EMBAC 2010 EMPLOYABILITY AND MOBILITY OF BACHELOR GRADUATES IN EUROPE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE CUM WORKSHOP BERLIN, SEPTEMBER 30 OCTOBER 1, 2010

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1 EMPLOYABILITY AND MOBILITY OF BACHELOR GRADUATES IN EUROPE EMBAC 2010 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE CUM WORKSHOP BERLIN, SEPTEMBER 30 OCTOBER 1, 2010 COUNTRY REPORTS PRESENTED AT THE CONFERENCE THE PRESENT VOLUME INCLUDES WORKING PAPERS PRESENTED FOR DISCUSSION DURING THE EMBAC 2010 CONFERENCE ON SEP. 30 AND OCT. 1, 2010 IN BERLIN. THE WORKING PAPERS WILL BE REVIEWED AND ELABORATED TO SERVE AS INPUT FOR A BOOK PUBLICATION WHICH WILL BE AVAILABLE SOON AS SCHOMBURG, HARALD AND ULRICH TEICHLER (EDS.): EMPLOYABILITY AND MOBILITY OF BACHELOR GRADUATES IN EUROPE RESULTS OF THE BOLOGNA PROCESS. RESPONSIBLE FOR THIS VOLUME: HARALD SCHOMBURG INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR HIGHER EDUCATION RESEARCH KASSEL INCHER-KASSEL

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3 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Poland Report presented on the International Conference Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Europe, Sept. 30 Oct. 1, 2010, Berlin Content 01 Austria Switzerland Czech Republic France Hungary Italy Netherlands Norway Poland UK Germany

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5 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria Helmut Guggenberger, Klagenfurt; Maria Keplinger, Wien; Martin Unger, Wien Report presented on the International Conference Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Europe, Sept. 30 Oct. 1, 2010, Berlin Content 1. The Study Structure in Austria Description of the graduate surveys used for the analysis / key meta data Graduates socio-biographic background and course of study Graduates international mobility Employment and further study of bachelor graduates Professional success of bachelor graduates...22 References...30 Authors...31 Tables Table 1 Table 2 Details for the study Working Situation of Graduates from Universities and Universities of Applied Sciences...12 Graduation years in the "ARUFA" sample...14 Table 3 Selected degrees in the "ARUFA" sample...14 Table 4 Experience abroad (multiple answers)...15 Table 5 Study and job satisfaction first academic degree (details in %)...28 Table 6 Vertical fit last degree, current occupation (details in %)...29 Figures Chart 1 Chart 2 Development of study programmes at public universities, winter term 2000 to Development of study programmes Fachhochschulen, winter term 2000 to

6 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria 1. The Study Structure in Austria Maria Keplinger, Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft und Forschung/bm:w_fa The higher education system in Austria 1 consists of public and private universities 2, Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS, Fachhochschulen/FH) 3 and (since 2007) University Colleges of Teacher Education (Pädagogische Hochschulen) 4 providing ISCED 5A education as well as other institutions offering ISCED 5B tertiary education programmes 5. The objectives of the universities are (among others) scientific or artistic education in preparation for a profession. Universities of Applied Sciences, in contrast, provide a vocationally oriented education on a tertiary level. Hence, UAS offer also specialised programmes for working students and often contain compulsory work placements imbedded in the study programmes. The UAS sector was set up in 1994, and is still developing today. It started with a focus on courses in economics and engineering, but has widened its scope since then into programmes in art, tourism, social work and health care. The number of available study places is expanding every year, as does the number of students. Access to university studies is generally open. Only in some fields of study (medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, psychology, art and music) the number of study places is limited and admission tests are required. For some studies applicants must demonstrate their artistic talents, practical skills, or physical aptitude in addition to the matriculation examination. At UAS programmes students are selected through entrance examinations. Until 2000 the Austrian higher education system was characterized by a two-tier structure. In 1999 bachelor and master programmes were introduced at public universities and at Universities of Applied Sciences in 2002 through the University Act 2002 (Universitätsgesetz 2002). Charts 1 and 2 show the development of study programmes at universities and UAS following the three-tier Bologna structure from 2000 on. 1 See Eurydice country report in the Eurybase databank. Available online under: [ ]. See also [ ] public universities, of which are 6 general universities, 3 medical universities, 2 technical universities, 1 university of veterinary medicine, 1 university of mining and metallurgy, 1 university of economics, 1 university of natural resources and applied life sciences and 6 universities of the arts and 1 university for further education (post graduates only); 12 private universities providers of Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS) or FH programmes University Colleges of Teacher Education (plus 3 private courses of teacher education) offering bachelor programmes for teacher education for elementary, lower secondary, and schools for children with special needs. 5 Master craftsmen/ foreman courses, technical and vocational education colleges, post-secondary colleges for medical services, and university courses. 8

