Deliverable D1.1: Surveillance, fighting crime and violence

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1 Project acronym: IRISS Project title: Increasing Resilience in Surveillance Societies Project number: Programme: FP7-SSH Objective: To investigate societal effects of different surveillance practices from a multi-disciplinary social science and legal perspective. Contract type: Small or medium-scale focused research project Start date of project: 01 February 2012 Duration: 36 months Deliverable D1.1: Surveillance, fighting crime and violence A report addressing and analysing the factors underpinning the development and use of surveillance systems and technologies by both public authorities and private actors, and their implications in fighting crime and terrorism, social and economic costs, protection or infringement of civil liberties, fundamental rights and ethical aspects Co-ordinator Trilateral Research and Consulting LLP Dissemination level: PU Deliverable type: Report Version: 1 Submission date: 17 December

2 Executive summary and overall editor Concepts and terms The co-evolution of surveillance technologies and surveillance practices The surveillance industry in Europe The effectiveness of surveillance in preventing and detecting crime and terrorism Social and economic costs of surveillance Impacts of surveillance on civil liberties and fundamental rights Findings and recommendations Lead David Wright, Trilateral Research and Consulting Ivan Szekely, Eotvos Karoly Policy Institute Michael Friedewald, Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI Rowena Rodrigues, Trilateral Research and Consulting LLP Reinhard Kreissl, Institute for the Sociology of Law and Criminology (IRKS) Johan Čas, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften (Institute of Technology Assessment) Charles Raab, University of Edinburgh David Wright, Trilateral Research and Consulting Contributors Johann Čas, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften (Institute of Technology Assessment) Beatrix Vissy, EKINT Kerstin Goos, Dara Hallinan, Fraunhofer ISI, William Webster, Charles Leleux, University of Stirling Michael Friedewald, Fraunhofer, and Gemma Galdon Clavell, University of Barcelona Clive Norris, Marija Krlic and Leroy Groves Sheffield University, Anthony Amicelle, PRIO Stefan Strauß, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften (Institute of Technology Assessment), Anthony Amicelle, PRIO, Kirstie Ball, Open University, Dara Hallinan, Michael Friedewald, Fraunhofer ISI, Ivan Szekely, Beatrix Vissy, EKINT Dara Hallinan, Fraunhofer ISI, Anthony Amicelle, PRIO; Gemma Galdon Clavell, UB; Paul De Hert, VUB; Antonella Galetta, VUB, Richard Jones, University of Edinburgh 2

3 Contents Executive summary... 7 The co-evolution of surveillance technologies and surveillance practices... 7 The surveillance industry in Europe... 8 The effectiveness of surveillance in preventing and detecting crime and terrorism Social and economic costs of surveillance Impacts of surveillance on civil liberties and fundamental rights Introduction to concepts and terms The co-evolution of surveillance technologies and surveillance practices Introduction The origins of surveillance The beginnings of computer-mediated surveillance The emergence of the computer and electronic surveillance Establishing government databases and the origins of data protection legislation Surveillance technologies and practices in the computer age Qualitative and quantitative shifts in surveillance practices The rise of surveillance cameras Definitional difficulties The proliferation of surveillance cameras since the 1990s Video surveillance cameras in Europe Summary Surveillance after 9/ Causes of contemporary surveillance practices Surveillance technologies after 9/ Surveillance as a policy response to 9/ Conclusions The surveillance industry in Europe Introduction Surveillance markets Market data Surveillance customers Drivers and inhibitors Non-EU markets Conclusion Leading surveillance companies in Europe Methodology The sample study Motivations Main offerings Features and characteristics of the industry

4 3.3.6 Controversies Market prospects and competition Future market prospects and growth areas Trends Competition Challenges for the future Industry associations Surveillance-related industry associations and their nature Goals Activities of industry associations Impact of the surveillance industry on security policy Influence in regional organisations Intersections with national security agencies Lobbying Involvement in EU security research projects The surveillance industry and fundamental rights Attitudes to human rights Concerns Respecting human rights measures and good practices Conclusion Who watches the surveillance industry Government Civil society organisations Media Academia Conclusion The effectiveness of surveillance in preventing and detecting crime and terrorism Introduction Assessing the effectiveness of crime prevention and detection Different types of crime and changing paradigms of crime control Crime, terrorism and surveillance Conceptual issues Surveillance Modern surveillance as naming and tracking Law enforcement and surveillance Surveillance technologies used in preventing and detecting crime and terrorism Fingerprinting CCTV Facial recognition (FRT) Behavioural recognition technologies (BRT) Electronic monitoring Drug testing and alcohol testing Automatic number plate recognition Communication interception DNA profiling

