PROFESSIONALISM IN GOVERNANCE: REGULATING RADIO FREQUENCY INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. Joshua M. Steinfeld

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "PROFESSIONALISM IN GOVERNANCE: REGULATING RADIO FREQUENCY INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY. Joshua M. Steinfeld"

Transcription

1 PROFESSIONALISM IN GOVERNANCE: REGULATING RADIO FREQUENCY INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Joshua M. Steinfeld School of Public Administration Florida Atlantic University 777 Glades Rd. Boca Raton, FL For presentation at Public Administration Theory Network Conference May 28-31, 2015, Vancouver, British Columbia ABSTRACT Bureaucrats decision-making in the current regulation of radio frequency information technology (RADFIT) presumes the modern view of the public administration professional. RADFIT regulatory policies have been instituted based on efficiency and effectiveness, and the extent to which public administrators calculate risks and rewards, including health concerns, for RADFIT s usage is based on modern tenets of measurement and scientific management. This manuscript discusses the various roles and responsibilities for public administration professionals and examines one particular aspect of RADFIT, namely the guidelines governing advanced imaging technology (AIT) at airport security checkpoints, in illustrating how the modern view of professionalism is dominating public administrators decision-making when regulating RADFIT. BACKGROUND

2 2 Radio frequency information technology (RADFIT) refers to the use of radio frequency electromagnetic wave (RFEMW) devices to transmit information such as through cell towers for communication, telemeters for signal detection and intervention, and advanced imaging technology (AIT) scanners for security screening. Today, cell phones have become commonplace and discussion is sparse regarding the changes in the urban landscape evident by cell towers and antennae erected in residential communities, schools, parks, buildings, and other private or government property. In rural communities, these towering structures may be typically erected on the town s main street, seen popping up in the horizon, or atop hillsides. Telemeters, and other sensory devices that measure and reconfigure alignments or trigger interventions for moving parts on bridge structures, airplanes, satellites, military equipment, oceanographic, and geothermal engineering projects are rarely mentioned by the public at large; these activities are instead familiarized with popular mechanics or breakthrough technologies on a discovery program or magazine. With regard to AIT body scanners, which are being utilized in some cases for airport travel, wide-acceptance of this technology is being demonstrated by the thousands of passengers that pass through these machines in hundreds of airports daily. Due to the fact that there are few public outcries demanding more information and scrutiny over use of electromagnetic-based technology, it can be inferred that both public administrators and community residents are displaying a range of emotions by failing to recognize the need for discourse, whether it is

3 3 through showing signs of being timid, blind trust for authority and government, or a lack of holistic conception for the human body and environment. The timid behavior takes place when public administrators are unsure about incorporating new technology to achieve cost-effectiveness or new capabilities but fail to speak up, or are concerned that the technology may have human and environmental impacts but prefer not to pursue uncovering what could be damaging evidence. Blind faith in authority is shown when public administrators and the general public accepts installation and usage of electromagnetic devices and believes that these devices must therefore be safe by means of existence and thus must be safe, on the basis of having passed through a perceived public policy and regulatory process. A lack of conception for body and environment is displayed as we continue to immerse ourselves in electromagnetic fields or assimilate our mind and body with newfound gadgets that use powerful, invisible technology. The fact of the matter is that the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC), who regulates the installation and use of much of the RADFIT devices prevalent in the community, especially cell towers, acknowledges that there are acute biological effects from the electromagnetic waves that are emitted from these devices (FCC, 2015). It has been known for many years that exposure to very high levels of RF radiation can be harmful due to the ability of RF energy to heat biological tissue rapidly A number of reports have appeared in the scientific literature describing the observation of a range of biological effects resulting from exposure to low-levels of RF energy (FCC,

4 4 2015). Yet, the FCC seems to be contradicting in subsequently adding: However, in most cases, further experimental research has been unable to reproduce these effects. Furthermore, since much of the research is not done on whole bodies (in vivo), there has been no determination that such effects constitute a human health hazard Some studies have also examined the possibility of a link between RF exposure and cancer. Results to date have been inconclusive the results have not been independently replicated and such research is continuing (FCC, 2015). On one hand, the FCC is stating that it has been well established that RF radiation has biological effects on the living organism. On the other hand, the FCC is offering guidance that due to the parameters of research and an evolving body of knowledge, it cannot be concluded with certainty whether or not RF absorption poses health risks. If there is an understanding that RF waves have a physiological and/or biological reaction on humans, and the research environment appears to be conflicted or yet to mature, then why are these technologies being steadfastly adopted and interwoven into society s communication and innovation infrastructure? INTRODUCTION Hood et al. (2001) presents four regulatory narratives such as interest group, entrepreneurialism, client, and majoritarian in the form of political context elements that can be applied to situate and explain the reasoning behind decisionmaking of public administrators and residents in the RADFIT sphere (Steinfeld, 2015). Accordingly, as each narrative plays out relative to its situational political

5 5 context, the resultant policy outcome proves to be unfavorable for public policy participants such as RFEMW subjects, equipment installers, operators, repair workers, and generally anyone who has experienced absorption. If politically driven narratives such as political context elements that dictate the RADFIT regulatory policy framework leads to unfavorable outcomes for the public, then what outcome could be expected if regulatory bodies were controlled by politically-neutral public administrators? Professionalism, what it constitutes in theory and practice, has gained much attention by resident philosophers in public administration for decades and the term is often associated with the neutral, technical bureaucrat (See for example, Gargan s (1998) The Public Administration Community and the Search for Professionalism in the Handbook of Public Administration). Waldo (1948/2006) and Fesler (1980) effectively challenge the politics-administration dichotomy, or idea that public administration should be void of politics, from theoretical standpoints by citing numerous examples where the two are intertwined, such as in the public policy or congressional arenas that are governed by processes and procedures. Furthermore, a politically neutral objective of profitability, as opposed to environmentalism, for example, can itself be attached to a political affiliation, such as a development or expansion narrative. Market fundamentalism through capitalist approaches including tenets of urbanization (Bell, 1962), managerialism (Pollitt, 1990), and economic individualism (Bozeman, 2007), as is often the case in other policy footholds, will

6 6 likely not lead to improved RADFIT regulatory guidelines and standards for the public and its safety. Thelen (2014) presents a symbiotic framework (not zerosum) in deconstructing neoliberalism that illustrates the relationship between political participants whereby public policy is used to create situations that are gainful to policy actors and constituencies. However, trying to point out or establish the networks or affiliates of policy advocates or polyarchal actors (see Dahl, 1971), is often viewed to be conspicuous, as conspiracy, or at a minimum confrontational and difficult to prove. While Steinfeld (2013) provides an initial look at the specific RADFIT decision-makers, the basic premise of policy advocates for expansive use of RFEMW is that professionalism rooted in modern tenets of administration that involve neutral measures or objectives such as costeffectiveness, innovation, and connectivity, is what guides the regulatory arena for RADFIT. The purpose of this manuscript is to examine the bureaucratic reasoning and public stance on governance and widespread use of RFEMW technology by looking at public administration professionalism to better understand bureaucratic decision-making. The public administration professional is said to be embodied with a plethora of knowledge and display a host of criteria. The modernist public administrator makes decisions based on improving organizational benefit-cost relationships, increasing capacity/capability, and advancement in speed, process, or function. Whereas the postmodern public administrator may look to make decisions without solely weighing productive considerations, for example taking

7 7 into account observations that deal with the senses, such as in how the environment looks or feels, or what immeasurable dangers or risks may be inherent. This manuscript argues that the modern public administrator still dominates decision-making in parts of the public policy arena, at least in the RF technology space, where RADFIT has been rigorously adopted as part of everyday living and being. Areas for future discussion will be indicated that provide for expanded viewpoints and ways of thinking about governing and assimilating with a newfound technology that is quickly becoming part of the institutional and environmental framework. THE PROFESSIONAL BUREAUCRAT IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION The idea that public administration professionalism indicates neutrality implies a separation between politics and administration. Similar to modernists such as Wilson (1887) and Goodnow (1900), Childs (1914) described the role of civil services as being vested in professional management, a job that can be done by a single head without the need for political counsel. Even Taylor s (1919) conceptualization of scientific management applied to administration without stress on the public consideration of the term, by faith in principles and divorce of administration and values. White (1926) and Willoughby (1927) produced textbooks in public administration that stressed the most efficient use of resources and aspects of managerialism, as opposed to legal, political, or social underpinnings of administrative activities.

