Macroeconomic evaluation methodology. Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan 2003

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1 Macroeconomic evaluation methodology Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan 2003

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3 Macroeconomic evaluation methodology Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan 2003

4 Publication data Published by: Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing Berlin Internet: Final report project /2003 on behalf of the BMVBW Authors: Dr. Kristina Birn, BVU Freiburg (Parts III A, IV A) Dipl. Ing. Henryk Bolik, IVV Aachen (Parts III B, IV B) Dipl.-Volksw. Peter Rieken, Planco Essen (Parts I, II, III C, IV C) Cover design by: Adler & Schmidt GmbH Kommunikations-Design, Berlin Printed by: The Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing s printers, Bonn As at: January 2005 This brochure is part of the public relations work of the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing. It is issued free of charge and may not be sold. It must not be used for canvassing during election campaigns. Irrespective of when and how the brochure has reached the recipient and the number of copies he has received, it must not be used in a way that could suggest that the Federal Government was taking sides in favour of individual groups, even if no election is due to be held in the near future.

5 Evaluation procedure FTIP 2003 Table of content FOREWORD 19 I BASIC FEATURES OF THE METHODOLOGY 1 The Environment 21 2 The system of objectives 21 3 Components of the Methodology 23 4 Benefit-Cost Analysis (BCA) Methodological Principles Basic transport features Transport Demand Forecasts Route-specific transport and vehicle volumes Impact areas and transport interdependencies Evaluation components Comparability of project impacts over time Appraisal criterion 37 5 Environmental and nature conservation appraisal Early identification system for selecting projects Environmental risk assessment (ERA) Spatial analysis and evaluation Assessment of project impacts Determination of the resulting environmental risk Habitats Directive assessment 50 6 Spatial impact assessment (SIA) Basic features and overview of procedures Distribution and development objectives Relief and modal shift objectives Relief on corridors with high traffic density Relief at the local level (effects on the urban environment) Consolidation of impact areas 67 7 Evaluation results 68 3

6 Table of content Evaluation procedure FTIP 2003 II BCA EVALUATION COMPONENTS 1 Reduction of transportation costs (NB) Basic principles Decreased vehicle standby costs (NB1) Decreased vehicle operation costs (NB2) Changes in transport costs due to modal shifts (NB3) 71 2 Transport infrastructure preservation (NW) Transport infrastructure renewal (NW1) Transport infrastructure maintenance (NW2) 72 3 Increased traffic safety (NS) 73 4 Improved accessibility of destinations (NE) 73 5 Spatial advantages (NR) Employment effects (NR1, NR2) Employment impacts from building transport infrastructure (NR1) Employment impacts from operating transport infrastructure (NR2) Contributions to promoting international relationships (NR3) 83 6 Environmental relief (NU) Reduction in noise exposure (NU1) Reduction in exhaust emissions (NU2) Reduction of community severance (NU3) 89 7 Impacts from induced traffic (NI) 89 8 Improved links to and from seaports and airports (NH) 90 9 Fulfilment of non-transport functions (NF) Investment costs (K) Price standardisation Service life of asset parts 98 4

7 Evaluation procedure FTIP 2003 Table of content III A Supplementary Transport Mode-Specific Explanations Transport mode: Rail 1 Operations simulation Transport infrastructure networks Range of services from rail passenger transport Local rail passenger transport Long-distance rail passenger transport Range of services from freight transport Determining the traffic volume in rail passenger transport Determining the traffic volume in rail freight transport Benefit elements Reduction of transportation costs (NB) Determining link-specific cost unit rates Decreased vehicle standby costs (NB1) Decreased vehicle operation costs (NB2) Changes in transport costs due to modal shifts (NB3) Transport infrastructure maintenance (NW2) Increased traffic safety (NS) Improved accessibility of destinations (NE) Spatial advantages (NR) Environmental relief (NU) Reduction in noise exposure (NU1) Reduction in exhaust emissions (NU2) Improved links to and from seaports and airports (NH) Costs Investment costs Present values Residual values 140 5