5 4.4 Merging technologies The emergence of surveillance assemblages Assessment Social and economic costs of surveillance Introduction Towards a taxonomy of social and economic costs Social costs of surveillance Exclusion and discrimination Surveillance and conformity Economic costs of surveillance technologies The relevance of social and economic costs of surveillance Conclusion Impacts of surveillance on civil liberties and fundamental rights Introduction Task description Overview Surveillance a variety of practices Privacy a range of values and rights The importance of context Effects of surveillance on privacy, autonomy and dignity Privacy Autonomy Dignity Effects of surveillance on freedom of assembly and association, and on freedom of expression The theoretical impact of surveillance on the public sphere The practical consequences of surveillance Surveillance online Surveillance and freedom of movement Surveillance and discrimination The effects of surveillance on social integration Effects of surveillance on the rule of law, and on the presumption of innocence New trends in criminal law The effects of surveillance on due process of law The effects of surveillance on the presumption of innocence Conclusion The effects of surveillance on the rights and values of particular people (equality of treatment) Effects of rights and freedoms on system design Good practice: some examples Effects of rights and values on oversight of systems

6 7 Findings and recommendations The co-evolution of surveillance technologies and surveillance practices The surveillance industry in Europe The effectiveness of surveillance in preventing and detecting crime and terrorism Social and economic costs of surveillance Impacts of surveillance on civil liberties and fundamental rights REFERENCES ANNEXES Annex 1 Comprehensive list of surveillance companies Annex 2 Shortlisted sample of surveillance companies Annex 3 Industry associations

7 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This is an executive summary of a report addressing and analysing the factors underpinning the development and use of surveillance systems and technologies by both public authorities and private actors, and their implications in fighting crime and terrorism, social and economic costs, protection or infringement of civil liberties, fundamental rights and ethical aspects. The executive summary comprises five main parts corresponding to the outputs of the five main tasks in WP1. THE CO-EVOLUTION OF SURVEILLANCE TECHNOLOGIES AND SURVEILLANCE PRACTICES The aim of Task 1.1 was to explore the dynamics of the proliferation of surveillance practices by considering driving factors such as actors, policy initiatives and reactions, societal, economic and technological developments. Task 1.1 also focuses on the historical development of surveillance technologies (beginning in the middle of the 20 th century). It specifically examines how technological development has changed surveillance practices and how changed practices have spawned novel surveillance technologies in a co-evolutional manner. The investigation starts with the review of the development and establishment of databases and the ensuing rise of the computer which bred quantitative and qualitative shifts in surveillance practices. Beginning with punch cards, continuing with affordable disk storage and finally progressing to ever smaller computers offering huge data storage capacity, governments and corporations have identified, step by step, increased surveillance opportunities. As IT capabilities increased and their development accelerated, the possibilities to store and process data in turn triggered the ubiquity, decentralisation, anonymity and selfreinforcement of surveillance. Motives for the eventual usage of those technologies can be found in the rise of the welfare state which required the collection of data about citizens in order to offer social services. Further internal and external threats to national security caused the application of dragnet investigations (e.g., of left-wing terrorism in Germany in the 1970s), the installation of governmental databases for criminal records, policing and intelligence gathering, and the development of new surveillance technologies such as satellites or wireless bugging. An especially dominant surveillance application that broke through in the 1990s is closed circuit television (CCTV). The UK set the pace in CCTV deployment showing the highest number of public space CCTV systems although other European countries have also experienced a sustained growth in CCTV. An important technological turning point was the convergence of telecommunications and information technologies and the increasing digitization since the mid-1980s. This made it possible to integrate all kinds of input devices (and the data they collect) into complex information processing systems. Increasingly powerful algorithms for data analysis facilitated the recognition of persons, incidents and the processing of much more information of possible interest for surveilling authorities. These developments began to allow (semi-) automated decision-making. In addition to the interest of the state in the control and collection of data, corporations and employers entered the field as players in various surveillance contexts. The proliferation of credit cards and loyalty cards, and new possibilities to store and analyse the consumption activities of individuals, led to the rise of direct and targeted marketing activities and early 7

8 forms of large-scale social sorting. Computerisation also created new opportunities for the electronic surveillance of the individual worker and the workplace. With the beginning of the 21st century and the concurrent rise and ubiquitous use of the Internet, it became obvious that surveillance was a phenomenon inherent in everyday life. Surveillance and data collection were no longer restricted to specific sites, but myriad forms of watching, recording and analysing are applied. The political-economic context moved to consumer capitalism and the economic significance of personal data increased significantly. In globalised, highly connected knowledge and information societies, where new tokens of trust are constantly required, and where organisations (and individuals) must continually identify and assess risks and work out ways to avoid or minimise those risks, ICTs are the the means of co-ordination and exchange. Web-generated data, GPS, GSM and Wi-Fi based location determination, biometric identification and communications surveillance all play an important role in the collection of information, data mining and social sorting. Meanwhile, contemporary discussions about surveillance are inevitably entangled with the terrorist attacks of 11 September Although the so-called war on terror is only one rationale for the use of surveillance systems, unquestionably terrorist attacks have reinforced already existing anti-terrorist monitoring regimes. Policy responses within the US and Europe contain several far-reaching measures comprising changes in wiretapping laws, search warrants and the rules on the exchange and storage of personal data within and between countries. There is no one-way causal relationship between the development of technologies and their application for surveillance purposes but instead complex, context-dependent, social, political, historical and technological dynamics which interact and shape surveillance practices. The development of technologies financed by state agencies has gradually shifted from military to civil use. Policy reactions to real or perceived internal or external threats, broader developments affecting society as a whole (such as increased risks in a globalised world and the proliferation of information and communication technologies), the rise of consumer capitalism and changes in the willingness of individuals to share personal information, all play a role in the co-evolutionary development of surveillance technologies and surveillance practices. Surveillance is, and has always been, an element of modern society, but dominant societal changes, increasing economic interests in the individual, influential policy responses to unexpected looming events and the normalisation of surveillance has made surveillance a dominant facet of contemporary societies indeed. Although surveillance may be labelled normal, huge issues arise, e.g., in terms of transparency and the lack of accountability connected with the unclear purposes and efficiency of surveillance measures; the inherent danger of function creep causes concern as the specter of totalitarianism rises in eroding democracies. THE SURVEILLANCE INDUSTRY IN EUROPE The main objective of this Task is to identify and characterise the surveillance industry in Europe. Here, the surveillance industry (in a broad manner) refers to all the actors involved in the commercial production, trade and/or offering of surveillance products and services (or products and services that satisfy surveillance needs). 8