8 8 Around the same time, Follett s Creative Experience (1924) shed light on the importance of non-factors of production and efficiency in public policy and administration by emphasizing citizen governance through participation and developed expertise. Additionally, Mayo s Hawthorne studies from and Barnard s The Functions of the Executive (1938) altered the way managerialism or efficiency was approached within administration. Scientific management was being challenged at its surface, to the extent that behavioral mechanisms needed to be developed in order to improve efficiency, in addition to the idea that organizations exist for more reasons than productive capacity. Mayo s (1938) research found that a group life was established among the workers, that job performance was not necessarily linked to worker aptitude, and that productivity was affected by informal organizational factors (Franke & Kaul, 1978). Subsequently, Roosevelt s New Deal coincided with the new consideration of social factors. In response to the Great Depression that resulted from the Great Crash of 1929 (see Galbraith, 1954 for causes), Roosevelt instituted the New Deal, which involved the establishment of several social welfare functions such as Social Security, Federal Housing Administration, and the National Labor Relations Board (Roosevelt Institute, 2014). The notion that Weberian or Taylorean modes of production could be limited to scientific management and hierarchy was being replaced with more holistic approaches, which would actually turn out to benefit the economy as a whole.

9 9 With Roosevelt s swift action to alleviate the economic decline and use of administrative resources to institute a host of social programs, public administration began to be perceived as being politically tied to the executive branch, however, only from a policy standpoint. Operationally, the executive branch controlled the civil service. Major duties of the chief executive were said to be: planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting (PODSCORB) (Gulick, 1937a; Urwick, 1937). Through the executive leadership s proper division and organization of work, the public administration was to achieve efficiency by using the least amount of manpower and materials (Gulick, 1937b). Similarly, Roosevelt s Committee on Administrative Management (the Brownlow Committee) held the position that public agencies are simply subordinates of the executive branch (Caiden, 1971; Millett, 1972). Waldo (1948/2006) and Fesler (1980) effectively challenged the politicsadministration dichotomy from theoretical standpoints by citing numerous examples where the two are intertwined, such as in the public policy or congressional arenas that are governed by processes and procedures. Appleby (1945) and Dahl (1947) also posit the linkages between politics and administration as being direct. The advent of new public administration in the 1960 s and 70 s further blurred the line between politics and administration, especially on the heels of major issues such as civil rights and the war in Vietnam. With new approaches and arrangements, a newly devoted public administration could serve as the instrument for guiding social change (White, 1971), by instituting new

10 10 epistemologies and philosophies (Guerreiro-Ramos, 1980). There was a new institution of structured nonhierarchy (Thayer, 1979) and consociational government (Lijphart, 1977). Yet, the orthodox values of public administration, classically viewed as being reveled in scientific management and business administration (Wilson, 1887; Goodnow, 1900; Taylor, 1919; Weber, 1919; White, 1926; Willoughby, 1927), such as economy, efficiency, effectiveness, responsiveness, and responsibility, were still viewed as necessary although not allencompassing criteria for professionalism in public administration (Frederickson, 1980). Further, Svara (1985) highlights that the separation between politics and administration was not a dichotomy but rather a continuum: mission-policyadministration-management. An analysis of the politics-administration dichotomy presumes the indication that professionalism in public administration is equated with political neutrality in the whole-hearted pursuit of scientific management and business administration. In this sense, there is an overarching tendency of public administrators to optimize administrative productivity through enhancement, and agreement by the public at-large to support these notions. However, since public administration deals with public concerns, democratic values such as equity, citizen governance, and open-dialogue, these considerations must be factored in along with traditional goals of efficiency and effectiveness. It is the combination of values that the development of postmodern public administration and inquiry is founded upon (see Fox and Miller, 2014; Miller, 2002). The following section

11 11 takes on a postmodern view by identifying and critiquing observable situations where public administrators advocate public policies based on modern thinking and analysis. In this regard, the use of RADFIT and related RF technologies are incorporated whereas a postmodern mindset, or one in which modern tenets of administration do not reign supreme, may suggest that some applications of RFEMW should be more stringently regulated or in certain cases barred from being used altogether. THE MODERN PROFESSIONAL REGULATES RADFIT There are instances where the modern view of professionalism can be seen being practiced by public administrators in the regulation of RADFIT. Modern tenets of professionalism such as bureaucrat s decision-making according to evaluative measures of efficiency and effectiveness are dictating a regulatory environment that steadfastly incorporates RADFIT into daily use and surrounding infrastructure. The problem is that the RFEMW technology utilized by RADFIT is potentially harmful to humans. RFEMW exposure has been shown to have acute negative effects on human reproduction (Agarwal et al., 2009; Meo et al., 2010; Salama 2010), the biological clock (Manzella, 2015), and impairment of proteins and cells (Zhang et al., 2014; Chen et al., 2014). Despite the findings of various studies that RFEMW exposure is harmful, government agencies continue to adopt RADFIT technology in communities whether it be through use of millimeter wave (MMW) AIT scanners in airports or its considerable allowance of wireless service providers to install RF towers (cell

12 12 towers) in neighborhoods and parks, at schools and city centers, and on buildings. It is the modern view of professionalism that is dictating bureaucratic decisionmaking resulting in full-fledged usage of RADFIT. In terms of the actual daily practices of administrative actors displaying modern professionalism for RADFIT regulation in the public view, just consider what can be witnessed while passing through a security checkpoint at a U.S. airport where body scanners that utilize electromagnetism are used to screen passengers. The following examples combine to demonstrate how modern professionalism is dominating bureaucratic decisionmaking in establishing rules and guidelines in regulating the use of electromagnetism in governance. The point to be illustrated deals with public administrators acute processing and measurement of risk parameters, a sort of splicing-and-dicing in terms of who is required to use the electromagnetic body scanners, and who instead may use the metal detectors that have traditionally been in use and are regarded as safer. Based on observable conditions from a typical experience while passing through a U.S. airport security checkpoint, the following circumstances are clear and evident. To start, pilots, flight attendants, and other airport personnel that pass through security checkpoints on a regular basis as part of their job are not required to pass through the L3 ProVision ATD millimeter wave advanced imaging technology scanner. Instead, these airport personnel pass through metal detectors due to unions concern over frequent passage through this type of AIT (see Alfonsi and Hopper, 2010; Hunter, 2010). Additionally, children (and their

