High Availability Architectures For Linux on IBM System z

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1 High Availability Architcturs For Linux on IBM Systm z March 31, 2006 High Availability Architcturs for Linux on IBM Systm z 1

2 Contnts Abstract...3 Introduction. Dfinition of High Availability...4 Chaptr 1: Introduction to High Availability ith z/vm and LPARs...4 Chaptr 2: Scnarios...9 Chaptr 3: Rfrnc Architctur: Non-WbSphr application...10 Scnario Bing Solvd...10 Architctur Principls...10 Rfrnc Architctur...10 st Exampl: Tivoli Systm Automation...11 Scond Exampl: Linux Virtual and Linux-HA...14 Chaptr 4: Rfrnc Architctur: WbSphr ith DB2 databas on Linux...17 Scnario Bing Solvd...17 Architctur Principls...17 Rfrnc Architctur...18 Architctural Dcisions...22 Ky problm aras...24 Solution stimating guidlins...24 Chaptr 5: Rfrnc Architctur: WbSphr ith Oracl databas on Linux...24 Scnario Bing Solvd...24 Architctur Principls...24 Rfrnc Architctur...25 Architctural Dcisions...27 Ky problm aras...27 Solution stimating guidlins...28 Chaptr 6: Rfrnc Architctur: WbSphr ith DB2 databas on z/os...28 Scnario Bing Solvd...28 Architctur Principls...28 Rfrnc Architctur...29 Architctural Dcisions...35 Solution stimating guidlins...37 Chaptr 7: Rfrnc Architctur: WbSphr ith DB2 databas on z/os, in sparat citis. (GDPS /PPRC Multiplatform Rsilincy for Systm z ith HyprSap Managr)...37 Scnario Bing Solvd...37 Architctur Principls...38 Rfrnc Architctur...39 Architctural Dcisions...42 Altrnativs Considrd: Activ - Passiv dploymnt...43 Ky rstrictions or problm aras...45 Solution stimating guidlins...45 Appndix 1: Rfrncs...46 Appndix 2: Lgal Statmnt...47 High Availability Architcturs for Linux on IBM Systm z 2

3 Authors Stv Whr IBM Systm z N Tchnology Cntr Scott Lovland IBM Systm z Linux Intgration Tst Harrit Morril High Availability Cntr of Comptnc Scott Eptr High Availability Cntr of Comptnc Abstract This papr combins th fforts and talnts of th IBM Systm z N Tchnology Cntr, th High Availability Cntr of Comptnc, and Linux on Systm z Intgration Tst to produc a st of rfrnc architcturs that provid High Availability for applications running on Linux for Systm z. This papr focuss on thos architcturs that covr th folloing scnarios: Whr th application runs on Linux virtual srvrs undr z/vm. Th databas may b on Linux for Systm z or on z/os. Of highst intrst to our customrs. Uniqu to Systm z. Not covrd ar scnarios and architcturs that hav alrady bn documntd on othr distributd platforms. WbSphr HA has bn xtnsivly covrd in many documnts. Although our architcturs ill us HA faturs of WbSphr, ill not concntrat on documnting WbSphr. (Plas s th rfrncs sction for mor WbSphr HA documntation). Rathr, ill concntrat on th HA aspcts of th databas srvrs that WbSphr applications ould us and ho Systm z HA faturs can bnfit databas srvrs. Hav not bn documntd bfor on Systm z. This papr dos not covr: All th dtails ncssary to implmnt th rfrnc architcturs. For thos dtails, plas rfr to Systm z Platform Tst Rport for z/os and Linux Virtual s rittn by th IBM Poughkpsi Tst and Intgration Cntr for Linux. HA ntorking considrations. W covr th major componnts and flo btn thm. W hav not covrd ho to crat a highly availabl ntork. Ho to HA-nabl your storag subsystm. High Availability Architcturs for Linux on IBM Systm z 3

4 Introduction. Dfinition of High Availability For th purpos of this papr, hav adoptd th dfinition usd by th HA Cntr of Comptnc in Poughkpsi, NY. High Availability Dsignd to provid srvic during dfind priods, at accptabl or agrd upon lvls, and masks unplannd outags from nd-usrs. It mploys Fault Tolranc; Automatd Failur Dtction, Rcovry, Bypass Rconfiguration, Tsting, Problm and Chang Managmnt Continuous Oprations (CO) -- Dsignd to continuously oprat and mask plannd outags from nd-usrs. It mploys non-disruptiv hardar and softar changs, non-disruptiv configuration, and softar coxistnc. Continuous Availability (CA) Dsignd to dlivr non-disruptiv srvic to th nd usr 7 days a k, 24 hours a day (thr ar no plannd or unplannd outags). Our architcturs striv to provid Continuous Availability. Not that in som architcturs this is not possibl du to dlays in th automatd rcovry of som systm componnts. Ths dlays can b long nough to caus usr transactions to fail and hav to b r-ntrd. Chaptr 1: Introduction to High Availability ith z/vm and LPARs Whn Linux runs on distributd architcturs it is oftn running dirctly on th hardar of a singl srvr. Although psris srvrs can no hav logical partitions, thir virtualization capabilitis ar not as xtnsiv as Systm z, hr z/vm os systm rsourcs to b dynamicy shard. Linux on Systm z is alays running in a logical partition (LPAR). So hav introducd to n layrs btn Linux and th hardar, namly z/vm and LPAR. Ths layrs play prominntly in th availability of your applications, bcaus thy provid srvics that th Linux systms us. Whr ar th Singl Points of Failur (SPoFs)? Considr an xampl hr a Systm z srvr has svral LPARs running z/os, and on LPAR running z/vm to host Linux gusts. You hav instd an application on a singl Linux srvr. Whr ar th points of failur? Thr ar svral: Th Systm z hardar could xprinc multipl unrcovrabl failurs, causing th ntir srvr to fail. Th disk subsystm could fail. Not that this papr dos not includ any information on HAnabling th disk subsystm. Th LPAR microcod could fail. z/vm could fail. Linux could fail. Application A could fail. Th odds of ach failur ar diffrnt. In this cas, th probability of an application failur is highst, hil th probability of th Systm z hardar failur is lost. Th othrs f on a continuum btn thos xtrms. High Availability Architcturs for Linux on IBM Systm z 4