9 Overview First, this task discusses surveillance markets in key surveillance areas such as biometrics, deep packet inspection, smart cards, RFID, smart homes, unmanned aerial systems, x-ray security screening, video surveillance. It profiles surveillance customers and discusses the drivers and inhibitors of markets. Second, it surveys the security and allied industries and identifies companies engaged in the business of surveillance in Europe. Since it was impossible to examine all identified companies within the task s limited timeframe, we analysed a sample of 39 leading companies in depth to characterise the European surveillance industry. We highlights the motivations, main offerings, features of and controversies beleaguering the industry. Third, the task outlines the surveillance industry s future market prospects and discusses competition and challenges. Fourth, the task identifies and analyses the nature, role, activities and effect of industry associations. Fifth, we examine the impact of the surveillance industry on security policy and research. Sixth, the task focuses on the surveillance industry and fundamental rights it considers the attitude of the industry to human rights concerns, and highlights actions and good practices. Finally, the task identifies the watchers of the surveillance industry i.e., the entities monitoring the surveillance industry, their monitoring motivations, actions and effects upon industry. Key themes and findings The global and European surveillance industry is developing at a rapid pace. Supply is increasing demands in both the public and private sector, across a range of areas such as national defence and security, critical infrastructure, banking, employment, energy and utilities, entertainment, finance, government, healthcare, policing and justice, retail, telecommunications, travel and transport. Various factors drive the industry: pro-surveillance policy and legislation, research and innovation, financial support and funding, profits, positive media coverage and public demand. On the other hand, inhibitors such as policy shifts, restrictive legislation, inadequate research, the apparent need for development and innovation, lack of financing and funding, losses, negative media publicity and lack of public demand or rejection affect its growth. The surveillance industry in Europe is characterised by a diversity of companies (based on organisational history, revenues, size, location, operation and organisational focus) that provide a variety of surveillance solutions. The industry is profit-motivated and driven. Investment in manufacture, integration, provision or sale of surveillance technologies generates high levels of income for companies fuelled in particular by the government or public sector demand and expenditure. To boost their position and influence, surveillance companies are collaborating, making acquisitions and forming strategic partnerships and alliances, and entering into joint ventures with other companies, academia and research institutions. The surveillance industry in Europe is characterised by the presence of a large number of non- European companies, particularly from the USA. Conversely, European companies, driven by the economic downturn in Europe, the huge potential of foreign markets and their receptiveness to surveillance solutions, are investing heavily in non-european markets in North and South America, Asia and Africa. Surveillance companies have courted controversies such as unethical and even illegal business practices, illegal government subsidies, privacy and security concerns, sale of 9

10 technologies to authoritarian and undemocratic regimes, human rights abuses, conflict zone profiteering, general surveillance-related profiteering and pro-surveillance thrusts, misleading consumers, and anti-competitive practices. Overall, this has affected the industry s reputation as a whole. The European surveillance industry (individual companies and industry associations) needs to take stock of this. Conclusion In sum, the future of surveillance is set. We predict an increasing demand for surveillance solutions (stand-alone and integrated), rapid growth for the industry and strong market prospects, specifically based on the following trends: (1) a substantial growth of public sector demand for surveillance bolstered by the adoption of identity schemes, and terrorist detection technologies and markets, (2) an increase in the demand for civil/commercial surveillance, (3) the development of a global surveillance industry, (4) an increase in integrated surveillance solutions, (5) a rise in international surveillance wars, by which we mean not only surveillance and cyber espionage by governments, 1 but also that surveillance companies from Europe will face stiff competition from companies based outside the European Union. Despite the positive outlook for the European surveillance industry, it faces the following challenges: a lack of security awareness and attitudes, resulting from a decreased demand for security and surveillance products and services; stricter government regulation which may stifle the development and growth of the industry; financial challenges such as higher duties and costs; public rejection of technologies due to privacy, ethical and other human rights concerns; non-eu based competition. The industry needs multi-level strategies to deal with these. Surveillance industry associations play an important role in the industry and in interactions with other stakeholders They promote and increase the use of their members products and services, facilitate collaboration, promote research and development, establish policy, guidelines and standards, engage with the public and raise awareness of concerns such as security, safety, crime prevention and prosecution that ultimately drive and boost the demand for the surveillance industry s products and services. These associations influence security policy at different levels e.g., government, law, research. They organise events, provide information and training, conduct networking activities, fund research, develop best practices, lobby government and policy-makers, develop strategic partnerships, maintain public and media relations. In any societal resilience-building exercise that needs to have deep impact, it would be advisable to harness the power of these associations. Surveillance companies exert a great amount of influence through participation in security policy-related bodies such as the European Defence Agency (EDA), the European Organisation for Security (EOS) and European Security. They increasingly intersect with the public sector in performing traditionally public sector-restricted activities and are involved in a number of European research projects on security, information and communication technologies. Though some surveillance companies provide assurances that they act in conformity with legal and social obligations and values, mostly these are inadequately expressed and followed 1 Quite a few stories have appeared in the news media recently on this issue. See, for example, Taylor, Paul, Former US Spy Warns on Cybersecurity, The Financial Times, 2 Dec