8 Table of content Evaluation procedure FTIP 2003 III B Supplementary Transport Mode-Specific Explanations TRANSPORT MODE: ROAD 1 Operations simulation Road network Road network capacities Calculating road traffic volumes Preparing the traffic volume data Mileages and journey times per road segment Vehicle structures Degrees of occupancy of passenger vehicles Benefit elements Reduction of transportation costs (NB) Decreased vehicle standby costs (NB1) Decreased vehicle operation costs (NB2) Changes in transport costs due to modal shifts (NB3) Transport infrastructure preservation (NW) Transport infrastructure renewal (NW1) Transport infrastructure maintenance (NW2) Increased traffic safety (NS) Improved accessibility of destinations (NE) Spatial advantages (NR) Environmental relief (NU) Reduction in noise exposure (NU1) Noise exposure in built-up areas (NU1a) Noise exposure outside built-up areas (NU1b) Reduction in exhaust emissions (NU2) Method and emission factors Evaluating global emissions (NU2a) Evaluating NO X immissions in built-up areas (NU2b) Evaluating carcinogenic pollutants (NU2c) 205 6

9 Evaluation procedure FTIP 2003 Table of content Evaluating greenhouse gases (NU2d) Reduction of community severance (NU3) Impacts from induced traffic (NI) Costs 211 III C Supplementary Transport Mode-Specific Explanations TRANSPORT MODE: WATERWAY 1 Operations simulation Transport infrastructure networks Apportioning traffic volumes to the waterway network Vehicle structures Vessel journeys Determining capacity Simulation of traffic flow where there are capacity restrictions Benefit elements Reduction of transportation costs (NB) Transport infrastructure preservation (NW) Increased traffic safety (NS) Improved accessibility of destinations (NE) Spatial advantages (NR) Environmental relief (NU) Fulfilment of non-transport functions (NF) 243 7

10 Table of content Evaluation procedure FTIP 2003 IV A CASE STUDIES Rail 1 Benefit-cost analysis Description and bases Determining the benefit Decreased vehicle standby costs (NB1) Decreased vehicle operation costs (NB2) Changes in transport costs due to modal shifts (NB3) Transport infrastructure maintenance (NW2) Increased traffic safety (NS) Improved accessibility of destinations (NE) Spatial advantages (NR) Employment impacts from building transport infrastructure (NR1) Employment impacts from operating transport infrastructure (NR2) Contributions to promoting international relationships (NR3) Reduction in noise exposure (NU1) Reduction in exhaust emissions (NU2) Improved links with seaports (NH) Benefit-cost ratio (NKV) Environmental risk assessment (ERA) Spatial impact assessment (SIA) 274 8

11 Evaluation procedure FTIP 2003 Table of content IV B CASE STUDIES ROAD 1 Benefit-cost analysis Initial data Project description (case study) Initial traffic data Deriving the traffic s distribution over time Reduction of transportation cost (NB) Decreased vehicle standby costs (NB1) Decreased vehicle operation costs (NB2) Person-related operating costs NB2a Mileage-related operating costs NB2b Changes in transport costs due to modal shifts (NB3) Transport infrastructure preservation (NW) Transport infrastructure renewal (NW1) Transport infrastructure maintenance (NW2) Increased traffic safety (NS) Improved accessibility of destinations (NE) Spatial advantages (NR) Employment impacts from building transport infrastructure (NR1) Employment impacts from operating transport infrastructure (NR2) Contributions to promoting international relationships (NR3) Environmental relief (NU) Reduction in noise exposure (NU1) Noise exposure in built-up areas (NU1a) Noise exposure outside built-up areas (NU1b) Reduction in exhaust emissions (NU2) Evaluating global emissions (NU2a) Evaluating NO X immissions in built-up areas (NU2b) Evaluating carcinogenic pollutants (NU2c) Evaluating greenhouse gases (NU2d) 307 9

12 Table of content Evaluation procedure FTIP Reduction of community severance (NU3) Impacts from induced traffic (NI) Calculating the benefit-cost ratio (NKV) Environmental risk assessment (ERA) Spatial impact assessment (SIA) 317 IV C CASE STUDIES WATERWAY 1 Benefit-cost analysis Description and Bases Determining the benefit Investment costs Benefit-cost ratio Environmental risk assessment (ERA) Spatial impact assessment 343 BIBLIOGRAPHY

