Reports of Increased Illnesses of Naval Veterans

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1 Reports of Increased Illnesses of Naval Veterans The following documents state that the Naval Sea Based Vietnam Veterans had an increase in illnesses (lymphoma). All three countries US, New Zealand and Australia, all allies report this. All of these sailors drank the same water, breathed the same air, and lived in the same confined environment. The CDC conducted many studies in 1990 concerning Vietnam Veterans. The Association of Selected Cancers With Service in US Military in Vietnam. This particular study finds that non-hodgkin s lymphoma was higher among men in the sea-based Navy than among other veterans. Page 9 of the NRCET report conducted by Australia. Reports of high rate of mortality in RAN veterans of the Vietnam Era Page 13 of the same report makes reference to the use of Agent Blue, aqueous solution, with PCDD/F s in combination with other herbicides possibly explaining why Navy veterans are ill. Page 30 of the New Zealand report on Agent Orange. Australian Vietnam Veteran Mortality Study. Of the three service branches, Navy veterans had the highest overall mortality and showed increases in neoplasms and prostate and lung cancers. Page 31 of the same report states that a study will be conducted to analyze data on a ship by ship for navy. This will be a first time study undertaken on the Australian Navy and air force.

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17 I.6E Inquiry into the exposure of New Zealand defence personnel to Agent Orange and other defoliant chemicals during the Vietnam War and any health effects of that exposure, and transcripts of evidence Report of the Health Committee Forty-seventh Parliament (Steve, Chairperson) October 2004 Presented to the House of Representatives

18 I.6E Contents Summary of recommendations 5 1 Introduction 6 Terms of reference 6 Conduct of the inquiry 7 Terminology used in this report 9 2 The Vietnam War and herbicide use 10 New Zealand s role in Vietnam 10 Implications of herbicide use for military purposes during the Vietnam War 12 3 Evidence of exposure to defoliant chemicals during Vietnam service 14 Evidence of veterans 14 New Zealand Defence Force 17 Committee conclusion 20 4 Evaluation of the Reeves report and the McLeod report 21 The Reeves report 21 The McLeod report 23 5 International research on exposure to defoliant chemicals in Vietnam 29 Difficulties in research 29 Research conducted on Australian veterans 29 Other overseas research 32 6 Services for New Zealand Vietnam veterans 34 New Zealand health system 34 New Zealand war pension system 35 Case management system 35 Australian services for veterans 36 Conclusion 40 Appendices A Committee procedure 41 B Useful resources for Vietnam veterans 42 C List of submitters 43 D Natural justice response 44 E Corrected transcript of evidence 25 November F Corrected transcript of evidence 26 November G Corrected transcript of evidence 3 December H Corrected transcript of evidence 10 December I Corrected transcript of evidence 3 March

19 J Corrected transcript of evidence 24 March K Corrected transcript of evidence 9 June L Corrected transcript of evidence 16 June I.6E Maps 1 South Vietnam : area of operation 11 2 Herbicide sprayed in Phuoc Tuy Province 10 November 1965 to 30 June Photographs 1 Operation Ingham 18 November 1966 to 3 December 1966 Setting up command post after deployment 15 2 Operation Ingham 18 November 1966 to 3 December 1966 Another view 15 3

20 I.6E INQUIRY INTO THE HEALTH EFFECTS OF AGENT ORANGE 4

21 INQUIRY INTO THE HEALTH EFFECTS OF AGENT ORANGE Inquiry into the exposure of New Zealand defence personnel to Agent Orange and other defoliant chemicals during the Vietnam War and any health effects of that exposure I.6E Summary of recommendations Following its inquiry, the Health Committee makes the following recommendations to the Government: that it accept that New Zealand s Vietnam veterans were exposed to a toxic environment (page 20) that it publicly acknowledge that successive governments have failed to recognise that Vietnam veterans were exposed to a toxic environment during their service (page 20) that it ensure a lead Government agency maintains an overview of the commissioning of research by Government departments when that research covers multiple policy areas, to ensure there are clear and specific terms of reference for such research (page 28) that Veterans Affairs New Zealand develop an information package that clearly advises Vietnam veterans about their entitlement to pensions and other services, and how to access these (page 38) that Veterans Affairs New Zealand be responsible for a campaign to inform health professionals about the specific health needs of Vietnam veterans, based on the presumption that Vietnam veterans were exposed to a toxic environment (page 38) that Veterans Affairs New Zealand compile a list of health professionals who are conversant with the specific health needs of New Zealand Vietnam veterans and provide this list to all New Zealand Vietnam veterans (page 38) that it establish a fund to support New Zealand-based scrutiny, analysis, surveillance, and monitoring of international research literature on health outcomes, including intergenerational effects, resulting from dioxin exposure (page 39) that it ensure Veterans Affairs New Zealand monitors the list of diseases and conditions that may have been caused by herbicide exposure during the Vietnam War and updates and extends it whenever international research indicates this is appropriate (page 39) that it ensure all children of New Zealand Vietnam veterans are entitled to reimbursement of additional costs associated with medical treatment for any condition listed as being related to dioxin exposure, and that any future needs are met should that list expand (page 39) 5