11 through. A majority of companies neglect this aspect. Key concerns include issues of privacy, data protection, freedom of expression, and freedom of movement. While some good practices exist, these are not enough; they are inadequate in terms of the intrusive potential of some of the surveillance technologies the industry is developing and marketing. No one entity (i.e., government, media, civil society, academia or individuals) can play a selfsufficient or exclusive role in watching over the surveillance industry. Individually, each watcher is limited by its personal motivations and activities. Given the nature of the industry and its escalating potential to infringe upon fundamental rights and liberties, we recommend the formation and development of multi-stakeholder platforms or forums to monitor the industry (greater collaboration between all stakeholders) for greater effect and for building the resilience of society to surveillance. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SURVEILLANCE IN PREVENTING AND DETECTING CRIME AND TERRORISM The fight against crime and terrorism has been a major driver for the development and implementation of surveillance technologies for a long time. Police work provided a test bed for the development of new technologies. On the other hand, various technologies developed for other purposes outside law enforcement have been put to use for fighting crime. A prominent example is the use of information collected by mobile phone service providers for their own administrative purposes, which is now regularly shared with police for their investigative purposes. While there seems to be a close and obvious link between surveillance and law enforcement, a closer look reveals problems, including the following: 1. Crime is not a natural kind but a socially defined legal-bureaucratic category. All data about the volume of crime in a society are the product of complex administrative procedures. When assessing the effects of different surveillance technologies on preventing and detecting crime, the data have to be interpreted with great caution. 2. Surveillance technologies are not evenly applied to prevent and detect all sorts of crimes and not all technologies lend themselves to all types of crimes. This makes it difficult to produce an overall conclusive assessment of the effectiveness of surveillance in preventing and detecting crime and terrorism. 3. Systematic evaluation studies conducted by independent researchers about the use and effectiveness of surveillance technologies are rare. Technologies such as CCTV that have been evaluated show mixed results. Long-term effects may counter short-term effects; external effects, such as displacement of crime from one surveilled neighbourhood to another, less or not surveilled neighbourhood, have been reported in the literature. 4. The use of surveillance technologies in the field of law enforcement has to be understood as being embedded in the emergence of the modern bureaucratic state. Individuals and the social world have to become machine readable in order to apply certain technologies of surveillance (e.g., automated number plate recognition, ANPR). 5. An important aspect in the development of surveillance technologies is the introduction of electronically mediated digital forms of data processing. With the growth of data collected through surveillance (e.g., finger prints), the management and retrieval of information 11

12 becomes time consuming. When this information is available in a digitized format, and search procedures can be performed automatically, the use of the stored data in the context of fighting crime (e.g., comparing data from crime scenes with information stored in police data files) is easy. 6. Digitizing the processing of data from surveillance technologies also creates new assemblages, combining information from different sources to identify or describe an individual. These data can be communicated and made available wherever there is access to a computer. 7. The growth of modern surveillance technologies fosters a shift in the orientation of policing from a reactive form of thief-taking to a proactive approach, focussing on prevention and early identification of potentially suspicious individuals. This again promotes a shift from the focus on the criminal to the control of so-called pre-criminal but in itself legal behaviour. 8. Surveillance technologies also affect the working routines of law enforcement personnel. Doing police work in an information-intensive environment creates new forms of policing, with new tasks, requiring new capabilities and competences typically not available to the traditional street cop. The emerging new forms of intelligence-led policing require a new type of professional police officer. 9. Surveillance technologies used in preventing and fighting crime often create problems of legal regulation with regard to fundamental norms of data-protection and privacy. With the growth of encompassing preventive surveillance the presumption of innocence as an important legal safeguard is gradually hollowed out. 10. Surveillance technologies can be categorized based on functionalities: identifying, locating, tracking individuals; screening populations and flows (of data, money, etc.). Some technologies operate remotely (e.g., CCTV), others require some sort of physical contact with individuals (e.g., DNA-sampling). Combining technologies with different functionalities creates comprehensive data doubles of individuals that can be used for law enforcement purposes. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC COSTS OF SURVEILLANCE Following a comprehensive literature review, we have identified and describe the main categories of social and economic costs of surveillance. Social costs include effects such as discrimination, social exclusion and the increasing pressure for conformity as a consequence of surveillance. Beyond the direct costs for implementation and operation of surveillance systems, economic costs include potential long-term economic consequences, e.g., reduced innovativeness and subsequent losses in competitiveness due to the chilling effects of surveillance. We have also developed a taxonomy of the social and economic costs related to surveillance, which enables a more systematic analysis of different cost categories associated with surveillance measures. Overview We have identified two important difficulties in determining the social and economic costs related to surveillance. The first arises from the fact that the actual and potential surveillance 12

