A fuel efficient vehicle fleet for Victoria WHAT THE VICTORIAN GOVERNMENT CAN DO

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "A fuel efficient vehicle fleet for Victoria WHAT THE VICTORIAN GOVERNMENT CAN DO"

Transcription

1 A fuel efficient vehicle fleet for Victoria WHAT THE VICTORIAN GOVERNMENT CAN DO

2 2 I A FUEL EFFICIENT VEHICLE FLEET FOR VICTORIA I WHAT THE VICTORIAN GOVERNMENT CAN DO Executive Summary Key Points The transport sector is Victoria s second largest greenhouse polluter totaling 19.3 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent in New cars purchased in Australia are approximately 41 percent more polluting than new cars purchased in the European Union. The average rate of fuel consumption in Australian vehicles has hardly changed since The NRMA-commissioned Jamison Group found in 2008 that compulsory fuel consumption standards could save the average motorist over $700 a year in fuel costs Strong mandatory vehicle fuel efficiency standards will be very important in driving vehicle fuel efficiency in Australia. However, international experience shows that standards are most effective when coupled with strong complementary measures. The Victorian Government s Green Light Report 2008 found that 84 percent of Victorians supported rewarding owners of efficient vehicles through complementary mechanisms such as registration. The Victorian Transport Plan includes over $38 billion worth of funding, but just percent of the budget is dedicated to lowering vehicle emissions. With $21 billion plus pledged for upgrading/building/planning new roads, the government s focus on road building with the justification that less polluting cars will be using them is simply not a realistic approach. The Victorian Government has a significant role to play in both advocating nationally for strong mandatory vehicle efficiency standards, as well as driving the uptake of efficient vehicles through policy and budget levers under their control. Recommendations 1. That the Victorian Government aggressively advocate the introduction of mandatory vehicle fuel efficiency standards to achieve a fleet average of 5L per 100km or better, for all new cars sold in Australia by This is in line with world s best practice in Japan and the European Union. 2. Introduce a sliding scale for car registration and stamp duty fees to provide further incentive for the purchase of low emission vehicles, and a disincentive against the purchase of vehicles with poor environmental performance. This should be introduced by the end of This would include a concession for fuel efficient vehicles and a levy on new inefficient and heavy vehicles. Further, the Victorian Government should also seek to: 3. Commit to purchase low emissions vehicles for its fleet, and to work with other state, federal and local government agencies, as well as business and industry to assist those agencies introduce similar efficiency targets for vehicle fleets. 4. Work with the federal government to ensure strong, on-going incentives for the local manufacture of fuel efficient vehicles, and to remove any perverse incentives.

3 3 I A FUEL EFFICIENT VEHICLE FLEET FOR VICTORIA I WHAT THE VICTORIAN GOVERNMENT CAN DO Introduction Climate change is a critical challenge for the Brumby Government. The transport sector is Victoria s second largest greenhouse polluter totaling 19.3 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent in But there are strong opportunities to achieve substantial savings in both greenhouse emissions and the budgets of working families. In November 2008 Environment Victoria released a detailed report, Turning it around: climate solu ons for Victoria completed by The Nous Group, which demonstrated that Victoria could cut its greenhouse gas emissions by 54 percent by 2020, based on 1990 levels. The study used the same model, methodology and consultants as an earlier study released by Premier Brumby at his Premier s Climate Summit in 2008, however modeled deeper and faster emissions reductions. The study found that it was possible to slash Victoria s emissions from transport by 9 million tonnes by 2020, and 16 million tonnes by but only with immediate action from government. The analysis identified vehicle fuel efficiency could contribute the strongest emissions reductions from the transport sector. While many of the decisions related to vehicle efficiency will be driven by the Federal Government, there are key roles for the Victorian Government to play in both advocating for strong mandatory vehicle efficiency standards nationally, and implementing policies at the state level that will both support the uptake of efficient vehicles and encourage adjustment across the automotive manufacturing industry.

4 4 I A FUEL EFFICIENT VEHICLE FLEET FOR VICTORIA I WHAT THE VICTORIAN GOVERNMENT CAN DO The need for mandatory vehicle efficiency standards Vehicle fuel efficiency is repeatedly cited as some of the low hanging fruit of climate change action - i.e. one of the more painless and obvious ways to reduce our greenhouse emissions. Despite this, Australia is yet to take the necessary steps to ensure these easy savings of greenhouse emissions are achieved. In tough economic times there are many actions the government can take to both reduce our greenhouse emissions and save consumers much needed dollars for the family budget. Analysis conducted by the NRMA-commissioned Jamison Group in 2008 found compulsory fuel consumption standards could save the average motorist over $700 a year in fuel costs. As petrol prices continue to rise, so too will this potential saving to Australian families. have recognised the need for a strong mandatory standard to drive the level of change required and keep their industries competitive internationally. Within the OECD Japan, South Korea, the USA and European Union all have mandatory standards for vehicle fuel efficiency, and China joins these nations with its own stringent fuel consumption regulations. The European Union, for example, has a mandatory emissions limit that will see the average emissions of new passenger cars in the EU reduce to 130g of CO2 per km by This policy is reinforced with monetary penalties for non-compliance. Australia s performance on fuel efficiency standards compares badly to the rest of the world. The Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries advises that in 2009 new Australian made passenger vehicles averaged 218g of carbon dioxide (CO2) per km, or put differently, 9.6L of fuel to travel 100km 2. This is approximately 41 percent higher than for new passenger vehicles in the European Union. Australia s existing vehicle fleet in 2007 had an average fuel consumption of 11.5L per 100km 3 - approximately the same as it was when figures were first collected in While Australia has relied on weak voluntary standards, other countries

5 5 I A FUEL EFFICIENT VEHICLE FLEET FOR VICTORIA I WHAT THE VICTORIAN GOVERNMENT CAN DO The role of the Victorian Government in achieving a strong mandatory fuel efficiency target for new vehicles The Council of Australian Governments (COAG) is currently undertaking a Regulatory Impact Statement (RIS) to assess the costs and benefits of introducing CO2 emission standards for light vehicles. COAG will then make a final decision on what the standard will be, and whether such standards should be voluntary or mandatory. Although national fuel efficiency standards are the responsibility of the federal government, the Victorian Government has a key role to play driving this process forward through COAG. Environment Victoria recommends that the Victorian Government advocate strongly through COAG for a mandatory standard that will achieve a fleet average of 5L per 100km (114g CO2/km) or better for all new cars sold in Australia by 2015, bringing Australian vehicle standards in line with European and Japanese standards by this date.