13 13 accompanying parents) are allowed to pass through the metal detector instead of the AIT body scanner because developing children are thought to be more susceptible to the electromagnetic radiation. Passengers travelling with pets, or containing external medical devices are also directed to the metal detectors rather than the MMW AIT scanners. Differently, subjects such as typical travellers, with the presumption that most passengers only occasionally fly and thus infrequently are subject to RFEMW through search, are required to use the MMW AIT scanners. The modern professional comes into play by the splitting-of-hairs in government s determination of what frequency or level of exposure is safe for passengers. Here, the professional bureaucrat analyzes the various studies and risk factors, considers the population travelling through airports, listens to complaints from various bodies, and then makes a calculated judgment as to who is required to pass through AIT scanners, and who may use the metal detectors, which are considered safer. Convenience factors also come into play when it comes to allowing passengers with pets to use the metal detector and parents of children who are allowed to forgo the MMW AIT scanners for metal detectors. All these calculated factors, such as frequency of exposure, age of subject, and even convenience come into play when regulating MMW AIT usage. These calculated decisions presume the fact that the decision to utilize RFEMW was made to begin with, probably in order to reduce the cost of labor at security checkpoints, where much more personnel would be required to conduct manual searches, or pat downs. Currently, passengers who wish to avoid the

14 14 AIT scanner may opt out and receive a manual pat down instead. The full body pat down could be used for all passengers, but this would require hiring many more workers. Additionally, the RFEMW scanners may be more effective in detecting contraband than a pat down or the metal detectors. Other issues with pat downs may involve subject complaints such as hard frisks, where slight applications of pressure or fast movements across sensitive areas create subject discomfort. It is evident that modern professional thinking is dominating the decisionmaking in RADFIT. Health and convenience factors are being measured, calculated, and decided upon in setting specific guidelines that vary based on the specifics of the traveller. The idea that professionals in government are weighing and deciding the extent to which health risks may be posed to various groups of travellers is concerning. What if the professionals are wrong? It is not as if government is not fully aware of the health issues surrounding RFEMW as it relates to use in body scanning. In 2008, the Rapiscan company s Secure 1000 x- ray machines were procured to replace Explosive Trace Detection portals, commonly referred to as puffer machines, until opposition in the United Kingdom surfaced citing health concerns; the U.S. soon eliminated the Secure 1000 x-ray machine in favor of the L3 Provision ATD MMW AIT scanners that have been in place since 2008 (Fisher, 2013). Currently, professionals in government deem the amount of radiation emitted from MMW scanners to be below dangerous levels. Taking into consideration the short duration of exposure,

15 15 and the very low levels of emissions from the MMW AIT-1, the electromagnetic energy levels were determined to be 1000 times less than the limits in the IEEE C 95.1 standards and guidelines from International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2012, 12-13). Yet, in April 2010, faculty from the University of California, San Francisco expressed concerns to President Obama s assistant for science and technology John P. Holdren in a letter stating older travelers and those with compromised immune systems may be at particular risk; that some females may be at higher risk of developing breast cancer; that the potential health effects on children, adolescents, pregnant women, and fetuses have not been fully assessed; that the proximity of the testicles to the skin raises concerns over possible sperm mutation; and that the effects on the cornea and the thymus gland have not been determined (Elias, 2012, 7). Even if government is taking certain precautions such as allowing children or airport personnel to pass through the metal detectors instead of the AIT scanners, there is the thought that being near the AIT scanners may constitute RFEMW absorption. There is nothing to suggest that the RFEMW is contained to the subject standing inside the AIT scanner, as the scanners are not enclosed objects. Furthermore, a traveller may need to wait in line for several minutes while being near RFEMW-powered equipment, not to mention the personnel that work at security checkpoints. CONCLUSION

16 16 Modernism and its version of professionalism are described as somewhat dehumanistic in regulating RADFIT by the way that scientific management is applied to determine public health risks and subsequent implementation of new technology. Whereas a postmodern, or alternative argument may support the opposition and banning of AIT devices altogether, by the shear fact that some levels of RFEMW have been proven to be harmful. Opponents of RADFIT or its over-usage can argue that it should not be government s task to determine to what extent the public is willing to bear health risks, especially when there are alternatives to implementing the technology, albeit alternatives that may be more costly. To make matters worse, or more complicated at least, is the fact that the technology being regulated is invisible, and requires specialized devices to determine the power of the RFEMW signal strength to begin with. Reliance on apparatuses to measure the technology presents a host of relative and comparative issues in terms of better understanding and honing the scientific field of study (Kuhn, 1962/2012). Even though public administrationists have barely written about issues of RADFIT, especially when compared to recognized areas of study such as e- governance, the scholarly community is beginning to take a concerted interest in studying the effects of RFEMW technologies in terms of examining the environmental impacts. For example, the Bioelectromagnetics Society holds an annual conference that attracts hundreds of acclaimed scientists and academics

17 17 that regularly experiment with electromagnetism in the laboratory. The Society is also affiliated with a scholarly journal and the public policy track is an area of research that is solicited in the conference s call for papers (BioEM, 2015). In the meantime, it is extremely difficult to speak or write about challenges or questions that insinuate a level of danger from RADFIT and the RFEMW technology. The majority of people to converse with have been exposed to RADFIT when travelling or may experience heightened levels of absorption from living or working in view of RF towers, or by regular use of cell phones. The hint that RADFIT may be dangerous, or could have already caused damage to someone, goes against the following slogan that seems to articulate the RADFIT narrative: out of sight, out of mind. This manuscript is not arguing that the professional public administrator is completely dominated by the modern view in its decision-making, only in the adoption and implementation of RADFIT. If RADFIT, in the form of AIT scanners for example, was not perceived as being more efficient and effective that manual pat downs or metal detectors, then there is no advantage and therefore no reason for bureaucracy to adopt its usage. Rather than assuming various traditions for professional administration such as modern, or postmodern, or declaring particular roles for government such as a responsibility to steer not row (Osborne and Gaebler, 1992), or serve not steer (Denhardt and Denhardt, 2011), the administrator may strive to be characterized as thoughtful, in which the professional administrator considers the value and importance of each one s life

18 18 from the standpoint of their friends, family, and self-worth, in realizing that outside threats or unknown risks may be considered apparent risks or risks not worth taking, such that no one should be put into a situation to woefully accept even a 1 in a million chance that something new may be harmful, especially if the rewards are minimal such that alternatives to usage exist. REFERENCES Agarwal, A., Desai, N. R., Makker, K., Varghese, A., Mouradi, R., Sabanegh, E., and Sharma, R. (2009). Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: an in vitro pilot study. Fertility and Sterility, 92(4): Alfonsi, S., and Hopper, J. (2010). Pilot Rebellion: Pilots Refusing to Use Full Body Scanners or Submit to Patdown. ABC News, 9 November Appleby, P. (1945). Big Democracy. New York: Knopf. Barnard, C. (1938). The Functions of the Executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Bell, D. (1962). The End of Ideology: On the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the Fifties. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. BioEM. (2015). The Annual Meeting of the Bioelectromagnetics Society and European Bioelectromagnetics Association June 2015, Monterey, CA. Bozeman, B. (2007). Public Values and Public Interest: Counterbalancing Economic Individualism. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. Caiden, G. (1971). The Dynamics of Public Administration: Guidelines to Current Transformations in Theory and Practice. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. Chen, C., Qinlong, M., Liu, C., Deng, P., Zhu, G., Zhang, L., He, M., Lu, Y.,