13 contemporary societies are facing is a rather new phenomenon; only recent progress in information technologies has allowed for the introduction of new forms of mass surveillance, and rapid technical progress is still changing the face of surveillance. Accordingly, many categories of social and economic costs may neither have materialised nor been identified yet. Second, social and economic costs are in themselves far from being commonly understood, well accepted and easily applied concepts. Hence, we have created a framework for a taxonomy of social and economic costs, based on a layered approach utilised in the context of privacy impact assessments (PIA). It distinguishes four different cost layers, differentiating the individual layer, the relational layer, the group layer and the social and political layer. These layers are exemplified by costs mainly belonging to the social category. Social and economic costs are related and partly overlapping categories; the associations between them are briefly illustrated on the basis of false positives and costs of errors. We have identified two key types of social costs of surveillance, costs related to exclusion and discrimination and costs of conformity. Our discussion on exclusion and discrimination focuses on the preventive dimension of contemporary surveillance policies. From this starting point, we address the issues of false positives and social damage, categorical suspicion and discrimination, marginalising effects and social inequalities, inhibition and the relation of privacy, societal harm and erosion of trust. Our discussion of surveillance and conformity focuses on the relation between conformity and bureaucratic rationality, classification and panopticism from a theoretical perspective. Our analysis of the costs of conformity is based on the (scarce) empirical work on this topic; it embraces the social domains of the workplace, schools, medicine, social media, sports coaching and public housing. We include two case studies on the economic costs of surveillance,which exemplify the notoriously difficult process of estimating costs comprehensively. The first case study concerns body scanners; we compare European and US evaluation approaches. The second case study concerns the European External Border Surveillance System (EUROSUR), wherein we compare, the cost assessment by the European Commission with alternative estimates. Both case studies show specific shortcomings of the individual assessment efforts and a more general lack of (reliable) data. The last section of our chapter on social and economic costs addresses the relevance of social and economic costs of surveillance in the context of decision-making. It briefly summarises the different cost categories, which should, in an ideal situation, all be reflected and compared to the benefits in decision-making processes on surveillance measures. It also describes the importance of taking social and economic costs properly into account for the legitimisation and justification of surveillance in democratic societies. We then draw our main conclusions, which address the need for broad and participatory evaluation of costs (and benefits) of surveillance in view of the many practical and theoretical difficulties in identifying and quantifying the social and economic costs of surveillance. Key findings Identification of alternatives and consideration of costs and (not materialised) benefits should be included in cost estimates. More research on long-term societal impacts and costs of surveillance is needed. 13

14 The unintended consequences of surveillance and its costs are presumably unacceptably high: e.g., effective preventive surveillance and profiling produce unacceptably high rates of false positives. Existing cost estimations suffer from a lack of reliable data and are only taking into consideration direct costs, ignoring (long-term) social and economic costs. Full consideration of social, economic and political costs would presumably result in decisions diverging from the current main focus on surveillance. Open and participatory debates can compensate for the fundamental difficulties of comprehensive estimations of social and economic costs of surveillance. Conclusion The increasing reliance on surveillance measures and technologies in contemporary security policies is based on an insufficient and incomplete knowledge and consideration of the social and economic costs of surveillance. In both categories, the real, long-term costs might be much higher than anticipated and erode the very basis of our liberal societies, economic wellbeing and democratic values. The relevance, magnitude and importance of social and economic costs of surveillance and the difficulties of identifying, assessing and quantifying them lead us to make two recommendations: First, more research in methods of the analysis of social and economic aspects of surveillance is needed to improve the reliability and comparability of such assessments. Second, the complexity of the involved issues and the danger of domination by individual interests demand representation of different interests and perspectives in any decision-making process on surveillance. IMPACTS OF SURVEILLANCE ON CIVIL LIBERTIES AND FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS This Task first examines the propensity of surveillance systems to infringe fundamental rights and values. Distinguishing between different forms of surveillance, it draws on the literature dealing with the impact of surveillance on a variety of specific but inter-related rights, freedoms and values that are considered to be at risk through the use of surveillance technologies and systems. The Task starts by commenting on the effects of surveillance on privacy, dignity, autonomy, and various rights and freedoms as well as values. Going beyond privacy, the effects of surveillance on different categories of people are examined. This is a neglected focus in many sources on privacy, which deal with data subjects as legal abstractions who have rights, but which rarely investigate the differentiated, and often systematically biased, effects of surveillance on various social categories. Scholars in the emerging field of surveillance studies as well as others, however, regard the social patterning of surveillance and the unevenly distributed ability of individuals and groups to have their privacy protected as an essential focus of analysis and policy. Turning the question around, the impacts of fundamental rights and values on surveillance systems are considered in terms of how they might affect the design, deployment and oversight of surveillance systems, in the light of the current emphasis being given by those who are involved in regulation and governance to ways of mitigating surveillance through technological and systemic measures. Some instances of best practice are mentioned, where surveillance systems have the least negative impact on fundamental rights while still being (seen as) relatively effective. 14