22 I.6E INQUIRY INTO THE HEALTH EFFECTS OF AGENT ORANGE 1 Introduction The New Zealand Government has commissioned two reports into the health effects of war service on Vietnam veterans and their children. Cabinet set the terms of reference for the Inquiry into the Health Status of Children of Vietnam and Operation Grapple Veterans (known as the Reeves report ) in July 1998, and the report was completed in June A second report was commissioned by Veterans Affairs New Zealand. Researchers at the Wellington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago, were contracted to conduct a study on the health needs of the children of Operation Grapple and Vietnam veterans. 2 This study was completed in August 2001 and has become known as the McLeod report. In April 2003 new evidence came to light that had not been considered by previous reports on the health outcomes for New Zealand Vietnam veterans. The new evidence included a map provided by the former commander of 161 Battery Royal New Zealand Artillery in Vietnam, Colonel John Masters. The map was given to him by the United States Defense Force in Vietnam and identifies areas of chemical defoliation, including the Nui Dat area, in Phuoc Tuy Province, where New Zealand defence personnel were based. This new evidence sparked public interest because it conflicts with the McLeod report, which stated that aerial spraying of chemical defoliants had not occurred in Phuoc Tuy Province. We considered that in order to resolve the issues relating to dioxin exposure for the benefit of Vietnam veterans, their families, and the New Zealand public, it was necessary to conduct an inquiry into the exposure of New Zealand defence personnel to Agent Orange and other defoliant chemicals. Terms of reference We established the following terms of reference for our inquiry: identify and examine evidence that New Zealand defence personnel were exposed to Agent Orange and other defoliant chemicals during the Vietnam War, including new evidence that New Zealand defence personnel served in an area identified as defoliated by the United States Defense Force evaluate the McLeod report to the Office of Veterans Affairs and the report of the Ministerial Advisory Committee inquiry into the health status of children of Vietnam and Operation Grapple veterans with respect to New Zealand defence personnel in Vietnam and their families 1 Advisory Committee on the Health of Veterans Children, Reeves, Sir P, Faulkner, M, Birks, A, Feek, C, and Helm, P, Inquiry into the Health Status of Children of Vietnam and Operation Grapple Veterans, Wellington New Zealand, Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, McLeod, D, Cormack, D, Kake, T, The Health Needs of the Children of Operation Grapple and Vietnam Veterans: A Critical Appraisal Undertaken for Veterans Affairs New Zealand Defence Force, General Practice Department Report No. 4, August