7 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria Chart 1 Development of study programmes at public universities, winter term 2000 to 2009 Chart 2 Development of study programmes Fachhochschulen, winter term 2000 to 2009 As of winter term 2009, 83.6 per cent of all university study programmes follow the bachelor/master structure. Many universities have already completed their course-conversion entirely. Medicine is still excluded from conversion. Teacher training for upper secondary education was changed with the 2009 amendment to the University Act In the amendment the option for a 4-year bachelor for certain fields was included. As far as the UAS are concerned, 97.5 per cent follow the bachelor/master two-cycle structure. Also private universities follow the bachelor/master structure almost entirely. University Colleges of Teacher Education have fully converted to bachelor programmes (66 9

8 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria study programmes in winter term 2009) in a major reorganization which became effective in September Almost all new students at the UAS and three quarters of new students at the universities chose Bachelor study programmes in winter term At public universities the number of students in diploma programmes is still relatively high (50 % of students are enrolled in diploma programmes). At universities only 30 per cent graduated from a bachelor programme in the study year 2008/09, whereas at UAS the proportion of bachelor graduates is already higher (58 %). Bachelor graduates at universities and UAS are 26 years old on average and about 2 years younger than diploma graduates. At universities about 83 per cent of the bachelors transfer to master programmes according to data available for graduation year 2007/08, at the UAS it is 62 per cent. In the recent Studierenden-Sozialerhebung 2009 (Student Social Survey) 6, an online survey among all students at higher education institutions with a special focus on their social situation and study conditions, 75 per cent of bachelor students responded that they were going to enter a Master programme after their Bachelor studies and that one third of them intended to complete the Master programme while entering the job market. Only 8 per cent of them wanted to engage exclusively in a gainful employment. When asked about their study motives, 69 per cent of students in Master programmes stated that they regarded the bachelor degree not as a sufficient academic degree although only 22 per cent said their bachelor degree had failed to help them find an adequate job. To improve the recognition of the bachelor degree and its employability within the labor market as well as in the academic field and by the students and graduates themselves awareness measures have launched (for example in cooperation with the Austrian Chamber of Commerce). 7 Current discussions like the Dialog Hochschulpartnerschaft (i.e. 5 working groups consisting of stakeholders in higher education) 8 have also focused on the employability of bachelor graduates. The aim of these working groups was to find a common understanding or definition of employability of bachelors. The conclusion was that employability in the context of higher education is not only aiming at employability in the short run, but at the acquisition of competences which enable a sustainable personal and professional development, because only that will enable graduates to handle future challenges on the labor market. In order to raise the acceptance of this new degree job-descriptions and possibilities for professional developments should be included in the curricula. 6 Studierenden-Sozialerhebung 2009; [ ] 7 The booklet Bachelor welcome from 2010 is available under me%22 [ ]. 8 A series of discussion events held during the first half of 2010 in 5 working groups with stakeholders representing the university and UAS area: [ ]. 10