5 So ho do liminat ths singl points of failur? An asy and ffctiv mthod is to liminat thm by duplicating thm. Duplicating th application is usuy asy, but duplicating th Systm z hardar can b xpnsiv, ith th cost and difficulty of th othrs fing on a continuum btn ths xtrms. Th folloing tabl summarizs ths points: Singl Point of Failur Probability of Failur Cost to fix SPoF Systm z hardar Vry Lo High Disk Subsystm Vry Lo Mdium LPAR Vry Lo Lo z/vm Lo Lo Linux Lo Vry Lo Application High Vry Lo Bsids hardar and softar failurs, th folloing can also caus dontim for th application: Systm z hardar upgrads rquiring Por On Rst POR LPAR configuration changs rquiring rboot of th LPAR z/vm maintnanc Linux krnl maintnanc that rquirs rboot Application maintnanc Thr ar no probabilitis that can b assignd to ths sinc thy ar dirctly undr th control of th customr. Th customr s policis ill dictat ho oftn ths ill occur. In ordr of incrasing availability, th folloing xampls xamin som possibl architcturs and thir singl points of failur. Exampl 1: High Availability not ndd In this xampl, an application is instd on a singl Linux srvr that runs undr z/vm. Th SPoFs for th application ar: Systm z hardar LPAR z/vm Linux Application zsris Systm A z/vm running in LPAR 1 Dmgr DB2 Each sm box rprsnts a virtual Linux srvr running as a gust of z/vm, in a singl z/vm LPAR High Availability Architcturs for Linux on IBM Systm z 5

6 Th most likly to fail is th application. Whn this happns, th application can b rstartd and rcovry tim ill b a f minuts. Or prhaps Linux has to b rbootd and rcovr tim could b around 5 minuts. Rcovry rquirs that som manual or automatic mthod b implmntd to dtct th failur and initiat rcovry. If this rcovry tim is sufficint thn thr is nothing mor that nds to b don. If not thn highr availability is ndd. Exampl 2: Modrat Availability Ndd In this xampl, th application is instd on multipl Linux srvrs that run undr z/vm. Th SPoFs for th application ar rducd to: Systm z hardar LPAR z/vm zsris Systm A z/vm running in LPAR 1 Dmgr DB2 (Pri) DB2 (Bkup) WbSphr Clustr Each sm box rprsnts a virtual Linux srvr running as a gust of z/vm, in a singl z/vm LPAR. By simply rplicating th application across to or mor Linux srvrs, hav rmovd th most likly points of failurs. Workload is distributd to th duplicatd srvrs so that a failur in any srvr still lavs anothr srvr availabl to procss th orkload. A failur in any Linux srvr still os th application to run ith th full rsourcs availabl to it bfor on th rmaining virtual srvrs. This fatur is uniqu to Linux on Systm z. Bcaus of th CPU and mmory is shard among th Linux srvrs undr z/vm, a failur of on Linux srvr or application frs up its mmory and CPU for us by othr Linux srvrs. For xampl, if th to srvrs ar both 80% CPU utilizd (using 80% of on CPU), thn if on of thm fails th othr can incras it s CPU utilization to 80% of to CPUs. This os th rmaining srvr to procss th full orkload immdiatly, ithout having to rconfigur th srvr. This is vry diffrnt from failovr scnarios in distributd architcturs, hr ach srvr must b sizd to handl significantly mor than its on orkload so that th srvr can hav th capacity to handl additional orkload if anothr srvr fails. High Availability Architcturs for Linux on IBM Systm z 6

7 Why us only to WbSphr srvrs? On Systm z thr is usuy littl rason to us mor than to production srvrs in a WbSphr clustr. Usuy th ntir orkload can b accomplishd ith on srvr; th scond is addd only for failovr. In Linux on Systm z, adding mor virtual srvrs dos not add any mor procssing rsourcs (CPU, mmory) to th application, but instad maks z/vm ork hardr to run of th production srvrs in mmory simultanously. For ths rasons rcommnd only to production srvrs. Som bottlncks do xist that can b lssnd by duplicating th WbSphr application srvr. Application s can b clond ithr horizonty (on anothr Linux srvr) or vrticy (on th sam Linux srvr). Bottlncks that can b hlpd by this includ: Not nough JVM hap to run th application at th dsird orkload Not nough connctions in th connction pool Anothr considration for running to WbSphr srvrs is that if on is unavailabl du to ithr a plannd or unplannd outag, you hav only on srvr lft to handl th ntir orkload. This is usuy not a problm on Linux on Systm z bcaus of th rsourcs (CPU and mmory) that r availabl to both srvrs bfor th failur ar no availabl to th rmaining srvr. This dos lav you ith a singl point of failur, hovr, during th tim hn on of th srvrs is unavailabl. For ths rasons, it is rcommndd that you us thr srvrs instad of to hn highr availability is rquird. Exampl 3: High Availability Ndd In this xampl th application is instd on multipl Linux srvrs that run undr multipl z/vm systms on multipl LPARs. Th SPoFs for th application ar rducd to: Systm z hardar zsris Systm A z/vm running in LPAR 1 Dmgr DB2 (Pri) DB2 (Bkup) z/vm running in LPAR 2 WbSphr Clustr W hav liminatd most of th SPoFs by crating a scond LPAR that ill run z/vm and Linux gusts. Th application is instd on Linux srvrs in ach LPAR. Th cost for doing this is still lo, sinc both LPARs ill shar th sam IFLs, and th ral mmory can b split btn th to LPARs. High Availability Architcturs for Linux on IBM Systm z 7