13 Evaluation procedure FTIP 2003 Table of figures Figure 1: Types of intramodal interdependencies 30 Figure 2: Evaluation components of the benefit-cost analysis 33 Figure 3: Basic matrix for prioritising ERAs for road projects 42 Figure 4: Methodical framework of environmental risk assessment 44 Figure 5: Site characteristics and determination of spatial resistance for road and rail projects 45 Figure 6: Intensities and project types in road and rail construction 46 Figure 7: Basic matrix for the area-related determination of environmental risk 47 Figure 8: Classification of road and rail projects by area share 48 Figure 9: Figure 10: Figure 11: Basic matrix to determine the asset-related environmental risk for waterway projects 49 Flow of the SIA procedure distribution and development objectives 54 Number of types of link in road transport relevant in terms of regional planning 56 Figure 12: Categories of accessibility deficiency 57 Figure 13: Structural backwardness and associated area types 58 Figure 14: Flow of the SIA procedure relief and modal shift objectives 60 Figure 15: Long-distance transport corridors with a high density of traffic in Figure 16: Distribution of implementation opportunity function U(Q) 65 Figure 17: Components of urban development potential and their reaction to different examples of quality characteristics 66 Figure 18: Regional planning valuation categories 67 Figure 19: Regional Differentiation Factors NR1 (p a ) 78 Figure 20: Regional differentiation factors NR2 (p b ) 82 Figure 21: Differentiation of the components in the evaluation procedure for traffic-related air pollutants 87 11

14 Table of figures Evaluation procedure FTIP 2003 Figure 22: Figure 23: Function parameters to determine the theoretical market shares of seaports by load category 92 Employment effects of changes in volume in German seaports by load categories (employed persons per 1,000 tonnes volume) 93 Figure 24: Price index series for all modes of transport, by asset type 96 Figure 25: Expenditure structure (%) by project type for the rail mode 96 Figure 26: Price index series for the rail mode by project type 97 Figure 27: Price index series for road construction investments 97 Figure 28: Price index series for waterway construction investments 98 Figure 29: Service lives and annuity factors for the rail mode 98 Figure 30: Service lives and annuity factors for the road mode 99 Figure 31: Service lives and annuity factors for the waterway mode 99 Figure 32: Network in the "without" scenario 101 Figure 33: Capacity for standard routes P 300 and M Figure 34: Long-distance rail passenger transport line scheme with the supplementary LongDistanceExpress lines in the "without" scenario 106 Figure 35: Train generation rules 107 Figure 36: Limit delay of freight trains depending on route volume 116 Figure 37: Average delay of all freight trains depending on route volume 116 Figure 38: Transport mode choice decision-making model 118 Figure 39: Time elasticity in transport demand 119 Figure 40: Modal effect of changes in capacity utilisation 120 Figure 41: Figure 42: Network load in the German network with all trains and the resulting route capacity utilisation in the "without" scenario 121 Route maintenance costs for the rail mode (proportion of investment costs)

15 Evaluation procedure FTIP 2003 Table of figures Figure 43: Accident rates by type of damage in the rail area 130 Figure 44: Accident cost rates in the rail area 130 Figure 45: Figure 46: Figure 47: Figure 48: Degree of effect both sides of newly constructed two-lane routes (rural, approximately) 135 Coefficients for determining the residents affected in built-up areas for situations with a soundproofing wall 136 Coefficients for determining the residents affected in built-up areas for situations without a soundproofing wall 137 Costs from emitting air pollutants in rail transport in per Zugkm 138 Figure 49: Price index series 140 Figure 50: Figure 51: Figure 52: Figure 53: Overview of the digital road network model for federal longdistance road planning 143 Excerpt from the road network model for federal trunk road planning 144 Typology for characterising road segments in the federal trunk road model with relation to structural and operational features 145 Typology for characterising development situations within built-up areas (urban model components) 146 Figure 54: Overview of the network in the "without" scenario 147 Figure 55: Spatial overview of all registered projects (incl. variants) 149 Figure 56: q-v functions on roads outside built-up areas 150 Figure 57: Figure 58: Figure 59: Figure 60: Figure 61: Volume of motor vehicles in the road network in 2015 in the "without" scenario 153 Example of the volume differences between the "without" and "with" scenarios for a test project 154 ADTH/ADTW traffic volume relationship for cars on motorways 156 ADTH/ADTW traffic volume relationship for HGVs on motorways 157 Differentiation of traffic data for the macroeconomic evaluation