9 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria 2. Description of the graduate surveys used for the analysis / key meta data 2.1 Arbeitssituation von Universitäts- und FachhochschulabsolventInnen Helmut Guggenberger, Institut für Soziologie/IfS (ARUFA) Within the context of the empirical study Arbeitssituation von Universitäts- und FachhochschulabsolventInnen (ARUFA) [in English: Working Situation of Graduates from Universities and Universities of Applied Sciences ] (the German acronym ARUFA will be used in this paper), graduates from Austrian public universities were polled during the months of December 2009 and January/February With regard to the institutions that the individuals graduated from, one must distinguish between universities and Universities of Applied Sciences on the one hand, and on the other hand a distinction must be made between scientific universities, universities of medicine and universities of the arts. The survey included the five graduation years from 2003/04 to 2007/08. The survey was designed as a total population survey; to achieve the stated objective of the highest possible response rate, the following two methods were applied: The graduates from all 21 institutions that are defined as universities according to the University Act 2002 (Unive) were contacted using the Universities Data Network, which manages student data (including addresses) and is run in Vienna by the Bundesrechenzentrum (BRZ; Federal Computing Centre of Austria). Graduates from the UAS were contacted by the Department of Sociology (IfS) at Klagenfurt, which was provided with graduate address details by the individual organisations charged with maintaining the UAS. In two cases, Universities of Applied Sciences sent the survey directly (in two further cases, the maintaining organisations elected not to participate, and in another three cases the target group did not correspond to requirements); in total, 15 UAS, as defined by the Studies Act for Technical Colleges from the year 1993, took part. The survey was internet-based and involved a highly standardised questionnaire; the pre-tests included were partially of a qualitative nature, and partly quantitative. The content of the online survey was jointly finalised by the co-operation partners (contracting entity, advisory board, project team); the survey instrument was technically implemented and hosted by INCHER-Kassel, and a supporting helpdesk was established at IfS for the duration of the survey phase. An initial letter was issued during the field phase in December 2009, and a reminder followed in mid-january 2010; both letters were sent by regular postal mail und included a brief explanation of the project as well as the website address and a randomly generated individual code, allowing access to the questionnaire. It was thus possible to ensure that only those persons corresponding to the definition of the total survey population were able to participate, and it further prevented any one individual from completing the questionnaire more than once. Special care was taken with the mailings and the returns in view of the very extensive total population, which was heterogeneous with regard to the timing and the kind of graduation, as well as the type of organisation that students graduated from, but also due to the complicated survey situation, given varying levels of address quality. As the results revealed, in terms of relevant characteristics gender, citizenship, federal province of origin, type of university (university, UAS), degree programme (university) or respectively course of studies (UAS), year of graduation and university graduated from the participation can be assessed as largely representative (cf. Wolf ). After a preliminary review of the data with cases included in an initial analysis to provide an overview the response rate stood at one quarter (24.6 %; l.c.: 9f.). An intensive verification process (particularly with regard to participants who fell outside of the temporal 11

10 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria frame of reference, as well as incomplete questionnaires) led to a further reduction of cases included in the analysis. The report at hand is based on the resulting approx. 23,000 cases. Table 1 Details for the study Working Situation of Graduates from Universities and Universities of Applied Sciences Contracting entity Federal Ministry of Science and Research (bm:w_f a ), Vienna Contractor INCHER-Kassel (Project leader: Harald Schomburg) Subcontractor Department of Sociology at the Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt (Helmut Guggenberger) Term to Design Full population survey, internet-based polling, online questionnaire Cohorts Graduation years 2003/04 to 2007/08 (academic years) Total population Universities 90,599 Universities of Applied Sciences 26,060 Total 116,659 A note on the methodology: The study Working Situation of Graduates from Universities and Universities of Applied Sciences faced the significant challenges of current survey research representativity in online surveys, declining willingness to participate, and analysis of complicated samples (cf. Weichbold (Hg.) 2009; cf. also 157ff., 195ff. and 353ff.). In terms of the relevant problems and the resources available, the project Working Situation of Graduates from Universities and Universities of Applied Sciences can be considered successful from the perspective of the project team. Never before had such a comprehensive and intricate study targeting university graduates been carried out in Austria. 2.2 Studierenden-Sozialerhebung 2009 Martin Unger, Institut für Höhere Studien/IHS The Studierenden-Sozialerhebung 2009 is an Online-Survey covering all students at public higher education institutions in Austria. All students at those institutions have been invited in May/June 2009 via to participate and more than (out of approx ) did so. The Sozialerhebung covers a wide range of topics and, in 2009, additional questions were dedicated to students in Master programmes about their experiences on the labour market as Bachelor graduates. Hence, we will here report only about the answers from Master students who previously graduated from a Bachelor programme, not those who switched from other programmes like a traditional Diploma programme. We name those the consecutive Master students. 12

