ENTERPRISE CLASS ON A SMALL BUSINESS BUDGET Meeting Today s Small Business Networking Needs Without Breaking the Bank

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1 PAGE 01 of 08 TECHNOLOGY WHITE PAPER ENTERPRISE CLASS ON A SMALL BUSINESS BUDGET Meeting Today s Small Business Networking Needs Without Breaking the Bank INTRODUCTION Traditionally, the term "enterprise" characterized an enormous data network consisting of Intranets, Extranets, server farms, campus class backbones, branch offices, hundreds or thousands of users and a small army of remote users. A corporation typically spends thousands, if not hundreds of thousands of dollars, and countless man-hours to support this type of environment. It can be cost-prohibitive for smaller businesses or offices to enjoy the same functionality and benefits as large corporations. Today it is clear that any company - regardless of the industry - that wants to compete requires the ability to exchange data in a cost-effective manner. As decentralization of the corporate structure becomes more prevalent, pushing a higher level of functionality out to remote and branch offices is essential. Many smaller organizations have had to dramatically increase IT spending to obtain the functionality they need. This means purchasing multiple network devices all summarily focused on one purpose: moving data securely into and out of the Local Area Network (LAN). This type of Wide Area Network (WAN) solution typically requires the following: A router to pass traffic between the LAN and the Internet A firewall to exclude those that would do harm Expensive T1 lines or Frame Relay services for dedicated access to the main office and/or partners A network appliance to support remote users connecting via Virtual Private Network (VPN) Not surprisingly, this type of solution can be extremely expensive to deploy not only due to the up-front capital costs, but also because of the setup, maintenance, and ongoing operational expenses associated with all of the different devices required to achieve the functionality listed above. Clearly, smaller companies need enterprise-class solutions on a more cost-effective, simple, yet functional platform. Which brings us back to the problem at hand: how can a smaller company with a limited IT budget cost-effectively acquire the same network functionality as larger corporations? The purpose of this paper is to outline the important features and functionalities to look for when selecting a WAN router, discuss how VPNs can drastically reduce the cost of deploying enterprise-class functionality, and finally, identify the key contributors that should be considered when calculating Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) Allied Telesyn Inc. All rights reserved.

2 PAGE 02 of 08 ESSENTIAL WAN REQUIREMENTS The requirements of WAN routers for today s small business/branch office can be grouped into four main categories: Flexibility/Scalability, Functionality, Manageability, and Security. Let s take a closer look at each one in more detail. Flexibility/Scalability Successful companies grow and so must their networks. In order to maximize the investment made in equipment, a key aspect to consider is how you can "future-proof " your network. In other words, how can you make the dollars you invest today take you as far into the future as possible - without overspending? The best way to accomplish this is by focusing on the flexibility and scalability of your devices to ensure that as your company grows, so too can your network without the need for a forklift upgrade. Modular Interfaces - Modular interfaces allow a single platform to provide a wide variety of connectivity solutions depending on your WAN and LAN needs. These methods might include T1, ISDN, POTS, Frame Relay or Ethernet connection types which would serve as a WAN link. Some sites might also require a backup link for redundancy to the main office, Internet or other remote sites. In the past, routers with "fixed" interfaces have been deployed to service local connectivity methods because they were less expensive than modular platforms and met the immediate needs of the organization. Unfortunately, these solutions became obsolete when the company s connectivity requirements changed. This not only required various types of products to be kept on hand for replacement and upgrades, which was a significant capital expense, but also forced companies to move away from a clean, uniform, streamlined deployment paradigm, increasing management costs. Standards-Based - Technologies that have been adopted by various independent and objective governing bodies are defined as a standard, and products that build on such technology are called "standards-based." Two examples of such governing bodies are the IEEE, which focuses primarily on data networking, and the IETF, which focuses mainly on Internet protocols. By selecting standards-based products, you are assured that the technology is market-proven and that it will interoperate with other equipment - even equipment from different manufacturers - that is also standards-based. The alternative choice is selecting proprietary technology and products. Besides paying a significant premium to help the manufacturer recoup their R&D expenses (and pay for their failed endeavors), you are also locked into always using that vendor s equipment to ensure interoperability. Choosing standards-based technology offers the freedom to implement a wide range of additional devices that also supports established industry standards. Remote Authentication - When supporting a large number of remote users and/or telecommuters, you may reach a point where it becomes too burdensome to use a local account database stored on each individual router for authentication purposes. Instead, a central authentication solution is a better option. This type of solution is typically accomplished with either a RADIUS or TACACS server, which stores all username and password combinations and can be parsed by the network device when a specific user requires access. To ensure this type of solution can be implemented, make sure this feature is supported in the WAN device you choose. Form Factor - In a small office environment, space for network equipment is usually limited, so the size of all WAN devices (routers) should not be overlooked. While this may not seem important today if you have plenty of space, take care to think ahead because eventually your closet space may become limited. Easy Upgrade Path - Even planning ahead can t eliminate the need to upgrade pieces of your network at some point. We already discussed the benefits of implementing standards-based products, but another consideration to think about is choosing a manufacturer that offers a comprehensive, scalable product line with a consistent Operating System (OS) interface. A familiar platform reduces the learning curve associated with adding new devices to your network, making updates and upgrades much more efficient.