23 INTRODUCTION I.6E assess the health risks to defence personnel in Vietnam and the exposure effects on families identified in relevant international studies assess the current levels of health services for New Zealand veterans and their families who have been identified as exposed to Agent Orange or other defoliant chemicals during the Vietnam War and whether further health services are required. Conduct of the inquiry Initially we sought submissions from groups representing Vietnam veterans, including the Royal New Zealand Returned Services Association, the Vietnam Veterans Association of New Zealand, the Ex-Vietnam Services Association Youth Development Trust, the Ex- Vietnam Services Association, and RIMPAC Association of New Zealand. We also sought submissions from relevant Government departments, including the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Social Development, and Veterans Affairs New Zealand. Following public demand, we widened our call to include public submissions. We heard evidence from November 2003 through to May We received both oral and written submissions from a variety of submitters, including Vietnam veterans, family members of veterans, health providers, and members of the New Zealand Defence Force. We also received evidence from submitters relating to issues that fell outside the terms of reference for this inquiry. We note, however, that the principles of our findings in this inquiry could also be applied to these issues. Structure of the report This report follows the lines of inquiry suggested by our terms of reference. First, we outline the historical context of the Vietnam War, New Zealand s involvement in the war, and the experiences of New Zealand defence personnel. Then we outline the background to the use of chemical defoliants by the United States Defense Force. The report then addresses the first term of reference, outlining the evidence we received on the chemical exposure of veterans during their service in Vietnam. An evaluation of the McLeod report and the Reeves report follows, with a subsequent assessment of the health risks for defence personnel in Vietnam and their families that have been identified in relevant international studies. Finally, we outline the current levels of health services for New Zealand veterans and their families. Natural justice responses During the hearing of evidence for this inquiry, allegations were made against two individuals. In such circumstances, we are required to provide an opportunity for individuals to make natural justice responses under Standing Order 238(1). This Standing Order states that any person whose reputation may be seriously damaged by an allegation made during a select committee meeting will be given a reasonable opportunity to respond to the allegation by written submission and appearance before the committee. To allow these individuals an opportunity to respond to the allegations we received natural justice responses from Jessie Gunn, Veterans Affairs New Zealand, and Dr Deborah McLeod from the Wellington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago. 7

24 I.6E INQUIRY INTO THE HEALTH EFFECTS OF AGENT ORANGE Standing Order 245 states that if a select committee report makes findings that may seriously damage a person s reputation the affected person must be acquainted with any such findings and afforded a reasonable opportunity to respond. In accordance with this standing order, we sought a further natural justice response from Dr Deborah McLeod on the section of this report that considers the McLeod report. This is attached as Appendix D. Transcripts of hearings of evidence In order to provide an accurate record of evidence to this inquiry, we arranged for transcripts to be made of all evidence. Transcripts of the submissions made during the hearing of evidence are attached to this report as Appendix E to Appendix L. Regrettably, because of technical difficulties, Jessie Gunn s natural justice response was not recorded and therefore a transcript is not available. A transcript of Dr McLeod s first response is attached as Appendix I. Submitters had an opportunity to correct their transcripts. This allowed the veterans a further opportunity to ensure their thoughts were accurately represented in the transcript. Specialist adviser To assist with the inquiry, we engaged the services of a specialist adviser, Professor Peter J Smith, Dean of Medical and Health Sciences at the University of Auckland. Professor Smith has expertise in cancer medicine and research and, while not a Vietnam veteran, was a Wing Commander in the Royal Australian Air Force reserve. He is currently the Chair, Scientific Advisory Committee, Third Vietnam Veterans Mortality and Cancer Incidence in Vietnam Veterans Study, Department of Veterans Affairs, Australia. Acknowledgement We sincerely appreciate the time and effort required by submitters who presented both oral and written evidence to our inquiry. We understand the personal nature of many submitters evidence and the courage needed to speak about these matters in public. While we accept that this inquiry cannot rectify past wrongs, we acknowledge the strong feelings of veterans and their children and hope this inquiry can, in some way, resolve many issues for them. 8

25 INTRODUCTION I.6E Terminology used in this report To assist readers, we have included a list of terminology used in this report. Agent Orange Agent White Agent Blue 2,4-D 2,4,5-T TCDD An oil-based herbicide, which is a systemic defoliant effective against broadleaf vegetation, achieving maximum effect in 4 to 6 weeks, with a duration of approximately 12 months. A water-based herbicide, which is a systemic defoliant effective against broadleaf vegetation, achieving maximum effect in 6 to 8 weeks, with a duration of approximately 12 months. A water-based herbicide, which is non-systemic desiccant, used primarily against grasses, taking effect in 24 to 48 hours and killing the leaves in 2 to 4 days. 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (a component of Agent Orange) 2,4,5 trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (a component of Agent Orange) 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzodioxin 9

