Hydro Mechanical v. Gravity Grease Interceptors TS Saturday 9:00am 12:00pm Rand Ackroyd

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1 Hydro Mechanical v. Gravity Grease Interceptors TS Saturday 9:00am 12:00pm Rand Ackroyd

2 CAPTURING the GREASE MODEL CODE EDITION Copyright 2011

3 .Hydro Mechanical vs Gravity Grease Interceptors UPC, IPC How they work Sizing Installation Grease.What it is.were does it come from.what problems it cause

4

5 PDI Plumbing and Drainage Inst. The Plumbing and Drainage Institute (PDI) was formed in The organization developed the original performance requirements and certification program for Grease interceptor (Hydro mechanical Grease interceptors) and Water hammer Arrestors (Shock Arrestors

6 PDI Plumbing and Drainage Inst. Our objective Advancement of Engineered Plumbing Products Research Publish Standards Education

7 PDI Plumbing and Drainage Inst. We also participate in the development of the model plumbing codes UPC, IPC, NSPC

8 PDI Plumbing and Drainage Inst. Ashland Poly Traps.Bio-Microbics. Inc. Canplas Ind..G.K&L Inc International GRD.Jay R Smith Mfg. Josam.Lowe Eng. L&J Restaurant Inc..Rockford Separators Thermaco.Tyler Pipe/ Wade Watts Drainage.Zurn Ind. Mifab Corp..B K Resources Inc. Factory Direct Sales.Grandview Sheetmetal Grease Traps USA.Flexial Corp AH-U LTD.BK Resources Ecologix Systems.Klinger Trading Korea Seal. L&J Restaurant Prima Supply. Taho Valves Town and Country. Triton Metals

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10 .

11 PDI Plumbing and Drainage Inst. Publications PDI G101 Testing and Rating PDI G102 FOG Sensing and Alarm Guide to GREASE INTERCEPTORS: Eliminating i the Grease

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13 Technology available Grease Interceptor is a generic term representing a family of devices

14 Technology available Grease Interceptor A plumbing appurtenance or appliance that is installed in a sanitary drainage system to intercept non petroleum fats, oil, and greases (FOG) from a wastewater discharge.

15 Technology available Gravity Interceptors t Hydro Mechanical Interceptor Grease Removal Device GRD Fog Sensing and Alarm Devices FOG Disposal Systems

16 GRAVITY INTERCEPTOR

17 GRAVITY INTERCEPTOR

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19 GRAVITY INTERCEPTOR

20 Hydro Mechanical Grease interceptor

21 Hydro Mechanical Grease interceptor

22 Hydro Mechanical Grease Interceptor PDI G101

23 GREASE REMOVAL DEVICE GRD PDI G101

24 HYDRO MECHANICAL PDI G102 Automatic Sensor

25 FOG DISPOSAL SYSTEM

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28 Performance Standards Equipment Testing Certification

29 PDI G101 Test Rig

30 SINKS

31 SINKS

32 SINKS

33 FLOW CONTROL

34 FLOW CONTROL

35 SKIM TANK

36 EQUIPMENT

37 EQUIPMENT

38 TESTING Example 25 GPM Interceptor Two sinks each at 25 Gallons at 160 F

39 TESTING Example 25 GPM Interceptor Two sinks each at 25 Gallons at 160 F

40 TESTING Lard Ratio One Pound/ Five Gallons Five Pounds of Lard each Run at 160F

41 TESTING Min. of 12 Runs per Test Total Lard min.60 Pounds per Test

42 TESTING Min. Retained Lard Pounds Grease removal efficiency 90%-95%

43 TESTING Min. Retained Lard Pounds Grease removal efficiency 90%-95%

44 TESTING Min. Retained Lard Pounds Grease removal efficiency 90%-95%

45 TESTING Lard is Skimmed and separated

46 TESTING Lard is Skimmed and separated

47 TESTING Efficiency = Grease Added - Grease Skimmed Grease added

48 Testing and Certification

49 Testing and Certification Performance

50 Testing and Certification Performance

51 Testing and Certification Performance Orange County Study

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53 HYDRO MECHANICAL PDI G102 Automatic Sensor

