1 Knowledge Management Kunskap, organisering och IT Kunskapsorganisering Jan Ljungberg, docent i Informatik Agenda Vad är Knowledge Management Kunskap Kunskapsprocesser Kunskapsorganisationer Kunskapsteknologi och KM-initiativ
2 The Knowledge management hub Mission: Develop theory, method and technology to exploit and develop knowledge in organizations. Interdisciplinary research on IT and organizing Partners:Volvo IT, Ericsson Microwave, Ericsson Mobile Data Design, Guide, Astrakan, Framfab, AstraZeneca Finances: KFB, Volvo Research Foundation, Nutek, Vinnova,... People Magnus Bergquist, Ph.D Associate Professor Cultural Anthropology Anna Maria Szczepanska, Ph.D-student Sociology Jan Ljungberg, Ph.D Associate Professor. Informatics, Hub leader Christian Fredriksson, Ph.D-student Informatics Dick Stenmark, PhD Informatics Volvo IT Maria Bohlin, Industrial Ph.D-student, Guide
3 Vad är Knowledge Management? Ett buzz word och mode 2000 affärsböcker om året produceras I USA Flygplatslitteratur, de bästa säljer i flera miljoner exemplar Managementteori och pengar hör ihop Professorer, konsulter och ledare Inga av formlerna fungerar som köparen tänkt Retoriken kring teorierna har egen förändringskraft En produktkategori Nu med knowledge management Teknisk plattform Synsätt, filosofi, paradigm Vad är Knowledge Management? the task of developing and exploiting an organization s tangible and intangible knowledge resources. Knowledge Management covers organisational and technological issues. (Ovum, 1998) Organizational knowledge creation: the capability of a company as a whole to create new knowledge, disseminate it throughhout the organization, and embody it in products, services and systems. (Nonaka, 1995) Knowledge management address the generation, representation, storage, transfer, transformation, application, embedding and protecting of organizational knowledge. (Hedberg, 1994) Knowledge in the workplace - the ability of people and organizations to act effectively. (Wiig, 2000) Intervention för att förbättra en organisation betraktad som ett kunskapssystem.
4 KM Aktörer Early adopters Försäkringsbolag, konsulter,läkemedelsindustri Managementkonsulter Mjukvaruindustri Information retrieval Groupware Dokument och workflow Databasleverantörer ERP Forskare KM Examples Skandia Intellectual capital accounting: identifying, valuing and measuring the performance of intellectual capital. Andersen Consulting Knowledge Xchange linking employees, clients, knowledge databases, tools etc. IBM One of the first attempts to provide a company wide knowledge architecture for mapping the vast range of information in the company. Storytelling
5 Information vs knowledge Information & Kunskap Sann berättigad tro - Platon 400 b.c blev carl Ludovici professor i Knowledge of the World i Leipzig, Data - Information - Kunskap Tyst kunskap - explicit kunskap - Polanyi 60-talet Kunskap, kompetens, expertis Innovation, Kreativitet, innovationssystem Kunskap som tillgång kunskapskapital
6 Data - Information - Knowledge Data Sign, and signals, facts about events Information Interpreted data, contextualized, categorized Knowledge Information acted upon Knowledge is broader, deeper and richer than information Knowing, knowledge is action oriented Data - Information - Knowledge Dispersed elements data Signs and signals, facts about events Patterned data Information Applied information knowledge Applied knowledge wisdom Interpreted data, contextualized, categorized Information acted upon, broader, richer, deeper
7 Data - Information - Knowledge Dispersed elements data Patterned data Information Applied information knowledge Applied knowledge wisdom Competence & Expertice A skill directly related to a work task Knowledge has been discussed som 1000 years Competence since Taylor and particularly the last 20 years Competence: Formal knowledge Skill Ability Motivation Experience...
8 Kunskap Knowledge there is a growing body of evidence that the elementary information processes used by the human brain in thinking are highly similar to a sub-set of the elementary information processes that are incorporated in the instruction codes of present-day computers - Herbert Simon, Information Processing in Man and Machine, 1964.