8 A failur in th application, th Linux srvr, VM, or LPAR still os th application to run on th rmaining virtual srvrs ith th full rsourcs availabl to it bfor th failur. Should on srvr, VM, or LPAR fail, th othr LPAR can us of th IFLs that r bing shard by both. Bcaus you ar running th sam softar on th sam numbr of IFLs, softar costs do not incras. For ths rasons, this is on of th most cost-ffctiv High Availability architcturs for Linux on Systm z. Exampl 4: Continuous Availability Ndd In this xampl, th application is instd on multipl Linux srvrs that run undr multipl z/vm systms on multipl LPARs on multipl Systm z srvrs. No SPoFs for th application rmain. zsris Systm A z/vm running in LPAR 1 on Systm A Dmgr DB2 (Pri) zsris Systm B DB2 (Bkup) z/vm running in LPAR 2 on Systm B WbSphr Clustr W hav liminatd th SPoFs by using a scond Systm z srvr (Systm B) to host our scond LPAR that ill run z/vm and Linux gusts. Th application is instd on Linux srvrs in ach LPAR. During normal oprations, ach LPAR rcivs 50% of th orkload of th application. Hovr, th cost of adding a scond Systm z srvr is to run 100% of th orkload should th othr srvr fail. Softar costs incras bcaus of this. It is mor cost-ffctiv to run a Systm z LPAR nar 100% CPU utilization. But th abov architctur ould run ach LPAR narr to 50% utilization, so that it has xtra capacity in cas of a failur of th othr LPAR. Som altrnativs to bring th utilization narr to 100%: Configur fr IFLs than ar ndd to run 100% of th orkload in th LPAR. Configur othr IFLs as standby IFLs that can b brought onlin quickly ith Capacity Upgrad on Dmand. Whn xtra capacity is ndd: 1. Th standby IFLs ar dfind as activ to th LPAR. 2. VM varis th n IFLs onlin. This procss is non-disruptiv and can b automatd or compltd manuy in a f minuts. High Availability Architcturs for Linux on IBM Systm z 8

9 Run othr lor-priority ork in ach LPAR. Configur th Linux gusts so that thos running th WbSphr orkload hav a highr priority than thos running th othr ork. If a failovr occurs VM ill giv th systm s CPU and mmory to th WbSphr gusts and ithhold CPU and mmory from th othr orkloads. Summary Exampls 2-4, and of th rfrnc architcturs in this papr, us clustrs containing to mmbrs. You can alays choos to instad crat a clustr of thr srvrs. In our xampls that us on srvr typ pr LPAR, you could instad dfin thr LPARs. Th advantag of a thrmmbr clustr ovr a to-mmbr clustr is that should on clustr mmbr fail, you still rtain a clustr of to mmbrs, and a good dgr of High Availability. With a to-mmbr clustr, if on mmbr fails thn you ar no running in non-ha mod on th singl rmaining mmbr, until th faild clustr mmbr can b brought back onlin. Whn th absolut highst lvls of availability must b maintaind at tims, it is rcommndd to us a clustr of thr LPARs. Othris a clustr of to LPARs is sufficint. Th abov xamplsction Exampl 3: High Availability Ndd,shos th most cost-ffctiv solution for architcting LPARs and VM for High Availability. Th folloing is rcommndd: Us a singl Systm z srvr so that your z/vm and Linux LPARs can shar th sam IFLs. Us to LPARs to run your production orkload. Crat clustrs of applications split btn Linux srvrs running in ach LPAR. Run your tst and dvlopmnt Linux srvrs ithr in: o Thir on LPAR. You can us th folloing LPAR ights as starting valus: Production1: 35% Production2: 35% Tst/Dv: 30% o On of th to production LPARs. Giv that LPAR mor rsourcs than th othr production LPAR. You must nsur that th production gusts hav priority in gtting systm rsourcs. You can us th folloing z/vm SHARE valus as starting valus for th Linux gusts: Production gusts: SHARE 400 rlativ limitsoft Tst gusts: SHARE 200 rlativ limitsoft Dvlopmnt gusts: SHARE 100 rlativ limitsoft Chaptr 2: Scnarios Th rfrnc architcturs in this documnt addrss fiv typical customr scnarios. Each scnario builds on th last, incrasing in complxity. Not that most of ths scnarios concntrat on hr th data is. W hav chosn to concntrat on such scnarios bcaus: A ky strngth of Systm z is its ability to b a highly-availabl databas srvr. High Availability in distributd WbSphr applications is ll documntd alrady, but a nd xists for architcturs hr WbSphr on z/linux is using DB2 on z/os. For scnarios, our goal is to provid a rfrnc architctur that: Is rapidly scalabl to support incrass or dcrass in businss volum. Many tims this can b accomplishd simply by bringing mor IFLs onlin to th xisting architctur. Provids nar-instantanous failovr, ith almost no loss of usr transactions. High Availability Architcturs for Linux on IBM Systm z 9