19 19 Duan, W., Pei, L., Li, M., Yu, Z., Zhou, Z. (2014). Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation impairs neurite outgrowth of embryonic neural stem cells. Scientific Reports, 4: Childs, R. (1914). Commission Government and the City-Manager Plan. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 38: Dahl, R. (1947). The Science of Public Administration: Three Problems. Public Administration Review, 7:1-11. Dahl, R. (1971). Polyarchy: Participation and Opposition. New Haven: Yale University Press. Denhardt, J., and Denhardt, R. (2011). The New Public Service: Serving, Not Steering. New York: Routledge. Elias, B. (2012). Airport Body Scanners: The Role of Advanced Imaging Technology in Airline Passenger Screening. 20 September pdf. FCC. (2015). Radio Frequency Safety. https://transition.fcc.gov/oet/rfsafety/rffaqs.html. Fesler, J. (1980). Public Administration: Theory and Practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Fisher, B. (2013). TSA Timeline, and the Scanner Saga Continues. TSA News, 22 January, Follett, M. P. (1924). Creative Experience. New York: Longmans, Green, and Co. Fox, C., and Miller, H. (2012). Postmodern Public Administration (Revised Ed.). New York: Routledge. Franke, R., & Kaul, J. (1978). The Hawthorne Experiments: First Statistical Interpretation. American Sociological Review, 43: Frederickson, H. (1980). The Lineage of New Public Administration. In C.J. Bellone (Ed.), Organization Theory and the New Public Administration (33-51). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

20 20 Galbraith, J. K. (1954). The Great Crash New York: Houghton-Mifflin. Gargan, J. (1998). The Public Administration Community and the Search for Professionalism. In J. Rabin, W. B. Hildreth, & G. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of Public Administration (2 nd Ed.) ( ). Goodnow, F. (1900). Politics and Administration: A Study in Government. New York: MacMillan. Guerreiro-Ramos, A. (1980). A Substantive Approach to Organizations: Epistemological Grounds. In C.J. Bellone (Ed.), Organization Theory and the New Public Administration ( ). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Gulick, L. (1937a). Notes on the Theory of Organization. In L. Gulick & L. Urwick (Eds.), Papers on the Science of Administration (1-45). New York: Institute of Public Administration. Gulick, L. (1937b). Science, Values, and Public Administration. In L. Gulick & L. Urwick (Eds.), Papers on the Science of Administration ( ). New York: Institute of Public Administration. Hood, C., Rothstein, H., & Baldwin, R. (2001). The Government of Risk: Understanding Risk Regulation Regimes. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Hunter, M. (2010). Pilots Urged to Avoid Body Scanning. CNN, com/2010/travel/11/11/pilots.body.scanning/. Kuhn, T. (1962/2012). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (4 th Ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lijphart, A. (1977). Democracy in Plural Societies: A Comparative Exploration. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Manzella, N., Bracci, M., Ciarapica, V., Staffolani, S., Strafella, E., Rapisarda, V., Valentino, M., Amati, M., Copertaro, A., and Santarelli, L. (2015). Circadian Gene Expression and Extremely Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields: An In Vitro Study. Journal of Bioelectromagnetics, 36: Mayo, E. (1938). Foreword. In T. N. Whitehead (Ed.), The Industrial Worker: A Statistical Study of Human Relations in a Group of Manual Workers. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Meo, S. A., Al-Drees, A. M., Husain, S., Khan, M. M., Imran, M. B. (2010).

Statement of the Chief Medical Health Officer

Statement of the Chief Medical Health Officer Statement of the Chief Medical Health Officer June, 2011 Health Concerns About Cellular Phone Transmission Antennae and Base Stations In 2005, in response to community concerns and after reviewing the

More information

What the experts say: The consensus of scientific opinion

What the experts say: The consensus of scientific opinion What the experts say: The consensus of scientific opinion AMTA relies on the expert judgment of independent public health authorities, such as the World Health Organization, for assessments of safety and

More information

Risk of Brain Tumors From Wireless Phone Use. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography November/December 2010; Vol. 34, No. 6; pp.

Risk of Brain Tumors From Wireless Phone Use. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography November/December 2010; Vol. 34, No. 6; pp. Risk of Brain Tumors From Wireless Phone Use 1 Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography November/December 2010; Vol. 34, No. 6; pp. 799-807 Rash Bihari Dubey, Madasu Hanmandlu, PhD, and Suresh Kumar Gupta,

More information

Wireless Broadband: Health & Safety Information

Wireless Broadband: Health & Safety Information Wireless Broadband: Health & Safety Information Introduction The increasing use of mobile phones and other wireless technology has been accompanied by public debate about possible adverse effects on health.

More information

Mobile Device Usage: More, more, more or Less, less, less?

Mobile Device Usage: More, more, more or Less, less, less? Mobile Device Usage: More, more, more or Less, less, less? Denise Wilson & Cassandra Hooper University of Washington Seattle In collaboration with Coming Alongside -- Environmental Services National Environmental

More information

What are radio signals?

What are radio signals? Mobile phones and other wireless technologies have become an integral part of everyday life. But does using a mobile phone regularly, or living near a base station, have any implications for our health?

More information

EMISSION OF RADIO FREQUENCY RADIATION BY CELLULAR PHONES DEN 399 RESEARCH PROPOSAL MAY 1, 200

EMISSION OF RADIO FREQUENCY RADIATION BY CELLULAR PHONES <STUDENT NAME(S)> DEN 399 RESEARCH PROPOSAL MAY 1, 200 EMISSION OF RADIO FREQUENCY RADIATION BY CELLULAR PHONES DEN 399 RESEARCH PROPOSAL MAY 1, 200 Abstract: This project will involve studying how much radio frequency a human brain is exposed

More information

Contents. 1. Introduction

Contents. 1. Introduction 1. Introduction Contents 2. How do Cell Phone Towers work? 3. What is the radiation produced by a cell phone? 4. How are people exposed to the energy from cellular phone towers? 5. Do cellular phone towers

More information

A Comparative Study on the Electromagnetic Radiation Output from Cell Phones

A Comparative Study on the Electromagnetic Radiation Output from Cell Phones A Comparative Study on the Electromagnetic Radiation Output from Cell Phones By Jacie Sellers Latta Jr. High School Abstract The purpose of this project was to determine whether radiation levels vary greatly

More information

Cellphones: Safe or Carcinogenic? Scientist 1 Scientist 2 non- ionizing radiation

Cellphones: Safe or Carcinogenic? Scientist 1 Scientist 2 non- ionizing radiation Cellphones: Safe or Carcinogenic? With an estimated five billion worldwide users, the public debate over cellphone and the possible link to cancer is one of critical importance. The concern is that cellphones

More information

Hazardous radiation. Thesis shows correlation between deaths from cancer and location of mobile antennas

Hazardous radiation. Thesis shows correlation between deaths from cancer and location of mobile antennas Hazardous radiation Thesis shows correlation between deaths from cancer and location of mobile antennas by Ann Rita Araújo (Belo Horizonte) link on the original: http://www.ufmg.br/boletim/bol1690/4.shtml

More information

Reduce your exposure to cell phone radiation now!