9 Kunskap Tyst vs. explicit kunskap Teoretisk vs. praktisk kunskap Individuell vs. kollektiv kunskap Offentlig vs. privat kunskap Påbjuden vs. förbjuden kunskap Gammal vs. ny kunskap Kategorisering av kunskap Objektiv vs. socialt konstruerad kunskap Tacit vs. Explicit Knowledge Tacit knowledge Is impossible to articulate We can know more than we can tell (Polanyi, 1966) Explicit knowledge Articulated, codified, structured knowledge
10 Tacit vs. Explicit Knowledge Two distinct kinds of knowledge in Nonakas SECI-model Tacit knowledge Explicit knowledge Tacit knowledge Socialization Externalization Explicit knowledge Internalization Combination Nonaka & Takeuchi: The Knowledge Creating Company Tacit vs. Explicit Knowledge Not two distinct forms of knowledge Tacit knowledge is not explicit knowledge internalized There is a tacit dimension of all knowledge All articulated knowledge is based on an unarticulated and tacitly accepted background of social practices. Thus, all knowledge could be considered to be tacit When knowledge is articulated it becomes information Thus, computers can never hold knowledge
11 Organisatorisk kunskap Kognitiv kunskap Finns i huvet på människor Konceptuell och kognitiv förmåga Abstrakt tänkande Kunskap om Kunskap att
12 Kodifierad kunskap Buren av tecken och symboler Böcker, manualer, patent Strukturkapital Databaser, expertsystem Förkroppsligad kunskap Handlingsorienterad Kunskap hur Bara delvis explicit Situerad, omedelbar, fysisk närvaro, sensomotorisk information Har sina rötter i specifika kontexter och praktiker
13 Inbäddad kunskap Inbäddad in rutiner, regler och teknologi Kulturburen kunskap Meningsskapande processer Socialisering Interaktion, konversation Berättelser, myter, ritualer Samskapande, social konstruktion av kunskap
14 Kunskap I rutiner embedded I huvet embrained I kroppen embodied Uttryckt i formler encoded I kultur och normer encultured Bilder: Kunskap i grova drag Objektivistisk syn Kunskap finns objektivt, kunskap är objekt, kan lagras etc. Kognitionsorienterad syn Kunskap finns i huvudet (bara i huvudet) Konstruktivistisk syn Kunskap är vad vi kommer överens om och gemensamt konstruerar Kunskap kan finnas utanför individen
15 Kunskapsorganisationer Fokus på kända problem Fokus på nya problem Kollektiv insats Individuell insats Kunskapsrutiniserade organisationer -Kunskap inbäddad i regler, rutiner och teknik. -Hierarkier och maskinbyråkratier -T ex traditionella fabriker -Status: lång och trogen tjänst Expertberoende organisationer -Förkroppsligad kunskap hos nyckelpersoner. -Beroende av specialister och experter, yrkesroller. -Status genom yrkesskicklighet. T ex sjukhus Kommunikationsintensiva organisationer -Kulturburen kunskap -Kommunikation och samarbete är nyckelprocesser. -T ex produktutveckling -Status: att ge bidrag till gruppen Symbolanalytiska Organisationer -Kognitiv, abstrakt kunskap -Entreprenörskap, problemlösning -T ex IT-konsult -Status genom kreativitet Kunskapsprocesser Skapa kunskap Legitimera kunskap Vem bestämmer vad som räknas som kunskap? Paketera kunskap Sprida Samla, lagra Implementera I organisationen, i produkter, i tjänster, i system Skydda Säkerhet, kontrakt, patent,...
16 Innovation No-preconception principle Sources of innovation are unpredicatble, creative acts often unplanned Autonomy The company must put trust in the unplanned actions Serendipity Accidentally stumbling over innovations Stimuli External or internal Rich information provision lateral internal communication Motivation People tend to be more creative when working by their own interest Skapa kunskap Tacit knowledge Explicit knowledge Tacit knowledge Socialization Externalization Explicit knowledge Internalization Combination Källa: Nonaka: The Knowledge Creating Company
17 Knowledge legitimization Who decides what is knowledge? Socially constructed knowledge Processes of knowing Peer review processes Gate keeping and promoting knowledge R&D grants Positions Publications Ideas and innovations Knowledge sharing Communities of practice Social capital, incitement structures Sticky Knowledge Costly and hard to transfer to where it is needed. Leaky Knowledge Knowledge sometimes flows easier between organizations than within them.