10 Scnario: A non-wbsphr application You hav a critical application that runs on Linux on Systm z. This application dos not us WbSphr or any databas. Th application may hav bn rittn by th customr, bought from an ISV, or b a srvr that is part of Linux, but it has no HA faturs itslf. Scnario: WbSphr ith DB2 databas on Linux You hav a critical WbSphr application that runs on Linux on Systm z. Th primary databas for this application is DB2 UDB also running on Linux on Systm z. Th databas fils ar on SCSI disks. Scnario: WbSphr ith Oracl databas on Linux You hav a critical WbSphr application that runs on Linux on Systm z. Th primary databas for this application is Oracl also running on Linux on Systm z. Th databas fils ar on Extndd Count Ky Data (ECKD) disks. Scnario: WbSphr ith DB2 databas on z/os You hav a critical WbSphr application that runs on Linux on Systm z. Th primary databas for this application is DB2 running on z/os. Som of th application logic runs as DB2 stord procdurs. Scnario: WbSphr ith DB2 databas on z/os, in sparat sits You hav svral critical WbSphr applications that run on Linux on Systm z. Th primary databas for ths applications is DB2 running on z/os. You also nd to nsur that if an ntir data cntr is lost, anothr data cntr in a sparat sit can assum th ork of th first data cntr. Chaptr 3: Rfrnc Architctur: Non-WbSphr application Scnario Bing Solvd You hav a ky application that runs in Linux on Systm z in a Non-WbSphr nvironmnt and dos not rquir a databas. This could b a homgron application. Architctur Principls This architctur is dsignd to follo ths principls: Softar is gnry considrd lss rliabl than hardar. Th Systm z hardar contains rdundant componnts, making its MTBF (Man Tim Btn Failur) in th rang of yars. Bcaus th Systm z hardar is so rliabl, o th Systm z srvr to b a singl point of failur in this architctur. W duplicat th softar nvironmnts (LPAR, VM, s, and Linux) so that non of thm is a singl point of failur. Any failur ill not b noticabl to th usr. Th currnt transaction may fail, but subsqunt transactions succd. Aftr any singl failur, transactions continu at th sam rat ith no dgradation in throughput or rspons tim. Th bas architctur anticipats a lo nough volum that it can b managd by a singl srvr, but can scal if ncssary to support incrass and dcrass in businss volum. Rfrnc Architctur Th xampl scnario hr ill us an srvr as th xampl application. W ill us a Srvic IP for availability purposs. A Srvic IP addrss is a singl IP addrss by hich th High Availability Architcturs for Linux on IBM Systm z 10

11 srvr is knon to th outsid orld. In th vnt of a failovr, this IP addrss must b rassignd to th n srvr. This choic offrs th folloing bnfits as an xampl: srving is a common application for Linux, yt is lightight nough that anothr application could b asily substitutd. Th us of a Srvic IP not only illustrats solid availability, it also rprsnts an additional rquird rsourc for th xampl. Evn th simplst of b-srving arrangmnts rquirs at last on additional rsourc for dynamic contnt. Dmonstrating th failovr considrations affordd by a Srvic IP ill provid a multi-rsourc xampl that can gnraliz to othr xampls rquiring multipl rsourcs. Bcaus this architctur is th simplst xampl in this documnt, ill dmonstrat to diffrnt approachs to achiving high availability ith an srvr and Srvic IP: Using IBM Tivoli Systm Automation for Multiplatforms (SA): SA os th abstraction of rsourcs in rsourc groups and has a porful, policy-basd mchanism for asily dfining dpndncis among rsourc-group lmnts. It is an appropriat choic for simplicity of srvic, as it is a fully-supportd IBM product. Not that th SA xampl ill dmonstrat th us of a cold standby srvr and is thus not continuously availabl. In a failovr vnt, thr ill b som dontim associatd ith bringing up th backup srvr. Using Opn Sourc packags, namly Linux-HA and Linux Virtual (LVS): This approach os th cration of a load-balancing clustr of srvr nods. Th Srvic IP in this cas is associatd ith an LVS Dirctor instanc, hich sprays incoming rqusts ovr multipl instancs. Bcaus th srvr instancs ar clustrd, on srvr going don ill simply caus it to b fncd from th clustr. Th LVS Dirctor ill not rout any rqusts to it. Not that th LVS Dirctor in this cas is a singl point of failur. W st up a scond LVS Dirctor as a standby, and us Linux-HA (also knon as Hartbat ) btn th to LVS Dirctors. Th scondary LVS Dirctor can b liv, and thus failovr tims ould b considrd ithin an accptabl tolranc for continuous availability of th systm. Not that this xampl uss a mix of opn sourc applications from IBM and non-ibm projcts and could thus rprsnt additional srvic ovrhad. IBM Support for Linux-HA is availabl. IBM Support is not availabl for Linux Virtual. Not also that WbSphr Edg Componnts provid ssntiy th sam function as LVS. Th Edg Componnts Load Balancr can b configurd ith a hot standby. S Chaptr 4: Rfrnc Architctur: WbSphr ith DB2 Databas on Linux in this documnt for mor information about WbSphr Edg Componnts. st Exampl: Tivoli Systm Automation In this architctur, th and Srvic IP ar dfind as virtual rsourcs in a SA rsourc group. Th Srvic IP acts as a floating IP addrss. Its valu rmains fixd vn if th Linux instanc to hich it points changs (such as through a failovr). A Srvic IP is a singl virtual IP addrss by hich th currntly-activ is knon to th routr. Th concpt of a Srvic IP is not spcific to SA, but SA can vi a Srvic IP addrss as a virtual rsourc in a SA rsourc group. SA ill handl th managmnt of a Srvic IP by assigning th IP to th propr machin as ndd. For xampl, th failur of th currntly-activ ill caus SA to assign th Srvic IP to th assignd backup. Th dpnds on th Srvic IP for th addrss by hich th routr knos th srvr. Th and Srvic IP instanc ar ach knon as rsourcs in th SA Rsourc Group as shon in th diagram blo. Th 1,2 dsignation undr ach of th rsourcs is a nodlist that dsignats th nods on hich th rsourc can xist. Th strict Dpnds On rlationship btn High Availability Architcturs for Linux on IBM Systm z 11