Reduce your exposure to cell phone radiation now! Reduce your exposure to cell phone radiation now! Is Exposure to Cell Phone Radiation Really Dangerous to Your Health? The telecommunications industry has claimed for years that cell phone usage is safe,

More information

MRET-Shield Synopsis of Scientific Research Updated on June 1, 2007

MRET-Shield Synopsis of Scientific Research Updated on June 1, 2007 MRET-Shield Synopsis of Scientific Research Updated on June 1, 27 MRET-Shield material and devices made, when placed in proximity to persons, animals and plants serve to lessen adverse health effects caused

More information

within body bioelectricity is a biofield. It is due to concentration gradient generated across membrane of the cell.

within body bioelectricity is a biofield. It is due to concentration gradient generated across membrane of the cell. ABSRACT The thesis entitled A study of effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on health is based on observing influence of electromagnetic fields around us. Electromagnetic radiation may have an effect

More information

REVIEW OF EXPOSURE LIMITS AND HEALTH CONCERNS SANTA ANA. Base Station Telecommunication Transmitters UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT

REVIEW OF EXPOSURE LIMITS AND HEALTH CONCERNS SANTA ANA. Base Station Telecommunication Transmitters UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT SANTA ANA UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT REVIEW OF EXPOSURE LIMITS AND HEALTH CONCERNS Base Station Telecommunication Transmitters Dr. Karl Rodenbaugh, Senior Scientist SCOPE OF SERVICES Review, Describe, Discuss,

More information

RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION, (RFR): (RFR Information - Technology Newsletter, Full Version)

RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION, (RFR): (RFR Information - Technology Newsletter, Full Version) RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION, (RFR): (RFR Information - Technology Newsletter, Full Version) George M. Harris, P.E. (Revised February, 2011) Questions: -What is Radiofrequency Radiation, (RFR)? -With SO MANY

More information

Municipal Ordinances and Reviews for Wireless Communication Towers

Municipal Ordinances and Reviews for Wireless Communication Towers Municipal Ordinances and Reviews for Wireless Communication Towers by Dale W. Callahan, Ph.D., P.E. Lea B. Callahan, P.E. 1. The Issues There has been a tremendous growth in the number of telecommunications

More information

Tissue Economies: Blood, Organs, and Cell Lines in Late Capitalism

Tissue Economies: Blood, Organs, and Cell Lines in Late Capitalism Tissue Economies: Blood, Organs, and Cell Lines in Late Capitalism By Catherine Waldby and Robert Mitchell Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006, ISBN 0-8223-3770-3 Price $21.95, pp. 231 Reviewed by

More information

Comments on the Draft Report by the California Council on Science and Technology Health Impacts of Radio Frequency from Smart Meters

Comments on the Draft Report by the California Council on Science and Technology Health Impacts of Radio Frequency from Smart Meters Comments on the Draft Report by the California Council on Science and Technology Health Impacts of Radio Frequency from Smart Meters by Daniel Hirsch 1 31 January 2011 Abstract The draft report by the

More information

SR Communications Tower Task Force Dr. Jeff Liva, Allen Cohen, Rebecca Rogers

SR Communications Tower Task Force Dr. Jeff Liva, Allen Cohen, Rebecca Rogers SR Communications Tower Task Force Dr. Jeff Liva, Allen Cohen, Rebecca Rogers 1 Table of Contents 2 Chemical hazards. These develop from excessive exposure to concentrations of chemicals in environment.

More information

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PUBLIC HEALTH HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDELINES #1

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PUBLIC HEALTH HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDELINES #1 SINGAPORE, 16 AUGUST 2001 HEALTH SCIENCES AUTHORITY PRESS RELEASE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND PUBLIC HEALTH HEALTH AND SAFETY GUIDELINES #1 THE EMF HEALTH ISSUE 1 Over the past years a large number of scientific

More information

Council-Manager Form of Government Voters Council Manager Department Heads. Mayor-Council Form of Government Voters Mayor-Council Department Heads

Council-Manager Form of Government Voters Council Manager Department Heads. Mayor-Council Form of Government Voters Mayor-Council Department Heads What Is the Local Government Management Profession? Recognizing the complexity involved in providing citizens with the services that they need on a day-to-day basis, many communities have opted to hire

More information

EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION FROM MOBILE PHONES AND CASE STUDIES OF COMPUTATIONAL MODELS FOR CALCULATING SAR DISTRIBUTION IN HUMAN BODY Settapong Malisuwan National Broadcasting and Telecommunications

More information

Stem Cells and Hope for Patients

Stem Cells and Hope for Patients Stem Cells and Hope for Patients by Maureen Condic, Ph.D. Most Americans know someone afflicted with an incurable medical condition. The possibility of stem cell cures has given hope to many who face such

More information

BOSTON UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH PUBLIC HEALTH COMPETENCIES

BOSTON UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH PUBLIC HEALTH COMPETENCIES BOSTON UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH PUBLIC HEALTH COMPETENCIES Competency-based education focuses on what students need to know and be able to do in varying and complex situations. These competencies

More information

Doctorates in Occupational Safety and Health: A Critical Shortage

Doctorates in Occupational Safety and Health: A Critical Shortage Doctorates in Occupational Safety and Health: A Critical Shortage By Anthony Veltri, Ed.D., MS, CSHM and Jim Ramsay, Ph.D., MA, CSP Contact Information: Anthony Veltri, Ed.D., MS, CSHM Associate Professor

More information

Theories of Behavior Change

Theories of Behavior Change Theories of Behavior Change Defining Theories of Behavior Change Behavior change is often a goal for staff working directly with constituents, organizations, governments, or communities. Individuals charged

More information

Authors: Michael Hamid. (mhamid@jaguar1.usouthal.edu) Jose de Jesus Rodriguez. (jjrodrig@campus.mty.itesm.mx) Nicole TrahanSuggested Courses:

Authors: Michael Hamid. (mhamid@jaguar1.usouthal.edu) Jose de Jesus Rodriguez. (jjrodrig@campus.mty.itesm.mx) Nicole TrahanSuggested Courses: Engineering Ethics Cases with Numerical Problems from an NSF & Bovay Fund sponsored workshop August 14-18, 1995 Texas A&M University Electrical Engineering Case 7 Cellular Phones: Reach Out and Touch Someone?

More information

Metropolitan State University of Denver Master of Social Work Program Field Evaluation

Metropolitan State University of Denver Master of Social Work Program Field Evaluation Metropolitan State University of Denver Master of Social Work Program Evaluation Date: Agency/Program Task Supervisor Faculty Liaison Total Hours Completed To Date for this semester: s will not receive

More information

Kindergarten to Grade 4 Manitoba Foundations for Scientific Literacy

Kindergarten to Grade 4 Manitoba Foundations for Scientific Literacy Kindergarten to Grade 4 Manitoba Foundations for Scientific Literacy The Five Foundations Manitoba Foundations for Scientific Literacy To develop scientifically literate students, science learning experiences

More information

EMR Exposure Limits & Assessment Methods for Mobile Phone Communications. Lindsay Martin Manager, Non-Ionising Radiation Section

EMR Exposure Limits & Assessment Methods for Mobile Phone Communications. Lindsay Martin Manager, Non-Ionising Radiation Section EMR Exposure Limits & Assessment Methods for Mobile Phone Communications Lindsay Martin Manager, Non-Ionising Radiation Section Introduction How can we use Wireless Communication Safely? Wireless communication

More information

The techniques and sexuality/gender politics of Taiwan's ob-gyns in the post-war period

The techniques and sexuality/gender politics of Taiwan's ob-gyns in the post-war period Globalization on Mental Health in a Gender Perspective Chueh Chang 張 玨 Department of Health Policy and Management Researcher, Women s Research Program National Taiwan University Mental health is not simply

More information

Kansas Board of Regents Precollege Curriculum Courses Approved for University Admissions

Kansas Board of Regents Precollege Curriculum Courses Approved for University Admissions Kansas Board of Regents Precollege Curriculum Courses Approved for University Admissions Original Publication April 6, 2011 Revision Dates June 13, 2011 May 23, 2012 Kansas Board of Regents Precollege

More information

The traditional public administration

The traditional public administration Approaches to Public Administration Classical and Modern Approaches to Public Administration Polya Katsamunska * Summary: Public administration has a long history which has been going in parallel with

More information

Equity for all Students Economic Development

Equity for all Students Economic Development The New Illinois Learning Standards Incorporating the Next Generation Science Standards (NILS-Science) Illinois Vision of K-12 Science Education All Illinois K-12 students will be better prepared for entrance

More information

Automated Meter Reading Frequently Asked Questions. What is AMR?