6 6 I A FUEL EFFICIENT VEHICLE FLEET FOR VICTORIA I WHAT THE VICTORIAN GOVERNMENT CAN DO Complementary policies - driving support for efficient vehicles International experience has shown that to make mandatory fuel efficiency standards more effective, secondary measures that stimulate demand for fuel efficient vehicles are required. Environment Victoria believes the Victorian Government can and must play a key role in delivering strong reductions in Victoria s greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector, via these secondary measures. While some moves have been made by the state government towards efficient vehicles through the Victorian Transport Plan, more can and needs to be done. These complementary measures can include policies and incentives such as subsidies, tax cuts, registration concessions and levies, education and behaviour change campaigns (for individuals as well as fleet purchasers), and government fleet purchase decisions. For example, Japan supports its strong mandatory efficiency standards with a range of subsidies and tax cuts. In April 2009 Japan s top selling car, for the first time, was a hybrid. This performance was repeated the following month. Key to the hybrid s success was subsidies and tax cuts for fuel efficient vehicles which were a part of Japan s stimulus package 4 ; however tax reduction incentives for fuel efficient vehicles have existed in Japan since The taxes are based on the gross weight and engine displacement of vehicles, when purchased and registered, which promote the purchase of lighter vehicles with smaller engines - saving consumers in the realm of US$4000 over the life of the car. Meanwhile if motorists own a hybrid in the UK their road tax bill will be just 15, but if they have a 4WD it will be 400 under a system that has been in place since This model has been further improved in the UK as of April 2010, with the introduction of a new first year rate that could be as much as 950 for the most polluting cars 6. This acts as a larger disincentive for inefficient vehicles at the point of purchase. China also has in place progressive taxation laws directed at both automakers and consumers, which reduces the cost of selling and purchasing vehicles with smaller engines. In China today, fuel efficient vehicles are subject to a 1 percent sales tax whilst sports cars and 4WDs attract a 40 percent sales tax 7. In the US, the Gas Guzzler Tax, enacted in 1978, is assessed on new passenger cars that do not meet the required fuel economy standards 8. Victoria doesn t yet have any similar incentive for efficient vehicles. However, the Victorian Government s Green Light Report 2008 found that 84 percent of Victorians supported rewarding owners of efficient vehicles through mechanisms such as registration 9. By making fuel efficient vehicles more financially attractive to customers through measures such as those mentioned above, demand for fuel efficient vehicles would be stimulated. As mentioned above, the Victorian Government has shown some support for efficient vehicles through the recent Victorian Transport Plan - the state government s blueprint for transport infrastructure and growth in

7 7 I A FUEL EFFICIENT VEHICLE FLEET FOR VICTORIA I WHAT THE VICTORIAN GOVERNMENT CAN DO Victoria for 2020 and beyond. The plan includes a $5 million program to increase the use of low emission vehicles. The program aims to achieve mandatory carbon emissions targets for state government fleets, encourage commercial fleets to do likewise, and support small-scale trials of emerging technologies, such as electric vehicles 10. Its inclusion is an important acknowledgment that the state government has a role to play in generating the shift to a more fuel efficient vehicle fleet, but it is not enough. The program is neither widespread nor deep enough to achieve the cuts in emissions required by this sector within the next decade and beyond. For the greenhouse savings demonstrated in Turning it around to be achieved, decisive action needs to be taken immediately by the Victorian Government. In particular, the Victorian Transport Plan states the Victorian Government will encourage the uptake of low emission vehicles through its fleet, however this is a secondary priority under the current government commitment to buy locally manufactured vehicles. Although it s a positive step that the government has stated it will set a mandatory target for lowering the emissions of its vehicle fleet, the fact that Australia s car manufacturers currently produce predominantly medium-large vehicles will undermine this, unless action is taken to address what cars Australia produces. A recent federal government discussion paper reported that 75 percent of Australian made vehicles are sold into vehicle fleets, with government purchases making up 45 percent of these 11. Government fleet purchase decisions can therefore send a strong signal to the Australian car manufacturing industry. Small cars are overwhelmingly favoured by the Australian car-buyer 12 so there are additional benefits of the Victorian Government working with the local car manufacturing industry to encourage the local production of smaller, more fuel efficient vehicles. With 86 percent of Victoria s transport emissions coming from cars, vans and trucks, the Victorian Government must focus on ways to make these vehicles more fuel efficient. The Victorian Transport Plan includes over $38 billion worth of programs and infrastructure - but with just $5 million, or percent, of the budget dedicated to lowering vehicle emissions and $21 billion plus pledged for upgrading/building/planning new roads, the Brumby Government s focus on road building with the justification that less polluting cars will be using them is simply not a realistic approach.

8 8 I A FUEL EFFICIENT VEHICLE FLEET FOR VICTORIA I WHAT THE VICTORIAN GOVERNMENT CAN DO Recommendations If Victoria is serious about moving its vehicle fleet into the 21st century and achieving the greenhouse savings available in this sector, then the state government should: Aggressively advocate the introduction of national mandatory vehicle fuel efficiency standards to achieve a fleet average of 5L per 100km or better, for all new cars sold in Australia by 2015 The Jamison Group, convened by the NRMA after their Alternative Fuel Summit in 2006, proposes Australia should adopt mandatory standards in staged increments to 2015, when a standard of 5L per 100km or better be required. This is in line with world s best practice in the Japanese and European Union markets. Introduce car registration and stamp duty fees to provide further incentive for the purchase of low emission vehicles, and a disincentive against the purchase of vehicles with poor environmental performance. This should be introduced by the end of This would include: A concession for fuel efficient vehicles A levy on new inefficient and heavy vehicles Commit to purchase low emissions vehicles for its fleet The Victorian Government should introduce a vehicle fuel efficiency target as committed in the Victorian Transport Plan for government vehicle fleets by the end of 2010 that strengthens over time. This would influence the purchasing decisions of government fleet managers, and indicate the direction that vehicle fleet decisions are moving in to Australian manufacturers. The Victorian Government should work with other state, federal and local government agencies, as well as business and industry to assist those agencies introduce similar efficiency targets for vehicle fleets with the intention of influencing local manufacturers. The Victorian Government should also work with local manufacturers to assist them move toward manufacturing of efficient vehicles Cleaning up the government s vehicle fleet has a carry-on benefit to the buyers of second hand vehicles. As vehicle fleets experience comparatively high turnover, many of the vehicles in the second hand car market are from government and private fleets. If fleets were made more efficient, this would flow through as a economic benefit to those of low socio-economic background accessing the second hand car market. Work with the federal government to ensure strong, on-going incentives for the local manufacture of fuel efficient vehicles The Green Car Innovation Fund is a good example, which led to Victoria securing the regional manufacture of Toyota s hybrid Camry from however more is required. Work with the federal government to remove perverse incentives for the local manufacture and importation of fuel inefficient vehicles

