Publications Catalogue of the Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests

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2 Publications Catalogue of the Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests 17 years of work in the Amazon and Atlantic Forests Ministry of Environment Executive Secretariat Department for Coordination of Policies for the Amazon Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests

3 Federative Republic of Brazil President - Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva Vice-President José Alencar Gomes da Silva Ministry of Environment Minister Carlos Minc Baumfeld Executive Secretariat Secretary Izabella Mônica Vieira Teixeira Department for Coordination of Policies for the Amazon Director Mauro Oliveira Pires Publications Catalogue of the Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests 17 years of work in the Amazon and Atlantic Forests Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests Coordinator Nazaré Lima Soares Ministry of Environment Executive Secretariat Department for Coordination of Policies for the Amazon Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests Brasília, 2009

4 List of Acronyms Executive Secretariat - Secex Department for Coordination of Policies for the Amazon - DAAM Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests SEPN 505 bloco B. Edifício Marie Prendi Cruz, 2º andar. Asa Norte Brasilia - DF. Tel.: Fax: address: Text: Marli Teresinha dos Santos Editorial Coordinator: Larissa Ribeiro Barbosa Support: Pilot Program Coordination Team Cover, layout and electronic editing: Extrema Comunicação Guidance to bibliographic standardization: Ibama Helionídia Carvalho de Oliveira Ministry of Environment Not for sale C357 Catalogue Item Publication Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources Catálogo de publicações do Programa Piloto para Proteção das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil: 17 anos de atuação na Amazônia e Mata Atlântica /PPG7. Brasília: MMA, p. ; 29 cm. DVD. Bibliografia 1. Catálogo (publicação). I. Ministério do Meio Ambiente. II. Secretaria Executiva. III. Programa Piloto para Proteção das Florestas Tropicais PPG7. IV. Título. The authors are solely responsible for the concepts and opinions disclosed herein. CDU(2.ed.)504 ACRONYM: AAFI AAV Abanne ADA AM AMA AMF APA Apruram ASC ASP Aspac BCDAM BNDES: Catie CCA CCMA CDS CEC Cena Cena Cenaflor Centru CGTT CIF CLA MEANING Indigenous Agroforestry Agents Volunteer Environmental Agents Meeting of Anthropologists from North and Northeast Regions Development Agency Amazonas State Monitoring & Analysis Project Forestry Management Areas Alternative Farmers Association Rolimourense Rural Farmers Association for Mutual Assistance Agroforestry Silvopasture Agroforestry Silves Association for Environmental and Cultural Preservation Amazon Shared Database System Brazilian Development Bank Tropical Agronomy Research and Teaching Center Amazon Central Corridor Atlantic Forest Central Corridor Sustainable Development Center University of Brasilia Community Statistics Center Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture - University of Sao Paulo Capacity-building Needs Diagnosis National Forestry Training and Capacity-Building Center Rural Worker Education and Culture Center General Council of the Ticuna Tribe Fuste Identification Class Alcântara Launch Center

5 Condessa CPT CTI DBH DLIS DRP EIA Embrapa EEZ FAO Fase FBDS Fetragri Finep Flona FNMA FNO FNS Funai FVPP Consortium for the Socio-environmental Development of the BR 163 Highway Land Pastoral Commission Indigenous Studies Work Center Diameter at Breast Height Integrated and Sustainable Local Development Participatory Rural Diagnosis Environmental Impact Assessment Brazilian Agricultural Research Company Ecological-Economic Zoning United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Federation of Social and Educational Assistance Bodies Brazilian Foundation for Sustainable Development State Federation of Agricultural Workers Brazilian Innovation Agency National Forest National Environment Fund North Region Constitutional Fund National Health Foundation National Indigenous Foundation Live, Produce and Preserve Foundation G-7 Group of the most industrialized countries on Earth GPD Granav GTA GTZ Iara Ibam Ibama IBGE Environmental Preservation Group Live Nature Environmental Group Amazon Work Group Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbit German Technical Cooperation Amazon Institute for Environmental Resources Management Brazilian Municipal Administration Institute Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics ICV IFC IIEB Imazon IMT Inam Incra Inpa Inpe Ipam IPE Ipea ISA ISPN Jacarex Macoe MDA MDTX MEB MFC MMA MPEG MPST SL NAEA Oemas NGO PA PDA PDPI Life Center Institute Continuous Forestry Inventory International Education Institute of Brazil Amazon Institute of Man and the Environment Amazonas Institute of Tropical Medicine Amazon Nature Institute National Institute for Colonization and Land Reform Amazon National Research Institute National Space Research Institute Amazon Environmental Research Institute Individual Protection Equipment Applied Economic Research Institute Socio-environmental Institute Society, Population and Nature Institute Joint Amazonian Carbon Experiment Project Manaus Atmospheric CO 2 Experiment Project Ministry of Agrarian Development Movement for the Development of Transamazônica and Xingu Basic Education Movement Community-based Forestry Management Ministry of Environment Emílio Goeldi Museum of Pará Movement for the Survival of Transamazônica and Xingu Sustainable Livelihood Amazon Advanced Studies Center of the Federal University of Pará State Environmental Bodies Non-Governmental Organization Pará State Demonstration Projects Indigenous Demonstration Project