Automated Meter Reading Frequently Asked Questions. What is AMR? Automated Meter Reading Frequently Asked Questions What is AMR? AMR stands for Automated Meter Reading. It is a method of using advanced communications technology to read meters remotely. It reduces human

More information

Curriculum Development for Doctoral Studies in Education

Curriculum Development for Doctoral Studies in Education Curriculum Development for Doctoral Studies in Education Irine BAKHTADZE * Abstract Profound changes in high education which started in 1996 in Georgia have to be continued. We have to explore potentially

More information

MOBILE PHONES AND FERTILITY. Microwave radiation from mobile phones and wireless technologies has been linked to sperm and DNA damage

MOBILE PHONES AND FERTILITY. Microwave radiation from mobile phones and wireless technologies has been linked to sperm and DNA damage MOBILE PHONES AND FERTILITY Microwave radiation from mobile phones and wireless technologies has been linked to sperm and DNA damage In a study published in Fertility and Sterility (Vol. 89) in 2008 by

More information

Shifting focus from teaching to learning: Learning leadership from improvising jazz bands (ITL92)

Shifting focus from teaching to learning: Learning leadership from improvising jazz bands (ITL92) Shifting focus from teaching to learning: Learning leadership from improvising jazz bands (ITL92) Patrick Furu patrick.furu@hanken.fi Hanken School of Economics (Finland) Abstract The nature of knowledge

More information

Dr MH Repacholi Co-ordinator. ordinator,, Radiation and Environmental Health World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

Dr MH Repacholi Co-ordinator. ordinator,, Radiation and Environmental Health World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland Dr MH Repacholi Co-ordinator ordinator,, Radiation and Environmental Health World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland WHO EMF Project Scientific Evidence Risk Assessment Standards and Policies Risk

More information

MANAGEMENT COURSES Student Learning Outcomes 1

MANAGEMENT COURSES Student Learning Outcomes 1 MANAGEMENT COURSES Student Learning Outcomes 1 MGT 202: Business Professions 1. Describe and use the elements of effective decision making research, assessment and consequence. 2. Apply elements of effective

More information

Cell Phone Safety Recommendations

Cell Phone Safety Recommendations DANGER OF USING HANDPHONE - CAUTION!!! Dr. Carlo was hired by the Cellular Telephone Industry Association in 1993 to lead a $28 million, 7-year research program to determine if cell phones were safe. He

More information

Transfer and articulation policies have been a

Transfer and articulation policies have been a Can Transfer and Articulation Policies Propel Community College Students to a Bachelor s Degree and Is This the Only Goal? Betheny Gross and Dan Goldhaber Transfer and articulation policies have been a

More information

Teaching Public Relations

Teaching Public Relations Teaching Public Relations Published by the Public Relations Division of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. Edited by Professor Todd Hunt, Rutgers University No. 33, November

More information

Airport Scanner Safety

Airport Scanner Safety Scan for mobile link. Airport Scanner Safety Airport scanners When it comes to airport scanner safety, there are four questions you should consider, including: What are airport scanners? Are there different

More information

POLITICAL SCIENCE POLITICAL SCIENCE (POSCI)

POLITICAL SCIENCE POLITICAL SCIENCE (POSCI) 190 P O L I T I C A L S C I E N C E POLITICAL SCIENCE (POSCI) Politics rules over everything you do as a human being and gives you an understanding that enables you to have more control over your own life.

More information

The United States: An Aerospace Nation Remarks of Ambassador Duane E. Woerth AeroMontréal Innovation Forum As prepared for delivery December 2, 2013

The United States: An Aerospace Nation Remarks of Ambassador Duane E. Woerth AeroMontréal Innovation Forum As prepared for delivery December 2, 2013 The United States: An Aerospace Nation Remarks of Ambassador Duane E. Woerth AeroMontréal Innovation Forum As prepared for delivery December 2, 2013 After 40 years of piloting aircraft and working on aerospace

More information

FOR EXISTING 254-FOOT COMMUNICATIONS TOWER 16700 Skyline Drive La Habra Heights California

FOR EXISTING 254-FOOT COMMUNICATIONS TOWER 16700 Skyline Drive La Habra Heights California MASTER PLAN FOR EXISTING 254-FOOT COMMUNICATIONS TOWER 16700 Skyline Drive La Habra Heights California PROPERTY OWNER: Coast Community College District 1370 Adams Avenue Costa Mesa, CA 92626 Attn: Richard

More information

Nursing s Social Policy Statement

Nursing s Social Policy Statement CHAPTER 1 Nursing s Social Policy Statement Catherine E. Neuman, MSN, RN, NEA-BC Overview Nursing is a part of the society from which it grew and continues to evolve. As a profession, nursing is valued

More information

INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZTIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZTIONAL PSYCHOLOGY SUBJECT INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZTIONAL PSYCHOLOGY SESSION 1 INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Subject: Introduction Industrial Organizational Psychology Session 1 What Is Industrial

More information

sources in our environment i.e. Natural and man-made. The sun, earth and ionosphere are the natural source.

sources in our environment i.e. Natural and man-made. The sun, earth and ionosphere are the natural source. Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) consist of waves of electric and magnetic energy moving together at the speed of light and sometimes is referred as electromagnetic field (EMF) They are basically two forms

More information

Lecture by B. Guy Peters Theoretical Debates in Public Administration in the Past 50 Years

Lecture by B. Guy Peters Theoretical Debates in Public Administration in the Past 50 Years 870 VIJESTI Lecture by B. Guy Peters Theoretical Debates in Public Administration in the Past 50 Years UDK 35.07.01(047) Organized by the Institute of Public Administration, the Croatian Political Science

More information

UNDERSTANDING RADIO FREQUENCY AND BC HYDRO S SMART METERS

UNDERSTANDING RADIO FREQUENCY AND BC HYDRO S SMART METERS UNDERSTANDING RADIO FREQUENCY AND BC HYDRO S SMART METERS SUMMARY Radio frequency (RF) technology has been around for over years and is a part of everyday life radios, TVs and medic alert systems are examples.

More information

Cell phones and brain tumors: A review including the long-term epidemiologic data. Surgical Neurology September 2009; 72; pp.

Cell phones and brain tumors: A review including the long-term epidemiologic data. Surgical Neurology September 2009; 72; pp. Cell phones and brain tumors: A review including the long-term epidemiologic data 1 Surgical Neurology September 2009; 72; pp. 205 215 Vini G. Khurana, PhD, FRACS, Charles Teo, MBBS, FRACS, Michael Kundi,

More information

Guidelines for Integrative Core Curriculum Themes and Perspectives Designations

Guidelines for Integrative Core Curriculum Themes and Perspectives Designations Guidelines for Integrative Core Curriculum Themes and Perspectives Designations The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines for faculty wishing to have new or existing courses carry Themes and

More information

INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE OF CAMBRIDGE

INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE OF CAMBRIDGE DISTANCE EDUCATION SYLLABUS (Effective from the Calendar Year 2015 and Thereafter) www.icccampussrilanka.com SCHEME OF EXAMINATIONS Year Subject Duration (Hrs) Max Marks

More information

THE ANSI/IEEE RF SAFETY STANDARD AND ITS RATIONALE. Om P. Gandhi and Gianluca Lazzi Department of Electrical Engineering Salt Lake City, Utah 84112

THE ANSI/IEEE RF SAFETY STANDARD AND ITS RATIONALE. Om P. Gandhi and Gianluca Lazzi Department of Electrical Engineering Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 Introduction THE ANSI/IEEE RF SAFETY STANDARD AND ITS RATIONALE Om P. Gandhi and Gianluca Lazzi Department of Electrical Engineering Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 In 1960, the American Standards Association