3 PAGE 03 of 08 Functionality/Speed Nothing affects future-proofing a network more than underestimating the functionality and speed required for the applications you ll be running today and in the future. While care needs to be taken to ensure you re not paying for features and functionality you ll never need, it s much easier (and usually less expensive) to select a solution that does a bit more than you need today than to add that functionality later by provisioning another device. Network Address Translation (NAT) - Network Address Translation (NAT) allows all host computers inside the LAN to be mapped to a single IP address assigned to the router as packets leave the network. This means a company only has to purchase one or a few static IP addresses from its Internet Service Provider (ISP), which greatly reduces connectivity costs. This single IP address can be used for VPN termination as well as regular Internet connectivity. Stateful Inspection Firewall - A Stateful Inspection firewall provides the highest level of security possible by providing full application-layer awareness without breaking the client/server model. Stateful Inspection extracts the state-related information required for security decisions from all application layers and maintains this information in dynamic state tables for evaluating subsequent connection attempts. It protects against a wide range of Denial of Service (DoS) attacks including Ping of Death, SYN/FIN flooding, Smurf attacks, port scans, fragment attacks and IP spoofing. alerts can be automatically triggered when such attacks are detected. This provides a solution that is highly secure and offers maximum performance, scalability, and extensibility. Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) - A DMZ or Demilitarized Zone is used for hosting Web services such as an or Web server that is available to both inside and outside parties. In order to support this functionality, the network appliance (router) must have at least three interfaces: one that uses a global address which is supplied by the ISP, one for the DMZ and one for the inside address space or LAN. There are several routers on the market that support a firewall, but most lack the necessary port count to create a DMZ. Dynamic & Static Routing Support for Unicast & Multicast Traffic - Any enterprise-class appliance should support all standards-based routing protocols including RIPv1, RIPv2 and OSPF for unicast packets. For multicasting the device should support DVMRP, PIM-Sparse Mode and PIM-Dense Mode. These protocols are necessary for redundancy, dynamic route table configuration, and the propagation of multicast streams beyond the local network. Maximum Resource Utilization Features - The ability to utilize technology that provides improved throughput, traffic shaping and backup methods should be supported to ensure uninterrupted throughput and service. This includes rate limiting, queuing methods, RSVP, BACP and PPP Multilink. Backup Support - The ability to stay operational for any business is paramount. While the Internet has become more reliable, it is a good idea, and sometimes a requirement, to have backup connectivity in case of primary line failure. A WAN router should be able to accommodate several backup technologies, with ISDN and async dialup (analog modem) supported at a minimum as they are the most popular because of their low cost and high availability. Consolidated Design - Purchasing an appliance that can support multiple network functions has become an increasingly attractive solution for small offices as technology has advanced and prices have fallen. Besides the obvious cost savings, there are also tremendous benefits to be found in ease of single-device deployment, management, training, and even reduced power and space requirements. Performance Impact of Functionality - A consolidated design is desirable, but unless all functions can be used simultaneously without impacting performance, an appliance loses its value as a multi-purpose solution. Several WAN devices on the market feature firewall, VPN and routing functionality, but performance is significantly impacted when used at the same time. Be sure to evaluate potential solutions, particularly all functionality, in the way in which you intend to use them.