12 th rsourcs ill caus SA to nforc collocation of th rsourcs. SA also supports a Dpnds on Any rlationship, in hich rsourcs in a rsourc group can b locatd on sparat nods. Th Dpnds On rlationship also nforcs a startup ordr btn th to rsourcs. A Srvic IP instanc must point to a nod bfor an can b startd on that nod. If ithr instanc gos don, th Srvic IP ill b assignd to th backup nod, and thn th ill b startd on th backup nod. Th nodlist as mntiond abov rfrs to th to Linux instancs that can run th rsourcs managd by SA. Ths instancs must b stup as mmbrs of an IBM Rliabl Scalabl Clustr Tchnology (RSCT) clustr. RSCT is an IBM softar packag that provids clustr monitoring and managmnt srvics. SA instation includs instation of th RSCT packag. RSCT provids th undrlying rsourc monitoring (hartbating) that SA uss to kp track of th stat of nods in th clustr. Aftr th clustr is stablishd, command-lin commands ar issud to manag th rsourcs undr SA. SA Rsourc Group Dpnds On Srvic IP brg 1,2 1,2 By virtu of this rlationship SA ill manag th IP addrss, associating it ith th scondary srvr if anything gos rong ith th primary srvr, ithr th srvr application, th Linux O/S, or zvm. Aftr th IP addrss has bn assignd to th backup nod, SA ill start th srvr on that nod. Th initial stat ill b as shon in th folloing diagram: z/vm LPAR 1 Routr Srvic IP points hr SAMP RSCT Hartbat SAMP z/vm LPAR 2 Not that th RSCT/SA combination is strictly managing th and Srvic IP addrss. Nithr RSCT nor SA is involvd in th flo of procssing actual srvics rqusts. If th RSCT/SA subsystm itslf r to fail, th activ ould continu to function, albit ithout th protction affordd by RSCT and SA. High Availability Architcturs for Linux on IBM Systm z 12

13 In th vnt of a failur of th primary srvr, SA ill assign th Srvic IP addrss to th scondary LPAR and bring up an on th LPAR. Th rsulting configuration is as shon: z/vm LPAR 1 SAMP Routr SAMP RSCT Hartbat z/vm LPAR 2 Srvic IP points hr Not that in this scnario, th standby srvr is cold. This could rsult in a srvic intrruption as th srvr is startd. Flo of rqusts through this architctur 1. Srvic IP. Rqusts ntr a routr that is aar of a singl IP addrss for th. Th Srvic IP is associatd ith th activ. In th vnt of a failur on th primary, SA ill automaticy assign th Srvic IP to th scondary. 2.. Th srvr srvs static contnt. Th scondary is cold until startd by SA. Product Vrsions Any vrsion of Tivoli Systm Automation for MultiPlatforms, V1.2 Any vrsion of z/vm Plannd Outags This sction discusss ho ach of th componnts can b takn don for softar upgrads or any othr plannd outag. SA rquirs managd rsourcs to b brought up and don undr its control. In this xampl, rsourcs ar togthr in a singl group, and as a rsult, bringing ithr activ rsourc don ill caus SA to failovr to th othr LPAR. To bring a rsourc don undr SA, us th rgmbrrq command. As mntiond abov, SA and RSCT ar in plac to manag th clustr and hav no impact on th srving of contnt. Eithr or both of th SA or RSCT softar can b brought don for maintnanc ithout impacting th opration of th, xcpt for th rmoval of RSCT/SA monitoring and failovr protction for th. High Availability Architcturs for Linux on IBM Systm z 13