More information

Public Assessments and Public Attitudes toward Israel Prison Service 2013

Public Assessments and Public Attitudes toward Israel Prison Service 2013 STATE OF ISRAEL Ministry of Public Security Bureau of the Chief Scientist Public Assessments and Public Attitudes toward Israel Prison Service 2013 DR. Shuki Hendeles Taldor This study reported herewith

More information

Assignment 2. by Sheila Y. Grangeiro Rachel M. Vital EDD 9100 CRN 51180 Leadership Seminar

Assignment 2. by Sheila Y. Grangeiro Rachel M. Vital EDD 9100 CRN 51180 Leadership Seminar Assignment 2 by Sheila Y. Grangeiro Rachel M. Vital EDD 9100 CRN 51180 Leadership Seminar Nova Southeastern University July 29, 2012 2 Book Review Overview The Four Obsessions of an Extraordinary Executive

More information

IAFC NFPA 72 Proposal Fact Sheet: Focus on Reduction of False Alarms and Support of Effective and Efficient Response

IAFC NFPA 72 Proposal Fact Sheet: Focus on Reduction of False Alarms and Support of Effective and Efficient Response IAFC NFPA 72 Proposal Fact Sheet: Focus on Reduction of False Alarms and Support of Effective and Efficient Response A Call to Lead The IAFC is calling on the fire and emergency service to take action

More information

Mechanism of short-term ERK activation by electromagnetic fields at mobile phone frequencies. Biochemistry Journal. August 1, 2007 405, pp.

Mechanism of short-term ERK activation by electromagnetic fields at mobile phone frequencies. Biochemistry Journal. August 1, 2007 405, pp. Mechanism of short-term ERK activation by electromagnetic fields at mobile phone frequencies 1 Biochemistry Journal August 1, 2007 405, pp. 559 568 Joseph Friedman, Sarah Kraus, Yirmi Hauptman, Yoni Schiff

More information

Methodological Issues for Interdisciplinary Research

Methodological Issues for Interdisciplinary Research J. T. M. Miller, Department of Philosophy, University of Durham 1 Methodological Issues for Interdisciplinary Research Much of the apparent difficulty of interdisciplinary research stems from the nature

More information

Millennium Product Inc. Model: Cell Shield / Zorb

Millennium Product Inc. Model: Cell Shield / Zorb Millennium Product Inc. Cell Shield / Zorb Prepared by PCTEST LAB Issued on: 10/22/2015 Report Version 2.6 NOTE: SAR results only apply to the device tested. Although the device may have had different

More information

The Connecticut Tree Protective Association s Position Statement on Exceptions to the Arborist Law

The Connecticut Tree Protective Association s Position Statement on Exceptions to the Arborist Law The Connecticut Tree Protective Association s Position Statement on Exceptions to the Arborist Law It is the position of the Connecticut Tree Protective Association that, whenever an individual or firm

More information

MBA 6001, Organizational Research and Theory Course Syllabus. Course Description. Prerequisites. Course Textbook. Course Learning Objectives.

MBA 6001, Organizational Research and Theory Course Syllabus. Course Description. Prerequisites. Course Textbook. Course Learning Objectives. MBA 6001, Organizational Research and Theory Course Syllabus Course Description Examination of organizational theory and managerial concepts of human behavior in organizations. Topics include theoretical

More information

Political Science Courses-1. American Politics

Political Science Courses-1. American Politics Political Science Courses-1 American Politics POL 110/American Government Examines the strengths and weaknesses, problems and promise of representative democracy in the United States. Surveys the relationships

More information

Statement. on the. Kenya Communications (Broadcasting) Regulations, 2009. February 2010

Statement. on the. Kenya Communications (Broadcasting) Regulations, 2009. February 2010 Statement on the Kenya Communications (Broadcasting) Regulations, 2009 February 2010 ARTICLE 19 Free Word Centre 60 Farringdon Road London EC1R 3GA United Kingdom Tel +44 207 324 2500 Fax +44 207 490 0566

More information

What is School-Based Mental Health?

What is School-Based Mental Health? Why School-Based? There is an abundance of evidence that most children in need of mental health services do not receive them, and those that do, receive them, for the most part, through the school system

More information

ABSTRACT 1.1. BACKGROUND WAYS OF DEFINING A DOMAIN

ABSTRACT 1.1. BACKGROUND WAYS OF DEFINING A DOMAIN Two Axes of Domains for Domain Analysis Joseph T. Tennis Information School University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195-2840 ABSTRACT This paper adds two analytical devices to domain analysis. It claims

More information

Research Courses in the CPED Education Doctorate: What s the Difference? Purpose

Research Courses in the CPED Education Doctorate: What s the Difference? Purpose Research Courses in the CPED Education Doctorate: What s the Difference? Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the characteristics and attributes of research courses taught in Education Doctorate

More information

THE ROLE OF CULTURE IN KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT. Woo-Soon Park Department of Public Administration, Dong-A University, Pusan 602-714 Korea

THE ROLE OF CULTURE IN KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT. Woo-Soon Park Department of Public Administration, Dong-A University, Pusan 602-714 Korea THE ROLE OF CULTURE IN KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Woo-Soon Park Department of Public Administration, Dong-A University, Pusan 602-714 Korea Keywords: knowledge, knowledge management, knowledge organization,

More information

WORKSHEET The Role and Impact of Mass Media

WORKSHEET The Role and Impact of Mass Media P a g e 1 WORKSHEET The Role and Impact of Mass Media As the worlds first constitutional democratic republic, The United States is considered a role model for a large number of countries. We have state

More information

Methodological Approach: Typologies of Think Tanks

Methodological Approach: Typologies of Think Tanks Methodological Approach: Typologies of Think Tanks Unlike Stone, Donald Abelson applies a typology of think tanks by focusing on four distinctive periods of think tanks development to recognise the major

More information

Business. Democratic Socialism. Sponsoring Faculty Member: Professor Cindi Bearden. Levi Evans

Business. Democratic Socialism. Sponsoring Faculty Member: Professor Cindi Bearden. Levi Evans Business Levi Evans Democratic Socialism Sponsoring Faculty Member: Professor Cindi Bearden Levi Evans Democratic presidential primary candidate, Bernie Sanders, wants America to adopt the political and

More information

Candidates seeking admission to the Ed.D. program must fulfill the following requirements:

Candidates seeking admission to the Ed.D. program must fulfill the following requirements: Doctoral Program Dear Prospective Student, Thank you for your interest in Lewis University s Doctoral Program (Ed.D.) in Educational Leadership for Teaching and Learning. In response to your inquiry, enclosed

More information

THE GOVERNANCE AND STRUCTURE OF THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATION IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY

THE GOVERNANCE AND STRUCTURE OF THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATION IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY THE GOVERNANCE AND STRUCTURE OF THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ORGANIZATION IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY David S. Taylor, Sam Houston State University, mis_dst@shsu.edu ABSTRACT As organizations have become more

More information

Defining Graduate Education in Interior Design

Defining Graduate Education in Interior Design Defining Graduate Education in Interior Design As it exists today, interior design graduate education is defined by various degrees with different missions, professional content, research content, degree

More information

What Is Gender at Work s Approach to Gender Equality and Institutional Change?

