10/03/2014
African Journal of Business Management Vol. 5(27), pp. 11005-11010, 9 November, 2011 Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/ajbm DOI: 10.5897/AJBM11.326 ISSN 1993-8233 2011 Academic Journals
Practice Problems on Current Account 1- List de categories of credit items and debit items that appear in a country s current account. What is the current account balance? What is the relationship between
Approaches to Sponsorship Value Measurement Bernie Colterman Managing Partner CEPSM what we do (really well) Strategic Marketing Planning Sponsorship Valuations & Strategies Social Media / Digital Marketing
AICCON - Italian Association for the Promotion of the Culture of Co-operation and of Nonprofit Organisations is an association formed in 1997 among the University of Bologna, Faculty of Economics, Forlì
READING 11: TAXES AND PRIVATE WEALTH MANAGEMENT IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT Introduction Taxes have a significant impact on net performance and affect an adviser s understanding of risk for the taxable investor.
Brochure More information from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/1837576/ Banca Popolare di Milano Scrl (PMI) - Financial and Strategic SWOT Analysis Review Description: Banca Popolare di Milano
Bank Austria IR Release Günther Stromenger +43 (0) 50505 57232 Vienna, 12 February 2015 Preliminary results 1 for the 2014 financial year: Bank Austria posts net profit of about EUR 1.4 billion Sound operating
1 EdilMarina 82,History The 82 Edilmarina Ltd., was founded 30 years ago and detected by the promoter Mr. Ivano Fronti in 1991. The company is a large family. We have gained experience in various technical
CALTAGIRONE SpA May 2005 THE CALTAGIRONE GROUP The Caltagirone Group is a family-controlled industrial concern with aggregated sales over 1.3 bn (2004) (a) Group structure is based on three main activities:
CREDIT REPORT SAMPLE S.P.A. ASSESSMENT SUMMARY Degree of reliability Rating trend Maximum credit limit advised Check on prejudicial events VULNERABILITY STABLE UP TO 175,000 EURO NO EVENT TO NOTE COMPANY
A STUDY ON ASSET AND LIABILITY MANAGEMENT IN ICICI BANK Salvin Surjith FP* N. Sathyanarayana** Abstract: Assets and Liabilities Management (ALM) is a dynamic process of planning, organizing, coordinating
Creative Agency Branding We believe that brand is the strongest key factor for future growing companies. To this purpose, at drapht we help clients in rethinking their brands as one of their greatest assets,
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE April 2, 2009 RESEARCH IN MOTION REPORTS FOURTH QUARTER AND YEAR-END RESULTS FOR FISCAL 2009 Waterloo, Ontario Research In Motion Limited (RIM) (Nasdaq: RIMM; TSX: RIM), a world leader