15 The main subject areas The Task distinguishes among the variety of surveillance practices (e.g., watching, listening, locating, detecting, dataveillance) in use in different situations (e.g., transport, public space, private premises databases, communications facilities, online transactions). It is important to consider the visibility, legality and power implications of surveillance in assessing the impact of surveillance upon social, economic and individual benefits, and upon individual privacy and freedoms and the texture of social life and relationships. Privacy is a complex term with no agreed meaning. It must be disaggregated in terms of overlapping subjects (e.g., privacy of the person, privacy of behaviour and action, privacy of personal communication, privacy of data and image, privacy of thoughts and feelings, privacy of location and space, privacy of association (including group privacy)). The literature also identifies several general and overlapping types of privacy (the right to be let alone, limited access to the self, secrecy, control over personal information, personhood, and intimacy). Another prominent classification concerns states of privacy: solitude, reserve, intimacy and anonymity. It is important to consider a variety of values associated with, or even incorporated within the meaning of, privacy (autonomy, dignity, liberty, personality, selfdetermination). In addition to its importance as an individual right, privacy is of value for society and the political system in terms of social integration, political democracy, the rule of law, and equality of treatment across individuals and groups. We endorse a growing trend in contemporary discussions of privacy and surveillance: emphasising the importance of context in any proper understanding of the way privacy works in myriad situations in which norms operate to shape relationships, interactions, and outlooks. An appreciation of context also serves to avoid deterministic and non-empirical suppositions about the implications of technology for society, individuals, rights and values. We examine the effects of surveillance on privacy, autonomy and dignity, drawing upon the relevant philosophical and social-science literature on these values, and illustrating them in terms of particular technologies that often impinge upon them (e.g., electronic monitoring, phone tapping, CCTV, airport security routines including body scanning, the use of DNA). We then turn to the effects of surveillance of freedom of assembly and association, and on freedom of expression, discussing the theoretical and practical consequences of surveillance on the public sphere. We consider these in terms of the framework of rights laid down in the European Charter of Fundamental Rights and the European Convention on Human Rights, and in view of the developing case law of the European Court of Human Rights. We investigate surveillance online and surveillance and freedom of movement, discuss surveillance and discrimination, social integration, the rule of law, the presumption of innocence, due process of law, and equality of treatment. We highlight the technologies and practices of movement tracking and tracing in these discussions, as well as categorisation through data mining and profiling (including racial profiling), control of public space through video surveillance, and dataveillance. We also outline new trends in criminal law as part of our analysis of the effects of surveillance, showing the growing trend towards pre-emptive, predictive approaches to policing and crime detection. We consider the effects of rights and freedoms on systems design, given the requirement that surveillance technologies and systems should comply with human rights and privacy protection. We discuss privacy by design (PbD) and privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) as leading instruments in shaping technological systems, and give some examples of good practice (e.g., in online browser settings, identity verification, and body scanning). Finally, we 15

16 consider the effects of rights and values in the oversight of systems, highlighting the regulatory and oversight relevance of privacy impact assessment (PIA), of the work of data protection authorities, and of the Article 29 Working Party as institutions. Key themes and emergent findings The discussions outlined above point towards several provisional themes and findings: a. Surveillance technologies and practices have an actual or potential impact (mainly negative, but sometimes positive) upon a wide range of individual and trans-individual rights, freedoms and values. b. The effects of surveillance go beyond those that concern individual privacy, dignity, autonomy and the presumption of innocence, and can also be seen in terms of various dimensions of social and political life. c. There are gaps and deficiencies in the law and in jurisprudence as they struggle to keep pace with technological development and institutional practice, perhaps especially in an online environment and in a climate of enhanced law enforcement and counter-terrorist policy. d. More effective regulation requires that existing regulatory philosophies, practices, laws and enforcement incorporate better development of anticipatory regulatory strategies that include design-stage controls, governance and evaluative instruments. Conclusion Discussing the impact of surveillance on a host of rights and values, and the impact of rights and values on surveillance requires conceptual disaggregation and clarity, detailed and systematic analysis, and empirical evidence. The degree to which all these desiderata are currently available is uneven, but our report shows how they can be brought to bear on a subject that is sometimes ambiguous (e.g., the concepts of privacy and surveillance) and sometimes not easily amenable to reliable empirical research (e.g., social and psychological effects), but with reasonable prospects of making subsequent judgements about the resilience of societies in the context of surveillance. 16