16 Table of figures Evaluation procedure FTIP 2003 Figure 62: Seasonal fluctuations in traffic volume per area and road category 159 Figure 63: Generation of daily level types 160 Figure 64: Daily level of motor vehicle traffic 161 Figure 65: Mileage-related proportions of vehicle groups per federal state and road category [] 163 Figure 66: Car occupancy rates per vehicle group and traffic day 164 Figure 67: Figure 68: Average standby costs [ /h] per vehicle group and road category 165 Average wage costs in commercial transport per vehicle category 166 Figure 69: Operating costs per vehicle type and road category 167 Figure 70: Fuel consumption per vehicle type, time slot and gradient category 168 Figure 71: Fuel prices (without tax portion) 169 Figure 72: Figure 73: Figure 74: Flow of modal split calculations for freight and passenger transport 171 Calculation schema for the modal split in long-distance traffic 172 Functions for distributing passenger and freight transport to the private and public transport systems 173 Figure 75: Flow of modal split calculations for local passenger transport 175 Figure 76: Notional example of the flow of calculations when determining the traffic displacements public/private in local passenger transport 176 Figure 77: Average transport costs per transport mode (1998 prices) 177 Figure 78: Maintenance costs for roads per section type 179 Figure 79: Figure 80: Figure 81: Accident rates in traffic accidents involving personal injury per route type 181 Accident rates in traffic accidents involving damage to property per route type 182 Accident rates in traffic accidents involving personal injury and damage to property for tunnel sections

17 Evaluation procedure FTIP 2003 Table of figures Figure 82: Figure 83: Figure 84: Figure 85: Figure 86: Figure 87: Figure 88: Average accident cost unit rates in traffic accidents involving personal injury per route type 184 Average accident cost unit rates in traffic accidents involving damage to property per route type 185 Average accident cost unit rates in traffic accidents involving personal injury and damage to property for tunnel sections 186 b coefficients for differentiating by urban model component when calculating the average level 190 Assumptions for reduced noise in rear developed rows by urban model component 191 Cost unit rates for soundproofing measures outside built-up areas 193 Summary of evaluation unit rates for determining the benefit component NU2 194 Figure 89: Speed functions and associated traffic situations 196 Figure 90: Figure 91: Figure 92: Figure 93: Figure 94: Exhaust emission coefficients of petrol-powered cars (PP) and diesel-powered cars (PD) in Germany in the reference year Exhaust emission coefficients of HGVs < 3.5t permitted total weight (LN) und HGVs 3.5t permitted total weight without trailer (LS) in Germany in the reference year Exhaust emission coefficients of HGVs 3.5t permitted total weight with trailer (TH) and articulated vehicles (TA) in Germany in the reference year Exhaust emission coefficients for coaches (BC) and buses (BS) in Germany in the reference year Standardised concentration (l/m) for the urban model components 201 Figure 95: Existing volume (annual mean) per area type 201 Figure 96: Average wind speeds in each federal state 202 Figure 97: Figure 98: Figure 99: Allocation of waiting time types to road type groups as the basis for community severance calculations 209 Valuations for quantifying the effects of primary induced traffic 210 Average cost structure of road projects for evaluating the individual asset investments when providing overall costs

18 Table of figures Evaluation procedure FTIP 2003 Figure 100: Figure 101: Figure 102: Figure 103: Figure 104: Development level of the waterway network in the "without" scenario in Volume on the inland waterway network 2015 in millions of tonnes per year (integration scenario / "without" scenario network 2015) 216 Differentiation of inland vessel fleet structures by vessel type and size category (deadweight tonnes TT) 217 Trend factors for developments in the average deadweight of the vessel fleets in use during the period 1997 to 2015 by waterway area 218 Relationship between average fleet deadweight and degrees of water level-related capacity utilisation in the self-propelled barge 2,501 3,000 TT 219 Figure 105: Proportions of the size categories up to 400 TT, 401 to 650 TT and 651 to 900 TT within the whole fleet depending on the average deadweight 220 Figure 106: Figure 107: Figure 108: Proportions of the size categories 901 to 1,000 TT, 1,001 to 1,500 TT and 1,501 to 2,000 TT within the whole fleet depending on the average deadweight 220 Proportions of the size categories 2,001 to 2,500 TT, 2,501 to 3,000 TT and above 3,501 TT within the whole fleet depending on the average deadweight 221 Deadweight, maximum and empty draught of fleet by vessel size category 224 Figure 109: Principles for determining the practical capacity of locks 230 Figure 110: Emission and conversion factors in inland shipping