54 Grease Interceptor t Grease Removal Device (GRD) Any hydro mechanical grease interceptor that automatically, mechanically removes non-petroleum fats, oils and grease (FOG) from the interceptor, the control of which are either automatic or manually initiated. ASME A

55 GREASE REMOVAL DEVICE GRD Hydro mechanical grease interceptor External grease collection Timer actuated Sensor operated Skim off grease Disc Belt Hydraulic Pump

56 GREASE REMOVAL DEVICE GRD Skimmer / Timer

57 GREASE REMOVAL DEVICE GRD

58 GREASE REMOVAL DEVICE GRD

59 GREASE REMOVAL DEVICE GRD TESTING Hydro mechanical grease interceptor Test PDI G101 Grease separating ASME A Grease removal 150% Removal of Rated capacity, 10 hours FOG removed, Maximum of 5% water

60 FOG DISPOSAL SYSTEM FOG Disposal System A grease interceptor that reduces non petroleum fats, oils, and grease (FOG) in effluent by separation, and mass and volume reduction. ASME A

61 FOG DISPOSAL SYSTEM Testing PDI G101 Grease separation ASME A Grease Reduction Discharge water 100mg/liter max. FOG

62 GRAVITY INTERCEPTOR

63 GRAVITY INTERCEPTOR

64 Design criteria for Gravity interceptor, IAPMO Z Gallon volume minimum Two chambers 2/3 and 1/3 Two access point Inlet and outlet baffle Tee 4 Inlet, outlet above water Center baffle length more than width Air space 9 Liquid depth 30 min. 6 ft max Stoke s Law Efficiency 80%-85 % range Sized by Gallons volume

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66 GRAVITY INTERCEPTOR BEWARE!

67 GRAVITY INTERCEPTOR BEWARE!

68 Seven week closure

69 Intercepting Grease IPC,UPC, Major changes in the Code for Grease Interceptors UPC, IPC

70 Intercepting Grease IPC Why the changes? To match the descriptions of Grease Interceptors in the Code to the National Standards for them. Trap VS. Interceptor

71 What happened in 2006 to Grease Traps and passive interceptor? Deleted UPC, IPC 2006

72 Intercepting Grease UPC, IPC 2003, 2006, 2009 Grease Interceptor t Hydro Mechanical Gravity Grease Trap Trap

73 Intercepting Grease IPC 2003, Trap. A fitting or device that provides a liquid seal to prevent the emission of sewer gases without materially affecting the flow of sewage or wastewater through the trap.

74 Intercepting Grease IPC Changes

75 Intercepting Grease IPC 2003 IPC 2006 IPC 2009 IPC 2012

76 Intercepting Grease IPC 2003 Grease Interceptor. t A passive interceptor whose rated flow 50 GPM. exceeds 50 GPM.

77 Intercepting Grease IPC 2003 Grease Trap. A passive interceptor whose rated flow is 50 GPM or less.

78 Intercepting Grease IPC Chapter 2 Definitions Grease Interceptor. t (replaces grease interceptor & grease trap) A plumbing appurtenance that is installed in a sanitary drainage system to intercept oily and greasy wastes from a wastewater discharge. Such device has the ability to intercept free-floating fats and oils.

79 Intercepting Grease IPC IPC Automatic grease removal devices. (GRD) Where automatic grease removal devices are installed, such devices shall be located downstream of each fixture or multiple fixtures in accordance with the manufacturer s instructions. ti The automatic ti grease removal device shall be sized to pre-treat the measured or calculated flows for all connected fixtures or equipment. Ready access shall be provided.

80 Intercepting Grease IPC IPC Automatic grease removal devices. Ready access shall be provided.

81 Intercepting Grease IPC IPC Rate of Flow Controls Shall be equipped with devices to control the rate of water flow. Applies to Hydro-Mechanical only

82 Intercepting Grease IPC Rate of Flow Controls

83 Intercepting Grease IPC IPC Grease interceptor capacity Shall have the grease retention capacity Table Applies to Hydro-Mechanical only

84 Grease interceptor Installation General IPC 2003,2006,2009,2012 IPC Approval. The size, type and location of each interceptor and of each separator shall be designed and installed in accordance with the manufacturer s instructions.