9 9 I A FUEL EFFICIENT VEHICLE FLEET FOR VICTORIA I WHAT THE VICTORIAN GOVERNMENT CAN DO References 1 territory_inventoryv.pdf pg E5Q 5 transportintheuk, and briefings/snbt pdf, pg pdf, pg Victorian Government, Green Light Report, pg Australian Transport Council and EPHC Vehicle Efficiency Working Group, Vehicle Fuel Efficiency, p. 12, September

Vehicle fuel efficiency standards for Australia WHY, WHAT AND WHEN?

Vehicle fuel efficiency standards for Australia WHY, WHAT AND WHEN? Vehicle fuel efficiency standards for Australia WHY, WHAT AND WHEN? 2 I VEHICLE FUEL EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR AUSTRALIA I WHY, WHAT AND WHEN? Executive Summary Key Points Transport is the second largest

More information

Submission to Environment and Communications Legislation Committee

Submission to Environment and Communications Legislation Committee Submission to Environment and Communications Legislation Committee Inquiry into the Motor Vehicle Standards (Cheaper Transport) Bill 2014 Dr Anna Mortimore Griffith University Business School University

More information

Canadian Automotive Fuel Economy Policy Regulatory Policies Economic Instruments Labeling References

Canadian Automotive Fuel Economy Policy Regulatory Policies Economic Instruments Labeling References Canadian Automotive Fuel Economy Policy Regulatory Policies Economic Instruments Labeling References 1.1Background Vehicles in Canada are required to comply with emission standards for a defined full useful

More information

An evaluation of the UK s shift to CO 2 based Company Car Taxation

An evaluation of the UK s shift to CO 2 based Company Car Taxation Taxation of Company Cars Workshop An evaluation of the UK s shift to CO 2 based Company Car Taxation Stephen Potter Professor of Transport Strategy and member of the UK Green Fiscal Commission Context

More information

Key Solutions CO₂ assessment

Key Solutions CO₂ assessment GE Capital Key Solutions CO₂ assessment CO₂ emissions from company car fleets across Europe s major markets between 2008 and 2010 www.gecapital.eu/fleet Contents Introduction and key findings Reduction

More information

Reducing CO2 Emissions from New Cars: A Study of Major Car Manufacturers' Progress in 2006. November 2007

Reducing CO2 Emissions from New Cars: A Study of Major Car Manufacturers' Progress in 2006. November 2007 Reducing CO2 Emissions from New Cars: A Study of Major Car Manufacturers' Progress in 2006 November 2007 1 Reducing CO2 Emissions from New Cars: A Study of Major Car Manufacturers' Progress in 2006 November

More information

CLEANER CAR REBATE Improving the efficiency of our vehicle fleet

CLEANER CAR REBATE Improving the efficiency of our vehicle fleet 1 Cleaner Car Rebate CLEANER CAR REBATE The Gillard Labor Government will provide $394 million to support motorists to purchase new, low-emission, fuel-efficient vehicles. Households will be able to receive

More information

RACQ S POLICY POSITION ON A CARBON PRICE AND FUEL

RACQ S POLICY POSITION ON A CARBON PRICE AND FUEL Carbon Price on Fuel Position Statement 28 March 211 RACQ S POLICY POSITION ON A CARBON PRICE AND FUEL Summary The Australian Government intends to reduce carbon emissions, including through the implementation

More information

Global Light-duty Vehicles: Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards

Global Light-duty Vehicles: Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards International Council on Clean Transportation Global Passenger Vehicles Program April 2011 Update Global Light-duty Vehicles: Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards The ICCT developed a methodology

More information

carbon footprinting a guide for fleet managers

carbon footprinting a guide for fleet managers carbon footprinting a guide for fleet managers Introduction For some organisations, carbon footprinting is perceived to be about reducing emissions purely for environmental reasons. But it is primarily

More information

Commercial vehicles and CO 2

Commercial vehicles and CO 2 Commercial vehicles and European Automobile Manufacturers Association ACEA position Fuel Efficiency is Market Driven Fuel efficiency is one of the most important competitive factors in developing and selling

More information

Fleet Selection Detailed Guide

Fleet Selection Detailed Guide Fleet Selection Detailed Guide Version Control No Date Comment 1 December 2009 Original version 2 May 2010 Minor word changes Fleet Selection Detailed Guide Page 1 of 8 THE FLEET DECISION Introduction

More information

How Clean is Your Car Brand?