6 PFC PFN PFNM PGAI Planafloro PNF PPG7 PPTAL PRCA Proambiente Cerrado Fruits Project National Forests Program Non-Timber Forestry Products Integrated Environmental Management Project Rondonia National Forestry Plan National Forests Program Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests Indigenous Lands Project Regional Environmental Capacity-building Plan Program for the Socio-Environmental Development of Familybased Agriculture Seater Sipam SLAPR SNUC SPC&T SPRN SQA ACT IL Ufam Acre State Technical Assistance and Agroforestry Extension Secretariat Amazon Protection System Rural Properties Environmental Licencing System National Conservation Unit System Science and Technology Subprogram Natural Resources Policy Project Environmental Quality in Human Settlements Secretariat Amazon Cooperation Treaty Indigenous Land Federal University of Amazonas Proarco Emergency Fire Prevention & Control Project Unifap Federal University of Amapá Profor 163 Strenghthening Social Participation in the BR 163 Plan Project Unipoma Santarém Integrated Environmental Policing Unit ProManejo Forest Resources Management Project UNCED United Nations Conference on Environment and Development Proteger Amazon Fire Prevention and Mobilization UPA Annual Production Unit ProVárzea Flood Plain (Varzea) Management Project WWF World Wildlife Fund PES Payment for Environmental Services Radam Radar in the Amazon Project Rebraf Brazilian Agroforestry Network REDD Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forestry Degradation Resex Extractive Reserves Project RFC Cerrado Fruits Network RFT Rain Forest Trust Fund Rima Environmental Impact Report RMA Atlantic Forest NGOs Network RPPN Natural Heritage Private Reserves SAF Agroforestry System Sasop Rural Grassroots Organizations Support Service SCA Amazon Coordination Secretariat SCM Mamirauá Civil Society

7 Summary: Introduction The Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests Abstracts publications by the Subprograms and projects AMA - Monitoring & Analysis Project Ecological Corridors Ecological Corridors Project GTA Amazon Working Group and the projects GTA Institutional Strenghtening, Support to GTA Institutional Development and Capacity-building to Prevent Forest Fires in the Amazon (Proteger II) PDA Demonstration Projects PDPI - Indigenous Demonstration Project PPTAL - Indigenous Lands Project ProManejo Forest Resources Management Project ProVárzea - Flood Plain (Varzea) Management Project RMA Atlantic Forest NGOs Network RMA Capacity Building and Institutional Development Project SPC&T - Science and Technology Subprogram SPRN - Natural Resources Policy Project

8 Introduction To keep the knowledge and experiences gained through the Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests (PPG7) alive, the Ministry of Environment has assembled this catalogue bringing together abstracts of publications of different PPG7 subprograms and projects. The full publications are also provided in digital form (attached hereto). The Pilot Program generated a large number of technical and scientific studies that supported the design of environmental public policies focused on sustainable development. In its 17 years of existence, the Pilot Program has implemented 26 subprograms and projects which contributed to expand knowledge of the Brazilian Amazon and Atlantic Forest environments. It committed resources to five lines of action: experimentation and demonstration; conservation of protected areas; institutional strengthening; science and technology for sustainable development; lessons learned and knowledge dissemination. Most subprograms and projects are concluded and a few are about to be consolidated. The great challenge now is to retain the knowledge acquired during these 17 years of intensive activity, which contributed to the establishment of environmental guidelines and guidance, such as new tools for management and social control, and the strong environmental commitment built at different government spheres. This catalogue presents abstracts of the studies published about 250 words each, and the shortest ones with about 120 words. The abstracts depict the key topics of the publication, using the same language as the original text. With it, readers can decide about reading or not the entire article or book

9 The Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests The Pilot Program (PPG7) was established in 1990 during the Houston Convention which gathered the G-7 countries to protect the Brazilian Rainforests. It was ratified during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) the so-called Rio 92. There was a global wave against the deforestation of the Amazon Rainforest. Governments and the civil society were working together to find solutions to combine conservation of the Amazon Rainforest and Atlantic Forest and the sustainable use of their natural resources, while improving the living conditions of local populations. Seventeen years later, amidst negotiations and implementation of 26 Subrograms and projects, the Pilot Program reports successful experiences and challenges that should be publicized. The Program has carried out countless studies, learning many lessons about the socio-environmental management of Brazilian forests. The Pilot Program played (and still plays) a core role in the establishment of sustainable development-oriented public policies, notably due to the amount of knowledge generated and the incentives and capacity for social mobilization of its many subprograms and projects. The PPG7 is a Brazilian government initiative in partnership with the international community. It is being considered one of the largest multilateral cooperation Programs linked to an environmental theme of global relevance. Funding came from the G-7 countries, Netherlands and the European Union. Funds were complemented by Brazilian Federal and state governments, together with civil society. The World Bank managed the Rain Forest Trust Fund (RFT), created to receive the contributions of different donators. Abstracts publications by the Subprograms and Projects The abstracts briefly show the main points of the publications, including the initial problem, methodology, main findings and conclusions. These were divided into subprograms and projects, in alphabetic order, and are classified starting with the most recent

10 1 AMA Monitoring and Analysis Project The AMA Project was created in 2000 to play a key role in the PPG7, organizing lessons learned from projects and subprograms through monitoring, studies, analyses and dissemination of lessons. The Project worked with the identification and analysis of strategic lessons, aiming at disseminating these as inputs to the formulation of public policies. AMA was implemented by the Ministry of Environment along three lines of action: 1) technical assistance and capacity-building in monitoring and assessment tools, emphasizing impact analysis and knowledge systematization as tools to manage projects and generate inputs for public policies; 2) carrying out studies and analyses on innovative initiatives of the Pilot Program and other strategic topics related to the sustainable development of the Amazon and the Atlantic Forest; 3) dissemination of lessons learned and other strategic knowledge of the Pilot Program through publications and the organization of debates, seminars and other events to exchange experiences and dialogue with public policies agents. This project, linked to Pilot Program Coordination, produced 24 publications