17 1 INTRODUCTION TO CONCEPTS AND TERMS Ivan Szekely, EKINT In the course of the present research, the members of the research consortium had the ambition to define a core set of notions and concepts and to use them in a coherent way in the analyses throughout the whole project. Where possible, such notions and concepts should be generally accepted in professional literature and scientific discourse, and should be suitable for interpreting and explaining the research results for decision-makers and the general public. A further ambition of the research consortium was to take into consideration the practice and findings of other EU projects dealing with related research questions and working in similar areas. This has relevance in two aspects: first, this way the duplication of certain unnecessary basic research into terms and concepts can be avoided that is also a precondition of the efficient use of research resources and second, the common understanding of terminology can ensure the comparability and joint interpretation of various sister projects in the EU, thereby implicitly providing terminological guidance for future research work. The aim of this brief introduction is to identify some core notions and concepts, which are relevant not only for the present deliverable, but for the whole research, too, and to outline their content as understood throughout the lifecycle of the project. This also means that if a project deliverable were to use a notion or concept with a meaning different from what has been outlined here, writing of specific notes and explanations would also be necessary. Naturally, we do not aspire to enlist and define all terms and concepts used in the course of the research; we are focusing on those notions which have multiple interpretations in professional literature or in public opinion, or their sphere of interpretation may vary according to the context. Evidently, surveillance is a core notion in IRISS and has a central importance in the analyses. The basic content and criteria of this notion are widely known and commonly understood; however, this term is used in rather diverse contexts and connotations, a part of which has no relevance for the present research. The subject of surveillance can be events, locations, temporal changes, patients in health care, etc. these manifestations of the generic notion of surveillance fall outside the scope of our research. In this project, we regard surveillance in a meaning narrowed down to human subjects. We basically accept David Lyon s definition, according to which it is a focused, systematic, and routine attention to personal details in the end to individuals for the purposes of influencing and protecting those whose data have been garnered ; 2 however, at the same time we deem necessary to emphasise three fundamental criteria of surveillance: there is an information asymmetry between the partners (the surveilling party is in the stronger position) 3, surveillance is performed in a non-transparent way (or secretly), and there is a lack of choice on the part of the surveilled subject. 4 2 Lyon, David, Surveillance Studies, An Overview, Polity Press, 2007, p See for example, Gandy, Oscar H., The Panoptic Sort: A Political Economy of Personal Information (Critical Studies in Communication and in the Cultural Industries), Westview, Because an employee or a child knows they are being surveilled does not make surveillance transparent. Even if the employee knows about it, or can see the CCTV cameras, she cannot fully oversee who can have access to her data or when The same is the case with children surveilled by parents. 17

18 We also regard the definition used in a sister FP7 project, the Ethical Issues of Emerging ICT Applications (ETICA), 5 which is comprehensive and at the same time specific enough: Monitoring of the physical, mental, economic, cultural, social or other activities of identified or identifiable individuals, irrespectively of the means and methods applied, whether automated or human interaction-based, mass or individually targeted, continuous, repetitive or ad hoc, perceptible or imperceptible, done physically or from a distance by means of electronic equipment, done in real-time or retrospectively, based on the activities of the individual him/herself or on the analysis of the personal data of the individuals concerned. When defining an identifiable person, we rely on the definition used by the Data Protection Directive of the European Union: a natural person who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identification code or to one or more factors specific to his physical, physiological, mental, economic, cultural or social identity. 6 Similarly, we follow the general definition of the EU directive of personal data, namely as any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person (the data subject). 7 The content, extent and limits of the concept of the relationship between the data and the person concerned, and those of identifiedness or identifiability are constantly changing and being disputed, mainly because of the developments in the application of emerging technologies. We deem the detailed interpretation of this notion prepared by the Article 29 Data Protection Working Party of the EU particularly useful. 8 Personal profiles, the inherent results of surveillance of identifiable individuals, are more than just personal data. A personal profile is a set of personal data, typically collected and developed through registration of such data or monitoring the activities of the persons concerned, which describes a part of the personality of the individual and can serve as the basis for drawing (true or false) conclusions regarding the past activities of the individual, or predicting his or her future behaviour or activities. Decisions influencing the life of individuals in a modern society are based increasingly on these profiles, also called their information replica or data double. These profiles can represent different parts or crosssections of the individual but can never cover the totality of the personality. Emerging information technologies such as ubiquitous computing or ambient intelligence multiply the capabilities of the controller of such personal profiles and hide this practice from the data subjects, making the traceability of one s own data and the exercisability of one s informational self-determination even more difficult. Since we regard information asymmetry between the parties as a fundamental criterion of surveillance, information power is also a concept that needs to be recognised in the course of the research. Informational power is the capacity of exerting influence or control by one party over another party by possessing, or having the capacity to possess, significantly or persistently more information about the other party than the other party possesses, or has the capacity to possess, about the first party. Any informational relationship, even a momentary one, has a stronger and a weaker side. The stronger party always has more information about this relationship; typically, the weaker parties cannot even be sure what it is exactly that the 5 6 European Parliament and the Council, Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data on the free movement of such data, Official Journal of the European Communities, L 281, 23 November 1995, pp , Article 2(a) 7 Ibid., Article 2(a) 8 Article 29 Data Protection Working Party, Opinion 4/2007 on the concept of personal data. 18

