TRANSPORT AND CARBON FINANCE

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1 TRANSPORT AND CARBON FINANCE Dr. Jürg M. Grütter ghg.com ghg.com Matching Transport with Carbon Finance TRANSPORT AND CARBON FINANCE CONTENT GRÜTTER CONSULTING TRANSPORT PROJECTS & CDM EXAMPLES & LESSONS LEARNT

2 GRÜTTER CONSULTING Design, planning and implementation of GHG transport projects worldwide since 1992 Development, negotiation and monitoring of the 1 st GHG reduction sales agreement of transport companies in Europe 1 st The 1 st approved CDM transport methodology 1 st The 1 st registered CDM transport project 1 st The 1 st registered VCS transport project Offices in Switzerland, China, India, Bolivia and partner offices in Mexico, Brasil, South Korea, and VietNam... 1 st GRÜTTER CONSULTING Current Carbon Finance Transport Projects of grütter consulting 80% of all approved CDM transport Methodologies & Projects worldwide!

3 GRÜTTER CONSULTING Transport Methodologies Large scale: MRTS, BRT, HSR, Freight (limited) plus under discussion Rail Small scale: cable car, biofuel production, electric/hybrid vehicles, various singular technology measures and soon efficiency methodology for fleets Standardized baselines: Under preparation Most useful: ACM0016 basically for metro/lrt AM0031 for BRTs New rail meth large scale Electric/hybrid vehicles New efficiency meth fleets GRÜTTER CONSULTING Scope Development of standardized baselines for transport Meth Experience GC I Status / Client On behalf of UNFCCC BRT (Bus rapid transit) methodology Approved by UNFCCC as AM0031 Mass Rapid Transit methodology (for metro, tram, LRT, BRT) consolidated Approved by UNFCCC as ACM0016 based on a bus-lane methodology and a metro methodology both proposed by grütter consulting HSR (High Speed Rail) Methodology Approved by UNFCCC as AM00101 Plant-oil production for transport usage Approved by UNFCCC as AMS.III.T Cable car methodology Approved by UNFCCC as AMS.III.U Revision and reformulation of AMSIIIC for electric vehicles Approved by UNFCCC as AMSIIIC Vs 13 Methodology for efficiency improvements in fleets Methodology for Rail Projects Development of a transport methodologies for GHG reductions in transport -Fuel switch (biofuels, gaseous fuels) -Mode switch freight and passengers -Logistics improvements -Vehicle fleet optimization -Quarry optimizations incl. conveyor belts, tunnels etc -Eco-drive Under review at the UNFCCC as SSC Under review at the UNFCCC as large scale methodology Approved by Swiss government

4 GRÜTTER CONSULTING Scope Status / Client Truck and mobile machinery efficiency methodology on behalf of CoOP Approved by the Government of British Columbia, Canada and under review at the VCS Bike methodology on behalf of CityRide Under review at VCS Methodology for assessment of CDM transport options UNDP, 2009 Reformulation of small scale CDM transport methodology for retrofit of UNFCCC, 2009 vehicles Methodology for Transit Oriented Development (TOD) World Bank, 2008 Methodology for increasing metro ridership Metro Medellin, 2008 Methodology for increasing bus occupation rates World Bank, 2008 Methodology for ethanol-diesel usage Energenics, 2008 Methodology for improving efficiency of bus fleets World Bank, 2007 Report on potential small-scale CDM transport methodologies UNFCCC, 2007 Sourcebook on CDM and transport Meth Experience GC II Appraisal of potential small-scale CDM transport methodologies UNFCCC, 2007 GTZ, 2007 (download: Guideline for transport methodologies IADB, 2006 Review of more than 30 new methodologies proposed for CDM in the UNFCCC, since 2004 transport, energy and industrial sector (lead expert) GRÜTTER CONSULTING Projects GC I Project Country Status BRT TransMilenio Bogotá Colombia Registered as CDM Project Cable Car Medellin Colombia Registered as CDM Project BRT Barranquilla Colombia Registered as CDM Project BRT Medellin Colombia Registered as CDM Project BRT MIO Cali Colombia Registered as CDM Project BRT Chongqing China Registered as CDM Project BRT Zhengzhou China Registered as CDM Project Metro Delhi India Registered as CDM Project Metro Mumbai 1 India Registered as CDM Project BRT Edomex Mexico Registered as CDM Project BRT Insurgentes Mexico Registered as CDM Project BRT Guadalajara Mexico Registered as CDM Project Production of plant-oil for usage in transport Paraguay Registered as CDM Project Westport LNG/CNG HDVs worldwide Registered as VCS project BRT Johannesburg South Africa Registered as VCS project Metro Seoul Line 9 Corea Registered as VCS project Various transport projects including: Switzerland More than 70 companies -Road to rail freight - Road to ship freight registered and selling emission -Freight optimization measures - Fuel switch projects reductions -Passenger transit projects - Vehicle fleet optimization -Building machine optimization measures