26 I.6E INQUIRY INTO THE HEALTH EFFECTS OF AGENT ORANGE 2 The Vietnam War and herbicide use Before considering matters raised by this inquiry, we wish to provide an outline of the historical context of the Vietnam War, New Zealand s involvement in the war, and the experiences of defence personnel. We also outline why and how herbicides were used during the Vietnam War. New Zealand s role in Vietnam New Zealand Defence Force personnel were based in Vietnam from June 1964 to December Initially, 22 Army engineers were stationed in Vietnam in 1964, engaged in non-combatant reconstruction projects until July In May 1965 the New Zealand Government agreed to deploy a four-gun field artillery battery of approximately 120 men. New Zealand s combat involvement began when 161 Battery, Royal Regiment of New Zealand Artillery arrived in South Vietnam in July The battery was based at Bien Hoa Province, provided support to the American 173rd Airborne Brigade, and was involved in 28 operations, mainly in Bien Hoa Province. In June 1966, 161 Battery was reassigned to the 1st Australian Task Force, which was established at Nui Dat, Phuoc Tuy Province. The New Zealand Government expanded its commitment by deploying V Company in May 1967, and W Company in December Other small units and groups of defence personnel were deployed during the Vietnam War, including the New Zealand Services Medical Team, a New Zealand Special Air Services Troop, and members of the Royal New Zealand Navy and Royal New Zealand Air Force. The last of the New Zealand combat elements were withdrawn from South Vietnam in December 1971 and the two training teams, along with the New Zealand Headquarters in Saigon, were withdrawn in December Map 1 depicts the area in Vietnam where New Zealand troops were deployed. 10

27 THE VIETNAM WAR AND HERBICIDE USE I.6E Map 1: South Vietnam : area of operation Experiences of New Zealand defence personnel We note the evidence presented to us from veterans outlining the unfortunate circumstances under which they returned to New Zealand after the war. Several submitters said they felt like they were smuggled back into the country, late at night, with no public recognition of their service for their country. when I arrived in New Zealand, I arrived in Wellington at 2 o clock in the morning. We were shifted over to where the aero clubs are based now, at Rongotai airport, the customs were there to meet us. Also, we had anti-vietnam people waiting at the old terminal. 3 We returned by stealth, in the middle of the night I arrived with instructions not to wear my uniform, basically to hide my head in shame. 4 I did my Anzac parades for a while at Palmerston North and that was scary, because being a university town women would walk past in black pyjamas and they would have these signs, especially as we were laying the wreaths, that New Zealand soldiers are 3 Robinson, John (a Rifleman during his service in Vietnam), 26 November 2003, transcripts, p Chester, Wayne (a Private during his service in Vietnam), 25 November 2003, transcripts, p

28 I.6E INQUIRY INTO THE HEALTH EFFECTS OF AGENT ORANGE rapists and murderers of women and children. That really hurt. That was the 70s culture. That was the culture of the time, and we had to bear it, that s all. 5 Many felt they were ostracised by successive Governments through a lack of recognition of service, and denial of chemical exposure. Veterans also noted a feeling of public hostility toward them. We note that the perception of being denied proper treatment by both the public and successive Governments has created a sense of hostility in some Vietnam veterans. Implications of herbicide use for military purposes during the Vietnam War During the Vietnam War ( ), herbicides were widely used for defoliation and crop destruction by the United States Defense Force. These went under the code names of Agent Purple, Agent Blue, Agent Pink, Agent Green, Agent Orange, and Agent White. 6 The main herbicides used were Agent Orange, Agent White, and Agent Blue, which were named after the colour of the containers they were stored in. Agent Orange and Agent White were systemic defoliants that were effective against woody and broadleaf plants. Agent Orange was composed of two herbicides: 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. The 2,4,5-T component was contaminated by dioxin, in particular TCDD. Agent Blue, a formulation of cacodylic acid, was a non-systemic desiccant used against grasses, bamboo, rice, and other crops intended for the enemy. These defoliants typically took from about 1 to 2 months to achieve maximum effectiveness. The United States Defense Force sprayed more than 76 million litres of herbicides over Vietnam in its spraying programme. 7 The United States Air Force operations, code-named Operation Ranch Hand, dispersed more than 95 percent of all herbicide used in the programme. 8 International controversy has surrounded the use of herbicides during the Vietnam War. This controversy is twofold: the extent and amount of chemicals used, and the subsequent health effects of exposure to these defoliants. We note that questions were raised during the hearing of evidence about whether herbicide manufacturers knew that Agent Orange contained dioxin and whether the manufacturers knew of subsequent health effects. 5 Nicol, Gavin (a Private during his service in Vietnam), 26 November 2003, transcripts, p Definitions of the most commonly used herbicides can be found on page 9. 7 Stellman, J, Stellman, S, Christian, R, et al., The extent and patterns of usage of Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam, Nature, Vol 422, 2003, pp Stellman, J, Stellman, S, Christian, R, et al., The extent and patterns of usage of Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam, Nature, Vol 422, 2003, pp

