July 2005, NCJ Substance Dependence, Abuse, and Treatment of Jail Inmates, Highlights. No dependence or abuse

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1 U.S. Deprtment of Justice Office of Justice Progrms Bureu of Justice Sttistics Specil Report By Jennifer C. Krerg nd Doris J. Jmes BJS Sttisticins In 2002 more thn two-thirds of jil inmtes were found to e dependent on or to use lcohol or drugs, sed on dt from the Survey of Inmtes in Locl Jils, Two in five inmtes were dependent on lcohol or drugs, while nerly 1 in 4 used lcohol or drugs, ut were not dependent on them. Estimtes of sustnce dependence or use were sed on criteri specified in the Dignostic nd Sttisticl Mnul of Mentl Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV). Jil inmtes who met the criteri for sustnce dependence or use (70%) were more likely thn other inmtes (46%) to hve criminl record. They were nerly twice s likely s other inmtes to hve een homeless in the yer efore their offense (16% compred to 9%) or to hve grown up with prent or gurdin who used lcohol or drugs (37% compred to 17%). Nerly two-thirds of jil inmtes who met the criteri for sustnce dependence or use hd prticipted in sustnce use tretment or other lcohol or drug progrms in the pst. More thn hlf of the inmtes who hd used lcohol or drugs t the time of their offense hd ever received tretment or prticipted in other sustnce use progrms while under correctionl supervision. Highlights In 2002, 68% of jil inmtes reported symptoms in the yer efore their dmission to jil tht met sustnce dependence or use criteri Percent of jil inmtes $ 52% of femle jil inmtes were found to e dependent on Drugs or drugs Any dependence or use 47% 53% 68% lcohol or drugs, compred to Dependence % of mle inmtes. Ause only No dependence or use in 4 convicted property or drug offenders met sustnce dependence or use criteri, compred to 2 in 3 violent or pulic-order offenders Percent of convicted inmtes $ Hlf of ll convicted jil inmtes Use t Dependence Offense offense or use were under the influence of drugs All inmtes 50% 71% or lcohol t the time of offense. Violent Property Drug $ In 2002, 16% of convicted jil Pulic-order* inmtes sid they committed their *Excludes DWI/DUI. offense to get money for drugs, Percent of jil inmtes compred to 15% in Prior Dependence Other sentences* or use inmtes Totl 100% 100% $ Inmtes who met sustnce dependence/use criteri were twice s likely s other inmtes to hve three or more prior protion 3 or more or incrcertion sentences. *To protion or incrcertion. 63% of inmtes who met sustnce dependence or use criteri hd prticipted in sustnce use tretment or other progrms in the pst Percent of jil inmtes Prticipted in sustnce tretment or other progrms Regulr sustnce use Dependence or use Ever ny tretment/progrm 58% 63% Under correctionl supervision 43% 47% After dmission to jil 17% 19% Used once week for t lest month. Convicted inmtes only. July 2005, NCJ Sustnce Dependence, Ause, nd of Jil Inmtes, 2002 $ 47% of jil inmtes who met the criteri for sustnce dependence or use hd prticipted in sustnce use tretment or other progrms while under correctionl supervision. $ Aout fifth of convicted jil inmtes who met the criteri for sustnce dependence or use hd prticipted in sustnce use tretment or other progrms fter their dmission to jil.

2 68% of jil inmtes met sustnce dependence or use criteri More thn two-thirds of jil inmtes were dependent on or used lcohol or drugs, sed on symptoms for dignosing sustnce dependence or use in the DSM-IV (tle 1). In collortion with the Ntionl Institute on Ause nd ism, the Bureu of Justice Sttistics (BJS) included series of questions ssocited with the DSM-IV criteri for mesuring dependence or use in the 2002 Survey of Inmtes in Locl Jils. The questions ddressed prolems or symptoms relted to lcohol or drug use in the 12 months prior to the inmtes dmission to jil. The questions out sustnce use were grouped into four ctegories nd those on dependence into seven ctegories, in ccordnce with the DSM-IV. For dignosis of dependence jil inmtes hd to report t lest 3 of 7 dependence symptoms. A dignosis of use required offenders to hve t lest 1 of 4 use symptoms. Becuse dignosis of sustnce dependence preempts dignosis of use, inmtes who met the criteri for oth dependence nd use (44%) or dependence only (1.0%) were clssified s dependent. Prevlence of sustnce dependence or use symptoms mong jil inmtes, 2002 Ause symptoms Filure to fulfill mjor role oligtions Lose jo; jo/school prolems, such s missing too much work/school, eing demoted t work, dropping out of school; not tking cre of children Continued use in hzrdous situtions Get in situtions tht incresed chnces of getting hurt, like driving, swimming, using mchinery or wlking in unsfe re /drug-relted legl prolems Arrested or held y police due to drinking or drug use Recurrent socil or interpersonl prolems Arguments/prolems with spouse, intimte, fmily or friends or get into physicl fights Percent of jil inmtes Drugs or drugs 15.9% Dependence symptoms Tolernce 21.0% 33.4% 42.1% Usul drinks/drugs hd less effect; or drnk more or used more drugs to get the wnted effect Withdrwl Bd ftereffects from cutting down or stopping lcohol/ drugs, such s shking, feeling nervous, nxious, sick to stomch; or tking drink/drugs to get over ny d ftereffects Compulsive use More lcohol/drug use or using for longer periods thn intended Impired control More thn once wnted to cut down/tried