4 PAGE 04 of 08 Manageability For companies that don t have a large dedicated IT department staffed with expensive CCIEs (Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert), ease of management is a key consideration when choosing networking gear. The less time you spend configuring means more time to focus on running your business. Command Line Interface (CLI) vs. Graphical User Interface (GUI) - CLIs have become a default standard for network device configuration in the IT world. For those who know exactly what they need to do and how to do it, a CLI can be a very quick and efficient way to work with a device. The key lies in how intuitive the CLI is to the user. If you are considering using a CLI, first make sure you are comfortable with how it works. A GUI, on the other hand, provides more of a wizard-type approach to device configuration and maintenance. Particularly when it comes to multi-purpose WAN devices, GUIs can be extremely helpful in provisioning VPNs, creating firewall policies, or even assigning IP interfaces for seasoned engineers as well as for those with less technical expertise. Network Management Software (NMS) - Network Management Software is developed by both equipment manufacturers like Allied Telesyn or Cisco and by third party software companies like CastleRock s SNMPc or HP OpenView. Network Management Software presents a graphical representation of network infrastructure and allows the use of network management tools such as SNMP, RMON and ICMP in a graphical environment. NMS greatly reduces the burdens associated with large networks because it provides a single, centralized tool (or suite of tools) for configuring, monitoring and updating network equipment. Any serious network vendor should offer an NMS that works alone or in conjunction with a third party NMS application to support its equipment. Management Authentication - For enterprises with a large or distributed support infrastructure, it is desirable to have a group of network engineers with management access to the switches and routers on the network for administrative and configuration purposes. Different levels of configuration access may be needed depending on the position of the person accessing the management interface. A low level engineer may only need to be provided access to see counters and interface status. A group of high level engineers may need to have additional staff member access added or removed. To do this, RADIUS or TACACS can be used to provide one repository for all administrative access and to give the manager the appropriate product access level. Security Maintaining network and data security has never been more important, and thanks to rapid advancements in security technology and standards, there are now more tools that are available and accessible to small and medium sized organizations. Firewall - Protecting access into the network should be at the forefront of a security paradigm. Not only does access into the network have to be considered, but so does attempted access, generally referred to as a Denial of Service (DoS) attack. These usually take one of the following forms: Ping of Death, SYN/FYN flooding, Smurf Attacks or IP Spoofing and port scans. These types of attacks can temporarily bring down access to a network and should not be overlooked. To avoid such attacks, the use of a Stateful Inspection firewall is all that is needed in most cases. Stateful Inspection firewalls validate packets in the sense that they only allow IP packets access into the network if a session, or flow, has been initiated by an internal user. This means that when an internal user accesses an outside entity (a Web site for instance), the firewall records this information in memory and uses the information to validate packets returning to the inside user during the session. After a period of inactivity, the firewall deletes this session from its table and access from the outside entity to the inside user is once again blocked. Every time an inside user initiates an outside connection a new session is created and recorded. This means that if an outside entity, such as a hacker, initiates a Denial of Service attack, the router will see that the session has not been initiated from inside the network and blocks its access into the network.

5 PAGE 05 of 08 SSH & SSL - A solid security design doesn t just involve getting data securely into and out of the LAN - it also encompasses the configuration of the network itself. The most common configuration method for network devices is Telnet, however, all data passing to and from a Telnet session is in clear text. Any hacker with a sniffer application can pick up sensitive data pertaining to the network such as usernames, passwords and configuration data. In order to protect this information, a secure mechanism needs to be employed like Secure Shell (SSH) and/or Secure Socket Layer (SSL). SSH is a terminal emulation program similar to Telnet, but it uses authentication and encryption to secure the data stream. SSL is used by Web browsers to achieve similar functionality to that of SSH. Just about anyone that has accessed a secure site on the Internet has used SSL. It is apparent when SSL is in use because the beginning of the URL changes from to and a small lock icon appears in the lower corner of the browser. SSL can be used by the administrator to access the network device s GUI in order to configure it without compromising security. Intranet Security (ACLs, Filtering, VLANs) - Intranet security refers to the local security policy. Notice the spelling of Intranet as opposed to Internet. Intranet refers to the local network and Internet refers to the World Wide Web. For those networks that require traffic separation and segregation, the router needs to implement some type of policy allowing traffic into certain areas while restricting it from others. This can be achieved using VLANs, Access Control Lists (ACLs), and filtering. As an example, imagine an office that has three groups of users - Accounting, Marketing and Sales. The Marketing and Sales groups need access to each other, but Accounting needs to be off-limits to the other groups for security reasons. A VLAN can be created for each of these groups, and an ACL can be implemented to allow access between the Marketing and Sales VLANs and to restrict access to the Accounting VLAN. This provides for increased bandwidth utilization by segregating broadcast domains, as well as providing the ability to create security policies within the network. This type of functionality provides a tremendous amount of flexibility to segment and sub-segment a LAN depending on your company s needs. The benefits of selecting a WAN device that provides Layer 3 routing capabilities as well as Layer 2 VLAN switching functionality become very apparent when LAN segmentation is necessary. VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORKS - WHAT ARE THEY? A Virtual Private Network, or VPN, is a generic term used to describe a connectivity method by which private networks utilize a technology called IPsec to tunnel IP packets though a public network (the Internet). Generally speaking, VPNs borrow the global Internet to implement a private Wide Area Network. All that is needed to deploy this type of solution is a local connection to any ISP and a VPN appliance such as a PC or router. VPNs (IPsec) generally consist of two primary elements or stages. The first stage is a method in which to exchange keys. These keys are used to authenticate the remote user (or office) as well as authenticate the data as that which has come from a known source. This is accomplished by either manually entering these keys at each site or by using a third party "certificate server" to do this automatically. The second stage is an encryption method (DES and 3DES) which codes the sender s data, making it impossible to read even if captured by a third party. Various technologies are available to create a VPN and are usually governed by speed and security needs and/or restrictions. A good VPN appliance should offer various VPN technologies to allow the end user to customize its design based on need and not on the appliance s capability limitations.