29 THE VIETNAM WAR AND HERBICIDE USE I.6E Agent Orange product liability litigation In 1984, a class action lawsuit commenced, charging the Government of the United States of America and a major portion of the chemical industry with deaths and injuries to tens of thousands of Vietnam veterans who came in contact with herbicides used in the war. A US$180 million settlement was reached for Vietnam veterans and their families. 9 This settlement was reached in view of several factors, including the difficulty in establishing a case against any one or more of the defendant chemical companies and the uncertainties associated with a trial. 9 In re Agent Orange Product Liability Litigation, M.D.L. NQ

30 I.6E INQUIRY INTO THE HEALTH EFFECTS OF AGENT ORANGE 3 Evidence of exposure to defoliant chemicals during Vietnam service In order to provide a framework for the remainder of consideration in this report, we first need to identify and examine the evidence that New Zealand defence personnel were exposed to defoliant chemicals during the Vietnam War. In this part, we examine the evidence that New Zealand defence personnel served in an area identified as being defoliated by the United States Defense Force. During the hearing of evidence we noted submitter concerns about historical statements claiming that exposure to defoliant chemicals did not occur. These statements contradict the experience of many of the veterans who, as we discuss below, witnessed spraying and were directly sprayed. We received and heard consistent evidence that outlined observations of contamination of the landscape and food chain by chemical defoliants, and accounts of veterans being directly sprayed. One submitter, whose battalion was sited in a rubber plantation, noted that within weeks of aerial spraying, the rubber plantations were stripped of leaves. Veterans also told us that they walked around the area at the time of spraying and degeneration of vegetation. We were provided with photographs that depict the rubber plantations before, and after, defoliation. The following photographs show New Zealand defence personnel after deployment in an area depicted on maps as a rubber plantation, although no rubber plants can be seen. 10 Evidence of veterans Most of those submitters who were Vietnam veterans recalled seeing aerial spraying of the jungle areas in Phuoc Tuy Province. Some veterans recalled instances of being directly sprayed by chemical defoliants. I personally witnessed our Battalion area being sprayed twice by American C123 aircraft. These aircraft would fly in a close formation about 200 feet above our area. A visible spray was observed being discharged from the aircraft. I was caught in the open on both those occasions. We just carried on with our duties. No warning or notice of spraying was given, nor were instructions given on precautions to be taken in the event of being sprayed Photographs provided by Barry Dreyer (a Lieutenant during his service in Vietnam). 11 Booth, John (a Major during his service in Vietnam), 25 November 2003, transcripts, p

31 EVIDENCE OF EXPOSURE TO DEFOLIANT CHEMICALS DURING VIETNAM SERVICE I.6E I can remember being sprayed twice. I can specifically remember, in a place called the Long Green in Phuoc Tuy Province, a fixed-wing vehicle flying over, on the margins of the jungle, and spraying us. 12 Photograph 1: Operation Ingham 18 November 1966 to 3 December 1966 Setting up command post after deployment Photograph 2: Operation Ingham 18 November 1966 to 3 December 1966 Another view 12 Chester, Wayne (a Private during his service in Vietnam), 25 November 2003, transcripts, p