How Clean is Your Car Brand? How Clean is Your Car Brand? The car industry's commitment to the EU to reduce CO 2 emissions: a brand-by-brand progress report October 2006 How Clean is Your Car Brand? The car industry's commitment to

More information

Car CO2 taxation and it s impact on the British car fleet

Car CO2 taxation and it s impact on the British car fleet Car CO2 taxation and it s impact on the British car fleet Ministry of Industry and Information Technology International Council on Clean Transportation Vehicle Fuel Consumption Regulation and Fiscal Policy

More information

Submission to the Review of Australia s Future Tax System

Submission to the Review of Australia s Future Tax System Submission to the Review of Australia s Future Tax System March 2009 Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries Level 6, 10 Rudd Street Canberra ACT 2600 Phone: +61 2 6247 3811 Facsimile: +61 2 6248 7673

More information

NATIONAL PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY

NATIONAL PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY NATIONAL PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY Council of Australian Governments An agreement between the Commonwealth of Australia and the States and Territories, being: The State of New South Wales

More information

Reducing CO2 emissions from cars and vans. Backgrounder

Reducing CO2 emissions from cars and vans. Backgrounder Reducing CO2 emissions from cars and vans Backgrounder May 2015 SUMMARY a. The automobile industry in Europe has invested heavily in innovations designed to bring down significantly the CO2 emissions from

More information

THE UK CLIMATE CHANGE PROGRAMME AND EXAMPLES OF BEST PRACTICE. Gabrielle Edwards United Kingdom

THE UK CLIMATE CHANGE PROGRAMME AND EXAMPLES OF BEST PRACTICE. Gabrielle Edwards United Kingdom Workshop on Best Practices in Policies and Measures, 11 13 April 2000, Copenhagen THE UK CLIMATE CHANGE PROGRAMME AND EXAMPLES OF BEST PRACTICE Gabrielle Edwards United Kingdom Abstract: The UK published

More information

Global Trends in Passenger Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards

Global Trends in Passenger Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards Global Trends in Passenger Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards Drew Kodjak, Executive Director GFEI Fuel Economy Symposium Ministry of Foreign Affairs & International Development 27 rue de la Convention, Paris

More information

VEHICLE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARD - REPORT BACK

VEHICLE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARD - REPORT BACK Chair Cabinet Economic Growth and Infrastructure Committee Office of the Minister of Transport VEHICLE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARD - REPORT BACK Proposal 1. As directed by Cabinet in February 2009 [CAB Min (09)

More information

LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL PANEL ON ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS. Proposals to Tighten Emission Standards of Newly Registered Vehicles

LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL PANEL ON ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS. Proposals to Tighten Emission Standards of Newly Registered Vehicles For discussion on 27 November 2015 CB(1)180/15-16(03) LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL PANEL ON ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS Proposals to Tighten Emission Standards of Newly Registered Vehicles PURPOSE This paper consults

More information

sustainable gains in energy policy. While the report addresses energy policies comprehensively, the following sections highlight these three topics.

sustainable gains in energy policy. While the report addresses energy policies comprehensively, the following sections highlight these three topics. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 01 A small, somewhat isolated country, Finland takes a balanced view of its energy policy, taking advantage of its situation wherever possible. Where it can leverage its location and

More information

Brazil s Developing Automotive Fuel Economy Policy 1.1 Background

Brazil s Developing Automotive Fuel Economy Policy 1.1 Background Brazil s Developing Automotive Fuel Economy Policy 1.1 Background Brazil s heavy use of flex fuel vehicles and production of ethanol make it both a regional and global frontrunner in cleaner fuels and

More information

IMPROVING THE FUEL EFFICIENCY OF THE VICTORIAN GOVERNMENT S PASSENGER VEHICLE FLEET

IMPROVING THE FUEL EFFICIENCY OF THE VICTORIAN GOVERNMENT S PASSENGER VEHICLE FLEET IMPROVING THE FUEL EFFICIENCY OF THE VICTORIAN GOVERNMENT S PASSENGER VEHICLE FLEET February 2016 About us In 2009, The Myer Foundation and Monash University realised that Australia needed a new approach

More information

DESIGNING AN EMISSIONS STANDARD FOR AUSTRALIA

DESIGNING AN EMISSIONS STANDARD FOR AUSTRALIA 55 DESIGNING AN EMISSIONS STANDARD FOR AUSTRALIA 5 The Authority proposes a standard that would apply from 2018 and be designed with a simple set of features to promote environmental effectiveness, policy

More information

Australian Automobile Association. Submission to: Light vehicle CO2 emission standards for Australia. Key Issues Discussion Paper

Australian Automobile Association. Submission to: Light vehicle CO2 emission standards for Australia. Key Issues Discussion Paper Constituent Members: Australian Automobile Association Submission to: Light vehicle CO2 emission standards for Australia Key Issues Discussion Paper December 2011 The Australian Automobile Association

More information

Potential Early Adopters of Electric Vehicles in Victoria. Justin Rorke

Potential Early Adopters of Electric Vehicles in Victoria. Justin Rorke Potential Early Adopters of Electric Vehicles in Victoria Justin Rorke Electric Vehicles What is an Electric Vehicle? Electric motor & battery storage from mild hybrid to 100% electric drive Immature technology,

More information

Philippines Developing Automotive Fuel Economy Policy Regulatory Policies Economic Instruments Labeling References

Philippines Developing Automotive Fuel Economy Policy Regulatory Policies Economic Instruments Labeling References Philippines Developing Automotive Fuel Economy Policy Regulatory Policies Economic Instruments Labeling References 1.2 Background Motorization rates (in terms of vehicle ownership per 1000 people) in ASEAN

More information

Ensuring a Continued Policy for Promoting Renewable Energy U.S. Carbon Cap-And-Trade and Renewable Energy Certificates: A Preliminary Discussion

Ensuring a Continued Policy for Promoting Renewable Energy U.S. Carbon Cap-And-Trade and Renewable Energy Certificates: A Preliminary Discussion saines & jacobson 31 Ensuring a Continued Policy for Promoting Renewable Energy U.S. Carbon Cap-And-Trade and Renewable Energy Certificates: A Preliminary Discussion Richard Saines, Baker & McKenzie; REIL

More information

Saving energy, growing jobs

Saving energy, growing jobs Saving energy, growing jobs Victoria s energy efficiency and productivity statement June 2015 Contents Minister s foreword 1 Why energy efficiency matters for Victorians 2 Our plan for energy efficiency

More information

Making car taxes work for the environment

Making car taxes work for the environment Making car taxes work for the environment T&E position paper on the Proposal for a Council Directive on passenger car related taxes (COM(2005)261 final) T&E, Brussels, December 2005 Summary of T&E s position

More information

Overview of vehicle taxation schemes (including incentives for electric vehicles), 2014. Content: 1. National vehicle taxation schemes Overview...