11 AMA1 WUNDER, S. (Coord.). Pagamentos por serviços ambientais: perspectivas para a Amazônia Legal [Payment for environmental services: perspectives for the Legal Amazon]. 2. ed. rev. Brasilia: MMA, p. (Série Estudos, 10) According to the literature, Payment for Environmental Services (PES) is a voluntary transaction, where a well-defined environmental service, or use of the land that could ensure that service, is purchased by at least one buyer from at least one supplier, provided that the supplier guarantees service delivery. Almost all the existing PES comprise environmental services linked to four categories: 1) carbon retention and capture; 2) biodiversity conservation; 3) water services conservation; and, 4) landscape conservation. This study focuses on the opportunities most common in the Amazon, i.e., PES linked to biodiversity and carbon. Local PES is direct payments to service providers, as in the Forest Allowance Program (Programa Bolsa Floresta) in the State of Amazonas, and the Program for the Socio-Environmental Development of Family-based Agriculture (Proambiente) of the Federal Government. International PES take place when a country or administrative entity is paid to implement policies focused on environmental services provision. International PES are being discussed in terms of avoided deforestation or Reducing Emissions from Deforestation or Forestry Degradation (REDD). The high deforestation rates and the prevalence of command and control policies ineffective in reducing environmental degradation suggest the need to apply PES to the Brazilian Amazon. However, PES have economic, cultural, institutional and information requirements. Such pre-conditions can be fulfilled, but the institutional pre-condition mainly regarding land ownership is the most critical impairment. Nonetheless, the Amazon has huge potential for providing environmental services related to biodiversity and carbon retention in natural forests, despite the inexistence of demand at the international level to support PES arrangements at a regional scale in the Brazilian Amazon. AMA2 ASCHER, P.; VALARELLI, L. L. Monitoramento de Impacto: uma proposta metodológica [Impact Monitoring: a methodological proposal]. Brasilia: MMA, p. (Série Monitoramento & Avaliação, 4) The publication proposes an alternative and practical method to build an impact monitoring system. The basic premise of this methodological proposal is that monitoring is mainly aimed at learning. The first part of the book introduces the characteristics, intentions and logic of the sustainable development projects, the rationale and monitoring needs during implementation, as well as the different types of monitoring used in project management. The second part discusses different approaches to project management and guidelines or strategies to design the project s monitoring and evaluation system. The third part develops, step-bystep, an example of how to build an impact monitoring strategy using a fictitious case related to a sustainable agriculture project. Moreover, there is one chapter on issues related to the universe of indicators, focusing on the procedures for formulation and constructing project monitoring-related indicators. AMA3 SAUER, S. (Coord.). Experiências inovadoras em prevenção e controle de queimadas na Amazônia brasileira [Innovative experiences in slashand-burn prevention and control in the Brazilian Amazon]. Brasilia: MMA, p. (Série Estudos, 9) The main aim of this study is the comparative analysis of the efficiency of different strategies for slash-and-burn prevention and control in the Brazilian Amazon adopted by the projects Reviving (Reviver), Fire-free Farming (Roça sem Queimar), Fire: Chronic Emergency (Fogo: Emergência Crônica) and Protect (Proteger), thus contributing to the formulation and implementation of public policies for slash-and-burn prevention and control. The concern over the indiscriminate use of slash-and-burn techniques and their consequences resulted in many governmental and non-governmental initiatives in Amazon. The four projects have effectively implemented and developed a wide array of actions that provide an alternative to the use of fire, such as fire-free farming; beekeeping and fish farming; planting of agroforestry systems; recovery of degraded areas; intensive use of pasture; construction of breeding sites, among others. The effectiveness derivded from some strategies employed to implement the actions: a) use of the existing organizational structure; b) implementation of a process for dialogue and engagement of leaderhip and social organizations of family farmers in the activities developed by the projects; c) local government involvement; d) complementarity of actions developed by some projects, including with government programs. One of the largest gaps found in all the four projects analyzed is the lack of proper and consistent technical assistance. Other gaps are: lack of scientific research capable of offering alternatives to small crops; and the existence of lines of credit based on chemical-mechanical production. The study concludes that each project has particular characteristics and, therefore, the replication of strategies depends, among others, on discussing with the local actors to be targeted by the projects. Drawing on the projects experience, the main areas to be fostered would be: readjusting the lines of credit; encouraging technical assistance; providing managerial and market training to family farmers in Amazon

12 AMA4 GUERRA, R.; ASCHER, P. Estratégias e métodos de monitoramento em projetos de proteção das florestas tropicais brasileiras [Monitoring strategies and methods in Brazilian Rainforest protection projects]. Brasilia: MMA, p. (Série Monitoramento & Avaliação, 3) The publication contains different articles that depict the rich monitoring knowledge acquired by the PPG7 projects. The publication s first article was written by the AMA Project providing readers with a general view on the evolution of monitoring and evaluation activities in the Pilot Program projects, as well as providing some clues on how to achieve effective and functional monitoring systems. The second article, by the Demonstration Projects (PDA), discloses lessons learned in the creation of participatory monitoring systems. The third text presents an experience of the Indigenous Demonstration Project (PDPI) which followed 70 small projects by Indigenous organizations in the Amazon. Is also discloses experiences of the Natural Resources Policy Project (SPRN), of the Family Farmers Mobilization and Capacity-building Project to Prevent Forest Fires in the Brazilian Amazon (Proteger), showcasing the participatory monitoring that involved 1,684 families in the 53 municipalities in the area reached by the project. There are also many lessons learned from the Flood Plain Management Project (ProVárzea) and from the monitoring of the first stage of the Science and Technology Subprogram (SPC&T). The last article depicts another monitoring method, aimed at observing changes in biodiversity protection and conservation, implemented by the Ecological Corridors Project. AMA5 reflections as operational systematization guides, ensuing from practical experiences. This publication intends to enable critical thought and serve as a tool to plan experience systematization processes, as well as fostering the dissemination of lessons learned. AMA6 INSTITUTO DE PESQUISA AMBIENTAL DA AMAZÔNIA IPAM. A grilagem de terras públicas na Amazônia brasileira [Public land grabbing in the Brazilian Amazon]. Brasilia: MMA, p. (Série Estudos, 8) The study analyzes the main problems of Federal land and environment bodies. It assesses the main measures that could be adopted by both the Ministry of Agrarian Development (MDA) and the National Institute of Colonization and Land Reform (Incra) to legalize the occupied areas and to set criteria to allot public lands in the Brazilian Amazon. The central case studies were the region of São Félix do Xingu and part of the area along the BR-163 highway both in the state of Pará. The Amazon has become the site of disputes among many players, with different interests that entail problems for the disputes over land and natural resources. To crown it all, there are consistent violations of indigenous rights, traditional peoples land and squatters. Hence, the study emphasizes the struggle against land grabbing and rural violence cannot be perceived as a short-term policy, nor can it be based only on occasional and disconnected actions. Another relevant issue when it comes to rural properties in the Amazon (small, medium and large) is the consistent effort that should be made to strengthen social and environmental protection. Within this context, two important aspects related to the struggle against land grabbing in the Amazon come up: the development of criteria to legalize small, medium and large plots; and the criteria to allot public lands, giving priority to small family property. HOLLIDAY, O. J. Para sistematizar experiências [Systematizing experiences]. Translated by: Maria Viviana V. Resende. 2. ed., rev. Brasilia: MMA, p. (Série Monitoramento & Avaliação, 2) One of the main challenges faced by public policy programs is the dissemination and expansion of successful experiences, and the incorporation of lessons learned that should be translated into policies to foster a new development model. Therefore, systematizing experiences is a pedagogical political challenge of the utmost relevance. Within the scope of the Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests, systematization is considered to be a relevant tool that contributes to face the challenges posed, since such experiences bring crucial lessons that could be disseminated, as well as serving as potential inducers of sustainable public policies. The book approaches the difficulties faced by systematization, giving some clues and theoretical and methodological AMA7 SOCIO-ENVIRONMENTAL INSTITUTE ISA/ CENTRO DE VIDA INSTITUTE ICV. Sistema de licenciamento ambiental em propriedades rurais no estado de Mato Grosso: análise de sua implementação [Rural property environmental licensing system in the state of Mato Grosso: implementation analysis]. Brasilia: MMA, p. (Série Estudos, 7) Since 1999, the state of Mato Grosso has implemented an innovative system of deforestation control and monitoring at rural properties, known as the 22 23