11 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria 3. Graduates socio-biographic background and course of study Helmut Guggenberger (ARUFA) In order to characterise the sample we will first provide information on the key features of the approx. 23,000 successfully polled individuals: 57 per cent of the graduates that participated in the ARUFA Study are female. More than one third has parents with higher education (father and/or mother at university or UAS 37 %). Nine out of ten are Austrian citizens (91 %). 7 per cent had not acquired their higher education entrance qualification in Austria; the greatest share hereof did so in Italy (36 %) and Germany (31 %), fewer in East European countries (16 %). Relatively the largest number of respondents declared Vienna (W) to be the federal province where they acquired their higher education entrance qualification (20 %), followed by Upper Austria (OÖ) (17 %), Styria (Stmk.) (14 %) and Lower Austria (NÖ) (13 %) thus eastern Austria (W, OÖ, NÖ) and one centrally located province (Stmk.) are the graduates main areas of regional origin. The vast majority had taken a traditional route to higher education, i.e. first attending a general secondary school (AHS) (53 %), and a significant number went to a secondary vocational school (BHS) (30 %); a very small proportion had followed a non-traditional access path (higher education entrance examination or similar 4 %). One third of the survey participants had completed their vocational education prior to studying (e.g. apprenticeship or secondary vocational school) (33 %); seven out of ten had gained previous professional experience (full- or part-time work; during or after their time at school, but in any case before the first degree course) (70 %). Viewed across the entire sample, the period of study leading to the first degree took almost six years on average (arithmetic mean 5.9; usefully differentiated: Bachelor 3.9 years, Diploma Master Degree Course 6.2, and (graduate engineer) Dipl.-Eng. 6.5). For more than two thirds of those polled this first degree programme was their main activity (68 %; Bachelor 71 %, Master 65 %, Dipl.-Eng. 70 %). More than eight out of ten had taken part in a studyrelated work placement: at least four out of ten completed a compulsory internship (42 %, Bachelor 47 %; on average 17.2 weeks, Bachelor 14.1); a further four out of ten accomplished a voluntary internship (40 %; 19.0 weeks, Bachelor 17.4). The average age at the first graduation was 27 years; graduates with Bachelor degrees were 25 on average, graduates with a Diploma Master degree were per cent of respondents had graduated from a university, 16 per cent had graduated from a University of Applied Sciences. The University of Vienna, Austria s biggest university, also had the greatest proportional share of respondents (26 %); this was followed by the Universities of Graz and Innsbruck (each with 12 %), Salzburg and the Vienna University of technology (each with 7 %), and finally the University of Linz and the Vienna University of Economics and Business (6 %). Among the UAS the largest share was accounted for by the FH of Upper Austria (20 %), followed by the FH JOANNEUM in Graz (12 %) and the FH Wiener Neustadt for Business and Technology (11 %). It is possible to identify within the total of participating graduates, the somewhat different shares owned by the institutions that students graduated from. (With some fluctuations among the UAS, the presence in the sample of the individual universities is representative.) Admittedly, the universities must be characterised differently: The range spans from classic or rather full spectrum universities (the Universities in Vienna, Graz, Innsbruck) via regional universities (Klagenfurt, Salzburg, Linz) to specialist universities (for example the Mining University of Leoben, or the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences in Vienna). 13