14 What W Larnd in Tsting Whn this architctur as st up and tstd for plannd and unplannd outags, larnd th folloing: Did th softar failovr as xpctd? Ys. Did usrs xprinc any outag tim or transactions that thy ndd to rtry? Ys Did usrs xprinc any prmannt data loss? No Ho long did th failovr tak? (Ho long did usrs xprinc outags): Approximatly 6 sconds to failovr. Failovr of th virtual ip is about 2 sconds, failovr to http srvic is around 4 mor sconds. Most of this tim as to bring up a n srvr. Architctural Dcisions Architctural dcisions r mad basd on th folloing ky critria: High Availability Cost Simplicity Architctural Dcisions Dcision Point Pros/Cons Us to sparat Systm z srvrs to host th to LPARs. Us of a Srvic IP Addrss Maintaining th Dpnds On rlationship btn rsourcs This architctur can asily b run on to sparat Systm z srvrs. Th rsourc group can b simply faild ovr in its ntirty to an LPAR on anothr physical srvr. If th to srvrs ar in sparat data cntrs, or in sparat citis, thn this solution ill covr th Disastr Rcovry situation, hr on data cntr is lost and th othr can tak ovr th orkload immdiatly. Th us of a Srvic IP as chosn for to rasons. st, it abstracts th instancs in th sam ay as Virtual IP Addrssing (VIPA), rsulting in a mor simpl failovr. Scond, it os th illustration of ho to handl multipl dpndnt rsourcs in a group. It is xpctd that usr applications ill typicy b comprisd of multipl softar componnts. Th xampl, as illustratd, ill b asir to dra upon in such situations. Th is dpndnt on th Srvic IP instanc for obvious rasons. Th choic of Dpnds On rsults in forcd collocation. Dpnds On Any ould o for th to xist on a sparat LPAR than th Srvic IP instanc. As mntiond abov, SA as an architctural choic affords a robust support structur. Whil IBM support is availabl for Linux-HA, it is not availabl for Linux Virtual. IBM has found that Systm z customrs in gnral prfr supportd softar. In addition, hil this xampl is simpl, SA scals ll and so is suitabl for managing availability in vry complx nvironmnts ith intrtind dpndncis. Scond Exampl: Linux Virtual and Linux-HA For th opn sourc dsign, rly on Linux Virtual (LVS). LVS rquirs a singl dirctor nod as ll as any numbr of application instanc, or clustr, nods. All rqusts for srvics com through th dirctor and ar assignd to clustr nods to procss th actual orkload (for High Availability Architcturs for Linux on IBM Systm z 14

15 xampl, by round robin). High availability among th clustr nods is implicit, sinc th failur of on of thos nods ill caus it to b rmovd from considration by th LVS dirctor, and th rmaining clustr nods ill simply assum rsponsibility for th orkload. For th opn sourc dsign, us a passiv scondary LVS dirctor nod. Linux-HA manags th dirctor nods, including automatd failovr. This failovr capability liminats th singl point of failur. z/vm LPAR 1 Primary LVS Dirctor (Activ) Routr Linux-HA Hartbating Scondary LVS Dirctor (Passiv) z/vm LPAR 2 In this architctur, th singl IP addrss is associatd ith and managd by th activ LVS Dirctor. Th instancs ar both hot, hich os for load balancing of rqusts across thm. If on of th srvr nods gos don, th LVS Dirctor ill rmov it from th list of activ srvrs. LVS and Hartbat can also ork togthr to monitor th srvrs using Ldirctor. An xcllnt dscription of ho to stup LVS and Hartbat in this configuration can b found at S also Systm z Platform Tst Rport for z/os and Linux Virtual s for mor dtails. Flo of rqusts through this architctur 1. LVS Dirctor. Rqusts ntr a routr that is aar of a singl IP addrss for th. Th IP addrss is associatd ith th LVS Dirctor. Th LVS Dirctor ill rout rqusts to th s (for xampl, by round robin). 2.. Th srvr srvs static contnt. Should any of th srvrs fail, th failing srvr ill no longr rciv rqusts from th LVS Dirctor. If Ldirctor is usd as dscribd abov, than s that com back onlin ill b automaticy placd back into th clustr of activ srvrs by th LVS Dirctor. Product Vrsions Any vrsion of Linux-HA (Hartbat) vrsion 2.0, hich includs support for many n faturs High Availability Architcturs for Linux on IBM Systm z 15

16 Any vrsion of LVS Any vrsion of Ldirctor compatibl ith th Linux-HA and LVS vrsions chosn (Ldirctor is availabl through th Linux-HA sit.) Any vrsion of LVS Ultra Monky vrsion 3 (if Ultra Monky is to b usd) Any vrsion of z/vm Not that th implmntation and configuration dtails providd at also dscrib th spcific softar packags to donload. Th vrsions ar orkabl but rathr outdatd. IBM rcommnds that this dscription b usd as a guidlin but that mor rcnt vrsions of packags b usd. Plannd Outags This sction discusss ho ach of th componnts can b takn don for softar upgrads or any othr plannd outag. Thr ar to sts of rdundant lmnts, namly th srvrs and th LVS Dirctors. In ithr cas, th systm is st up such that a singl lmnt of ithr st can b brought don manuy ithout impacting th systm. In th cas of th srvrs, ithr srvr could b brought don and LVS ould simply stop snding rqusts to that srvr. Using Ldirctor, th srvr ould b rturnd to th clustr upon startup. Th LVS Dirctors ar slightly diffrnt sinc only on is in activ stat. Bringing don th scondary is trivial bcaus it is not activ. Bringing don th primary ill caus Hartbat to failovr to th scondary. Not that multipl backup LVS Dirctors can b configurd. If only a singl backup Dirctor is dployd, bringing don that backup ill mak th primary a singl point of failur. A dscription of th managmnt of rdundant LVS Dirctors using Hartbat and Ldirctor can b found at Th UltraMonky projct is an Opn Sourc projct that implmnts such managmnt. S for mor information about UltraMonky. What Larnd in Tsting Whn this architctur as st up and tstd for plannd and unplannd outags, larnd th folloing: Did th softar failovr as xpctd? Ys. Did usrs xprinc any outag tim or transactions that thy ndd to rtry? No Did usrs xprinc any prmannt data loss? No Ho long did th failovr tak? (Ho long did usrs xprinc outags): No usr outags r sn. Failovr happnd in approximatly 1 scond. As long as this rmains blo th TCP/IP timout valu, no transactions ar lost. Architctural Dcisions Architctural dcisions r mad basd on th folloing ky critria: High Availability Cost Simplicity Architctural Dcisions Dcision Point Pros/Cons High Availability Architcturs for Linux on IBM Systm z 16