85 Intercepting Grease IPC IPC Food waste Grinders A solids interceptor shall separate the discharge before connecting to the grease interceptor. Applies to all grease interceptors

86 Intercepting Grease UPC, IPC 2006, 2012 IPC Grease interceptors and automatic grease removal devices Grease interceptors or automatic grease removal devices shall conform to PDI G101, ASME A or ASME A and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer s. Note no size limitation Exception: Volume not less 500 Gallons outside

87 Intercepting Grease Hydro-Mechanical Grease interceptors and automatic grease removal devices (GRD). Grease interceptors or automatic grease removal devices shall conform to PDI G101, ASME A or ASME A and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer s Note no size limitation

88 Intercepting Grease IPC 2012 Chapter 2 Definitions Grease Interceptor Hydro-Mechanical Grease Interceptor. A plumbing appurtenance that is installed in the sanitary drainage system to intercept freefloating (FOG) fats, oils and grease from the wastewater discharge. Continuous separation is accomplished air entrapment, buoyancy and interior baffles. Gravity Grease Interceptor. A plumbing appurtenance of not less than 500 gallon capacity that are installed in the sanitary drainage system to intercept free-floating (FOG) fats, oils and grease from the wastewater discharge. Separation is accomplished by gravity during a retention time of not less than 30 minute.

89 Intercepting Grease UPC Changes

90 Intercepting Grease UPC 2006, Chapter 2 Definitions Grease Interceptor Hydro-Mechanical Grease Interceptor Mechanical Grease Interceptor. A plumbing appurtenance that is installed in the sanitary drainage system to intercept free- floating (FOG) fats, oils and grease from the wastewater discharge. Continuous separation is accomplished air entrapment, t buoyancy and interior i baffles. Gravity Grease Interceptor. A plumbing appurtenance of not less than 300 gallon capacity that are installed in the sanitary a drainage system to intercept free-floating (FOG) fats, oils and grease from the wastewater discharge. Separation is accomplished by gravity during a retention time of not less than 30 minute.

91 UPC CHANGE UPC What happened to Appendix H? New Sizing method Chapter 10

92 Flow Control s UPC Each plumbing fixture or piece of equipment connected to a hydro mechanical grease interceptor shall be provided with an approved type of vented flow control installed in a readily accessible and visible location. No flow-control device having adjustable or removable parts shall be approved

93 Grease interceptor Installation General UPC Food Waste Disposal Units and Dishwashers. Unless specifically required or permitted by the Authority Having Jurisdiction, no food waste disposal unit or dishwasher shall be connected to or discharge into any grease interceptor. Commercial food waste disposers shall be permitted to discharge directly into the building s drainage system.

94 Grease interceptor Installation General UPC Each fixture discharging into a grease interceptor shall be individually trapped and vented in an approved manner.

95 Grease interceptor Installation General UPC Waste discharge in establishments from fixtures and equipment which may contain grease, including but not limited to, scullery sinks, pot and pan sinks, dishwashers, soup kettles, and floor drains located in areas where grease-containing g materials may exist, may be drained into the sanitary waste through the interceptor when approved by the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

96 Grease interceptor Installation General UPC Each grease interceptor shall be so installed and connected that it shall be at all times easily accessible for inspection, cleaning, and removal of the intercepted grease. A gravity grease interceptor complying with IAPMO Z1001, shall not be installed in any part of a building where food is handled. Location of the grease interceptor shall meet the approval of the Authority Having Jurisdiction.

97 Grease interceptor Installation General UPC Interceptors shall be placed as close as practical to the fixtures they serve.

98 MAINTAINANCE UPC The Authority Having Jurisdiction shall have the authority to mandate the installation of additional equipment or devices and to mandate a maintenance program. Automatic Sensor

99 Intercepting Grease Grease Removal Device

100

101 Sizing GREASE INTERCEPTORS Hydro Mechanical Gravity

102 Defining the Sizing GREASE INTERCEPTORS Hydro Mechanical GPM Gravity Gallons capacity

103 Size Ranges of GREASE INTERCEPTORS Hydro Mechanical GPM 7 to 100 GPM Gravity Gallons capacity 500 Gallons and larger

104 Sizing GREASE INTERCEPTORS For any type of Grease interceptor drain line flow in GPM must be determined

105 Sizing Gravity GREASE Interceptors All interceptors are sized by calculating flow in GPM Drain pipe capacity Actual flow DFU s