Overview of vehicle taxation schemes (including incentives for electric vehicles), 2014. Content: 1. National vehicle taxation schemes Overview... Overview of vehicle taxation schemes (including incentives for electric vehicles), 2014 Content: 1. National vehicle taxation schemes Overview... 2 2. National vehicle taxation schemes Description... 4

More information

Regulation of Fluorinated Gases in Automotive Air Conditioning Systems in the European Union

Regulation of Fluorinated Gases in Automotive Air Conditioning Systems in the European Union From MAC Summit in Brussels to SAE Symposium in Phoenix: Regulation of Fluorinated Gases in Automotive Air Conditioning Systems in the European Union Matti Vainio European Commission Environment Directorate-General

More information

Summary of the Impact assessment for a 2030 climate and energy policy framework

Summary of the Impact assessment for a 2030 climate and energy policy framework Summary of the Impact assessment for a 2030 climate and energy policy framework Contents Overview a. Drivers of electricity prices b. Jobs and growth c. Trade d. Energy dependence A. Impact assessment

More information

What does an early ETS mean for businesses?

What does an early ETS mean for businesses? What does an early ETS mean for businesses? An early transition to an emissions trading scheme from 1 July 2014 will benefit businesses through a reduction in electricity and gas bills. Small businesses

More information

World Energy Outlook 2007: China and India Insights. www.worldenergyoutlook.org International Energy Agency

World Energy Outlook 2007: China and India Insights. www.worldenergyoutlook.org International Energy Agency World Energy Outlook 27: China and India Insights www.worldenergyoutlook.org International Energy Agency Why Focus on China & India? Increase in World Primary Energy Demand, Imports & Energy-Related CO

More information

Adelaide City Council Administration Submission to the Ministerial Forum on Vehicle Emissions April 2016

Adelaide City Council Administration Submission to the Ministerial Forum on Vehicle Emissions April 2016 Adelaide City Council Administration Submission to the Ministerial Forum on Vehicle Emissions April 2016 This submission has been prepared by Adelaide City Council Administration based on existing Council

More information

ICCT mission and activities

ICCT mission and activities Global Best Practices in Fuel Efficiency Policies Anup Bandivadekar CSE Workshop on Transport and Climate 24-25 July 2013, New Delhi ICCT mission and activities The mission of ICCT is to dramatically improve

More information

INNOVATION AUSTRALIA ANNUAL REPORT SECTION 1 HIGHLIGHTS

INNOVATION AUSTRALIA ANNUAL REPORT SECTION 1 HIGHLIGHTS INNOVATION AUSTRALIA ANNUAL REPORT 2009 10 SECTION 1 HIGHLIGHTS R&D TAX CONCESSION The R&D Tax Concession is the Australian Government s principal mechanism to encourage private sector funded research

More information

4. The role of fleets and fleet managers Role of REC?

4. The role of fleets and fleet managers Role of REC? 4. The role of fleets and fleet managers Role of REC? 79% 5% 44% To grow by 50% by 2010 over 1998 Role of Fleets - Changing operating environment: national, local government incentives, disincentives -

More information

How vehicle fuel economy improvements can save $2 trillion and help fund a long-term transition to plug-in vehicles Working Paper 9

How vehicle fuel economy improvements can save $2 trillion and help fund a long-term transition to plug-in vehicles Working Paper 9 How vehicle fuel economy improvements can save $2 trillion and help fund a long-term transition to plug-in vehicles Working Paper 9 UNEP How vehicle fuel economy improvements can save $2 trillion and help

More information

LIGHT VEHICLE EMISSIONS STANDARDS FOR AUSTRALIA RESEARCH REPORT JUNE 2014

LIGHT VEHICLE EMISSIONS STANDARDS FOR AUSTRALIA RESEARCH REPORT JUNE 2014 LIGHT VEHICLE EMISSIONS STANDARDS FOR AUSTRALIA RESEARCH REPORT JUNE 2014 LIGHT VEHICLE EMISSIONS STANDARDS FOR AUSTRALIA RESEARCH REPORT JUNE 2014 Published by the Climate Change Authority www.climatechangeauthority.gov.au

More information

Tax benefits for ultra low emission vehicles

Tax benefits for ultra low emission vehicles k0 Tax benefits for ultra low emission vehicles Ultra low emission vehicles (ULEVs) are vehicles that produce less than 75g of carbon dioxide (CO2) for every kilometre travelled. Both private and business

More information

London s Ultra Low Emission Zone. Elliot Treharne Air Quality Manager May 2014

London s Ultra Low Emission Zone. Elliot Treharne Air Quality Manager May 2014 London s Ultra Low Emission Zone Elliot Treharne Air Quality Manager May 2014 Contents History of air pollution in London The challenge: 2010 and 2020 What the Mayor is doing to tackle emissions Ultra

More information

CO2-reduction from cars though tax restructuring

CO2-reduction from cars though tax restructuring , director CO2-reduction from cars though tax restructuring Skodsborg, 28 August 2012 Differentiated registration tax Registration tax is effective influences the number of cars If differentiated, also

More information

WORKSHOP ON GLOBAL FUEL ECONOMY INITIATIVE TOPIC: MOTOR VEHICLES RELATED TAXES

WORKSHOP ON GLOBAL FUEL ECONOMY INITIATIVE TOPIC: MOTOR VEHICLES RELATED TAXES WORKSHOP ON GLOBAL FUEL ECONOMY INITIATIVE TOPIC: MOTOR VEHICLES RELATED TAXES BY Mahen Bheekhee Lead Analyst Ministry of Finance and Economic Development July 2013 POLICY OBJECTIVES FOR IMPOSING TAXES

More information

Key Solutions CO2 Assessment

Key Solutions CO2 Assessment GE Capital Key Solutions CO2 Assessment CO2 emissions from company cars across Europe s major markets between 2008 and 2012 GE imagination at work Contents Introduction and key findings 4 European overview

More information

Why Some Fuel-Efficient Vehicles Are Not Sold Domestically

Why Some Fuel-Efficient Vehicles Are Not Sold Domestically Why Some Fuel-Efficient Vehicles Are Not Sold Domestically Bill Canis Specialist in Industrial Organization and Business August 17, 2012 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress

More information

Move forward fuel efficiency policy in Thailand

Move forward fuel efficiency policy in Thailand The ASEAN German Technical Cooperation Programme Cities, Environment and Transport Move forward fuel efficiency policy in Thailand Alex Körner alex_koerner@gmx.de March 28 Bangkok Content Introduction

More information

Review of the Energy Savings Scheme. Position Paper

Review of the Energy Savings Scheme. Position Paper Review of the Energy Savings Scheme Position Paper October 2015 Contents Executive summary... 3 Energy Savings Scheme Review Report package... 3 Expanding to gas... 3 Target, penalties and duration...