6 PAGE 06 of 08 HOW DO VPNs BENEFIT BRANCH OFFICES? VPNs have become an extremely attractive WAN solution because they provide the fastest and most economical way to extend a network to remote offices and workers when compared to alternative solutions such as Frame Relay or leased line. Security Anyone considering using a public network to transmit private data should be concerned about security. The good news is that VPNs offer a level of security that is practically impenetrable. As a result VPNs are being utilized more and more by Fortune 500 companies, hosted e-business sites, branch offices and mobile or remote workers every day. Security can be further enhanced by integrating additional applications such as Stateful Inspection firewall, digital certificate support, SSH and Radius capability for client authentication. When these technologies are used together, a powerful communications platform is developed to transport company information across a public network. There are several encryption protocols available today to provide data integrity when using Virtual Private Networks - primarily DES and 3DES (the latter referred to as Triple DES). DES provides 56 bit security and 3DES provides 168 bit security. There are also a variety of different authentication mechanisms that can be used for VPN, such as pre-shared key, where a preset key is defined on each end of the VPN tunnel, and certificate servers, where trusted third parties such as Verisign and Microsoft maintain and update keys on a regular basis. At a minimum, any WAN appliance you choose to provide VPN connectivity should support DES and 3DES. There are also more traditional connectivity methods which may need security services as well, such as Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) for ISDN backup or for a dial-up user that is unable to use VPN (e.g. a network administrator who needs to dial directly into the router for administration purposes). These types of connections should have the option to use Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) or Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) for authentication. Because these types of traditional connections cross a circuit switched backbone like POTS or PSTN and not a public packet switched backbone like the Internet, encryption is not usually required. Throughput Performance Speed is critical in any network environment, and there are throughput issues associated with the creation of VPNs that should be considered. In the early days, VPNs were created in a router s software. This type of implementation made the encryption and decryption process relatively slow, not to mention degraded the router s ability to handle its other CPU-intensive functions. One early solution to this problem was to offload VPN processing overhead to an external appliance, called a VPN concentrator, to do nothing but terminate VPN tunnels. While these devices served their purpose, they also added significant cost, took up more valuable space, and forced network administrators to learn how to manage yet another device. Another solution has been to add a hardware encryption module or hardware accelerator to the router. These are physical cards that slot into the router s main board and offload the entire encryption burden from the CPU. This option tends to be much more cost-effective and also makes management and configuration simpler since the network administrator is still managing only a single device. A VPN appliance that can keep up with the speed of the WAN connection is referred to as being able to produce line speed. Line speed is highly desirable and should be sought after when researching VPN products. If there is more than one branch office or remote user/telecommuter involved in exchanging sensitive information, it will be necessary to terminate multiple VPN tunnels. Regardless of which option you select, it is important to ensure the appliance you choose will support an adequate number of VPN tunnels to meet your immediate and future needs.