18 Communities of practice We all belong to several Communities of practice - CoPs Shared practice, interests, and language Not just a set of relationships, but an identity as community An arena for gaining reputation among peers Variety of relations to the organizations where they exists Across organizational boundaries Stewardship of knowledge Relationships to organization Unrecognized Invisible to the organization, or even to members themselves Bootlegged Only visible informally to a circle of people who know Legitimized officially sanctioned as a valuable entity Supported Provided with direct resources from the organization Institutionalized official status and function in the organization
19 Stewardship Sharing Offering a social structure for the exchange of knowledge, tips, and lessons learned Proactive developing shared capability, establishing best practices, pursuing a learning agenda Strategic Widely recognized, central to success of the organization, involved in strategic decisions Transformative Capable of redefining its environment, direction, structure and culture of the organization Open source as CoP Open Source projects are organized around a large stock of devoted hackers who are both producers and users. No monetary compensation to be expected for efforts conducted except the status and self-fulfilment. Why hackers contribute to the community has to be explained in others terms than being based on a more traditional cost-benefit rationality. Reputation and status comes from what you give away and share with others (software, information, knowledge).
20 Kunskapsteknologi I sin mest basala form är system som kopplar samman människor med människor, och människor med information. Men fortfarande handlar det mesta om information... Människor Information Människor The new Lotus KM Vision...but a more detailed analysis shows that Lotus has really only rebranded their old groupware strategy as KM....a new face on an old solution. Hemsida för Microsoft Exchange Server
21 Knowledge Management R&D Repacking is the recycling of old ideas in new guises - an environment friendly strategy leading to greater profits. Disinformation is the total utilization of manpower, machinery and finance to make the buyer believe that repacking is innovation. Source: Bonk business KM as information management Knowledge repositories and data bases best practice, knowledge chunks,... Rules Traditional information management Encoded knowledge basically dealing with information
22 KMs new challenges Knowledge is embedded in peoples subjective situations Knowledge is embedded in peoples actions Knowledge resides in peoples heads Knowledge is shaped in social processes in interaction between people Information to knowledge management Supporting processes and information: Transactions Logistics Workflow EDI Information/data Supporting knowledge creation and communication: Informal communication Conversations and learning Networks and communities Managing competence and experience Sharing knowledge Supporting innovation
23 KM-initiativ Objektfixerade - kunskap ses som objekt, teknikdrivna, fokus på kodifierad kunskap Personcentrerade kunskap finns i individen, fokus på embrained och embodied knowledge Kulturbaserade - kunskap är inbäddat i normer och meningssystem, fokus på encultured knowledge Ekonomiskt drivna, kunskap ses som ekonomisk tillgång, fokus på mätning och värdering Technology driven KM structured encoded knowledge Databases and repositories Data ware housing Document managment ERP-systems, CRM encoded Expert systems Best practice databases Workflow management embrained embodied embedded
24 Encoded, unstructured knowledge Search engines Collaborative filtering Notifiers Recommender systems Ovum s KM architecture (1998) Interface Knowledge portal KM services Discovery services Collaboration services Corporate taxonomy Information & process mgmt Infrastructure Information & knowledge sources Knowledge map Knowledge repository File servers, intranet/internet services, servers The web DBMS EDM People
25 Drawbacks Overemphasizing technology Simplistic views on knowledge Optimistic views on technology Basically based on information management Person centered KM Individual embrained knowledge embrained embodied Embodied knowledge and skill Intellectual capital Human resources Competense systems Yellow pages New roles like CKOs and knowledge brokers
26 New Roles Knowledge Project Managers Subject/content Managers Knowledge Brokers Knowledge Management Facilitators Knowledge Leaders Cybrarians Chief Knowledge Officer The Chief Knowledge Officer Provides a strategic view of the importance of KM to the company s business goals. Promotes KM throughout the organization and ensure that necessary incentives & structures are in place Is a conduit between the board and the rest of the company Is responsible for corporate KM initiatives Monitor and measure the progress of KM Understands the pragmatics of KM as well as the business critical value chains Has a good sense of organizational politics
27 Knowledge Broker Central organizational role Connect those with knowledge to those who need it for particular purposes Facilitating knowledge flashes and learning situations Identifying knowledgeable persons and list them Facilitate contacts between knowledge needs and expertice Strive to connect people over organizational boundaries Be available to potential users Drawbacks Sometimes techophobic While storing knowledge as objects in databases is difficult, storing people in databases are difficult too