19 stronger side knows about her. Such a situation may deprive the weaker parties of the possibility to make deliberate decisions, thus distorting the behaviour of the actors both at individual and societal levels. This reasoning was included in the cornerstone decision of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany that lay the foundations of the concept of informational self-determination. 9 Of similar importance for the whole project are the terms privacy and security. The interpretation of these terms has an extensive literature in which the reader often finds contradictory or partial approaches. Several EU research projects conducted in recent years have been focusing on research areas involving the use of these concepts; some of these projects regarded the clarification and interpretation of either or both of these terms as their explicit task. As it has been discussed extensively in the conceptual framework of a running sister FP7 project, the PRIvacy and Security MirrorS: Towards a European framework for integrated decision making (PRISMS), 10 several authors emphasise the elusive nature of these terms, especially that of privacy. The notion of privacy remains out of the grasp of every academic chasing it ; 11 it is an unusually slippery concept, 12 and can be understood rather as contextual integrity where the core problem is sharing of information outside of socially agreed contextual boundaries. 13 This leads to the issue of the relationship between privacy in general and information privacy (or the corresponding European term data protection) in particular. It is a common understanding of the research consortium that privacy is a broader concept than information privacy or data protection, and it is possible to infringe someone s privacy without processing personal data at all. Nevertheless, as noted in the ETICA project, during the evolution of the definition of privacy, irrespectively of the differing legal, sociological or philosophical approaches, two main trends can be observed: (a) the weight of the information elements has increased, and (b) the negative and passive approach has been shifted towards a positive and active approach. For the purpose of categorising the various domains of privacy, we deem useful the taxonomy developed on the basis of previous researches in the framework of the FP7 project Privacy and emerging fields of science and technology: Towards a common framework for privacy and ethical assessment (PRESCIENT). 14 The seven main types of privacy distilled from this taxonomy, as identified by Finn et al. (2013) are: privacy of the person, privacy of behaviour and action, privacy of communication, privacy of data and image, privacy of thoughts and feelings, privacy of location and space, and privacy of association (including group privacy). 15 We also regard privacy as a vital element of democracy and contemporary Western society because it affects individual self-determination; the autonomy of relationships; behavioural independence; existential choices and the development of one's self; spiritual peace of mind 9 BVerfGE 65, 1 ( ) Gutwirth, Serge, Privacy and the information age, Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, 2002, p Whitman, James Q., The Two Western Cultures of Privacy: Dignity Versus Liberty, The Yale Law Journal, Vol. 113, 2004, pp [pp ]. 13 Nissenbaum, Helen, Privacy in Context: Technology, Policy and the Integrity of Social Life, Stanford University Press, Stanford CA, Finn, Rachel L., David Wright and Michael Friedewald, Seven types of privacy, in Serge Gutwirth, Yves Poullet et al. (eds.), European Data Protection: Coming of Age, Springer, Dordrecht, 2013[Ffrthcoming]. 19

20 and the ability to resist power and behavioural manipulation. 16 In using the term privacy, we also take into consideration that it is at the same time a value, a demand and a codified right (which is broader than the right to data protection, although not separable from it, with special regard to the historical evolution of the concept in which the information element has become of fundamental importance in today s information society this is especially true in the relationship between privacy and security). We understand data protection as the complex of principles, norms, procedures, data processing devices, means and methods restricting the collection, processing and use of personal data, and protecting the persons concerned. This definition is more generic, or rather interdisciplinary, than the definitions used by either legal or IT professionals. Since in the area of emerging technologies the data processing devices, means and methods will expectedly have an inseparable and ubiquitous character, the use of such a broader definition can be justified. Data protection should be clearly distinguished from data security, i.e., from the physical, organisational and human measures aimed at guaranteeing the confidentiality, authenticity and availability of any data (not only personal data) in information systems. In our approach, privacy similarly to security is not a static concept, not an ideal state that one should endeavour to reach, but a dynamic concept changing throughout historical evolution and depending on the context, which has basic principles and context-dependent elements alike. According to the widely quoted and accepted general definition prepared by the working group BT WG 161 of the European Committee of Standardization (CEN) in 2005, security is the condition (perceived or confirmed) of an individual, a community, and organisation, a societal institution, a state, and their assets (such as goods, infrastructure), to be protected against danger or threats such as criminal activity, terrorism or other deliberate or hostile acts, disasters (natural and man-made). 17 One can classify this broad definition into certain categories based on the subjects of the condition of security, for example, security of international organisations, security of the State, security of companies, security of the civil society and movements, and security of individuals and households. One can also classify each of these categories according to their premises, definitions, the potential threats, possible counter-measures and their limitations. 18 The PRISMS project further refined the content of the possible matrix of security according to the type of security: physical, political, economic, cultural, environmental security, as well as radical uncertainty security and information security. From this wide range of aspects, the present research understands security as human security or security of the citizens. A fundamental approach of our research is that neither privacy nor security is part of a zero sum game in which we must take away the same amount from the implementation of one concept that we add to the implementation of the other, and it is entirely up to us where we actually draw the line: it is possible to create an environment where both concepts are implemented at a high level. Similarly, privacy is not the antagonist of public goods on the 16 Gutwirth, op. cit., See for example, Beyerer, Jürgen (ed.), Future Security. 2nd Security Research Conference 2007, 12th - 14th September Karlsruhe, Germany, Universitätsverlag Karlsruhe 2007, pp For more detail, see Zedner, Lucia, Security: Key Ideas in Criminology, Routledge, London,

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