7 PAGE 07 of 08 Vastly Increased Flexibility Today s VPN infrastructure equipment should provide a scalable architecture that can evolve with your business. VPN appliances should provide multiple network interfaces, solid high availability functionality, a scalable product line, and interoperability with existing infrastructure equipment and network management thereby eliminating the need for additional network devices. A VPN appliance should have the ability to terminate multiple VPN tunnels without significantly affecting its performance. VLANs enable multiple virtual networks to be hosted on one physical infrastructure; security measures allow users access to some areas (VLANs and/or VPN) while restricting access to others. Ease of Management Advanced network management capabilities reduce the need for additional hardware as well as provide detailed application reporting and incident recognition alerting. All network devices should support a front-end intuitive GUI to make the transition to a new vendor as seamless as possible. VPN features a total management solution that provides network professionals with easy, integrated access tools for global, site and unit management. A single point of control is ideal for managing and provisioning access to public and private services such as: VPN and at the same time Internet connectivity for local users Control into and out of the network such as a DMZ access control for remote users and telecommuters Access to local services through the creation of VLANs and ACLs TOTAL COST OF OWNERSHIP (TCO) When evaluating the TCO of a network device, more than just the up-front expense needs to be taken into account. There are many different aspects that should be considered over the life of the product. Ultimately, minimizing your TCO will increase your Return On Investment which is, of course, the overall objective. Capital Expenditure (CapEx) Costs - These are the costs associated with the initial purchase of the network device(s). Typically, the fewer devices you need to purchase, the lower your initial up-front costs. So look for devices that support multiple functions, but don t forget to include software bundles, hardware add-ons and service/support contracts that will drive base prices upward. Diligent investigation of the vendor, product and user needs should weed out any hidden costs. Deployment - A "one box" solution for all environments can ease the process of deployment. Less hardware, one Operating System, and a central point of configuration all contribute to an effortless deployment of new network appliances. Usually a quicker installation translates to a lower cost of deployment. Maintenance - Most vendors offer different levels of support and service. These recurring costs should be examined to ensure the user is paying only for what it needs and not for what it doesn t. Training - The less equipment being deployed, the quicker it is to train the network administrators to deploy it. This is one more benefit of using a multi-purpose appliance. The vendor should provide ample documentation on the product that not only describes what the appliance can do and how to do it, but offers examples to expedite configuration of the equipment. Many vendors also offer on-site training, demonstrations and evaluation equipment to help in the training process. WAN Implementations - This is the number one contributor to the ROI of a WAN appliance. As we ve discussed, the costs associated with Frame Relay, dedicated leased lines, or dial-up are prohibitive for most small businesses, so the use of VPNs is the single best way a company can lower its TCO of a network implementation.

8 PAGE 08 of 08 Consider a broadband cable or DSL connection for only $40-$65 per month compared to a dedicated T1 at $800-$1,200 per month. If more bandwidth is required, a single T1 connection for both your Internet and point-to-point connections instead of separate T1s for each is much more cost-effective. For mobile and remote workers, think about provisioning an ISP account for each user with nationwide coverage for $15-$20 per month instead of paying $100+ in ISDN or long distance charges. Through the use of VPN, all of these scenarios are possible and the savings are real. ALLIED TELESYN AR410S VPN ROUTER The AR410S is a new security router recently introduced by Allied Telesyn. As discussed throughout this paper, lowering the TCO of your network deployment is the goal and the best way to do this is by using VPNs and by selecting multi-purpose devices that provide the flexibility and functionality to meet your needs as your network grows. Designed with these needs in mind, the AR410S is really four devices in one: Modular router with a variety of WAN interfaces to choose from including T1, ISDN and more 4-port VLAN switch Hardware-based VPN encryption/compression for DES and 3DES Stateful Inspection firewall Allied Telesyn is redefining the routing landscape for small and medium sized companies and branch offices. Benefits that used to be accessible only in expensive, proprietary solutions are now available in a single, amazingly low-cost, standards-based device. Allied Telesyn is a global manufacturer of data networking products, and our standards-based approach to technology has been delivering value to customers worldwide for over 16 years. To learn more about the AR410S and our extensive line of solutions that range from media converters all the way up to carrier-grade DSLAMs and Layer 3 core switches, visit ABOUT ALLIED TELESYN, INC. Allied Telesyn, Inc. leads the world in network technologies for the access edge. Since the company's inception in 1987, Allied Telesyn has been developing IP-based network products for use in video, voice and data networks at the metro edge, in education, government agencies and across the enterprise. Allied Telesyn's access, aggregation and core transport technologies range from simple Ethernet adapters, hubs and media converters to robust multi-layer Gigabit Ethernet switches and routers, wireless systems, DTM and WDM transport solutions for delivering real-time voice, video and data. Allied Telesyn's comprehensive support and professional service programs are suited to meet the growing demands of today's switched broadband infrastructures.website:

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