to cut down ut couldn't Time spent otining, using, recovering Spent lot of time using lcohol/drugs or getting over the d ftereffects Neglect of ctivities Gve up on ctivities of interest/importnce, like work, school, hoies, or ssociting with fmily nd friends Continued use despite prolems Continued to drink/use drugs even though it ws cusing emotionl or psychologicl prolems. Note: See References for sources on mesuring prevlence of sustnce dependence or use using the Dignostic nd Sttisticl Mnul of Mentl Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) % % The Survey of Inmtes in Locl Jils, 2002, included series of questions to form mesure of the prevlence of sustnce dependence or use s defined in the DSM-IV. These estimtes re not comprle to findings reported from previous jil inmte surveys. Ause symptoms included repeted use of lcohol or drugs in hzrdous situtions or recurrent occuptionl, eductionl, legl or socil prolems relted to lcohol or drug use. The most common use criteri reported y jil inmtes were recurrent socil prolems ecuse of lcohol (40%), drugs (43%), nd the comintion of lcohol or drugs (58%). The dependence criteri covered rnge of symptoms, including ehviorl, cognitive, nd physiologicl prolems. The criteri most often cited y inmtes were impired control (44%) nd continued use despite prolems (45%). Overll, third of jil inmtes reported no use symptoms. Sixteen percent hd one use symptom, while 17% cited ll four use symptoms. Forty-six percent of jil inmtes reported three or more symptoms of sustnce dependence, including 18% who reported ll seven symptoms. Aout 38% reported no dependence symptoms. Ause symptoms Numer of positive responses or drugs % Dependence symptoms Numer of positive responses or drugs % Sustnce Dependence, Ause, nd of Jil Inmtes, 2002

3 Jil inmtes clssified s users met t lest one of the use criteri (23%) without dependence. By specific type of sustnce, 53% of jil inmtes were dependent on or used drugs, compred to 47% for lcohol. Aout 36% of jil inmtes were found to e dependent on drugs, nd 18% used drugs. Twenty-three percent of jil inmtes were dependent on lcohol, nd nerly 24% used lcohol. An estimted 32% of inmtes did not meet the criteri for sustnce dependence or use. Over hlf of ll femle jil inmtes reported sustnce dependence There ws little difference in the overll prevlence of sustnce dependence or use etween men (68%) nd women (69%) in locl jils (tle 2). When sustnce dependence or use ws estimted seprtely, femle jil Fewer thn 1 in 10 persons in the generl popultion met the criteri for sustnce dependence or use In 2002, 9% of the U.S. resident popultion ge 12 or older (or 22 million persons) were found to e dependent on or to use lcohol or drugs, ccording to the Ntionl Survey on Drug Use nd Helth, Unlike men nd women in locl jils who hd nerly the sme rte of sustnce dependence/use (round 69%), in the generl popultion the rte for men (13%) ws twice tht for women (6%). Sustnce or drugs Drugs Gender Mle Femle Prevlence of sustnce dependence or use in the U.S. resident popultion Numer (in millions) Percent 9.4% % 6.1 Note: Sustnce dependence or use ws mesured s defined in the DSM-IV. Bsed on U.S. resident popultion ge 12 or older. Source: Sustnce Ause nd Mentl Helth Services Administrtion, Ntionl Survey on Drug Use nd Helth, 2002, U.S. Deprtment of Helth nd Humn Services. Tle 1. Prevlence of sustnce dependence or use mong jil inmtes, 2002 Dignosis Any dependence or use Dependence nd use Dependence only Ause only Estimted numer of inmtes 415, ,632 6, ,530 No dependence or use 195, Note: See References for sources on mesuring dependence or use sed on the Dignostic nd Sttisticl Mnul of Mentl Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV). Excludes 20,945 inmtes for whom dt were unknown. Includes inmtes who did not use lcohol or drugs. inmtes hd higher rtes of sustnce dependence thn mle inmtes. Nerly 52% of femle inmtes were found to e dependent on lcohol or drugs, compred to 44% of mle inmtes. Men (24%) hd higher rtes of sustnce use (without dependence) thn women (17%). White nd middle ge inmtes hd reltively higher rtes of sustnce dependence or use Sustnce dependence or use mong jil inmtes vried y rcil or ethnic groups. White inmtes hd significntly higher levels of sustnce dependence or use (78%), reltive to lck inmtes (64%) nd Hispnic inmtes (59%). A lrger proportion of white inmtes (55%) thn lcks (40%) or Hispnics (36%) lso were dependent on lcohol or drugs. A similr rte of sustnce use (without dependence) existed mong rcil or ethnic ctegories. Around qurter of lck (24%) nd Hispnic (23%) inmtes were found to use lcohol or drugs, compred to 22% of white inmtes. White femles comprised slightly higher proportion of women who met the criteri for sustnce dependence or use thn their representtion in the overll femle jil popultion. White femles were 43% of women in jil, ut 48% of women who were dependent on or used lcohol or drugs. Similrly, white mles represented 35% of men in jil, ut out 40% of men who met the conditions for sustnce dependence or use. Percent of jil inmtes Drugs or drugs 46.6% 53.5% 68.0% The rte of sustnce dependence or use vried significntly y ge of inmtes. Jil inmtes etween ges 25 nd 44 hd the highest rte of sustnce dependence or use (7 in 10 inmtes). Those ge 55 or older hd the lowest rte (nerly 5 in 10 inmtes). When the rte of dependence ws estimted seprtely from use only, inmtes ge 55 or older reported the sme levels of dependence (23%) or Tle 2. Sustnce dependence or use mong jil inmtes, y selected chrcteristics, 2002 Chrcteristic All jil inmtes 68.0% Gender Mle 67.9% 44.3% 23.6% Femle Rce/Hispnic origin White 77.7% 55.4% 22.3% Blck Hispnic Other c Age 24 or younger or older 66.1% Most serious offense Violent 63.1% Property 71.7 Drug 72.1 Pulic-order 67.0 Percent of jil inmtes All Dependence Ause only 45.2% 40.3% % % 25.8% % Excludes inmtes who did not specify rce. Excludes persons of Hispnic origin. c Includes Asins, Americn Indins, Alsk Ntives, Ntive Hwiins, other Pcific Islnders, nd inmtes who specified more thn one rce. Sustnce Dependence, Ause, nd of Jil Inmtes,