106 SIZING Grease INTERCEPTORS by Drain line capacity Pipe Size Diameter ¼ slope GPM

107 SIZING Grease INTERCEPTORS by Actual Flow Fixture type Fixture size Fixture quantity Other equipment

108 SIZING Grease INTERCEPTORS by Actual Flow Fixture type Sinks that are drained.. Drain size Pre rinse. Fixture flow Food F d prep Fixture flow Cooking equipment...drain size Other equipment..rated flow The total= peak flow

109 Sizing Gravity GREASE INTERCEPTORS Applying peak GPM flow to Sizing Factor of safety? 1% of the time flow is at peak 75%-90% of flows are 1/3 peak

110 SIZING Gravity GREASE INTERCEPTORS by GPM FLOW Peak flow GPM X 30 min

111 SIZING Gravity GREASE INTERCEPTORS by DFU S Gravity Grease Interceptor Sizing DFUs Interceptor Volume Pipe size gallons 21 (3) 750 gallons 36 1,000 gallons 3 pipe 90 (3) 1,250 gallons 180 1,500 gallons 4 pipe 216 2,000 gallons 307 (3) 2,500 gallons 390 3,000 gallons 5 pipe 428 4,000 gallons 576 5,000 gallons 700 7,500 gallons 6 pipe ,000 gallons ,000 gallons

112 SIZING Gravity GREASE INTERCEPTORS by DFU S If drainage fixture units (DFUs) are not known, the interceptor shall be sized based on the maximum DFUs allowed for the pipe pp size connected to the inlet of the interceptor.

113 Sizing Hydro Mechanical Grease Interceptors All interceptors are sized by calculating flow in GPM Drain pipe capacity Actual flow

114 Pipe Size Diameter SIZING Grease INTERCEPTORS HYDRO MECHANICAL by Drain line capacity ¼ slope GPM

115 Step 1 SIZING Grease INTERCEPTORS HYDRO MECHANICAL by Actual fixture, sink Determine the cubic content of the fixture by multiplying length x width x depth. A sink 48 long by 24 wide by 12 deep Cubic content 48 x 24 x 12 = 13,824 cubic inches Step 2 Step 3 Determine the capacity in gallons. 1 gal. = 231 cubic inches. Determine actual drainage load. The fixture is usually filled to about 75% of capacity with waste water. The items being washed displace about 25% of the fixture content. Actual drainage load = 75% of the fixture capacity. Contents in gal. 13,824 = 59.8 gals 231 Actual drainage load.75 x 59.8 gals. = 44.9 gals. Step 4 Determine the flow rate and the drainage. In Calculated l flow rate for 1 minute period general, good practices dictate a one minute Flow rate 44.9 gals. = 44.9 GPM drainage period, however where conditions 1 Min. permit, a 2 minute period is acceptable. Drainage period is the actual time required to Calculated flow rate for 2 minute period completely empty the fixture. Flow rate 44.9 gals. = 22.5 GPM Flow Rate = Actual Drainage Load 2 Min. Drainage Period Step 5 Select the interceptor which corresponds to the For 1 minute period flow rate calculated. Note Select larger size 44.9 GPM when flow rate falls between two sizes listed. If For a 2 minute period the flow rate is above 50 GPM, select a larger interceptor GPM

116 SIZING Grease INTERCEPTORS HYDRO MECHANICAL by Actual fixture Pre rinse. Fixture flow Food prep Fixture flow Cooking equipment...,drain size Other equipment...rated flow Actual sink one/two minute Note: Sink drain by Manning may have lower flow The total= peak flow

117 Sizing Hydro Mechanical Grease Interceptors GPM peak flow =GPM size Interceptor Note: flow control limits sink GPM

118 SIZING GREASE INTERCEPTORS Under sizing can be a problem Increased drain down time More frequent cleaning

119 SIZING GREASE INTERCEPTORS Over sizing can be a problem Grease Breaks down Increased cleaning cost

120 Polar Hydrocarbon Free fatty acids. Glycerin

121 FOG breaks down into Fatty acids and Glycerin Hydrolisis Microbes b Chemicals

122 Fatty acids Harden with Iron oxide Chemically bond to pipes Fatty acids are corrosive Saturated fatty acids reacting with Calcium forming a solid tacky substance