12 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria It is a singularity of the ARUFA Study that it includes a number of graduation years. The graduation years are distributed as follows: Table 2 Graduation years in the "ARUFA" sample Up to ,817 8 % , % , % , % , % , % 23, % The steady growth reflected in our sample consistently meets the trend towards steadily increasing graduating numbers: Graduations at Austrian universities and Universities of Applied Sciences increased from 23,390 in the academic year 2003/04 to 31,206 in the academic year 2007/08 (bm:w_f a 2009a: 62). The extent of the increase in first degrees included in this number (20,688 in 2003/04 and 26,329 in 2007/08) fluctuates slightly from year to year ( change compared with previous year : 3.4 % 2006/07 and 7.7 % 2004/05; ibid.), but also shows a clear trend. In any case, the growth in completed Bachelor degrees is significant (e.g % change compared with the previous year in 2007/08; ibid.). With regard to the first degree earned, the Diploma degree (Master 60 %, Diploma Engineer 17 %) is the most frequent, with a share exceeding three quarters throughout the whole ARUFA sample, while only one sixth is represented by Bachelor degrees (16 %). Graduations from UAS also represent approximately one sixth of the share (15 %); those at scientific universities represent three quarters (75 %), and finally there are the modest shares of graduations from medical universities (5 %) and universities of the arts (3 %). For the graduation years in question the proportion of new degrees earned conforms to expectations with a marked increase, while traditional degrees are in decline: Table 3 Selected degrees in the "ARUFA" sample BA Mag. Diploma Engineer 2003/04 4 % 69 % 18 % 2004/05 7 % 66 % 17 % 2005/06 14 % 62 % 17 % 2006/07 24 % 54 % 14 % 2007/08 39 % 39 % 15 % Due to the bandwidth of the investigation covering five graduation years, some respondents hold two or more degrees. The question about the last degree earned reveals that Master degrees following upon Bachelor degrees are already represented with a share of one twentieth (5 %). Here too, graduations from UAS reach one seventh (15 %); those at scientific universities stand at just under three quarters (74 %), and the rest is made up of medical universities (5 %) and universities of the arts (4 %). The following can be said to describe the life situation of the interviewees: At the time of polling, three quarters state that they are in a relationship (with partner 53 %, married 21 %, registered partnership 1 %). Only one fifth has one child or more living with them (19 %; 2 children on average); daytime childcare is most frequently provided by the partner (61 %), followed by parents or relatives (34 %), kindergarten/crèche or similar (35 %), in fewer cases by the respondent (24 %). 14

13 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria 4. Graduates international mobility 4.1 ARUFA Helmut Guggenberger For the winter terms of 2007/08 and 2008/09, the statistics show that a respective share of 1.5 per cent of all students at Austrian universities completed a stay abroad as part of a subsidised mobility programme (bm:w_f a 2009b: 125). As in other countries, in Austria student mobility and especially transnational mobility is perceived as a challenge posed by the Bologna Process, and there is a declared target that 50 per cent of students should gather overseas experience by 2020 (cf. bm:w_f a 2008a: 290f.; bm:w_f a 2008b: 6; bm:w_f a 2009b: 54-59; bm:w_f a 2010: 26). At the same time, the development of student mobility is one of the aspects of the new course architecture that is subject to particularly sceptical consideration after all, the temporal horizon of most degree courses has dropped from four to three years (cf. e.g. Kellermann et al (eds.) 2009; Heisenberger et al (ed.) 2010). There is widespread support for the view that the objective of student mobility is counteracted by the actual arrangement of the curricula etc. What does the data of the Austrian study reveal in this regard? First, an overview over the time immediately after completion of the first degree course: Table 4 Experience abroad (multiple answers) BA Mag. Dipl.-Eng. total studied outside of Austria 17% 7% 6% 8% completed an internship outside of Austria 12% 9% 6% 9% looking for work outside of Austria 19% 21% 20% 21% had regular employment outside of Austria 10% 14% 13% 14% spent time working outside of Austria at the employer s request 6% 6% 16% 8% none of the above 61% 65% 59% 63% In other words, six out of ten Austrian graduates were not internationally mobile after earning their first degree. Had they been mobile prior to studying? If we take a look at the first degree earned, more than a third of the respondents had completed a minimum of one stay abroad in connection with their degree course (35 %; of which 8 % were abroad twice, 5 % were abroad three times or more). An above average proportion of Bachelor graduates had no study-related stay abroad to report (71 %). The average length of the stay abroad was eight months; the main purpose was to study abroad (67 %, Bachelor 70 %), followed by internships (34 %, Bachelor 31 %) and language courses (18 %). Just under four out of ten respondents who completed a stay abroad did not take advantage of available grants (37 %, bachelor 33 %); more than half were subsidised by one of the EU mobility programmes, e.g. ERASMUS (52 %), and grants from the federal state/province/municipality or rather from the university were distributed in equal fifths (21 % each). There are no significant differences with regard to the type of university (first degree): Graduates from UAS are slightly more likely to spend time abroad in connection with their studies, albeit for shorter periods (38 %; on average 7.1 months), similar to graduates from medical universities (40 %; 5.3 months); graduates from arts universities spent even fewer periods abroad, however their stays tended to be longer (32 %; 10.4 months). Students from scientific universities were slightly less likely not to take advantage of available grants (33 %), while medical graduates clearly exceeded the average in this case (70 %). Clear differences were identified between the fields of study (first degree): The natural and legal 15