5 GRÜTTER CONSULTING Projects GC II Project Country Status Metro Mexico Line 12 Mexico In registration as CDM Project BRT Megabus Pereira Colombia In registration as CDM Project BRT Metrobus Line 2 to 21 Mexico In validation as CDM Project Metro Buenos Aires Argentina In validation as CDM Project Lohia electric vehicles India In registration as CDM Project Electrotherm electric vehicles India In registration as CDM Project EKO electric vehicles India In registration as CDM Project HERO electric vehicles India In registration as CDM Project Metro Gurgaeon India In registration as CDM Project Bharathi Freight road to rail India In validation as CDM Project Metro Mumbai Line 2 India In validation as CDM Project BRT Guatemala Guatemala In validation as CDM Project BRT Quito Ecuador In validation as CDM Project LRT/Metro Tunis Tunisia In validation as CDM Project Metro Incheon Line 2 Corea In registration as CDM Project Metro Busan Extension Line 1 Corea In registration as CDM Project Metro Daegu Line 3 Corea In registration as CDM Project Efficient truck fleets Manila Philipinnes PDD under development BRT Dhaka Bangladesh PDD under development KTX Corea Corea PDD under development Efficient bus fleets Korea PoA under development IR double tracking rail lines India PDD under development TRANSPORT AND CARBON FINANCE TRANSPORT PROJECTS Electric/hybrid vehicles BRTs Metros LRTs Cable Cars Rail... Eficiency Projects and CDM

6 TRANSPORT PROJECTS & CDM BRTs Core Issues To be a BRT at minimum a bus only lane plus another feature such as closed stations or smart ticketing should be included Not all BRTs reduce emissions Try whenever to include feeders (AM0031) ERs between 30,000 and 600,000 per annum TRANSPORT PROJECTS & CDM ERs are based on trip emissions pax would have caused in absence of the BRT Additionality problematic except if LDC or 1st of its kind Core data requirements next to FSR: SFC of modes (or use defaults) Occupation rate of modes (can also be indirect over trip distance) Example: PDD ZZ BRTs Core Issues

7 TRANSPORT PROJECTS & CDM Metros, LRTs, Cable Cars and CDM TRANSPORT PROJECTS & CDM Metros, LRTs, Cable Cars: Core Issues Needs a lot of passengers to reduce sufficient emissions: see Busan Must be new line. Less than 30km new metro is not worthwhile Always much less pax than projected ERs are based on trip emissions pax would have caused in absence of the MRTS but as indicator emissions per PKM and not per trip ERs between 10,000 and 600,000 t per annum Additionality very problematic except if LDC or 1st of its kind Core data requirements next to FSR: SFC of modes (or use defaults) Occupation rate of modes Example: PDD Tunis

8 TRANSPORT PROJECTS & CDM Electric vehicles and CDM TRANSPORT PROJECTS & CDM Electric vehicles Core Issues Market: electric motorcycles and 3 wheelers or hybrid fleets (min. 100 trucks/buses or 1,000 taxis, cars) Needs a lot of vehicles Sensitive to grid factor. Max. grid factor of 0.8kgCO2/kwh otherwise electric vehicles have comparable emissions to gasoline ones ERs between 10 30,000 per annum ERs are based on relative emissions electric to gasoline (motorcycle) Additionality simple based on market penetration rate. Core data requirement SFC of baseline vehicle Example: PDD Hero

9 TRANSPORT PROJECTS & CDM Rail and CDM TRANSPORT PROJECTS & CDM Rail Core Issues New meth for new rail tracks Minimum 100km new track Can be operated by diesel, electric, coal train Freight or pax transport Methodology not yet approved Good potential and fairly large projects Needs information on pax and types of goods transported ER basically based on rail versus road See example PDD IR