4 Tle 3. Fmily ckground of jil inmtes, y sustnce dependence or use, 2002 Chrcteristic Homeless in pst yer Employed in month efore dmission to jil Ever physiclly or sexully used Physiclly used Sexully used While growing up C Ever received pulic ssistnce* Ever lived in foster home, gency or institution Lived most of the time with C Both prents One prent Someone else Prents or gurdins ever used C Drugs Both lcohol nd drugs Neither Fmily memer ever incrcerted C Mother Fther Brother Sister Spouse Numer of jil inmtes 415,242 *Pulic ssistnce includes pulic housing, AFDC, food stmps, Medicid, WIC, nd other welfre progrms. use only (23%). All other ge groups hd higher levels of sustnce dependence. Hlf of jil inmtes ges were dependent on lcohol or drugs, while fifth used lcohol or drugs. Sustnce dependence or use more prevlent mong drug or property offenders Overll, jil inmtes whose most serious chrge ws drug or property offense were more likely to hve met the sustnce dependence or use criteri thn other offenders. More thn 70% of drug or property offenders were dependent on or hd used sustnce, compred to over 60% of violent nd pulic-order offenders. An estimted hlf of drug or property offenders were dependent on lcohol or drugs; over fifth reported n use (without dependence) criterion. Percent of jil inmtes Dependence or use Other inmtes 16.5% 71.1% 21.1% % % % % % 72.5% 12.5% % % % % ,054 Hlf of inmtes who met criteri of dependence or use hd fmily memer who hd served time Jil inmtes who met the conditions for sustnce dependence or use (16%) were more likely to hve een homeless in the yer efore their dmission to jil thn other inmtes (9%) (tle 3). They were twice s likely s other inmtes to hve lived in foster home, gency, or institution. An estimted 14% sid they hd lived in foster home, gency, or institution, compred to 7% of other inmtes. Over fifth of jil inmtes who met the criteri for sustnce dependence or use sid they hd een physiclly or sexully used in the pst. An eighth of other jil inmtes reported pst physicl or sexul use. Tle 4. Criminl history of jil inmtes, y sustnce dependence or use, 2002 Chrcteristic Criminl justice sttus t rrest None Any sttus* On prole On protion On il/ond Criminl history No previous sentence Prior sentence Violent recidivists Drug recidivists only Other recidivists Numer of prior protion/ incrcertion sentences or more Percent of jil inmtes Dependence or use 42.5% % % Other inmtes 56.3% % % *Percentges dd to more thn totl ecuse inmtes my hve hd more thn one sttus. Sustnce dependent or using jil inmtes were twice s likely s other jil inmtes to hve hd prent or gurdin who used drugs or lcohol. Aout 2 in 5 jil inmtes who met the criteri for sustnce dependence or use sid prent or gurdin hd used lcohol, drugs, or oth while they were growing up. Among other inmtes, out 1 in 6 sid prent or gurdin used lcohol, drugs, or oth. Inmtes who were dependent on or used lcohol or drugs (50%) were more likely thn other inmtes (38%) to hve hd fmily memer who hd een incrcerted. Twenty-one percent hd fther who hd een incrcerted in the pst, compred to 14% of other inmtes. A third of inmtes who met the conditions for sustnce dependence or use hd rother who hd served time in prison or jil, compred to over fourth of other jil inmtes. 4 Sustnce Dependence, Ause, nd of Jil Inmtes, 2002

5 Prior criminl record linked to sustnce dependence or use Jil inmtes who were dependent on or used lcohol or drugs were more likely to hve hd prior criminl record thn other inmtes. Fifty-seven percent of the sustnce dependent or using inmtes were on some criminl justice sttus t the time of their rrest, including 36% who were on protion (tle 4). Aout 44% of other jil inmtes were on criminl justice sttus t rrest. An estimted 8 in 10 jil inmtes who met the criteri for sustnce dependence or use hd prior sentence to protion or incrcertion, compred to out 6 in 10 other jil inmtes. The sustnce dependent or using inmtes (47%) were lso twice s likely s other inmtes (22%) to hve hd three or more prior protion or incrcertion sentences. use t offense declined etween 1996 nd 2002 In 2002, 40% of ll jil inmtes sid they hd prticipted in inge drinking in the pst, unchnged from Binge drinking is defined s hving consumed fifth of liquor in single dy, or the equivlent of 20 drinks, 3 ottles of wine, or 3 six-pcks of eer. Percent of jil inmtes use Ever use 85.4% 87.9% Regulr use Binge drinking At time of offense c Drnk lcohol t lest once week for month, or drnk dily or t lest once week during the yer efore the offense. Binge drinking mens hving consumed fifth of liquor in single dy, or the equivlent of 20 drinks, 3 ottles of wine, or 3 six-pcks of eer. c Convicted inmtes only. The proportion of convicted inmtes who hd een drinking