17 Us of Linux Virtual (LVS) Us of Multipl LVS Dirctors Us of Linux- HA/Hartbat LVS is a standard, robust opn-sourc packag for load balancing and high availability in Linux clustrs. All rqusts must go through th LVS Dirctor, making it a singl point of failur ithout rdundancy. Simpl hartbating btn th primary and scondary LVS Dirctors os for a highly-availabl configuration. Linux-HA is a standard, robust opn-sourc packag for hartbating in Linux clustrs. Th choic of LVS and Linux-HA provids th bnfits of srvr load balancing. Clustrs of loadbalancd srvrs afford bttr utilization and continuous srvr availability. Chaptr 4: Rfrnc Architctur: WbSphr ith DB2 databas on Linux Scnario Bing Solvd You hav a ky WbSphr application that runs in Linux on Systm z. Th primary databas for this application is DB2 UDB, also running on Linux on Systm z. Th databas fils ar on ECKD disks. Architctur Principls This architctur is dsignd to follo ths principls: Softar is gnry considrd lss rliabl than hardar. Th Systm z hardar contains rdundant componnts, making its Man Tim Btn Failur (MTBF) in th rang of dcads. Bcaus th Systm z hardar is so rliabl, o th Systm z srvr to b a singl point of failur in this architctur. W duplicat of th softar nvironmnts (LPAR, VM, s, Linux, WbSphr, DB2) so that non of thm is a singl point of failur. No failur should b noticabl to th nd usr. Th currnt transaction may fail, but subsqunt transactions succd. Aftr any singl failur, transactions continu at th sam rat ith no dgradation in throughput or rspons tim. Th architctur must b rapidly scalabl to support incrass and dcrass in businss volum. High Availability Architcturs for Linux on IBM Systm z 17

18 Rfrnc Architctur z/vm LPAR 1 Dmgr Primary Load Balancr DB2 (Pri) Routr HADR Backup Load Balancr DB2 (Bkup) WbSphr Clustr z/vm LPAR 2 Each box rprsnts a virtual Linux srvr running as a gust of z/vm, in to z/vm LPARs. In this architctur, softar srvrs ar duplicatd on to Logical Partitions (LPARs) on th sam Systm z srvr. Outr and innr firs form a DMZ for th Edg srvrs and srvrs. Flo of rqusts through this architctur 1. Communications ithin th LPAR. All communications btn Linux gusts ithin a z/vm LPAR ar compltd through a z/vm Virtual Sitch (vsitch). Th vsitch is a fast and scalabl communication infrastructur. W rcommnd stting up on vsitch ith to vsitch controllrs (VM usr ids) in ach z/vm LPAR. (Not that z/vm 5.2 coms ith to VSWITCH controllrs dfind. W rcommnd that you XAUTOLOG th to of thm: DTCVSW1 and DTCVSW2.) Each vsitch should b st up to us multipl ral dvics, so that if on OSA fails, th VSWITCH ill fail ovr to th othr. 2. Load Balancr. Rqusts ntr a routr that is connctd to th Virtual IP Addrss (VIPA) of th Primary Load Balancr. Should this load balancr fail, th backup load balancr ill dtct th failur and tak ovr. Th routr ill dtct this failur and rout rqusts to th backup load balancr. 3.. Th load balancr sprays rqusts btn th to srvrs. Should on of th srvrs fail, th load balancr dtcts this and ill not rout rqusts to it. Th srvr srvs static pags. It also routs WbSphr rqusts via th WbSphr plugin to th to WbSphr srvrs in th clustr. Should on of th WbSphr srvrs fail, th plugin ill dtct this and not rout rqusts to it. High Availability Architcturs for Linux on IBM Systm z 18