13 Rural Property Environmental Licensing System (SLAPR), incorporating remote-sensing technology and the aim of integrating the activities of deforestation monitoring, licensing and surveillance. The work proposed by the Ministry of Environment, through the AMA and the PPG7 Projects, intends to analyze SLAPR, assess its effectiveness and identify the main causes and links with deforestation. The analyses provide inputs to implement control and licensing systems at rural properties in the other states of the Legal Amazon, based on the assessment of legal and land-related aspects, inspection and accountability, institutional aspects of management and transparency; technological aspects and mechanisms of support to control deforestation under the responsibility of other Federal Government sectors. The multi-disciplinary team in charge of the study (composed of teams from the Centro de Vida Institute ICV and the Socio-Environmental Institute ISA) participated in seminars and meetings, held workshops and interviewed many members of public institutions working in the state of Mato Grosso. Among these, farmers, geo-processing consultancy firms, non-governmental organizations. Moreover, it collected, produced and analyzed data, a study on the applicable laws, and documentary analysis of legal and administrative processes. The improvement of environmental management systems in rural properties in the Amazon, as well as the monitoring and control of deforestation in the region, are contributions that could be observed. AMA8 ALMEIDA, A. W. B. de. Os quilombolas e a base de lançamento de foguetes de Alcântara: laudo antropológico [Quilombolas and the Alcântara rocket launch center: an anthropological report]. Brasilia: MMA, v. 1, p. The anthropological report discloses the findings of a survey carried out among remaining quilombo communities in the municipality of Alcântara, state of Maranhão, requested by the General Prosecutor s Office after the institution of a Civil Inquiry to investigate likely irregularities observed during the implementation of the Alcântara Launch Center (CLA). The communities have pursued their rights to the territory and ethnical-racial self-determination since the 1980s, when the CLA began to be built. Considering that the mandatory displacement actions affect the black rural communities, the decision was favorable to the legal suit. After the public hearings in Alcântara and Sao Luís, which pointed out inconsistencies in the EIA-Rima, notably regarding the anthropic and ethnical relations, the survey was prepared, and arguments were developed to fulfill the requirements that guide the survey and field work, involving secondary sources, map production and on-site data collection. For exposition purposes, the final official report was divided in two parts. The first one focuses on the links between the basic principles of scientific investigation and the procedures required to produce the so-called expert evidence - studies that ground and provide input to the findings. During the visits to settlements aimed at identifying communities and establishing links between historical fact and collective identity, field work was not carried out at the institutional sites of political or economic leadership, but with persons of a singular social position: the elders. Hence, the report stands for historical contextualization and demographic records of the installation of quilombos in Alcântara, as well as defining the territory according to inhabitants description and onsite verification. AMA9 ALMEIDA, A. W. B. de. Os quilombolas e a base de lançamento de foguetes de Alcântara: laudo antropológico [Quilombolas and the Alcântara rocket launch center: an anthropological report]. Brasilia: MMA, v. 2, p. The anthropological report discloses the findings of a survey carried out among remaining quilombo communities in the municipality of Alcântara, state of Maranhão, requested by the General Prosecutor s Office after the institution of a Civil Inquiry to investigate likely irregularities observed during the implementation of the Alcântara Launch Center (CLA). For exhibition purposes, the final result was divided in two parts. The second one is an applied and more direct response to the requirements formulated by prosecutors, an analytical effort to provide input to the corresponding arguments. In the Dispatch, the Prosecutor outlined the eleven requirements to be developed by the expert which, despite having guided the experts works and been answered throughout the data analysis in the first part, are are directly answered to in the second part which adds as annexes the most relevant document and archive sources, as well as the photographic record. AMA10 TONI, F.; PACHECO, P. Gestão ambiental descentralizada: um estudo comparativo de três municípios da Amazônia brasileira [Decentralized environmental management: a comparative study of three municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon] Brasilia: MMA, p. (Série Estudos, 6) The document is the final report of the Analysis of innovative experiences in decentralized environmental management at the municipal level, carried out by the PPG7 AMA Project. Some municipalities stand out for their work 24 25