123 Harden with Iron oxide Chemically bond to pipes

124 Saturated fatty acids reacting with Calcium forming a solid tacky substance

125 FOG/Food breaks down

126 FOG/Food breaks down Sulfur reducing anaerobic bacteria Hydrogen sulfide Symbiotic aerobic bacteria Sulfuric acid

127 Over sizing Increased cost of cleaning Over sizing encourages less frequent cleaning Less water exchange,septic conditions, i low Ph.

128 HOW THEY WORK

129 Hydro Mechanical Grease Interceptor. A plumbing appurtenance that is installed in the sanitary drainage system to intercept free floating (FOG) fats, oils and grease from the wastewater t discharge. Continuous separation is accomplished by air entrapment, buoyancy and interior baffles. Gravity Grease Interceptor. A plumbing appurtenance of not less than 500 gallon capacity that are installed in the sanitary drainage system to intercept free floating (FOG) fats, oils and grease from the wastewater discharge. Separation is accomplished by gravity ( buoyancy ) during a retention time of not less than 30 minute.

130 Hydro Mechanical Grease Interceptor. Gravity Grease Interceptors

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132

133

134

135

136

137 Special applications

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139

140 Vented Flow Control

141 FLOW CONTROL At a level of below the fixture. Between the fixture and Grease Interceptor One flow control per Grease Interceptor

142 GREASE REMOVAL DEVICE GRD Skimmer / Timer

143 GREASE REMOVAL DEVICE GRD

144 GREASE REMOVAL DEVICE GRD

145 FOG Disposal System A grease interceptor that reduces non petroleum fats, oils, and grease (FOG) in effluent by separation, and mass and volume reduction. ASME A

146 FOG DISPOSAL SYSTEM

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148

149

150

151

152

153

154

155

156

157

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160

161

162 General No Garbage/ food grinder directly connected Avoid high detergent fixtures Easy access for cleaning Check for correct AHJ Check for local l required interceptor t designs

163 General Avoid distances of greater than 25 ft Gravity and Hydro can be used together Gravity installed outside of building

164 Standards Flow Min. Size Flow control Vent Grinders Certification Location Cleaning Yes Any No Yes Yes No Yes Any Empty Yes Any 500 No No No Yes Outdoors Empty

165

166 New Awareness Clean Water Act Regulations Research Technology available Design considerations

167 New Awareness

168 What problems it cause? SSO Sanitary Sewer overflows "SSO", are a violation of the Federal Clean Water Act. These SSO s have resulted in millions of dollars in fines by the EPA

169 SSO Sanitary Sewer overflows

170 SSO Sanitary Sewer overflows

171 SSO Sanitary Sewer overflows In Orange County, CA, 252 orders have been issued, closing beaches for more than 2000 days (from 1987 through 2000). The majority of these closures were the result of bacterial contamination from sewage spills flowing into the ocean, usually originating from sewer lines clogged with grease. This is almost 6 years of closure.

172 SSO Sanitary Sewer overflows SSO Sanitary Sewer overflows 2006 EPA has reported in monitoring 35 States t there were 40, beach day closings in the year 2006, due to contamination.

173 SSO Sanitary Sewer overflows Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts are fined $4.6 million for January 2006 sewage spill. Agreed to a $2.5 million settlement and released from liability for 93 sewage spill over the previous five years.

174 SSO Sanitary Sewer overflows Connecticut SSO s

175 SSO Sanitary Sewer overflows Regulations State Plumbing Code Public Health Code POTW City

176 SSO Sanitary Sewer overflows Enforcement AHJ BY State Within the State BY Sewer Company

177 SSO Sanitary Sewer overflows Studies Orange County FOG Control 2005 NC State Project FROG 2007

178 SSO Sanitary Sewer overflows

179 SSO Sanitary Sewer overflows

180 SSO Sanitary Sewer overflows Orange County Study

181 SSO Sanitary Sewer overflows Orange County

182 SSO Sanitary Sewer overflows NC State Project FROG 2007 FOG blockages are the primary cause in 40% to 50% of all SSO s (Southerland,2002) Another 10% to 25% are roots and grease

