ASBESTOS IN SOIL AND MADE GROUND

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1 ASBESTOS IN SOIL AND MADE GROUND

2 What is Asbestos? The word "asbestos" comes from the Greek meaning "inextinguishable." Asbestos is a serious health hazard commonly found in our environment today. Projects on sites where asbestos may be present in soils need to have appropriate risk management measures in place to protect workers and nearby residents.

3 Asbestos History Many people believed asbestos a "miracle" product of the 20th century. That couldn't be further from the truth. 1st Century AD Pliny the Elder notes that slaves working in asbestos mines die young of lung disease. The Greeks recognized that not everything about asbestos was good. Greek and Roman scientists recognized asbestos caused "sickness of the lungs" in the slaves that wove asbestos into cloth or mined the mineral. Egyptian mummy s were wrapped in asbestos containing fabric

4 Asbestos Fibrous Minerals Serpentine (93% of commercial use) Chrysotile Amphibole (7% of commercial use) Actinolite, Amosite, Anthophyllite, Crocidolite, Richterite, Tremolite

5 Six Types of Asbestos Asbestos is composed of six different types of natural minerals: Chrysotile Amosite Most common types Crocidolite Tremolite Actinolite Anthophyllite

6 LEGISLATION AND POLICY Control of Asbestos Regulations Construction (Design and Management)Regulations Liabilities and Negligence provisions of the Compensation Act Clients and Landowners with responsibilities incur Liabilities through Part 2a Environmental Damage Regulations

7 ASBESTOS TIMELINE 1906 First case report of death related to asbestos disease in the UK 1930 First comprehensive UK survey of effects of asbestos dust on lungs and dust suppression (Merewether & Price) 1955 Dolls paper linking asbestos w lung cancer 1969 Asbestos Regulations Ammended: crocidoliteuse banned in the UK 1906 PRESENT 1987 Control of Asbestos Regulations 1999 Asbestos (Prohibitions) Regulations Amended in Update Control of Asbestos Regulations Compensation Act 2014 CIRIA publish C733 First comprehensive Guidance on Managing Risks in Soils & Made Ground 1924 First medical paper in UK on fibrosis of the lungs due tto inhalation of asbestos, (Cooke) 1931 Asbestos Industry Regulations 1960 Wagner, Sleggset al. paper linking crocidolitew mesothelioma 1983 Asbestos Licensing Regulations 1990 ICRCL Asbestos on Contaminated Sites 2003 Fairchild vs Glenhaven Funeral Services 2012 RevisedControl of Asbestos Regulations To comply w EU Directive 2003/18/EC

8 STATUS OF CURRENT GUIDANCE AGS 2012, Interim Guidance Site Investigation Asbestos Risk Assessment for the Protection of Site Investigation and Geotechnical Laboratory Personnel CIRIA 2014, C733 A Guide to Understanding and Managing Risks; JIWG, in prep, Code of Practice Practitioners Guide; CIRIA, in Prep, RP105 Asbestos in Soil a Site Guide

9 CIRIA C733 A GUIDE TO UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING RISKS Launched 27 March 2014 Comprehensive 18 chapters covering Client Requirements, Legislation, Types of Asbestos, Health and exposure, Compliance with CAR, Airborne risks, preliminary risk assessment and sampling strategies for soils and air, exposure and risk estimation, remediation, communication and appointment of specialists.

10 PRELIMINARY RISK ASSESSMENT

11 RISK EVALUATION PROCESS

12 AIRBORNE RELEASE

13 UNITS AND CONVERSIONS

14 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AIRBORNE RELEASE AND SOIL CONCENTRATION

15

16 EFFECT OF SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT ON AIRBORNE FIBRE COUNT

17

18 CALCULATING EXPOSURE E where C F T i i i i = C i F i T i = the estimated concentration f for the event ml = the frequency of the event per year = the period of time that the event lasts in hours Cumulative Exposure CE i = where E i Y i Y i = the number of years that exp osure event i will occur

19 EXAMPLE

20

21 MESOTHELIOMA RISK Blue shaded: Risk Management rather than Contaminated Land

22 LUNG CANCER RISK Risk Management rather than Contaminated Land

23 WYG EXAMPLE Soil Analysis SS1 (depth 0.3m) 0.004% Chrysotile TP1 (depth 1.0 m) 0.004% Amosite + Chrysotile TP3 (depth 1.5m) <0.001% Chrysotile TP6 (depth 0.5 m) <0.001% Chrysotile Air Analyses Adjacent Block C hotspot HB Adjacent Block C hotspot HB fib/ml (Actual) <0.01 fib/ml (reportable) fib/ml (Actual) <0.01 fib/ml (reportable)

24

25 Construction Worker on Site 8 hours per day estimate 1 year exposure C i = 0.22 fib/ml from Addison, 1988 F i = 239 (239 working days per year) T i = 7.5 hours E i = 394 fib/mil hrs/yr For Comparison to Exposure Chart which is based upon 5 year exposure of 30 year old person Then Adjustment Factor = 1 for age 30 And multiply by 5 years =1970 fib/ml.hrs Divide by 8760 hrs/ year Cum. Exp = 0.22 fib/ml.yr

26 Construction Worker on Site 8 hours per day estimate 1 year exposure C i = fib/ml F i = 239 (239 working days per year) T i = 7.5 hours E i = 1.97 For Comparison to Exposure Chart which is based upon 5 year exposure of 30 year old person Then Adjustment Factor = 1 for age 30 And divide by 5 years to get exposure in fib/ml/yr =1.97/5 = 0.394

27 THANK YOU Contact Details Cecilia MacLeod WYG ENVIRONMENT 100 St John Street, London, EC1M 4EH Tel: +44 (0) Fax: +44 (0) Mob: +44 (0)

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