14 in the environmental area; some as a direct response to the few support policies of the Federal Government, such as those implemented through the Natural Resources Policy Project (SPRN); others, at their own initiative. This study compares the experiences of three municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon Juína, in the state of Mato Grosso; Itaituba and Marabá, in the state of Pará. The work approaches in a reflexive way the experiences in decentralized and shared environmental management, considered as innovative by the Ministry of Environment. The work aims at getting to know the factors that lead to higher or lesser involvement of municipal governments with environmental management, and identify the lessons learned about decentralized and shared environmental management at Federal, State and Municipal levels. It also highlights the duties and functions within the scope of the legislation in force. The study uses five parameters of analysis: 1) physical structure and human resources of the municipal environmental departments; 2) environmental management policies, programs and tools used in the municipalities; 3) development of the municipal environmental legal framework; 4) popular participation in the development of environmental policies; and, 5) articulation between government bodies and NGOs involved in environmental management. Hence, the report contributes to thoughtful consideration about the existing innovative experiences in environmental management that demystify some ideas about decentralization. AMA11 BARBANTI JÚNIOR, O. Políticas de desenvolvimento sustentável no Acre: contribuições do SPRN [Sustainable development policies in Acre: contributions by the SPRN]. Brasilia: MMA, p. (Série Estudos, 5) The study investigates how and to which extent the public policies on environmental management decentralization in the state of Acre were subsidized, analyzing the contribution of the Natural Resources Policies Project (SPRN) of the PPG7. The most noticeable contributions of the SPRN that have positively influenced the establishment and implementation of public policies and private organizations policies in the state of Acre have to do with environmental management, notably zoning and monitoring related to the introduction of geo-referencing and use of satellite images during the licensing and surveillance processes. The stakeholders were identified, characterizing a methodological difficulty, since former members of local NGOs started working in the state government, obscuring the dividing line between civil society and government. However, public participation has promoted the social insertion of rubber tapers and indigenous peoples, as well as involving the Federal Prosecutor s Office, the Judiciary and the private sector. Neither the state nor municipal Legislative Powers seem to have been involved. The mainstreaming of agroforestry management practices in Acre s SEATER rural extension, incorporating the lessons learned from occasional initiatives of agroforestry extension developed by NGOs and social movements in the state and other Amazon regions, should also be highlighted. Many capacity-building activities were carried out using the methodology known as Participatory Rural Diagnosis (DRP), and strategic and development plans were formulated. That brought about changes to the bureaucratic and autocratic concepts found in the classic systems of rural extension. AMA12 SANTOS, M. Aprendizados do Projeto de Manejo dos Recursos Naturais da Várzea ProVárzea [Lessons learned from the Flood Plain Management Project]. Brasilia: MMA, p. (Série Estudos, 4) The study explains how and to which extent ProVárzea contributed to a more specific and coherent public policy related to the management and use of Flood Plain natural resources in the Amazon, with emphasis in two areas: fishery agreements and land regulation in flooded forests. The study interviewed individuals linked to the Project in Pará, Amazonas and Brasília, and analyzed the documents on ProVárzea s creation. The main problems faced at this stage were the lack of flood plain management, natural resources degradation, fishery-related conflicts, the lack of land regulation and uncoordinated actions at the different government levels in the Amazon. The initial documents warned about the development process in the region which was and is causing gradual degradation of the area, environmental problems and social conflicts. The fishery agreements stand for rules established by the community, assisted by environmental bodies, to control fishery in a given region. ProVárzea is not the only generator of the process of constructing agreements. Social movements and NGOs have participated, even before the Project was established. However, ProVázea advanced the process in some years. flood plain residents have no land tenure. The intended degree of institutionalization is the establishment of legal rules that allow granting the right to use flood plain lands, through a multiple stage process. ProVárzea invested in technical studies on the matter and social mobilization to discuss the issue, but has not yet generated any legal rules. The next stage would be institutionalizing ProVárzea in government bodies; otherwise, all the knowledge generated will be underused

15 AMA13 VERÍSSIMO, A. Influência do Promanejo sobre políticas públicas de manejo florestal sustentável na Amazônia [Promanejo s influence on sustainable forestry management public policies in the Amazon]. Brasilia: MMA, p. (Série Estudos, 3) The overall concept of the Forest Resources Management Project (ProManejo) aimed at expanding the managed forest area, inhibiting the high ratio of predatory timber exploitation in the Amazon. ProManejo reached important results in the scope of public policies, being conceived as a decentralized management project. To assess the aspects that have contributed to ProManejo success, the study highlights three policies: creation of the National Center on Forestry Training and Capacity-building (Centro Nacional de Treinamento e Capacitação Florestal - Cenaflor); participatory management of Tapajós Flona through the Consultative Council in the Pará Unit and the Forest Credit Program of the Amazônia Bank (FNO). Another highlight was the definition of problems to be solved and government and non-governmental actors, including: timber dealers, exporters, purchasers, traditional populations, indigenous peoples, self-employed professionals in the forestry sector, and core actors involved in the process. To assess more deeply the aspects that have effectively contributed to ProManejo success, the key actors were interviewed in the cities of Brasilia, Manaus, Santarém and Belém. Moreover, the project documents and publications were reviewed, and a field visit was carried out to Tapajós National Forest to observe the local impact ensuing from participatory management. Activities were developed from July to October AMA14 LITTLE, P. E. Projetos Demonstrativos - PDA: sua influência na construção do Proambiente [Demonstration Projects PDA: their influence in the creation of Proambiente]. Brasilia: MMA, p. (Série Estudos, 2) The study is part of a more comprehensive study called Pilot Program Impacts on public policies and lessons learned about the mainstreaming processes of the Monitoring & Analysis Project AMA (Impactos do Programa Piloto sobre as políticas públicas e aprendizados sobre processos de Mainstreaming do Projeto de Apoio ao Monitoramento e Análise (AMA). The study presented herein makes a qualitative analysis of the social processes related to the development of public policies with socio-environmental components, notably the survival of rural family-based farmers in the Amazon. The study recovers the process of formulating and implementing the Socio-Environmental Development of Family-based Agriculture Program (Proambiente). One of the innovative aspects brought by Proambiente was the implementation of 12 Pioneer Units of Family-based Agriculture and Extractive Activities. The Demonstration Projects main approaches are typically experimental in nature, in the fields of: forestry management; recovery of degraded areas; agricultural production; fruit growing; environmental management; Extractive Activities; natural areas preservation; fishery; agroforestry systems; and, natural medicine. Five kinds of influence by the PDA were identified in relation to Proambiente, and to the stronger incentive for sustainable production practices among family-based farmers: 1) The Amazon Work Group (GTA), which involved civil society participation in the creation of the PDA; 2) support to experimental productive spaces, notably regarding the implementation of agroforestry systems management/recovery; 3) the PDA provided local associations and organizations with an opportunity to translate the community s ideas into projects; 4) as in the trans-amazon region, it provided enabling powers to consolidate a political and environmental line of action, based on sustainability; 5) the PDA financed the first two years of the Proambiente Technical Team - an essential step toward consolidating the proposal as a whole. AMA15 SAUER, S. Prevenção de incêndios florestais na Amazônia: lições aprendidas no Projeto Proteger [Forest fire prevention in the Amazon: lessons learned from the Proteger Project]. Brasilia: MMA, p. (Série Estudos, 1) The Amazon Fire Prevention and Mobilization (Proteger) was established within the scope of the formulation and implementation of the Emergency Fire Prevention and Control Project (Proarco), which was formulated and coordinated by Ibama. Proteger Project aimed at organizing the mobilization of family-based, extractive and indigenous farmers to protect the Amazon ecosystems. Through educational processes, it has intensively worked on the concept of sustainability capable of contributing to reduce fire and increase control over the use of slash-and-burn. Another aspect was the incentive for communities and leaders to exchange experiences on many alternative sustainable production practices in the Amazon region. The lessons learned by all were of utmost relevance, since indiscriminate use of fire is one of the most serious problems found in the region. Thus, the insertion of social groups involved has strengthened their links and facilitated the work of Proteger. The Amazon Work Group (GTA) was in charge of Proteger Project national coordination. The main components of the project were: social mobilization; fire-free sustainable production; and, environmental education