14 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria sciences lay well below average in terms of periods spent abroad (26 and 29 % respectively), the social and business sciences lay slightly higher (41 %), as did the medical sciences. Among our respondents there was a slight trend for study-related stays abroad to increase (2003/04 and 2004/05 33 %, 2005/06 35 %, 2006/07 36 %, 2007/08 34 %), a fact that indeed corresponds to the intention of the Bologna strategy. However, the university report 2008 states that in Austria as in other European countries there is a downward trend in student mobility (bm:w_f a 2008a: 290). A second aspect of mobility relates to mobility for professional or income purposes. The issue surrounding numerus clausus refugees between Germany and Austria (both of which are EU members) illustrates that this can be a delicate subject indeed: particularly when the academic qualifications earned in one country are deployed in another country for professional purposes. The country providing the qualification may view this as brain drain, while the country the individual returns to perceives it as brain gain. Regional preferences are quite clearly significant with regard to occupation: In relation to their search for employment after their first degree, only a few respondents attached any importance to employment abroad (18 %), while almost half sought employment in their home region (48 %), and a third looked in the partner s region (33 %) graduates from Bachelor or Diploma degrees reflected no differences here. The following reasons were given for seeking an occupation in a particular region: the highest priority was given to the quality of life (66 %) as well as the maintenance of social contacts with friends (62 %); the partner s employment in the region is also significant (48 %), as is infrastructure (43 %). However, improved professional development opportunities play a lesser role (34 %) or improved employment opportunities (32 %) both being opportunities (structurally available options that are offered), which interact with individual abilities (aptitudes and skills) and can return a specific result (e.g. further development, but also stagnation). The country where the first employment usually occurs is mainly Austria, as one would logically expect (89 %); other countries frequently mentioned include Germany (overall 35 %; Bachelor 47 %) and Italy (23 %; 12 %). With regard to occupation at the time of polling the same picture is revealed (Austria 89 %; for other countries 35 % / 44 % Germany, 26 % / 12 % Italy). In short: Graduates from Austrian universities and Universities of Applied Sciences show little mobility in their search for occupation and in employment. A third aspect linked to the issue of mobility is the value of experience abroad and of foreign language skills, both of which are usually perceived as highly significant in the public discussion. However, when the recruitment criteria of employers are taken into account, the picture is somewhat more sober: In the ranking of aspects that carried weight in the respondents view, for employment purposes after completion of the first degree, experience gained abroad are place second from the bottom (mean value 3.9; only 19 % assessed these criteria as very important or important ). Foreign language skills consolidated or improved in the course of periods spent abroad are found in the midfield (3.1 or 42 %). For comparative purposes: Personality (83 %) and field of study/course of study (73 %; Bachelor 66 %, Mag. 71 %, Dipl.-Eng. 81 %) are listed first and foremost; this is followed by willingness to demonstrate flexibility (time, location) (64 %), computer skills (63 %; Bachelor 73 %, Mag. 59 %, Dipl.-Eng. 78 %), subject-specific specialisation (61 %), practical/professional experience (57 %) and degree level achieved (54 %; BA 41 %, Mag. 52 %, Dipl.-Eng. 65 %). Experience abroad, gained through mobility either while studying or afterwards, can support the development of the ability to act in an intercultural context; this ability is relevant, for example, in international teams, as well as in companies/organisations that operate transnationally. It should be noted that this competence is not heavily demanded in currently held occupations (average value 2.7) less than half of the respondents stated that this is 16