More information

Cleantech in China The road to increasing electric vehicle adoption

Cleantech in China The road to increasing electric vehicle adoption www.pwc.com/cleantech Cleantech in China The road to increasing electric vehicle adoption March 2013 China has held the title of world s largest auto market since 2009, when it surpassed the U.S. with

More information

Review of the Australian Automotive Manufacturing Industry

Review of the Australian Automotive Manufacturing Industry 3 December 2013 Mr Mike Woods Deputy Chairman Productivity Commission LB2 Collins Street East MELBOURNE VIC 8003 By email: automotive@pc.gov.au Dear Mr Woods, Review of the Australian motive Manufacturing

More information

4. The role of fleets and fleet managers

4. The role of fleets and fleet managers 4. The role of fleets and fleet managers 79% 5% 44% To grow by 50% by 2010 over 1998 Role of Fleets - Changing operating environment: national, local government incentives, disincentives - Economies of

More information

G20 ENERGY EFFICIENCY ACTION PLAN VOLUNTARY COLLABORATION ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY

G20 ENERGY EFFICIENCY ACTION PLAN VOLUNTARY COLLABORATION ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY G20 ENERGY EFFICIENCY ACTION PLAN VOLUNTARY COLLABORATION ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY 16 NOVEMBER 2014 G20 Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2 1. Executive summary 1.1 Energy efficiency is a priority for G20 members.

More information

REGULATIONS. 5.6.2009 EN Official Journal of the European Union L 140/1

REGULATIONS. 5.6.2009 EN Official Journal of the European Union L 140/1 5.6.2009 EN Official Journal of the European Union L 140/1 I (Acts adopted under the EC Treaty/Euratom Treaty whose publication is obligatory) REGULATIONS REGULATION (EC) No 443/2009 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT

More information

Global Overview on Vehicle Fuel Economy and Emission Standards

Global Overview on Vehicle Fuel Economy and Emission Standards Global Overview on Vehicle Fuel Economy and Emission Standards Feng An, PhD, Executive Director The Innovation oato Center for Energy egyand Transportation tato (icet) C presented by Lucia Green Weiskel

More information

G-20 action on vehicle efficiency and emissions

G-20 action on vehicle efficiency and emissions G-20 action on vehicle efficiency and emissions Drew Kodjak, International Council on Clean Transportation; David Shorr, Stanley Foundation; and Sheila Watson, Global Fuel Economy Initiative. This short

More information

(1) INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY OF THE SURVEY

(1) INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY OF THE SURVEY October 31st, 2011 COMPANY CAR POLICIES TO REDUCE CO 2 -EMISSIONS: A SURVEY AMONGST SELECTED WEC MEMBER COMPANIES Composed by Kristina Modée and Frank Werner, World Environment Center (WEC) Structure of

More information

CAFÉ FOR NEW CARS IN MEXICO? Dr. David Bonilla Senior Research Fellow TSU/JM-Institute for Carbon & Reduction in Transport 28 text; 36-44 title

CAFÉ FOR NEW CARS IN MEXICO? Dr. David Bonilla Senior Research Fellow TSU/JM-Institute for Carbon & Reduction in Transport 28 text; 36-44 title CAFÉ FOR NEW CARS IN MEXICO? Dr. David Bonilla Senior Research Fellow TSU/JM-Institute for Carbon & Reduction in Transport 28 text; 36-44 title Outline Why CAFÉ? Why: Policy evolution, Transport-energy

More information

Vehicle Registration Tax

Vehicle Registration Tax Vehicle Registration Tax TSG 06/16b 1. Vehicle Registration Tax (VRT) is an important source of revenue for the Exchequer, providing 2.9% of the total net tax receipts for 2005. It is therefore a valuable

More information

Impact of the climate change discussion on the

Impact of the climate change discussion on the Investor Visit, Credit Suisse, Ingolstadt, 19 May 2009 Impact of the climate change discussion on the Dr. Guido Haak Central Functions/Processes, Product Management, AUDI AG Facts regarding CO 2 and the

More information

Germany. Type: Large Market; Large Share. Original Equipment Rank. Aftermarket Rank

Germany. Type: Large Market; Large Share. Original Equipment Rank. Aftermarket Rank Germany Type: Large Market; Large Share Germany ranks number 4 on ITA s list of top U.S. auto parts export markets. After several years of declining auto sales, Western Europe has slowly begun to show

More information

An Overview of California s Cap and Trade Program

An Overview of California s Cap and Trade Program An Overview of California s Cap and Trade Program Presented to the California Marine Affairs & Navigation Conference (CMANC) Winter Meeting 2015 Long Beach, California By Nancy Pfeffer, President, Network

More information

A Regional Demand Forecasting Study for Transportation Fuels in Turkey

A Regional Demand Forecasting Study for Transportation Fuels in Turkey A al Demand Forecasting Study for Transportation Fuels in Turkey by Özlem Atalay a, Gürkan Kumbaroğlu Bogazici University, Department of Industrial Engineering, 34342, Bebek, Istanbul, Turkey, Phone :

More information

CO 2 -based Motor Vehicle Tax

CO 2 -based Motor Vehicle Tax CO 2 -based Motor Vehicle Tax 30 September 2011 Frieder Rubik and Lauren Mityorn (Institute for Ecological Economy Research) Key words: Mobility & good practice, mobility & policy instruments, vehicle