32 I.6E INQUIRY INTO THE HEALTH EFFECTS OF AGENT ORANGE Other submitters noted their recollections of herbicide spraying: From my own experience in Vietnam and recollections of the few times when we were sprayed by passing aircraft, I can recall no stenching agent but the smell of what I thought at the time to be aircraft fuel, which has the aroma of strong kerosene. 13 I recall though with very little of the detail on one occasion at least, seeing these two Hercules aircraft fly low over us, spraying something. From the ground, we looked up and saw them, and thought very little of it, I think. If we had thought about it, we would perhaps have said that it must be safe, because our Government and other Governments were allowing it to happen. The only thing I might have noticed was that we used to put our hands over the top of our billy if we had a billy and we were drinking at the time because it left a little bit of an oily kind of colourful screen on the top of the drink you were having. 14 Submitters also told us that ground spraying was common around the base camp: Spraying from ground vehicles in and around the base was also quite common, using a herbicide to control weeds in the base area to keep fields of fire clear on approaches to the base perimeter. 15 There was quite heavy jungle through the place, and they sprayed this track, which went from one place to another I don t think we walked the whole distance, but nothing grows there, nothing; it s like the table cloth, dust in the summer and mud in the winter and also other small villages around the area. We used to like it when they sprayed us, actually, because it kept us cool, and they told us it was to kill the mosquitoes. 16 We were told the spray was dangerous and we would get another set of greens and boots when we finished the job, and we would also get an extra two cans of beer a night because it was dangerous The sprayer didn t work well. Spray splashed out and got all over our backs. The 2ic has since confirmed it was Agent Orange that we were using. 17 We note that veterans were not given any protection against the chemicals, as that was not common practice at the time. I can remember the magazine Stars and Stripes had a full-page article I have actually tried to find it and it had an American serviceman beside a great big black drum It [the article] said: This is how safe it is. What they were trying to do is reassure everybody, and he was drinking out of this glass. I betcha he ain t around now Moller, John (a Major during his service in Vietnam), 25 November 2003, transcripts, p Turner, Ron (a Second Lieutenant during his service in Vietnam), 26 November 2003, transcripts, p Booth, John (a Major during his service in Vietnam), 25 November 2003, transcripts, p McCoid, Leslie (a Private during his service in Vietnam), 25 November 2003, transcripts, p Nicol, Gavin (a Private during his service in Vietnam), 26 November 2003, transcripts, p Chester, Wayne (a Private during his service in Vietnam), 25 November 2003, transcripts, pp

33 EVIDENCE OF EXPOSURE TO DEFOLIANT CHEMICALS DURING VIETNAM SERVICE I.6E We note that there were different perceptions of what the aerial spraying was attempting to achieve. I can remember the smell. I can remember the disquiet amongst the troops We were unhappy about it We were concerned I think about 2 weeks later we were told that they were spraying for the anopheles mosquito. Where that came from, I don t know. 19 We accepted the reasons for it as being anti-malaria. It was better than taking pills, that is for sure. They tasted disgusting. 20 Maps Three submitters, including the New Zealand Defence Force, provided us with maps of New Zealand defence personnel operations in Vietnam. These maps indicate the presence of defence personnel in areas defoliated by the United States Defense Force. The map provided to us by Colonel John Masters was given to him by the United States Defense Force in Vietnam and identifies areas of chemical defoliation. These areas include the area Nui Dat, in Phuoc Tuy Province, where New Zealand defence personnel were based. We requested a further map from the New Zealand Defence Force that depicted the herbicide spray paths, all recorded New Zealand Defence Force operations, and also incidents where New Zealand forces had been located in areas after spraying. This map is reproduced on pages 18 and 19 as Map 2. New Zealand Defence Force The New Zealand Defence Force presented a comprehensive and detailed submission on the spraying of herbicide in Phuoc Tuy Province in the Republic of Vietnam. This analysis was conducted using information accessed from the New Zealand Defence Force archives. Despite the availability of this information, such an analysis was not undertaken until we requested it as part of this inquiry. The submission identifies 350 occasions when New Zealand defence personnel were exposed to aerially delivered herbicide: Agent Orange, Agent White, or Agent Blue. The exposure was either by direct contact when the herbicide was aerially sprayed, or through environmental contamination. We note that all contact with the herbicides occurred when New Zealand defence personnel operated in locations that had been sprayed within 12 months prior to operation in that area. Shortly after we announced our inquiry, the first public acknowledgement by a New Zealand government that New Zealand defence personnel were likely to have been exposed to defoliant chemicals during the Vietnam War was made. The Hon Mark Burton, Minister of Defence, stated that chemical defoliation took place in Phuoc Tuy Province and that New Zealand defence personnel were deployed in that province. This statement was made in the House in response to an oral question from Richard Worth about the use of chemical defoliants by allied forces in Phuoc Tuy Province. 19 Chester, Wayne (a Private during his service in Vietnam), 25 November 2003, transcripts, p Robinson, John (a Rifleman during his service in Vietnam), 26 November 2003, transcripts, p

Contents. Summary of recommendations 5. 1 Introduction 6 Terms of reference 6 Conduct of the inquiry 7 Terminology used in this report 9

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