t the time of the offense declined to 33% in 2002, from 41% in Tle 5. Prior drug use of jil inmtes, y type of drug, 2002 nd 1996 Type of drug Any drug All inmtes Ever Regulrly % 82.4% 68.7% Mrijun or hshish 75.7% 78.2% 58.5% % 36.0% 13.6% 18.0% Cocine or crck Heroin/opites Depressnts c Stimulnts d Hllucinogens e Inhlnts Includes ll inmtes with current conviction or with prior conviction, ut no new conviction for the current chrge. Used drugs t lest once week for t lest month. c Depressnts include riturtes, trnquilizers, nd quludes. d Stimulnts include mphetmines nd methmphetmines. e Hllucinogens include LSD, Ecstsy, nd PCP. Regulr drug use rose etween 1996 nd 2002; use t offense declined While the overll percentge of jil inmtes who reported hving ever used drugs remined stle (82%) etween 1996 nd 2002, regulr drug use rose to 69% in 2002 from 64% in 1996 (tle 5). Regulr use ws defined s drug use t lest once week for t lest month. Among convicted jil inmtes, drug use t the time of the offense dropped to 29% from 35% during tht period. In ech yer, over hlf of convicted jil inmtes sid they hd used drugs in the month efore their offense. There ws little chnge in the types of drugs used etween 1996 nd Mrijun nd cocine/crck cocine were the most common drugs inmtes sid they used regulrly, in the month efore the offense, or t the time of the offense. Aout 59% of ll jil inmtes sid they used mrijun regulrly, up from 55% in In ech yer, the frction of inmtes who sid they regulrly used cocine/crck (31%), heroin/other opites (12%), depressnts (10%), nd stimulnts (17%) ws reltively unchnged. Nerly 14% of convicted jil inmtes hd used mrijun t the time of the offense in 2002, slight decrese from 18% in Eleven percent hd used cocine/crck in 2002, down from 14% in Percent of jil inmtes who used drugs Convicted inmtes In the month efore the offense % 54.6% 54.0% At the time of the offense % 34.9% Women nd white inmtes more likely to hve used drugs t offense Among convicted jil inmtes, there were significnt differences in the type of sustnces used t the time of the offense nd in the sustnces they were dependent on or used. Aout 29% of convicted inmtes sid they hd used drugs t the time of the offense, compred to 33% who reported using lcohol (tle 6). More thn hlf of convicted jil inmtes were dependent on or used drugs, while just under hlf were dependent on or used lcohol. Convicted women offenders were more likely to hve een under the influence of drugs (34%) thn lcohol (22%) t the time of the offense. Over third of convicted men sid they hd used lcohol t the time of the offense, compred to over fourth who hd used drugs. Both mle nd femle jil inmtes were more likely to hve met the conditions for dependence or use of drugs thn lcohol. However, women were significntly more likely to hve met the criteri for dependence or use of drugs (61%) thn lcohol (39%). By contrst, men were only slightly more likely to hve met the criteri for dependence or use of drugs (54%) thn lcohol (50%). Sustnce Dependence, Ause, nd of Jil Inmtes,

6 Among convicted inmtes considered y rce or ethnic origin, white inmtes hd the highest rte of hving used either drugs or lcohol t the time of their most serious offense. Aout 39% of white inmtes hd used lcohol t the time of the offense, followed y 30% of Hispnic nd 29% of lck inmtes. A third of white inmtes nd fourth of lck nd Hispnic inmtes were under the influence of drugs t the time of the offense. White inmtes lso hd the highest prevlence of dependence or use regrdless of the sustnce. Aout 59% of whites, 43% of lcks, nd 42% of Hispnic inmtes were dependent on or used lcohol. The rte of dependence or use for drugs ws 62% for whites, 54% for lcks, nd 45% for Hispnic inmtes. Younger inmtes hd higher rtes of dependence or use of drugs; middle-ge inmtes, of lcohol Older offenders were most likely to hve used lcohol t the time of the offense. Forty percent of inmtes ge 35 or older hd used lcohol t the time of the offense, compred to 33% of inmtes ges nd 24% of inmtes ge 24 or younger. Nerly third of offenders ge 34 or younger hd used drugs t the time of their offense. Only smll portion (6%) of inmtes ge 55 or older hd used drugs when they committed their offense. Fifty-two percent of convicted inmtes ges nd were found to e dependent on or to use lcohol, the lrgest percentge mong ll ge ctegories. Inmtes ge 55 or older hd the lowest rte of lcohol dependence or use (38%), followed y inmtes ges 45-54, t 44%, nd inmtes ge 24 or younger, t 46%. Jil inmtes ge 24 or younger hd the highest rte of drug dependence or use. Aout 61% were dependent on or used drugs, compred to out 56% of jil inmtes ges Similr to lcohol dependence or use, the lowest rte of drug dependence or use (16%) occurred mong inmtes ge 55 or older. Age 24 or younger or older Excludes persons of Hispnic origin Includes Asins, Americn Indins, Alsk Ntives, Ntive Hwiins, other Pcific Islnders, nd inmtes who specified more thn one rce. Most serious offense Totl Property offenses Burglry Lrceny/theft Motor vehicle theft Frud Drug offenses Possession Trfficking 129, , ,680 45,445 8,509 Estimted numer of inmtes 440, ,895 29,767 33,691 9,414 22, ,447 48,823 56, % Over hlf of inmtes convicted of roery, urglry, or drug offenses were under the influence t offense Overll, 50% of convicted jil inmtes reported eing under the influence of lcohol or drugs t the time of the offense (tle 7). Inmtes convicted of roery (56%), wepons