More information

REDUCING THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF FREIGHT MOVEMENT THROUGH ECO-DRIVING

REDUCING THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF FREIGHT MOVEMENT THROUGH ECO-DRIVING REDUCING THE CARBON FOOTPRINT OF FREIGHT MOVEMENT THROUGH ECO-DRIVING Kanok Boriboonsomsin June 25, 2015 1 TRANSFORMING THE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM R E S E A R C H Producing state of knowledge white papers

More information

NGVA Europe Position Paper: Minimum infrastructure needs for Methane (NG/biomethane) refuelling across Europe NGVA Europe

NGVA Europe Position Paper: Minimum infrastructure needs for Methane (NG/biomethane) refuelling across Europe NGVA Europe Madrid/ Brussels 20th May 2011 NGVA Europe Position Paper: Minimum infrastructure needs for Methane (NG/biomethane) refuelling across Europe NGVA Europe In response to the Expert Group Meeting on Future

More information

Energy Taxation in Europe, Japan and The United States

Energy Taxation in Europe, Japan and The United States Energy Taxation in Europe, Japan and The United States ENERGY TAXATION IN EUROPE, JAPAN AND THE UNITED STATES Summary of the energy taxation survey of electricity, fuels, district heat and transport in

More information

Green Hong Kong: Environmental Protection, Renewable Energy and Electric Vehicles

Green Hong Kong: Environmental Protection, Renewable Energy and Electric Vehicles Green Hong Kong: Environmental Protection, Renewable Energy and Electric Vehicles 8 October 2009 Fachhochschule der Wirtschaft, Graz Mr. Stephen Kai Wong Director, Hong Kong Economic and Trade Office,

More information

Global reduction in CO2 emissions from cars: a consumer s perspective

Global reduction in CO2 emissions from cars: a consumer s perspective Global reduction in CO2 emissions from cars: a consumer s perspective Policy recommendations for decision makers Context: the global agenda The international political response to climate change was initiated

More information

SCVs have a number of restrictions placed upon their operation to differentiate SCV services from taxi services:

SCVs have a number of restrictions placed upon their operation to differentiate SCV services from taxi services: This policy is developed pursuant to the Transport Coordination Act 1966. Small Charter Vehicle Licence Policy 1. OVERVIEW All vehicles operating for hire and reward in Western Australia must hold an appropriate

More information

Producing TVCs which promote Motor Vehicles

Producing TVCs which promote Motor Vehicles INFORMATION SHEET Producing TVCs which promote Motor Vehicles Points to consider when producing a television commercial promoting motor vehicles: Commercials promoting new and used motor vehicles for sale

More information

1 What is the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, and how does it work? 2 Why is the EU proposing to include aviation into the EU ETS?

1 What is the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, and how does it work? 2 Why is the EU proposing to include aviation into the EU ETS? Q&A: Aviation and the EU Emissions Trading Scheme 1 What is the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, and how does it work? Under the UN Kyoto Protocol, industrialised nations are required to reduce the amount

More information

Environmentally sound reform of tax exemptions for the private use of company cars

Environmentally sound reform of tax exemptions for the private use of company cars Finanzwissenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut an der Universität zu Köln Laura Diekmann; Eva Gerhards; Dr. Michael Thöne (Projektleitung) Prof. Dr. jur. Stefan Klinski Berlin Forum Ökologisch-Soziale Marktwirtschaft

More information

Fossil fuels subsidies in the agenda of the G20

Fossil fuels subsidies in the agenda of the G20 Fossil fuels subsidies in the agenda of the G20 María Victoria Lottici Researcher Centre for International Economy Argentine Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade GSI-UNEP Conference - Increasing

More information

Questions and Answers

Questions and Answers Fuel Economy Testing and Labeling 1. Why should I trust EPA s fuel economy values? The MPG estimates on the EPA/DOT Fuel Economy and Environment Label (or window sticker) are based on standardized laboratory

More information

Smart freight leadership opportunities for the automotive sector

Smart freight leadership opportunities for the automotive sector Smart freight leadership opportunities for the automotive sector Sophie Punte Executive Director, Smart Freight Centre Member of Green Freight Steering Group CCAC UM Automotive Futures/ SMART Sustainable

More information

Consulting Consulting. Impact of government subsidies for electric vehicles on used market values

Consulting Consulting. Impact of government subsidies for electric vehicles on used market values Impact of government subsidies for electric vehicles on used market values 1 Introduction To encourage the take up of zero emission vehicles (ZEVs) and ultra-low emission vehicles (ULEVs), many governments

More information

South Australia State Tax Review. February 2015

South Australia State Tax Review. February 2015 South Australia State Tax Review February 2015 On Wednesday 11 February 2015, the South Australian government released a discussion paper on reform to the South Australian taxation system. The discussion

More information

APPLIED SUSTAINABILITY TOPIC. BAA Munich Chapter

APPLIED SUSTAINABILITY TOPIC. BAA Munich Chapter APPLIED SUSTAINABILITY TOPIC BAA Munich Chapter Febbraio 2014 BAA Applied Sustainability Topic Our work in BAA is to promote attention onto all the company functions that may be involved in the development

More information

Overview of the Heavy-Duty National Program. Need to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gases from Vehicles

Overview of the Heavy-Duty National Program. Need to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gases from Vehicles Submitted by United States of America Informal document WP.29-155-11 (155 th WP.29, 15-18 November 2011, agenda item 14) United States of America Environmental Protection Agency and National Highway Traffic

More information

REVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL POLICIES FOR VEHICLE FUEL EFFICIENCY

REVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL POLICIES FOR VEHICLE FUEL EFFICIENCY INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY AGENCE INTERNATIONALE DE L ENERGIE REVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL POLICIES FOR VEHICLE FUEL EFFICIENCY IEA INFORMATION PAPER In Support of the G8 Plan of Action TAKAO ONODA INTERNATIONAL

More information

Hong Kong, China. 40 th APEC Energy Working Group Meeting Statement on Notable Energy Developments. (1) Building Energy Codes

Hong Kong, China. 40 th APEC Energy Working Group Meeting Statement on Notable Energy Developments. (1) Building Energy Codes 40 th APEC Energy Working Group Meeting Statement on Notable Energy Developments Hong Kong, China (1) Building Energy Codes The Electrical and Mechanical Services Department of the Hong Kong Government