What Is Gender at Work s Approach to Gender Equality and Institutional Change? What Is Gender at Work s Approach to Gender Equality and Institutional Change? Our work is underpinned by a commitment to transform institutions. We posit a conceptual framework that connects rights with

More information

The Opportunity Cost of Study Abroad Programs: An Economics-Based Analysis

The Opportunity Cost of Study Abroad Programs: An Economics-Based Analysis Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad The Opportunity Cost of Study Abroad Programs: An Economics-Based Analysis George Heitmann Muhlenberg College I. Introduction Most colleges and

More information

Testimony of. Laura Welch, M.D. Medical Director Center to Protect Workers Rights November 17, 2005

Testimony of. Laura Welch, M.D. Medical Director Center to Protect Workers Rights November 17, 2005 Testimony of Laura Welch, M.D. Medical Director Center to Protect Workers Rights November 17, 2005 Testimony of Laura Welch, MD Medical Director, Center to Protect Workers Rights On Asbestos Related Diseases

More information

Change Management Overview

Change Management Overview Leadership & Strategy» Leading Change» Strategic Change» Change Management Overview Change Management Overview Change is one of the few constants. Technology, civilisations and organisations continually

More information

Center for Effective Organizations

Center for Effective Organizations Center for Effective Organizations TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT: SIMILARITIES, DIFFERENCES, AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS CEO PUBLICATION G 92-16 (219) EDWARD E. LAWLER III University of Southern

More information

ISRAELI RESEARCH: CELL PHONE RADIATION MAY CAUSE VISUAL DAMAGE

ISRAELI RESEARCH: CELL PHONE RADIATION MAY CAUSE VISUAL DAMAGE Page 1 of 6 ISRAELI RESEARCH: CELL PHONE RADIATION MAY CAUSE VISUAL DAMAGE Posted Monday, Jul. 25, 2005 on IsraCast.com In a recent scientific study conducted by a team of researchers from the Technion,

More information

COMPLEXITY RISING: FROM HUMAN BEINGS TO HUMAN CIVILIZATION, A COMPLEXITY PROFILE. Y. Bar-Yam New England Complex Systems Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA

COMPLEXITY RISING: FROM HUMAN BEINGS TO HUMAN CIVILIZATION, A COMPLEXITY PROFILE. Y. Bar-Yam New England Complex Systems Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA COMPLEXITY RISING: FROM HUMAN BEINGS TO HUMAN CIVILIZATION, A COMPLEXITY PROFILE Y. BarYam New England Complex Systems Institute, Cambridge, MA, USA Keywords: complexity, scale, social systems, hierarchical

More information

2016 OUTLOOK: GLOBAL PAYMENTS

2016 OUTLOOK: GLOBAL PAYMENTS December 2015 2016 OUTLOOK: GLOBAL PAYMENTS Disruption across the industry a global theme Around the world, new entrants (including start-ups and nontraditional players) are entering the payments industry.

More information

NASPAA Accreditation. Policy Briefs. Crystal Calarusse

NASPAA Accreditation. Policy Briefs. Crystal Calarusse NASPAA Accreditation Policy Briefs Crystal Calarusse What are the Characteristics of NASPAA Accreditation? Crystal Calarusse 1 April 2015 The Commission on Peer Review and Accreditation (COPRA) of the

More information

Essays on Teaching Excellence

Essays on Teaching Excellence Essays on Teaching Excellence Toward the Best in the Academy A Publication of The Professional & Organizational Development Network in Higher Education Vol. 19, No. 5, 2007-2008 Building Assignments that

More information

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF MICROWAVE RADIATION NEUTRALIZERS ON PHYSIOLOGICAL STATE OF HUMAN SUBJECTS

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF MICROWAVE RADIATION NEUTRALIZERS ON PHYSIOLOGICAL STATE OF HUMAN SUBJECTS COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF MICROWAVE RADIATION NEUTRALIZERS ON PHYSIOLOGICAL STATE OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Igor Smirnov, Ph. D. and M. S. 2005 All Copyrights reserved by I.Smirnov Affiliation: GLOBAL

More information

The Performance Management Group LLC

The Performance Management Group LLC The Performance Management Group LLC KNOWLEDGE SPACE A Guide to Core Competency Analysis By Gerald M. Taylor LSSMBB, PMBscM Managing Consultant The Performance Management Group LLC HELPING YOU MAKE IT

More information

Coalition for the Advancement of Medical Research Summary of Caravan ORC International National Survey

Coalition for the Advancement of Medical Research Summary of Caravan ORC International National Survey Coalition for the Advancement of Medical Research Summary of Caravan ORC International National Survey The Coalition for the Advancement of Medical Research (CAMR) commissioned Caravan ORC International

More information

How to Influence EU Public Opinion about Agricultural Biotechnology

How to Influence EU Public Opinion about Agricultural Biotechnology THIS REPORT CONTAINS ASSESSMENTS OF COMMODITY AND TRADE ISSUES MADE BY USDA STAFF AND NOT NECESSARILY STATEMENTS OF OFFICIAL U.S. GOVERNMENT POLICY Voluntary - Public Italy Post: Rome Date: 1/11/2010 GAIN

More information

D R A F T. Faculty Senate Ad Hoc Committee on Quality in Online Learning.

D R A F T. Faculty Senate Ad Hoc Committee on Quality in Online Learning. Faculty Senate Ad Hoc Committee on Quality in Online Learning. The Faculty Senate Ad Hoc Committee on the Future Direction of Quality Education is charged with: Defining quality in online/distance education

More information

The American College of Greece: Academic Vision. David G. Horner, Ph.D. President The American College of Greece April 14, 2011 (Edited July 2013)

The American College of Greece: Academic Vision. David G. Horner, Ph.D. President The American College of Greece April 14, 2011 (Edited July 2013) The American College of Greece: Academic Vision David G. Horner, Ph.D. President The American College of Greece April 14, 2011 (Edited July 2013) Before presenting my recommendation for ACG s future academic

More information

Approaches for Survey Feedback and Action Planning

Approaches for Survey Feedback and Action Planning Introduction Survey feedback and action planning are two of the most important components of an organization s survey process, but they are also the most difficult to do well. Although survey design and

More information

Human Research Protection Program University of California, San Diego ISSUES ON DNA AND INFORMED CONSENT

Human Research Protection Program University of California, San Diego ISSUES ON DNA AND INFORMED CONSENT Human Research Protection Program University of California, San Diego ISSUES ON DNA AND INFORMED CONSENT Regulatory changes will occur for investigators studying human DNA The recent acceleration and widening

More information

International Conference Meanings of the Rural between social representations, consumptions and rural development strategies

International Conference Meanings of the Rural between social representations, consumptions and rural development strategies International Conference Meanings of the Rural between social representations, consumptions and rural development strategies 28-29 September 2015, University of Aveiro, Portugal Theme 2 COORDINATING RURAL

More information

GUIDELINE ON QUALITY OF DISTANCE EDUCATION FOR EXTERNAL STUDENTS AT THE HEI S OF PAKISTAN

GUIDELINE ON QUALITY OF DISTANCE EDUCATION FOR EXTERNAL STUDENTS AT THE HEI S OF PAKISTAN GUIDELINE ON QUALITY OF DISTANCE EDUCATION FOR EXTERNAL STUDENTS AT THE HEI S OF PAKISTAN (QUALITY ASSURANCE DIVISION) HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION (HEC) ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN 0 Module 1: Guidelines for Establishment

More information

Contents. Getting to Know Your Device...5. Appearance... 5 LED Indicators... 6. Device Installation...7

Contents. Getting to Know Your Device...5. Appearance... 5 LED Indicators... 6. Device Installation...7 U.S. Cellular Home Phone 1 Contents Getting to Know Your Device...5 Appearance... 5 LED Indicators... 6 Device Installation...7 Before You Begin... 7 Installing the Battery... 7 Installing the Power Adapter...

More information

When risk assessment fails public policy

When risk assessment fails public policy When risk assessment fails public policy The case for a precautionary approach for children s use of mobile phones Don Maisch, The Australasian College of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine Children

More information