19 4. WbSphr. Th application is dployd to a WbSphr clustr consisting of to nods. WbSphr manags th dploymnt of th application onto th nods of th clustr and can upgrad th application on th fly. Usr sssion data is rplicatd among th clustr mmbrs so that if a clustr mmbr fails th transaction can b continud on th othr clustr mmbr. W rcommnd configuring WbSphr to rplicat sssion data and hold it in mmory in th clustr mmbrs. This option prforms ll and can scal ll, and is mor simpl to configur than using a databas to hold sssion data. In flight To Phas Commit (2PC) transactions can b rcovrd by th WbSphr HA managr. Th HAManagr is a n fatur of WbSphr v6. It nhancs th availability of WbSphr singlton srvics lik transaction srvics or JMS mssag srvics. It runs as a srvic ithin ach application srvr procss that monitors th halth of WbSphr clustrs. In th vnt of a srvr failur, th HAManagr ill failovr th singlton srvic and rcovr any inflight transactions. In ordr to do this th transaction logs rittn by ach application srvr must b on ntork-attachd storag or a storag SAN so that thy ar radabl to th rmaining clustr mmbrs. Not that this stup is optional and is not dpictd in our rfrnc architctur. Whn th HAmanagr coordinator dtcts that an application srvr is don, it can initiat rcovry of in-flight transactions from th transaction logs. This rcovry ill rlas any locks hld in th databas. Th folloing stps ar rquird to accomplish this stup: Mak th transaction logs sharabl by mmbrs of th clustr. By dfault ths ar locatd in th <instroot>\profils\<profilnam>\tranlog\<cllnam>\<nodnam>\<srvrnam>\transaction dirctory, but should b configurd for anothr dirctory that you ill mak sharabl. Aftr you configur th logs, th only othr stup is to Enabl high availability for prsistnt srvics by chcking th box by that nam in th Clustr. Rfr to Rdbook SG : WbSphr Application V6 Scalability and Prformanc Handbook, sction 9.7 Transaction Managr High Availability for dtails about ho to st up th HAmanagr in this ay. 5. DB2 Clint (JDBC). WbSphr runs th application and snds DB2 data rqusts to th Primary DB2. HADR communicats to th DB2 clints (th JDBC drivr in our cas) hn thy first connct to DB2 to inform thm of th addrss of th backup srvr. If any communication to th primary DB2 srvr fails, th clints automaticy rout rqusts to th backup srvr. This is th Automatic Clint Rrout fatur. Configur th WbSphr connction pool sttings in th DB2 data sourc to us purg.policy=pool. This ill caus WbSphr to mpty out th ntir pool upon a singl connction failur. Without this option, ill hand out stal connctions until it purgs th pool of connctions. 6. DB2. Th DB2 HADR (High Availability Disastr Rcovry) fatur is usd to provid failovr in cas of a DB2 failur. HADR uss to DB2 srvrs and to databass to mirror th data from th primary databas to th backup. Tivoli Systm Automation running on both DB2 s automaticy dtcts a failur of th primary and issus commands on th backup for th DB2 thr to bcom th primary. Sinc it has bn mirroring data from th primary, th backup dos not nd to do any databas rcovry bfor bcoming primary. So th databas takovr is accomplishd as fast as can b dtctd by TSA. Dtails on th DB2 failovr stup: High Availability Architcturs for Linux on IBM Systm z 19

20 DB2 provids th TSA MP scripts to automat th HADR takovr. Inst ths scripts into ach TSA srvr. S th Automating DB2 HADR Failovr on Linux using Tivoli Systm Automation hitpapr for mor information. Th WbSphr application nds to look for a spcific SQL rturn cod that indicats that th primary DB2 srvr has faild. This rturn cod mans that any transactions prior to COMMIT hav bn rolld back. Th application nds to rissu th prvious transactions. Us th DB2 updat altrnat srvr for databas command at ach DB2 nod to idntify th othr DB2 srvr. With this stup, conncting clints ill bcom aar of th backup srvr aftr conncting to th primary. This is only ncssary for typ2 drivrs. HADR is includd in DB2 UDB 8.2 Entrpris Edition. HADR ACR (automatic clint rrout) orks ith typ 2 and typ 4 JDBC clints, but for XA transactions th typ 4 clint is rquird. On WbSphr Linux, th XA implmntation for to-phas commit is th only on availabl for WbSphr managd transactions. As a rsult, rsourcs nd to b spcificy dclard as XA (that is, XADataSourc) if you ant to participat in 2PC. Th typ 4 JDBC clint is ndd for XA-typ transactions that nd automatic clint rrout. (XA is supportd for both typ2 and typ4 clints, but XA and ACR only orks for typ4.) 7. Disk Multipathing. Th databas volums ar configurd for multipathing, so that if on path fails, accss to th dvic is maintaind through th surviving paths. For ECKD DASD dvics accssd ovr FICON or ESCON channls, multipathing is handld invisibly to th Linux oprating systm. A singl dvic is prsntd to th oprating systm on hich to do I/O oprations. Multipathing happns automaticy and is handld by th Systm z I/O subsystm. All that is rquird is for multipl paths to b dfind to th dvic in th activ I/O Dfinition Fil (IODF), and for thos paths to b onlin. Th complxity of choosing among th multipl paths is hiddn from th Linux OS. Product Vrsions This architctur rquirs th folloing softar vrsions: WbSphr Ntork Dploymnt V6.0 or nr. This architctur can b don ith WbSphr v5, but it lacks som of th HA faturs of WbSphr v6. For ths rasons rcommnd v6. DB2 UDB 8.2 is ndd for th HADR function. You also nd th JDBC drivr that coms ith 8.2, to gt th Automatic Clint Rrout fatur. Tivoli Systm Automation for MultiPlatforms, V1.2. This is includd ith DB2 8.2 at no cost for us ith DB2. z/vm 4.4 or abov, to gt vsitch. Plannd Outags This sction dscribs ho ach of th componnts can b takn don for softar upgrads or any othr plannd outag. Plannd Outags Componnt Load Balancr Procdur 1. Stop th ntork dispatchr componnt on th srvr you nd to upgrad. Th backup dtcts that th primary is stoppd and bcoms th primary. Th routr dtcts that th primary is don and routs rqusts to th backup. 2. Aftr th primary has bn upgradd, start th Ntork Dispatchr componnt and mak it primary again. 3. Go to th backup srvr and apply th upgrad thr. High Availability Architcturs for Linux on IBM Systm z 20

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