10 TRANSPORT PROJECTS & CDM Efficiency Projects TRANSPORT PROJECTS & CDM Efficiency Projects Core Issues Fleets: Easiest bus fleet Efficiency improvements including ecodrive, tyres, hybrids, oils, etc Dynamic baseline: comparable group of vehicles without measure is monitored and project is monitored; difference = ER Core issue is if these measures really reduce SFC Additionality relatively simple with market penetration rate Monitoring relatively complex

11 TRANSPORT PROJECTS & CDM STANDARDIZED BASELINES Regional scope e.g. LDC and Asia (except India, China, Indonesia) Pre established number for baseline; guideline gives path to determine baseline factors Additionality based on benchmark Indicators: gco 2 /pkm ; gco 2 /tkm ; gco 2 /km POAs Not really much advantages but far more complex also legally Perhaps for efficient fleets NAMAs Still unclear if and how Similar discussions since years with sectoral approach, programmtic approach etc. Problems of benchmark, geographical scope etc are significant EXAMPLE: BRT Zhengzhou The Project City of 3.5 million people BRT including feeders has around 2 million passengers per day 32 km of ring trunk road exclusively for buses used by 12 BRT routes 130 feeder routes 400 trunk and around 3,000 feeder buses On trunk routes articulated diesel buses On feeder routes large diesel, CNG, some diesel hybrids and electric battery buses

12 EXAMPLE: BRT Zhengzhou CDM Uses AM0031 The project was registered 06/2011 (2nd registered transport project in China after BRT Chongqing, also by GC) 1st issuance of CERs end 2012 Around 200,000 tcers per annum Problems: Validation took 2 years due to validator (Germanischer Lloyd) Data collection for monitoring, especially fuel consumption, at start not easy due to lack of QA Success: operational, generates credits, growing in size EXAMPLE: Metro Delhi The Project City of 14 million inhabitants Project includes only phase II 102 km of metro with 11 lines Around 1.1 million passengers per day Passengers take metro instead of car, taxi, rickshaw, bus

13 EXAMPLE: Metro Delhi Uses ACM0016 CDM The project was registered 06/2011 (1st metro project worldwide) Since 08/2011 fully operational all lines 1st issuance of CERs end 2012 Around 500,000 tcers per annum Problems: Validation 1st TUEV North and after 1 year changed to SQS as TUEV North was completely incapable of even writing CLs or CARs. SQS then validated. Costly monitoring (survey, leakage) Success: operational, generates credits, growing in size EXAMPLE: Electric Scooters The Project Electric scooters in all over India Speed range of scooters: km/h Distance range: km Power: 250 1,800 Watt 2,000 3,000 sold scooters per month per project (gasoline around 400,000 scooters per month) Even with grid of 0.9kg CO2 /kwh in India electric scooters are still more efficient that gasoline ones in terms of CO2 emissions Baseline: gasoline scooters Market share electric scooters in India: < 1% (additionality base)

14 EXAMPLE: Electric Scooters Uses AMSIIIC (small scale) First electric vehicle projects worldwide 4 projects around producers (Hero, EKO, electrotherm, Lohia) In registration all 4; around 30,000 tcers per annum per project 1st issuance of CERs end 2013 Problems: CDM Validation 1st TUEV North: TUEV was not capable of a report after around 3 years; Complaint to UNFCCC; Icontec then validated. Needs a lot of scooters, especially in India due to high grid factor Success:Projects finally in registration EXAMPLE: Rail Mode share passenger transit India 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% road rail

15 EXAMPLE: Rail The Projects High Speed Rail KTX Korea Seoul Mokpo 300km/h operating speed 232 km new line Without KTX many passengers would have used the plane Conventional rail Double tracking in India including various lines Line Daund Gulbarga is double tracking of 235km Diesel and electric part Passenger and freight 50% of freight is cement 10 million tkm per day freight 30 million pkm per day passenger Around 60 trains per day EXAMPLE: Rail CDM HSR: Methodology approved by UNFCCC PDD under development Around 200,000 tcers per annum Operational 2016 Difficulty: additionality Conventional Rail: Made on behalf of ADB Methodology under discussion at the UNFCCC; expected approval end 2012 Daund line around 450,000 tcers per annum Difficulty: data baseline on road transport Success: large impact of project Rail is if based on diesel or electric far more efficient than road

16 TRANSPORT AND CARBON FINANCE Thank you very much! Dr. Jürg M. Grütter ghg.com ghg.com

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