183 SSO Sanitary Sewer overflows NC State Project FROG % to 75%

184 Were does it come from Food preparation and clean up Schools Assisted Living Nursing homes Hospitals Amusement Parks Malls Restaurants

185 How much? Cafeteria 4,500 mg/l Chinese 1,900 mg/l Italian 1,000 mg/l American 950 mg/l

186 New Awareness Reference / Information Water Environment Research Foundation Plumbing and Drainage Institute

187 Myths and Facts

188 Myth: If grease is not used in food preparation a grease interceptor is not needed Fact: Grease is not the only problem. The overall problem is FOG. (Fats,oils and grease). These materials alone or in combination will result is sewer blockages Copy right PDI 2009

189 Myth: If food is not prepared on site a grease interceptor t is not needed d Fact: A stove is not the source of FOG, it is the sink. Containers and utensils can be a significant source of FOG Copy right PDI 2009

190 Myth: Grease interceptors only retain FOG Fact: In addition to FOG grease interceptors will capture food solids. Copy right PDI 2009

191 Myth: Choosing a larger size grease interceptor will result in a greater grease removal efficiency. Fact: When grease interceptor has been sized properly to the anticipated maximum flow using a grease interceptor with a larger flow capacity will not increase grease removal efficiency. Copy right PDI 2009

192 Myth: The larger the grease storage capacity the more efficient the interceptors grease removal. Fact: Grease must be separated from the waste water before it can be stored. Storage capacity and grease removal efficiency are not related. Copy right PDI 2009

193 Myth: The grease must cool and harden to separate from the waste water. Fact: Grease interceptors separate based on the difference in specific gravity of FOG and water. Liquefied grease floats just as well as solidified grease. Grease is lighter than water. Copy right PDI 2009

194 Myth: Hot water will melt the captured grease and wash the grease through h the interceptor Fact: All hydro mechanical grease interceptors t are tested t for grease removal efficiency with 150 F water. Copy right PDI 2009

195 Myth: Low temperature dish washers can connect to the grease interceptor. Fact: All dishwashers h can be problematic. It is not the temperature but the soaps, detergents and sanitizers that emulsify the FOG. Copy right PDI 2009

196 Myth: It is important to connect floor drains to the grease interceptor. Fact: Floor drains are not usually a significant ifi source of FOG. Drain cleaners and strong cleaning agents used on floors can emulsify FOG already captured in a grease interceptor. Copy right PDI 2009

197 Myth: Once the grease is captured in the interceptor, t it will remain captured in the interceptor as long as the interceptor is not yet 25% full. Fact: Because the grease (FOG) is contaminated with food particles and the interceptor is a breeding ground for bacteria, the FOG can be broken down, exit the interceptor t and create blockages downstream. Copy right PDI 2009

198 Myth: Over sizing an interceptor cannot hurt. Fact: Over sizing an interceptor relative to actual flow is a problem. It can result in the generation of hydrogen sulfide gas that can convert to an acid. Both metal and concrete structures downstream have suffered severe structural damage from this acid. Copy right PDI 2009

199 Myth: When the grease interceptor is full, the drain line will stop flowing. Fact: Water will continue to flow even when the FOG in the interceptor is at capacity. Additional grease in the wastewater will simply flow right through h the interceptor. t Grease interceptors t must be either manually or electronically monitored. Copy right PDI 2009

200 Myth: With the change to healthier cooking oils, there is less of a FOG problem. Fact: Cooking oils that are healthier for you are no healthier for the drainage system. They are all polar hydrocarbons. In fact, some of the new alternative ti cooking oils with specific gravities closer to water will be harder to capture from the wastewater. Copy right PDI 2009

201 Myth: A clogged drain an a clean out is the worst that can happen. Fact: FOG has can cause extensive sewer failure and costly repairs. Copy right PDI 2009

202

203 Myth: Grease does not clog plastic pipe Fact: FOG can create blockages in all drain pipe materials. Copy right PDI 2009

204

205 THANK YOU

New Awareness Clean Water Act Regulations Research Technology available Design considerations

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