violtions Tle 6. Prior lcohol or drug use nd dependence or use mong convicted jil inmtes, y selected chrcteristics, 2002 Chrcteristic All inmtes Gender Mle Femle Estimted numer of inmtes 444, ,809 52,725 Percent of convicted jil inmtes Using t the time Meeting dependence of offense or use criteri Drugs Drugs 33.4% 34.9% 22.2 Rce/Hispnic origin White 168, % 33.2% 58.6% 62.2% Blck 172, Hispnic 80, Other 22, Tle 7. Prior lcohol or drug use t time of offense mong convicted jil inmtes, y type of offense, % Violent offenses 96, % 47.2% Homicide 5, Sexul ssult 13, Roery 18, Assult 50, % % % 28.0% % Used t time of offense Drugs 28.8% 32.5% % % 50.3% % % 54.4% % or drugs 49.7% 46.8% % Pulic-order offenses 83, % 19.5% 37.0% Wepons 9, Other pulic-order c 73, Includes offenses not shown. Includes rpe nd other sexul ssult. c Excludes DWI/DUI. 6 Sustnce Dependence, Ause, nd of Jil Inmtes, 2002

7 (56%), urglry (55%), or motor vehicle theft (55%) were more likely thn inmtes convicted of other types of offenses to hve used sustnce t the time of the offense. The lest likely of ll offenders to hve used lcohol or drugs t offense were those convicted of pulic-order offenses (37%) or frud (39%). Violent offenders were more likely to hve used lcohol t the time of the offense (38%) thn inmtes who committed property (29%), drug (22%), or pulic-order offenses (26%). However, violent offenders were less likely thn other offenders to hve used drugs t the time of the offense. Aout fifth of violent offenders, third of property, nd two-fifths of drug offenders hd used drugs t the time of the offense. Less thn fifth of pulicorder offenders used drugs t offense. Tle 8. Sustnce dependence or use mong convicted jil inmtes, y type of sustnce nd offense, 2002 Most serious offense Totl Violent offenses 96, % 47.9% 66.9% Homicide 5, Sexul ssult 13, Roery 18, Assult 50, Property offenses Burglry Lrceny/theft Motor vehicle theft Frud Drug offenses Possession Trfficking Pulic-order offenses Wepons Other pulic-order DWI/DUI Estimted numer of inmtes 440, ,895 29,767 33,691 9,414 22, ,447 48,823 56,574 83,193 9,218 73,975 35,676 Includes offenses not shown. Includes rpe nd other sexul ssult. 48.9% 48.4% % % % Percent dependent or using Drugs 55.3% 61.8% % % % or drugs 70.9% 72.8% % % % 16% of convicted jil inmtes committed the offense to get money for drugs In 2002, 16% of convicted jil inmtes sid they committed their offense to get money for drugs, slight increse from 15% in Around qurter of property nd drug offenders sid they committed their offense to get money for drugs, compred to under tenth of violent nd pulic-order offenders. Most serious offense Percent of convicted inmtes who committed offense to get money for drugs Totl 16.4% 15.1% Violent Property Drug Pulic-order Percentges hve een revised from those previously pulished. Includes offenses not shown. Between 1996 nd 2002, the proportion of drug, property, nd pulic-order offenders who sid they committed their offense to get money for drugs incresed y two percentge points, while tht of violent offenders ws reltively unchnged. Three-qurters of inmtes in jil for drug or property offenses met dependence or use criteri Seven in ten convicted jil inmtes were found to e dependent on or to use lcohol or drugs, slightly lrger proportion thn the 6 in 10 of the entire jil popultion (tle 8). Overll, sustnce dependence or use ws more prevlent mong convicted drug nd property offenders. Nerly threequrters of inmtes in jil for drug or property offenses met the criteri for sustnce dependence or use, compred to two-thirds of jil inmtes who committed violent or pulic-order offenses. Jil inmtes convicted of urglry hd the highest rte of sustnce dependence or use (85%), followed y DWI/DUI (81%), wepons violtions (79%), nd drug possession (75%). The lowest rte of sustnce dependence or use ws mong inmtes convicted of sexul ssult (50%). Convicted violent offenders were the most likely to e dependent on or using lcohol (52%), followed y property (48%), nd pulic-order (46%) offenders. Drug offenders (40%) were lest likely to e dependent on or to use lcohol. By specific offenses, DWI/DUI offenders were the most likely to hve met the criteri for lcohol dependence or use (78%), followed y inmtes convicted of ssult (58%), urglry (54%), nd roery (53%). Jil inmtes who committed sexul ssult (37%) were the lest likely of the different types of offenders to e dependent on or to use lcohol. The highest percentge of drug dependence or use occurred mong drug offenders, with 67% meeting the conditions for dependence or use. Property offenders were next with 62% hving met the conditions. Specificlly, jil inmtes convicted of urglry (74%), drug possession (71%), nd roery (64%) hd the highest rtes of drug dependence or use. Offenders convicted of homicide (30%) nd sexul ssult (33%) were lest likely to e dependent on or to use drugs. Sustnce Dependence, Ause, nd of Jil Inmtes,