15 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria required of them to a very high or high degree (46 %; BA 41 %, Mag. 50 %, Dipl.-Eng. 39 %). It is interesting to compare these demands with the level of competence upon completion of the first degree course: At that stage respondents had somewhat greater intercultural skills in the sense described above (arithmetic mean 2.4), more than half reported disposing of these skills to a (very) high degree (56 %; BA 57 %, Mag. 59 %, Dipl.-Eng. 51 %). Again, with regard to foreign language skills, the analysis reveals: The ability to write and read in a foreign language is not necessarily a requirement (average value 2.8; 46 % to a very high degree / to a high degree ); respondents assessed their competence at the time of graduation as slightly better than was actually required of them (2.4; 57 %). During these times of globalisation it is not always necessary to move geographically, in order to operate internationally this allows us to identify one final aspect of international mobility (in the wider sense). At least four out of ten respondents state that the company or organisation in which they worked at the time of the survey, operates in the international sphere (43 %; Bachelor 49 %, Mag. 39 %, Dipl.-Eng. 61 %), a significantly smaller proportion list the regional (27 %), national (19 %) or local (11 %) sphere. Thus, Austrian graduates are active internationally to a greater extent than it may appear at first glance. It is possible to summarise as follows: Just over a decade after the publication of the muchcited book by Richard Sennett [ The flexible individual is the translated German title of the book], the graduates from Austrian universities and UAS do not (yet) produce the image of an internationally highly mobile workforce, whose character is under threat due to a lack of social ties (family, friends) and a degradation of the workplace (constant change); after all, The Corrosion of Character is the original title. At least in terms of occupational mobility the dictum nothing long-term (Sennett 1998: 25) clearly does not apply, and the pronounced regional preferences also run contrary to the assumption of social disembedding or even uprootedness. As far as mobility during studies is concerned, there is surely much that can be done to remove associated barriers, at least in order to put into perspective the financial (ongoing costs in the hometown ) and bureaucratic barriers (recognition of academic achievements ) the exception being socio-cultural barriers, which have an obvious impact. It is ultimately the declared objective of Austrian higher education policy to achieve mobility both within the cycles and possibly between the cycles of the three-tier Bologna course architecture. 4.2 Studierenden-Sozialerhebung 2009 Thomas Unger International mobility is one of the topics of the Sozialerhebung According to this, 13 per cent of all Bachelor students (from beginners to nearly graduates) have already study related experiences in a foreign country; most of them studied for at least a semester abroad, did an internship or visited a language class. Among Master students, this ratio is nearly three times higher, namely 35 per cent. Nearly every fifth Master student studied at least partially in a foreign country, namely during the Bachelor or the Master program. 13 per cent did an internship, 6 per cent participated in a summer school, 6 per cent visited a language course and 5 per cent did research. All these are far higher values than among diploma students this is however also due to the fact that Diploma students comprise freshmen as well. Looking at these results, we concluded that mobility, especially studying abroad, is more likely to happen during the Master than during the Bachelor programmes. 17