More information

Skatteudvalget 2013-14 SAU Alm.del Bilag 11 Offentligt. Vehicle taxes in the. 23 September 2013

Skatteudvalget 2013-14 SAU Alm.del Bilag 11 Offentligt. Vehicle taxes in the. 23 September 2013 Skatteudvalget 2013-14 SAU Alm.del Bilag 11 Offentligt Vehicle taxes in the Netherlands Contents Green tax revenues Vehicle taxes Recent developments Eurovignette Fuel excise duties Environmental tax revenues

More information

Page 1 of 11. F u t u r e M e l b o u r n e C o m m i t t e e Agenda Item 7.1. Notice of Motion: Cr Wood, Renewable Energy Target 9 September 2014

Page 1 of 11. F u t u r e M e l b o u r n e C o m m i t t e e Agenda Item 7.1. Notice of Motion: Cr Wood, Renewable Energy Target 9 September 2014 Page 1 of 11 F u t u r e M e l b o u r n e C o m m i t t e e Agenda Item 7.1 Notice of Motion: Cr Wood, Renewable Energy Target 9 September 2014 Motion 1. That Council resolves that the Chair of the Environment

More information

Thailand s automotive excise tax reform

Thailand s automotive excise tax reform Thailand s automotive excise tax reform November 20,2014 Chiang Mai, Thailand Excise Department Impact on Green House Gas : CO 2 National Disasters cause by climate change which lead to raising in temperatures

More information

CO2 & automobile sector

CO2 & automobile sector CO2 & automobile sector Bram Claeys JAMA workshop, 18/9/2007, Brussels Bond Beter Leefmilieu Federation of environmental NGO s in Flanders, Belgium Lobby & campaign for a better environment on Flemish,

More information

SUBMISSION FROM AA IRELAND ON THE COMBINED SUBJECTS OF: Motor Tax Rebalancing to take account of CO2 Emissions

SUBMISSION FROM AA IRELAND ON THE COMBINED SUBJECTS OF: Motor Tax Rebalancing to take account of CO2 Emissions March 2007 SUBMISSION FROM AA IRELAND ON THE COMBINED SUBJECTS OF: Motor Tax Rebalancing to take account of CO2 & Changes to Vehicle Registration Tax to take account of CO2 AA Ireland is the country s

More information

Clean Up Your Fleet. Introducing a practical approach to cleaner, more efficient fleet operation

Clean Up Your Fleet. Introducing a practical approach to cleaner, more efficient fleet operation Clean Up Your Fleet Introducing a practical approach to cleaner, more efficient fleet operation The value of clean fleet management Reduce air pollution from your fleet Reduce greenhouse gas emissions

More information

Introduction. Why Focus on Heavy Trucks?

Introduction. Why Focus on Heavy Trucks? Introduction Heavy-duty long-haul trucks are critical to the movement of the Nation s freight. These vehicles, which currently consume about 10 percent of the Nation s oil, are characterized by high fuel

More information

Is natural gas the key energy for a low carbon future? 16 September, 2015 BP Forum, Berlin

Is natural gas the key energy for a low carbon future? 16 September, 2015 BP Forum, Berlin Is natural gas the key energy for a low carbon future? 16 September, 2015 BP Forum, Berlin Opening remarks Good morning / afternoon everyone. I am very grateful for the invitation to join you and I am

More information

Energy efficiency: an important market that is gaining momentum

Energy efficiency: an important market that is gaining momentum EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Energy efficiency: an important market that is gaining momentum Energy efficiency markets deliver goods and services that reduce the energy required to fuel our economies. The International

More information

LONG-TERM OUTLOOK FOR GAS TO 2 35

LONG-TERM OUTLOOK FOR GAS TO 2 35 LONG-TERM OUTLOOK FOR GAS TO 2 35 Eurogas is the association representing the European gas wholesale, retail and distribution sectors. Founded in 1990, its members are some 50 companies and associations

More information

H- 3: Composition of the road motor vehicle fleet by fuel type. 2) Relevance for environmental policy... 2

H- 3: Composition of the road motor vehicle fleet by fuel type. 2) Relevance for environmental policy... 2 H- 3: Composition of the road motor vehicle fleet by fuel type 1) General description... 2 1.1) Brief definition... 2 1.2) Units of measurement... 2 1.3) Context...2 2) Relevance for environmental policy...

More information

Prepared by the Commission on Environment & Energy

Prepared by the Commission on Environment & Energy Policy statement Energy efficiency: a world business perspective Prepared by the Commission on Environment & Energy Key messages Energy efficiency is a fundamental element in progress towards a sustainable

More information

NO 2 emission from the fleet of vehicles in major Norwegian cities Challenges and possibilities towards 2025

NO 2 emission from the fleet of vehicles in major Norwegian cities Challenges and possibilities towards 2025 Summary: NO 2 emission from the fleet of vehicles in major Norwegian cities Challenges and possibilities towards 2025 TØI Report 1168/2011 Author(s): Rolf Hagman, Karl Idar Gjerstad and Astrid H. Amundsen

More information

The Introduction of Euro 5 and Euro 6 Emissions Regulations for Light Passenger and Commercial Vehicles

The Introduction of Euro 5 and Euro 6 Emissions Regulations for Light Passenger and Commercial Vehicles The Introduction of Euro 5 and Euro 6 Emissions Regulations for Light Passenger and Commercial Vehicles Introduction As a member of the European Union, Ireland is obliged to introduce Regulation (EC) No.

More information

Vehicle fuel economy standards in the ASEAN: Need for harmonized approach

Vehicle fuel economy standards in the ASEAN: Need for harmonized approach Vehicle fuel economy standards in the ASEAN: Need for harmonized approach Bert Fabian Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center (CAI-Asia Center) 5 th UNCRD EST Forum Bangkok, Thailand 23-25 August

More information

Best Practice Procurement Guidance. Rachel Field and Chris Coyle, Coventry City Council

Best Practice Procurement Guidance. Rachel Field and Chris Coyle, Coventry City Council Best Practice Procurement Guidance Rachel Field and Chris Coyle, Coventry City Council COVENTRY CITY COUNCIL Local Fleet Perspective on Carbon Reduction from Road Transport Chris Coyle - Fleet & Integrated

More information