8 6 in 10 sustnce dependent or using inmtes hd prticipted in sustnce tretment or progrms Sixty-three percent of jil inmtes who met the criteri for sustnce dependence or use sid they hd prticipted in sustnce tretment or other lcohol or drug progrms in the pst. Sustnce dependence or use or drugs Drugs Percent of jil inmtes who hd ever prticipted in sustnce use tretment or other progrms 62.6% The most common ctivity mong dependent or using inmtes ws prticiption in lcohol or drug progrms which included self-help progrms (such s ics Anonymous or Nrcotics Anonymous), peer counseling, or eduction or wreness progrms. Forty-six percent of dependent or using inmtes hd prticipted in these progrms, compred to 44% who hd received tretment (tle 9). Sustnce tretment included time spent in residentil fcility or detoxifiction unit, professionl counseling, or use of mintennce drug. Prticiption in sustnce tretment or progrms linked to dependence Jil inmtes who were dependent on lcohol or drugs hd the highest rte of prticiption in sustnce tretment or other lcohol or drug progrms. Over two-thirds of dependent inmtes sid they hd prticipted in tretment or progrms in the pst, compred to over hlf of inmtes who used drugs or lcohol. Tle 9. Sustnce use tretment or progrms mong jil inmtes who met the criteri for sustnce dependence or use, 2002 Type of tretment or progrms Ever in tretment or progrms 67.9% 52.2% 62.6% 50.3% 30.6% 43.7% Other sustnce use progrms Prticipted while under correctionl supervision c 52.8% 36.6% 47.4% 34.9% 19.2% 29.6% In prison/jil On protion/prole In prison/jil On protion/prole Estimted numer of inmtes 275,712 Note: Detil dds to more thn totl ecuse inmtes my hve prticipted in more thn one type of sustnce use tretment or other progrm. is defined s sustnce cre received under the supervision of trined professionl, including tretment in specil residentil fcility, professionl counseling, detoxifiction unit, or use of mintennce drug. included self-help nd eduction/wreness progrms. c Includes inmtes who hd prticipted in tretment or other progrms fter dmission. Dependent inmtes (53%) were more likely to hve prticipted in tretment or progrms while under correctionl supervision thn inmtes who used lcohol or drugs (37%). Over third of dependent inmtes hd received tretment while incrcerted or on protion or prole. Nerly fifth of inmtes who used lcohol or drugs hd received tretment. Forty percent of dependent nd 28% of using inmtes reported they hd prticipted in other lcohol or drug progrms while under correctionl supervision. Regrdless of dignosis of dependence or use, inmtes were more likely to hve received tretment or prticipted in progrm while on protion or prole rther thn in prison or jil. Over 1 in 4 dependent inmtes hd received tretment while in the community, nd 1 in 5 hd tretment while incrcerted. Percent of inmtes meeting criteri for sustnce Dependence Dependence Ause only or use 39.5% % , % ,242 Prticiption in tretment or other progrms while under correctionl supervision rose etween 1996 nd 2002 The lrgest increse in sustnce tretment or other progrms occurred mong inmtes who sid they hd used lcohol or drugs t the time of offense up from 43% in 1996 to 52% in 2002 (tle 10). Among inmtes who hd een using lcohol or drugs in the month efore the offense, the proportion who reported ever hving prticipted in tretment or progrms while under correctionl supervision rose from 39% in 1996 to 47% in Prticiption in tretment or other progrms fter dmission to jil lso incresed mong ll prior lcohol or drug users. In 2002, 20% of convicted inmtes who were under the influence of lcohol or drugs t the time of the offense hd prticipted in tretment/ progrms fter entering jil, up from 17% in In ech yer, prticiption in self-help progrms (13%) ws the most common ctivity, followed y eduction progrms (over 5%). 8 Sustnce Dependence, Ause, nd of Jil Inmtes, 2002

9 The rte of prticiption in tretment or progrms since entering jil for convicted inmtes who used lcohol or drugs in the month efore the offense rose to 17% in 2002, up from 14% in specificlly rose from 4% to 6% etween 1996 to 2002, nd prticiption in other progrms grew from 13% to 14%, respectively. 1 in 6 inmtes using lcohol t the time of the offense prticipted in tretment/progrms fter dmission In 2002 n estimted 17% of jil inmtes who ever prticipted in inge drinking nd inmtes who met the criteri for lcohol dependence or use hd received tretment or prticipted in other progrms fter dmission to jil (tle 11). Around 16% of inmtes using lcohol t the time of the offense hd prticipted in tretment or progrms fter dmission. The level of prticiption in specific types of sustnce use tretment or progrms vried little mong inmtes who were dependent on or used lcohol, who hd used lcohol t the time of the offense, or who reported ever hving inge drinking experience. Three percent of inmtes in ech ctegory hd received tretment in specil fcility fter dmission. Between 2% nd 3% hd lso received professionl counseling nd 1% hd een in detoxifiction unit. Twelve percent of inmtes who reported inge drinking hd prticipted in self-help or peer counseling, followed y 11% of inmtes who met the criteri for lcohol dependence or use, nd 10% of inmtes who were using lcohol t the time of the offense. Around 5% of ech group hd prticipted in lcohol use eduction or wreness progrms. 