19 Evaluation procedure FTIP 2003 List of abbreviations LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ABS ADT AKS ATKIS BBR BfG BfN BMVBW CT db (A) DB AG DIW DRUM DT EIS ERA ERDF EW FE FFH-VE FN FTIP GlW GVZ GZ ICE IV JS LAI LSA MISKAM MORA Upgrade route Average daily traffic Road construction project costing instructions Official topographic cartographic information system Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning Federal Institute of Hydrology German Federal Agency for Nature Consvervation Federal Ministry for Transport, Building and Housing Combined transport Decibels (with "A" filter) Deutsche Bahn AG German Institute for Economic Research Dynamic route search and apportionment Deadweight tonnes Environmental impact study Environmental risk assessment European Regional Development Fund single waggon Long distance express Habitat directive assessment Further need Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan Equivalent gauge readings Cargo transport centre Block train InterCity Express Private transport Junction station Immission Control Committee of the Federal States Light signalling system Microscale flow and dispersion model Market-Oriented Services (P = passenger transport, C= cargo) 17

20 List of abbreviations Evaluation procedure FTIP 2003 NBS NEMOBFStr NKA NKV Ntkm NV ÖV Pkm PN PRE RLS-90 RWA SGV SPFV SPNV SPV SVZ SY Tkm Trainkm VDE WIZUG Wkm WLV WSV ZugStd New constructed route Network model for national trunk road planning Benefit-cost analysis Benefit-cost ratio Net tonne kilometres Local transport Public transport Person kilometres Priority need Pollutant-resident equivalent 1990 road soundproofing guidelines Spatial impact assessment Rail freight traffic Long-distance rail passenger transport Local rail passenger transport Rail passenger traffic Road traffic monitoring Shunting yard Tonne kilometres Train kilometres German unity transport project Economic train management system Vehicle kilometres Waggonload services Federal Water and Shipping Office Train hour 18

21 Evaluation procedure FTIP 2003 Part I: Basic Features of the Methodology FOREWORD This report explains the procedures used in the macroeconomic evaluation of projected transport infrastructure investment measures. These procedures were employed to draw up the Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan 2003 (FTIP 2003) which the Federal Government adopted on 2 nd July The transport policy guidelines for the FTIP 2003 have already been described and explained in the Federal Government's 2000 Transport Report. The basic features of the macroeconomic evaluation methodology used in the FTIP 2003 have also been published in a separate methodology brochure. Following in the tradition of previous updates of the Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan, this report goes well beyond the existing methodology brochure in terms of scope and detail. Its descriptions and explanations aim to provide a deeper understanding of the quantification and evaluation approaches used, and to enable the reader to follow the main methods of calculation. However, to keep the size of the report within reasonable bounds, the descriptions, in many areas, are unable to go into the finest detail. This is particularly true in the case of the derivation of and rationale behind the methods involved in complex simulations and estimations. The sources cited in the Bibliography contain more detailed explanations. A knowledge of basic macroeconomic evaluation methods and the financial and mathematical methods used in calculating investment is also assumed. The report comprises four main parts. I II The first main part deals with fundamental evaluation methodology issues, the environment, the system of objectives and the methodology's components. It also covers the basic features of benefit-cost analysis, the methodology involved in environmental and nature conservation appraisal, and spatial impact assessment. The second main part describes the intermodal guidelines for capturing impacts within the framework of benefit-cost analysis - in other words, for each benefit or cost component, shows which evaluation approaches and principles are applied. III The third main part focuses on specific modes of transport, providing supplementary explanations of how the basic transport data required for the evaluation was supplied, and on the quantification and evaluation of the individual benefit and cost components. 19

22 Part I: Basic Features of the Methodology Evaluation procedure FTIP 2003 IV Lastly, the fourth main part illustrates the macroeconomic evaluation methodology. It provides evaluation examples for the transport modes rail, road and waterway, describing and explaining the methods of calculation required for each. It was, at times, impossible to avoid over-simplifying the "evaluation reality". This was particularly due to the complexity of the traffic simulations used in the course of the project evaluations for the FTIP 2003, but also to ensure that the calculation methods would be comprehensible. The report is supported by a large number of studies and research reports that were produced in the run-up to the current FTIP Where it seemed to make sense, parts of those reports were also used. To avoid an unwieldy number of literary references and sources, these were not indicated in all cases. Rather, reference was made once to each of the most important sources in the context of the descriptions. 20

23 Bibliography Evaluation procedure FTIP 2003 BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] Federal Ministry for Transport, Building and Housing, Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan 2003, The Principles of Future of Mobility in Germany, Bonn, July 2003 [2] A Macroeconomic Evaluation of Transport Infrastructure Investments Evaluation Methodology for the Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan 1992, Volume 72 in the Federal Ministry for Transport series, 1993 [3] Federal Ministry for Transport, Building and Housing, Transport Report 2000, Integrated Transport Policy: Our Strategy for a Mobile Future, Berlin, November 2000 [4] Federal Ministry for Transport, Building and Housing, Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan 2003, Basic features of the macroeconomic evaluation methodology, Berlin, February 2002 [5] Intraplan München, BVU Freiburg, Planco Essen, ifo München, Verkehrsprognose 2015 für die Bundesverkehrswegeplanung, project no /1999 commissioned by the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing, 2001 [6] Prognos AG, Erarbeitung von Entwürfen alternativer verkehrspolitischer Szenarien zur Verkehrsprognose 2015, project no /1999 commissioned by the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing, 2001 [7] IFO München, Regionalisierte Strukturdatenprognose für das Jahr 2015 mit Zwischenwerten für 2005, 2010 sowie ein Ausblick für 2025, München 1999 [8] BVU Freiburg, Intraplan München, Beurteilung alternativer Verkehrswegeprogramme, project no /93 commissioned by the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing, 1996 and Anwendung eines Modells für die Beurteilung alternativer Verkehrswegeprogramme auf infrastrukturelle Strategien zur intermodalen Verlagerung von Frachtbeförderung, project no /96 commissioned by the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing, 1997 [9] Bernotat, D., Herbert, M., Methodische Anforderungen an naturschutzfachliche Beiträge zum Bundesverkehrswegeplan. Erfahrungsbericht zur Auswahl von Verkehrsprojekten für eine Umweltrisikoeinschätzung, in: Natur und Landschaft, Volume 76 (2002), No. 8, pp [10] PÖU Hannover, Weiterentwicklung der naturschutzfachlichen Bewertungsgrundlagen und -methoden bei der BVWP, Project no /99 commissioned by the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing,

24 Evaluation procedure FTIP 2003 Bibliography [11] Bundesanstalt für Gewässerkunde (BfG), Methode der Umweltrisikoeinschätzung und FFH-Verträglichkeitseinschätzung für Projekte an Bundeswasserstraßen Ein Beitrag zur Bundesverkehrswegeplanung, Federal Institute for Hydrology Notifications no. 26, Koblenz 2004 [12] Der Rat der Europäischen Gemeinschaften (1992): Richtlinie 92/43/EWG des Rates vom 21. Mai 1992 zur Erhaltung der natürlichen Lebensräume sowie der wildlebenden Tiere und Pflanzen [13] Der Rat der Europäischen Gemeinschaften (1979): Richtlinie 79/409/EWG des Rates vom 02. April 1979 über die Erhaltung der wildlebenden Vogelarten [14] Würdemann, G., Sieber, N., Raumwirksamkeitsanalyse in der Bundesverkehrswegeplanung 2003, in: BBR (Hrsg.), Informationen zur Raumentwicklung, Volume [15] Baum, Th., Huber, F., Meiners, H. (VSU Herzogenrath), Bewertung der städtebaulichen Effekte im Rahmen der BVWP 2003, Project no /2000 and /2002 commissioned by the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing, Herzogenrath, Mai 2003 [16] PLANCO Essen, Numerische Aktualisierung interner und externer Beförderungskosten für die Bundesverkehrswegeplanung auf den Preisstand des Jahres 1998, FE-Vorhaben 96602/99 im Auftrag des BMVBW, 2000 [17] BAST Bergisch-Gladbach, Volkswirtschaftliche Kosten durch Straßenverkehrsunfälle 1998, Mai 2000 [18] Deutscher Bundestag, Achtundzwanzigster Rahmenplan der Gemeinschaftsaufgabe Verbesserung der regionalen Wirtschaftsstruktur für den Zeitraum 1999 bis 2002 (2003), Bundestagsdrucksache 14/776, [19] PLANCO Essen, Modernisierung der Methoden zur Schätzung der gesamtwirtschaftlichen Rentabilität von Projekten der Bundesverkehrswegeplanung, Project no /97 commissioned by the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing, 1999 [20] Heusch-Boesefeldt Aachen, VSU Herzogenrath, Weiterentwicklung der Stadtmodellbausteine als Grundlage für Abschätzungs- und Bewertungsaufgaben der Verkehrsplanung, Project no /98 commissioned by the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing, 2000 [21] Weinberger, M., Thomassen, H. G., Willeke, R., Kosten des Lärms in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Berichte des Umweltbundesamtes 9/1991, Berlin 345

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