28 Kunskapshantering - kulturbaserad Incitamentsstrukturer Communities of practice Infrastruktur, CSCW Gåvoekonomi, open source Storytelling och narrativa kunskapsformer Portaler - integration av stöd för olika kunskapsformer Recommender systems, notifiers, agenter, sökmotorer Berättelsers roll i organisationer Gestaltning av erfarenhet Socialisering av nya medlemmar Skapa mening av organisation och kultur Konstruktion av professionell identitet Scenarios för möjliga framtider Visionsskapande Kontroll och motstånd
29 Grundarhistorier Storytelling Organizations konceptualized as stories Stories about organizations Stories told in organizations Stories as trigger of change Stories as manipulation - control or resistance Stories about the future - scenario planning
30 Stories about organizations Research written in a story like fashion Case studies Sucess stories Teaching cases Best practice Disaster stories Founder stories Learning from fiction and faction
31 Stories in organizations Collect stories from the organization: Interprete them (what do they tell?) Analyze them (how do they tell it?) Deconstruct them (what are they made of: values, norms, experiences, guidelines for action) Collecting stories Etnography observation Collect stories by participating Interviews Story telling circles Get people together to tell stories. Use Fishing story or war-stories to trigger people. Seek alternative stories on the same Virtual story collection, e.g. through the intranet
32 Deconstruct and analyze Deconstruct the stories Genre classification Analyze Themes: e.g. what do people think of management, how is mistakes perceived, stories about rule breaking behaviour, bad technology etc. Values - right or wrong to behave in certain ways Lessons learned or moral Social positioning How are things done in the organization? Actors, power etc. Actability: how do people perceive their influnce on the organization Knowledge and experience encoded Some genres Hero epic - a hard journey where the hero is tested, but overcomes the obstacles. Romantic stories - organizational obstacles and social restrictions are overcome Tragedy - the obstacles are never overcome, conflict destroys harmony. Ironic stories - mission fails, harmony is not achieved, but this is seen as norm.
33 Hero epics Protagonist: The hero Plot: There is a problem The involved people cannot solve it themselves An external actor has to be brought in He/she transforms/solves the problem The hero with draws harmony is achived A short analysis Moral: change can happen through action Social positioning: the hero is differentiated from others Individual action is key to success Time focus is now
34 Romantic style Protagonist: misunderstood entrepreneur Plot: I wanted something/had an idea The organization put up obstacles/didn t support me Then I did it my self Now I thought I deserved some support and resources Again the organization turned me down That s unfair, especially since they later on wanted to use my idea Its just to keep on trying Example
35 Short analysis Moral: try again, keep on fighting People are good, the system is bad Individual or collective action will have effect at last The future will be better Tragedy Protagonist: failed individual Plot: We need more resources Management doesn t listen Others quitted by I stayd and did three mans work It was impossible, I couldn t make it I had to pay the prize At last they did as I had requested, but too late for mee
36 Short analysis Moral: don t play hero or engage to much in the companys problems Individal alienated from organization Values negative against people Action is inefficient and personally costly Its bad now and will be worse in the future Ironic style Moral: everything is meaningless anyway so focus locally/private Nor individual or collectiv action is efficient Its getting worse Passivity and alienation
37 Economic KM - knowledge as asset Intellectual capital Measurement Balanced Scorecard (Kanplan & Norton) Intangible Asset Monitor (Sveiby) Skandia Navigator (Edvinsson) Measurement for control or dialogue Intangible Assets monitor External structure (customers etc) Internal structure Competence of people Growth and innovation: average professional experience (years in profession), level of education, training costs, competence turnover etc. Efficiency: number of experts, revenue/expert, added value/employee Stability: turnover rate of professionals
38 Some examples and cases Competence systems Innovation on intranets Survey of KM-initiatives at Ericsson Buckman labs Competence Systems Seldom manage useful competence desriptions Tend to counteract career changes Often have a closed systems structure that hinders members to access and assess competence descriptions of others Only support analysis of individuals existing competencies
39 KM Initiatives at Ericsson Initiative Main mode Purpose Image Web Web pages for easy intranet search Zopps Web General Ericsson knowledge for off duty staff Knack BIC Stargate Competence Development Innovation cells Project mentorship Competence management Web Web Web Face-to-face Face-to-face Face-to-face Web resources for competence development Business Intelligence for top management Web resources for knowledge exchange Leadership training and knowledge transfer Co-location of innovative teams Social organization of project leadership training Competence assesment/development ansd management Approaches to KM Centralized Top-down implementation Based on IT Generalizable solutions Knowledge is gathered and shared centrally Static & slow change Expensive Decentralized Bottom-up implementation Focusing on people Unique solutions Knowledge is gathered and shared in an open market Reactive and adaptive Cheap
40 Approaches to KM Standardize Diversify Discussion
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