1 in 5 inmtes who used drugs t time of the offense prticipted in tretment or progrms fter dmission A fifth of convicted jil inmtes who reported drug use t the time of their offense hd prticipted in tretment or progrms fter dmission to jil, lrger proportion thn ny other group Self-help group or peer counseling Eduction Estimted numer of inmtes Type of lcohol tretment or progrms fter dmission Any lcohol tretment or progrm Residentil fcility or unit Professionl counseling Detoxifiction unit Self-help group or peer counseling Eduction Estimted numer of inmtes ,730 Convicted inmtes 10.9% 3.6% % , ,580 of drug users (tle 12). Aout 14% of convicted inmtes who reported pst drug use ever, 17% of those who used drugs in the month efore the offense, nd 18% of inmtes who met the conditions for drug dependence or use hd received tretment or prticipted in other progrms fter entering jil. Tle 10. Sustnce tretment or progrms under correctionl supervision mong convicted jil inmtes who used lcohol or drugs, 2002 nd 1996 Type of tretment or progrms Ever under correctionl supervision Prticipted fter dmission Residentil fcility or unit Counseling y professionl Detoxifiction unit Percent of convicted inmtes reporting prior sustnce use In the month At the time of Ever regulrly efore the offense the offense % 17.3% 6.2% % 38.8% 14.4% 4.2% % Note: Detil dds to more thn totl ecuse inmtes my hve prticipted in more thn one type of sustnce use tretment or other progrm. Tle 11. tretment or progrms following dmission of convicted inmtes who used lcohol or met lcohol dependence or use criteri, 2002 Ever inge drinking* Prior lcohol use 17.4% 5.9% % , % 16.9% 6.0% % , % 14.4% 4.2% % ,787 Using lcohol t offense 16.4% 5.9% % , % 19.9% 7.5% % ,014 dependence or use 16.8% 5.6% % ,535 *Binge drinking is defined s hving consumed s much s fifth of liquor in single dy, equivlent to 20 drinks, 3 ottles of wine, or s mny s 3 six-pcks of eer. 43.0% 17.0% 5.3% % ,103 Sustnce Dependence, Ause, nd of Jil Inmtes,

10 Self-help or peer group counseling nd plcement in residentil unit or specil fcility were the most common types of ctivities. More thn 11% of convicted inmtes who hd used drugs in the month efore the offense, t the time of the offense, or met the drug dependence or use criteri hd prticipted in self-help or peer group counseling progrms. Type of drug tretment or progrms fter dmission Any drug tretment or progrm Residentil fcility or unit Professionl counseling Detoxifiction unit Mintennce drug Self-help group or peer counseling Eduction Estimted numer of inmtes Ever in the pst 13.8% 5.1% % ,348 Around 9% of convicted inmtes who used drugs t the time of the offense hd received tretment in specil unit or residentil fcility since entering jil. Nerly 7% of inmtes who reported drug use in the month efore the offense nd those dependent on or using drugs hd tretment in specil unit or fcility. Tle 12. Drug tretment or progrms fter dmission mong convicted jil inmtes who used drugs or met drug dependence or use criteri, 2002 Ever while in prison or jil Ever while on protion or prole Estimted numer of inmtes ,646 Prior drug use In the month efore offense 17.5% 6.5% % , ,873 At the time of offense % 8.4% % , , ,710 Drug dependence or use 17.9% 6.9% % ,485 Tle 13. Sustnce tretment or progrms ever or under correctionl supervision mong convicted jil inmtes who met sustnce dependence or use criteri, y gender nd rce, 2002 Type of tretment or progrms Ever in tretment or progrm Prticipted while under correctionl supervision After dmission Percent of sustnce dependent or using inmtes Mle Femle White Blck Hispnic 63.9% % % % % % % % % % ,004 Sustnce dependent or using women, whites more likely to prticipte in tretment or progrms Femle inmtes (68%) who met the criteri for sustnce dependence or use were more likely thn mle inmtes (64%) to hve ever received ny type of sustnce tretment or progrm (tle 13). This pttern continued cross ll types of tretment or progrms. Fifty-three percent of women who met sustnce dependence or use criteri hd received some type of tretment, compred to 44% of men. 8 in 10 convicted jil inmtes were involved with drugs/lcohol in 2002 $ In the comprle dt for 1996 nd 2002, three-qurters of convicted jil inmtes were involved with drugs or lcohol. When sustnce dependence or use nd positive drug test results were included in 2002, 85% of convicted jil inmtes were found to e drug/lcohol-involved. lcohol 2002 Any current drug offense 31.0% Any current DWI/DUI 9.7 /drug use t offense 49.7 Ever commit crime to get money for drugs Drug use in month efore offense Dily use of lcohol in yer efore dmission Drug/lcohol-involved Positive drug test t rrest or fter dmission* Aused drugs or lcohol Dependent on drugs or lcohol Percent of convicted jil inmtes involved with drugs/ % % % Drug/lcohol-involved 84.7% -- Note: Percentges dd to more thn 100% ecuse inmtes my hve hd more thn one type of involvement. /Not reported. --Not clculted. *Bsed on inmtes tested for drugs only. / / / 10 Sustnce Dependence, Ause, nd of Jil Inmtes, 2002

11 White jil inmtes (72%) who were found to e dependent on or to use lcohol or drugs hd the highest rte of prticiption in tretment or other progrms, followed y 58% of oth lcks nd Hispnics. Four in ten white inmtes who met the conditions for dependence or use hd received tretment under correctionl supervision, compred to fewer thn 3 in 10 lck nd Hispnic inmtes. White inmtes (23%) were lso nerly twice s likely s Hispnic inmtes (12%) to hve received tretment in prison or jil. Forty-five percent of white inmtes who met the criteri for sustnce dependence or use hd prticipted in other lcohol or drug progrms while under correctionl supervision, compred to 37% of Hispnics nd 32% of lck inmtes who met the criteri. White inmtes lso hd the highest level of prticiption in other progrms since entering jil C whites (18%), lcks (13%), nd Hispnics (13%). Methodology The findings in this report re sed on informtion in the Survey of Inmtes in Locl Jils (SILJ), conducted from Jnury through April, SILJ ws strtified two-stge smple survey in which jils were selected t the first stge nd inmtes to e interviewed t the second stge. The jils were selected from universe of 3,365 jils nd grouped into 6 strt sed on the size of the mle, femle, nd juvenile (oth mle nd femle) popultions. Ech jil within strtum hd n equl proility of selection. Overll, 465 jils were selected, nd interviews were held in 417 jils; 39 jils refused or were excluded for dministrtive resons; nd 9 were closed or hd no inmtes. In the second smpling stge, interviewers from the Census Bureu visited ech selected fcility nd systemticlly selected smple of mle nd femle inmtes. A totl of 6,982 inmtes were interviewed, using computer-ssisted personl interviewing (CAPI). A totl of 768 inmtes refused to prticipte, for second stge nonresponse of 9.9%. Bsed on the completed interviews, estimtes for the entire jil popultion were developed using weighting fctors derived from the originl proility of selection in the smple. These fctors were djusted for vrile rtes of nonresponse cross strt nd inmte chrcteristics. Further djustments were mde to control the survey estimtes to counts of jil inmtes otined from the 1999 Census of Jils nd the 2001 Annul Survey of Jils. The ccurcy of the jil inmtes survey depends on smpling nd mesurement errors. Smpling errors occur y chnce ecuse smple rther thn complete enumertion of the popultion ws conducted. Mesurement error cn e ttriuted to mny sources, such s nonresponse, recll difficulties, differences in the interprettion of questions mong inmtes, nd dt processing errors. The smpling error, s mesured y n estimted stndrd error, vries y the size of the estimte nd the size of the se popultion. Estimtes of the stndrd errors for selected chrcteristics hve een clculted for the 2002 Survey. Stndrd error tles re ville on the BJS wesite <www.ojp.usdoj.gov/js/strct/ sdtji02.htm>. These stndrd errors my e used to construct confidence intervls round percentges. For exmple, the 95% confidence intervl round the percentge of inmtes in 2002 who were dependent on or used lcohol or drugs is pproximtely 68% plus or minus 1.96 times.72% (or 66.6% to 69.4%). References Allen, John P., nd Veronic B. Wilson, eds., Assessing Prolems: A Guide for Clinicins nd Reserchers, 2nd ed., U. S. Deprtment of Helth nd Humn Services, Ntionl Institutes of Helth, Ntionl Institute on, Ause nd ism, revised 2003, Bethesd, Mrylnd. Americn Psychologicl Assocition, Dignostic nd Sttisticl Mnul of Mentl Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), Compton, Wilson M., nd others, "Prevlence of Mrijun Use Disorders in the United Sttes, nd ," Journl of the Americn Medicl Assocition, My 5, 2002, vol. 291, no.17. In this report, the definition of convicted jil inmte differs from other previously pulished reports. Trend comprisons etween dt in this report nd reports sed on dt from previous jil inmte surveys (or the Annul Survey of Jils) re ffected y the revised definition of convicted nd unconvicted inmtes. Other revisions to the questionnire will lso ffect comprisons cross surveys. U.S. Deprtment of Helth nd Humn Services, Ntionl Survey on Drug Use nd Helth, 2002, Sustnce Ause nd Mentl Helth Services Administrtion, Office of Applied Studies, Rockville, Mrylnd. U.S. Deprtment of Helth nd Humn Services, Ntionl Epidemiologicl Survey on nd Relted Conditions, 2002, Ntionl Institutes of Helth, Ntionl Institute on Ause nd ism, Bethesd, Mrylnd. Sustnce Dependence, Ause, nd of Jil Inmtes,

12 U.S. Deprtment of Justice Office of Justice Progrms Bureu of Justice Sttistics *NCJ * Wshington, DC Officil Business Penlty for Privte Use $300 The 2002 SILJ is the first BJS survey to mesure the prevlence of sustnce dependence or use in the correctionl popultion sed on the DSM-IV. These estimtes re not comprle to findings reported from previous jil inmte surveys. Other ntionl surveys tht used the DSM-IV to mesure sustnce use nd dependence in the generl popultion include the Ntionl Epidemiologicl Survey of nd Relted Conditions, 2002, (NESARC), sponsored y the Ntionl Institute on Ause nd ism, nd the Ntionl Survey on Drug Use nd Helth, 2002, (NSDUH), SAMSHA. The Bureu of Justice Sttistics is the sttisticl gency of the U.S. Deprtment of Justice. Lwrence A. Greenfeld is director. Jennifer C. Krerg nd Doris J. Jmes wrote this report, under the supervision of Allen J. Beck. Lur M. Mruschk nd Todd D. Minton verified the report, nd Reecc Medwy provided sttisticl ssistnce. Tom Hester edited it, ssisted y Tin Dorsey. Doris J. Jmes, under the supervision of Allen J. Beck, designed the survey, developed the questionnire, nd monitored dt collection, dt processing, nd production of weights. Stephen M. Bittner nd Tmmy Anderson, Demogrphic Surveys Division, Census Bureu, U.S. Deprtment of Commerce, crried out questionnire design nd monitored dt collection nd processing under the supervision of Mrilyn M. Monhn nd Gertrude Odom. Bridget F. Grnt, Ph.D., ssisted BJS in the development of the inmte survey questions ssocited with the DSM-IV criteri for mesuring dependence or use. Dr. Grnt is Chief of Lortory of Epidemiology nd Biometry, Division of Intrmurl Clinicl nd Biologicl Reserch, Ntionl Institute on Ause nd ism, Ntionl Institutes of Helth, Deprtment of Helth nd Humn Services. July 2005, NCJ Office of Justice Progrms Prtnerships for Sfer Communities 12 Sustnce Dependence, Ause, nd of Jil Inmtes, 2002

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