16 Instrumentos Econômicos para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável na Amazônia AMA16 MAY, P. H. et. al. (Org.). Instrumentos econômicos para o desenvolvimento sustentável na Amazônia brasileira: experiências e visões [Economic tools for sustainable development in the Brazilian: experiences and views]. Brasilia: MMA, p. This publication gathers the presentations and debates held during the Seminar Economic Tools for the Sustainable Development of the Amazon (Instrumentos Econômicos para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável da Amazônia) in The texts attempt to deepen the discussions on concepts and methods to use economic tools to foster environmental protection and the sustainable use of natural resources in the Brazilian Amazon, notably regarding the forestry sector. The conclusions presented in the book point out that the use of economic tools in an isolated and static way seldom brings about positive effects. It is crucial to understand the context to be influenced by the traditional mechanisms of inducing economic actors behavior - such as subsidies, fees or rules and innovative mechanisms aimed at compensation for environmental services rendered to either the local or global community. Economic tools can encourage and guide social agents, but these are not supposed to replace complementary actions related to regulation, capacity-building and provision of information. AMA17 MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT MMA/ BRAZILIAN AGROFORESTRY NETWORK REBRAF. Políticas públicas e financiamento para o desenvolvimento agroflorestal no Brasil [Public policies and financing for agroforestry development in Brazil]. Brasilia: MMA/SCA, p. (CD-ROM) Agroforestry systems (SAF) are alternatives to land use, combining agricultural crops or pastures and forestry species. Most of the Brazilian NGOs dealing with rural development are disseminating SAF use, with positive impacts on family income, recovery of degraded areas and generation of environmental services. The adoption of SAF in Brazil is expanding but, nonetheless, reports many failures that demand increased financial support and innovative measures in public policies if these are to be remedied. To define participatory strategies to hasten and improve agroforestry development, the national seminar Public Policies and Financing for Agroforestry Development in Brazil was held from August 18 to 20, 2004, in Brasilia. The main topics discussed in the event were: partnerships, market, food security, credit, environmental services, and legislation. The event was organized into thematic working groups tasked with the development of concrete and feasible guidelines to optimize agroforestry development in Brazil. This publication brings together the main findings of those groups, as well as the recommendations for further steps. AMA18 MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT MMA. X Reunião do BCDAM: Sistema de Bases Compartilhadas de Dados sobre a Amazônia. [10th BCDAM Meeting: Amazon Shared Database System], 2004, Porto Velho. Brasilia: MMA/SCA, p. (CD-ROM) The event was held by the Ministry of Environment in Porto Velho, state of Rondonia, June 1-3, It aimed at improving the relations between technicians from institutions that work to generate and use the data and information required to get acquainted with and monitor changes in the Amazon. Thus, it gathered for the tenth time the Coordination Committee of the Amazon Shared Database System (CCS/BCDAM), sponsored by the Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests, through AMA. The main objectives of the event were to: monitor the development, improvement and formalization of the System; consolidate partnerships and joint actions between the Amazon Coordination Secretariat (through BCDAM) and the Managing and Operational Center of the Amazon Protection System (Censipam); discuss shared problems; recommend solutions; and, establish joint actions in thematic areas. The meeting was a step forward in the process of developing and improving the Amazon Shared Database System, and enhancing integration among the collaborating institutions. AMA19 MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT MMA. Programa Piloto para a Proteção das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil: relatório de progresso, [Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests: progress report]. Brasilia: MMA/ SCA, p. The document presents an assessment of the main achievements, impacts and lessons learned in the Pilot Program for the Conservation of Brazilian Rainforests from 2001 to It also discloses some reflections about the further implementation steps within the context of strategic initiatives, like the Sustainable Amazon Plan PAS. The study involved teams from the Pilot Program and AMA. It describes the Pilot Program, citing its main objectives, institutional arrangements and projects portfolio (it also 30 31

17 presents their progress). The document shows the increasing need for stronger partnerships to overcome new challenges. However, it highlights the importance of recognizing that its activities need time to be fully implemented, and results are long-term ones, outlining a strategy for the future or new stages of the Pilot Program for the Amazon and Atlantic Forests. Another issue is the emphasis on the pursuit of strategies to protect ecosystems, together with the establishment of enabling conditions for the sustainable development of the regions involved. AMA20 MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT MMA / BRAZILIAN INSTITUTE OF MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT IBAM. Gestão Integrada de Resíduos Sólidos na Amazônia: a metodologia e os resultados de sua aplicação [Integrated Solid Waste Management in the Amazon: methodology and results]. Brasilia: MMA/SCA; Ibam, p. The project on Integrated Solid Waste Management in the Amazon was developed under coordination of the Ministry of Environment, through the Amazon Coordination Secretariat (SCA) and the Environmental Quality on Human Settlements Secretariat (SQA) from November 2001 to January 2004, with technical support from the Brazilian Municipal Administration Institute (Ibam) and resources from the Federal Government in partnership with the Dutch Government. The improper disposal of solid waste that affects not only the cities outskirts, where these are typically disposed, but mainly the large water network that has presented clear signals of damage due to the disposal of non-degradable and cumulative materials of waste, is a serious impact found in the Amazon Region environment. Hence, dully approaching the issue is an essential strategy to protect the forest, improve the population s quality of life, and regional sustainable development. Each state in the Legal Amazon appointed cities to integrate the project, based on the needs identified and potentials to host, develop and execute the project based on participatory management, and to socialize and disseminate the knowledge acquired. The short- and medium-term proposed results could be expanded to the long run, replicating the successful model in other municipalities in the Amazon region and, expanding capacity-building processes to experts in other municipalities. AMA21 MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT MMA. Monitoramento e avaliação de projetos: métodos e experiências [Project monitoring and evaluation: methods and experiences]. Brasilia: MMA/SCA, p. (Série Monitoramento & Avaliação, 1) One of the objectives pursued by the AMA Project, developed within the scope of the Pilot Program, is to strengthen the projects monitoring and evaluation systems, to allow for analysis of strategies and path adjustments, promote collective education and expand the scope of its impacts. The monitoring and evaluation system used for to generate knowledge and social learning is a powerful tool for projects to improve decision-making processes, adjusting the means of intervention. In this light, AMA delivered many capacity-building and technical advisory activities. This book ensues from the workshop on experience exchange: methods and experiences related to monitoring and evaluation held in 2002 to report how the projects were using the tools focusing on sustainable development, both within the Pilot Program and beyond. The book includes eight texts that summarize different experiences in monitoring and evaluation. Besides detailing the tools employed, the texts discuss the importance of such processes for the development of the projects. The publication intends to serve as input for building monitoring and evaluation systems. AMA22 MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT MMA. Construindo a sustentabilidade: lições aprendidas no Projeto Proteger [Building sustainability: lessons learned from the Proteger Project]. Brasilia: MMA/AMA, p. (Série Textos para Discussão, 1) The study presents a summary of the vision of AMA Project s team and collaborators on many lessons experienced during the years together with the Pilot Program partners. Some essential topics related to the outputs of the activities should be highlighted. For example, the building of Agendas for Sustainability allied to participatory processes to promote local development on sustainable grounds, and the Positive Agendas aimed at reducing deforestation indexes and recovering the areas. Among the positive lessons learned, the opportunities for shared management between federal and state bodies, local governments, and other local social actors are some of the successful examples. The importance of Ecological-Economic Zoning (EEZ) was confirmed as an essencial means to achieve regional development, and its contribution to the formulation of public policies on sustainable grounds. Regarding traditional populations, the knowledge acquired from the valuing of their knowledge regarding their surroundings is outstanding. Therefore, the conversion of innovative 32 33

18 experiences into public policies one of the main components of the Pilot Program was achieved. The results also ensue from interaction, strengthening and integration of research institutions from the Amazon region and, above all, by civil society participation. AMA23 MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT MMA / WORLD BANK. Lessons from the rain Forest: experiences of the Pilot Program to conserve the Amazon and Atlantic Forests of Brazil. Brasilia: MMA; World Bank, p. PPG-7 is a joint initiative by government and society in partnership with the international community aimed at developing strategies focusing on the protection and sustainable use of the Amazon and Atlantic Forests. It was a key factor of changes considering local populations lifestyles. After all, currently the main priority for Brazil is to reduce deforestation. The publication includes case studies on the Pilot Program components, considering subprograms and projects: for the protection and management of Conservation Units and indigenous lands, PPTAL, Resex, Atlantic Forest and Ecological Corridors Projects were implemented; experiences and demonstrations based on community initiatives ground the implementation of the PDA, ProManejo, ProVárzea and Proteger; institutional strengthening to expand environmental decentralization policies, with the participation of NGOs including SPRN, GTA and RMA; Science and Technology Subprogram to improve knowledge about ecology and sustainable rainforest management, working on the Science and Directed Research Centers; finally, regarding identification and dissemination of strategic lessons, the AMA project was implemented. Initial financing was granted by the G-7 countries, complemented by contributions by the Brazilian government and NGOs. Moreover, the World Bank managed the fund established to channel contributions, and supplied technical assistance to the program. AMA24 MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT MMA. Causas e dinâmica do desmatamento na Amazônia [Deforestation causes and dynamics in the Amazon]. Brasilia: MMA/ SCA, p. The book contains 23 articles by different authors, presented during the technical seminar Deforestation Causes and Dynamics in the Amazon held in September 2000, by the Ministry of Environment. The seminar discussed issues related to understanding the functioning of rainforests, the dynamics of its ecosystems, and the impact of economic activities on the natural resources basis, as well as initiatives adjusted to the protection of Brazilian rainforests. The first set of topics aim at discussing the economic dynamic and deforestation in the Legal Amazon region, with the contribution of Professor Bertha Beker of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro; Aristides Monteiro Neto from Ipea; Franciso de Assis Costa from NAEA; and Donald Sawyer from ISPN. Marcelo Afonso from INCRA; Telma Krug from INPE; and Humberto Candeias Cavalcanti from IBAMA discuss the links between deforestation and anthropic relations. The second set of topics are related to the environmental, economic and social consequences of deforestation in the Amazon, with contributions by Professor Enéas Salati from FBDS; Philip M. Fearnside from INPA; Carlos Nobre from Inpe; Ricardo Bomfim Machado from MMA/SBF; Emeleocípio Botelho de Andrade from Embrapa and Eugênio Arima from Imazon. The third set of topics focuses on flora protection tools, and includes Ubiracy Craveiro de Araújo from the Federal Prosecutor s Office; Alisson José Coutinho; Frederico de Moura Muller, Special Secretary for the Environment of the state of Mato Grosso; and, Roberto Smeraldi from the Amigos da Terra NGO. The last set discusses public policies, sustainable development and strategies to revert the deforestation process in Amazon with contributions by Yolanda Ramalho and Pedro Bara Netto of BNDES; Eliana Zacca from Sudam; Raimundo Deusdará Filho from MMA/SBF; Ronaldo Serôa and Mario Menezes from MMA/SBF

19 2 Ecological Corridors Ecological Corridors Project The Ecological Corridors project started in 2003, its objective was to protect large areas considered to be of exceptional biodiversity in the Amazon and Atlantic Forests. The project aims at protecting those areas by connecting and integrating the Conservation Units found at different levels - Federal, State and Municipal with private areas and indigenous lands. The work is an attempt to reduce or prevent the fragmentation of ecosystems located in those areas, connecting them through biodiversity corridors. The corridors are expected to achieve effective protection of nature, connecting protected areas and other areas with different land uses. The Project launched a new conservation paradigm, replacing the model based on isolated protected areas for the management of areas at the regional level. Rather than administrative political units, the corridors are large geographic areas defined by biological criteria for planning and conservation purposes. The criteria are based on scientific knowledge, such as the presence of key species relevant in the global, regional and local context. The priority corridors are the Atlantic Forest Central Corridor and the Amazon Central Corridor, implemented with participatory planning strategies that include Federal and State governments, civil society and those locally in charge of natural resources conservation actions. The Ecological Corridors Project has published 12 studies

20 CE1 LIMA, R. X. de. (Org.). Corredores Ecológicos: experiências em implementação de corredores ecológicos [Ecological Corridors: experiences in implementing ecological corridors]. Brasilia: MMA/SBF, p. (Série Corredores Ecológicos, 1) The publication is composed of ten articles that briefly discuss the lessons and contributions ensuing from the Ecological Corridors project experience, to provide inputs to policies on planning and land organization. The project was divided into two stages. The first one comprised investments such as Management Plans and investments in different categories of Conservation Units, purchasing equipment, supporting the assembling of councils, and the development of management plans, with emphasis on the expansion of the National Nature Conservation Units System in the territories of Amazonas, Espírito Santo and Bahia. The second phase, in turn, scheduled investments to consolidate the concept of ecological corridor. In the CCMA it relied on the participation of 200 institutions in the local socio-environmental area, and resulted in the creation of functional ecological corridors in the states of Espírito Santo and Bahia. The biological conservation tools tested as a pilot in the Central Atlantic Forest Corridor (CCMA) and in the Central Amazon Corridor (CCA) show that the MMA should establish continuity in the management of those territorial macro spaces, so that other examples of large corridors can be managed as such. CE2 MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT MMA. Corredores Ecológicos: experiência de planejamento e implementação [Ecological Corridors: experience in planning and implementation]. Brasilia: MMA/ SBF, p. This publication reports on the four years of execution of the Ecological Corridors project, considering how the establishment of partnerships between government and civil society can assist the environmental management of territories. The project aimed to conciliate natural resources conservation and economic alternatives for local populations, testing different conditions to implement the Central Atlantic Forest Corridor (CCMA) and the Amazon Central Corridor (CCA). The prioritization of the CCMA in the states of Espírito Santo and Bahia was due to the high degree of vulnerability and fragmentation of the region s ecosystems, as well as the availability of data. Regional meetings are held to learn about successful local experiences, acknowledging local actors and articulating with working groups, characterizing the participatory way as a process to legitimate the project for local society. The Integrated Plan on Inspection and Monitoring proposed to integrate the partner institutions was characterized by environmental education actions and the assembling of groups and cooperatives to carry on sustainable activities, such as ecotourism and ecological agriculture. Another measure adopted that has strengthened ecological corridors consolidation was conservation in private lands, by acknowledgement of Private Natural Heritage Reserves (RPPN) as efficient measures to ensure the insertion of isolated fragments into territorial planning for conservation and sustainable development. CE3 MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT MMA; INTERNATIONAL CONSERVATION IC; SOS MATA ATLÂNTICA FOUNDATION. O Corredor Central da Mata Atlântica: uma nova escala de conservação da biodiversidade [The Central Atlantic Forest Corridor: a new scale of biodiversity conservation]. Brasilia: MMA, p. This publication intends to assist experts and the general public to understand what ecological corridors are. The book reports the experience of the Central Atlantic Forest Corridor, which comprises an 8.5 million ha area where actions on natural resources conservation are being developed through the consolidation of Conservation Units, environmental restoration, inspection and monitoring. By showing this reality, the text emphasizes the importance of the territorial management of ecological corridors, highlighting the need for broad social participation in this process, from planning to the implementation of actions. This approach is expected to be a new and promising contribution to dynamic and integrated landscape management, thus expanding the achievements and consolidating the biodiversity conservation results in the Atlantic Forest and Brazil, assisting the Country to protect its natural heritage and fulfill the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity. CE4 MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT MMA. Documento base para a elaboração das diretrizes operacionais da Fase II do Corredor Central da Mata Atlântica (CCMA), Projeto Corredores Ecológicos. [Preliminary instructions to write the Operational guidelines for the Phase II of the Central Atlantic Forest Corridor, Ecological Corridors Project].Brasilia: MMA/ SBF, p. This document aims to lay the ground for developing operational guidelines for the Phase II of the Ecological Corridors Project. The result is a collective document that counted on a wide range of individual and institutional contributions, in addition to broad use of the literature. The text recommends actions and defines Focal Areas for Project intervention. The 38 39

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