16 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria Most important barrier or difficulty with regard to international mobility is financing of the trip for all students those who have already been, those who plan to go and those who do not want to go. Most important source of funding are the students families, followed by own earnings of the students. Nearly two thirds of the mobile students receive a grant from an EU program like Erasmus, however, it covered on average only 18 per cent of their cost (excluding travelling). Funding is a major issue for students from lower social class and for those who already have difficulties to fund their study in Austria. Overall, students from lower classes have a significantly lower budget for their trips and have to cover most of it from their own pocket. Slightly more females than males report also to have funding difficulties. For nearly a quarter of the mobile students, finding a room for living and the lost of time in their studies were also problems. Whereas the structure of their studies was only a problem for 12 per cent of the mobile students, it s a relevant issue for those planning a trip and those not willing to study abroad. For the last mentioned group, lost of time for their study, separation from family/ friends and continue to fund the rent for their flat in Austria are major reasons not to be mobile apart from difficulties in generally funding the trip. 5. Employment and further study of bachelor graduates 5.2 ARUFA Hemlmut Guggenberger The second significant keyword in the Bologna Process after mobility namely employability is taken as a very serious challenge in Austria ( Förderung der Beschäftigungsfähigkeit von Absolventinnen und Absolventen mit Bachelorabschluss, auch im öffentlichen Dienst [English: Promoting the employability of graduates with a bachelor s degree, including public service], bm:w_f a 2009b: 40). At the same time, this term and concepts behind it are viewed very critically (cf. e.g. Liessmann 2006, also Prisching 2008). In practice and over an extended period it would appear that, above all, problems are caused by the lack of awareness about the new degrees beyond the confines of the educational establishments (cf. Campbell; Brechelmacher 2007, Schneeberger et al 2010). In the context of the Bologna Process there can be no doubt that a bachelor degree represents a full degree, which can lead directly to employment. However, experience shows that many students perceive their studies to be complete only upon completion of the Masters degree (cf. also Schneeberger; Petanovitsch 2010). What tends to follow the bachelor? It is one option to take the title endowed upon completion of a bachelor degree or course of studies as first academic degree and to implement it directly in a relevant position (gainful occupation). It is another option to follow up this degree with further study, usually in the form of a Masters degree or course of studies. The option selected will depend on the perception of the completed degree on the one hand, and on the other hand it will be contingent upon the perception of the opportunities that have subsequently revealed themselves in the labour market and in the system of organised employment. Additionally, there will be a series of further potential, more or less influential factors (e.g. supervision efforts required from graduates). In this context, the reported motives for studying are rather interesting. The following aspects were of particular significance for the decision about the choice of course of study leading to the first degree: personal development; professional interest in the course content; inclination/talent (five-point scale, arithmetic mean 1.6 respectively) as well as working on an interesting topic (arithmetic mean 1.8) in other words, aspects relating to character or to the degree courses themselves. Vocational aspects are listed somewhat less frequently: having a wide range of career opportunities (arithmetic mean 2.0), a particular career aspiration and good opportunities on the labour market (2.5 respectively), as well as the opportunity to 18

17 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria achieve a secure professional position (2.6). Recommendations by parents/relatives (mean value 4.0) appear insignificant, as does the desire to maintain the student status (4.1). Bachelor students do not stray as far from the average as one might expect: Only specialising in a particular area of expertise was listed slightly more than average (66 % very important or important, as opposed to 63 % in total). With regard to the item particular professional aspiration the bachelor graduates placed clearly below the aggregated values (47 % very important or important, as opposed to 54 % in total); good labour market opportunities corresponded precisely to the average (57 % for values 1 or 2; 53 % Master, 71 % Dipl.- Eng.), similar for a secure professional position (total 53 %; BA 51 %, Master 52 %, Dipl.- Eng. 59 %). Greater differences became apparent when a differentiation was made between types of higher education establishment: For the item particular professional aspiration the medical (89 %) and arts (75 %) universities lie above the average, while UAS lie below (46 %); far above average graduates from UAS list good labour market opportunities (78 %), as well as secure professional position (65 %) and a wide range of professional opportunities (86 %). It may be somewhat surprising that UAS graduates also list personal development as an important aspect (in fact, they do so far above average, at 94 %). It may also be of interest to consider the attitude to studying. As with the motivation to study, here the degree course related aspects are dominant, showing very few differences between the types of degrees: Seven out of 10 respondents stated that in their studies they referred to specific areas that were of interest to them (a total of 70 % for value 1 or 2 on a five-point scale; BA 71 %, Master 72 %). They did not necessarily do consistently more for their studies than was required of them (45 %; BA 46 %, Dipl.-Eng. 44 %); for very few the degree course was less significant than other parts of their life (e.g. sport, family) (15 %; Master 16 %). Vocational aspects are less significant, only one quarter focused on the vocational requirements of the labour market when deciding upon the shape of their studies, and did this to a very high degree or to a high degree (25 %; BA 24 %). Again, results diverge in relation to the type of university attended: a below average number of graduates from medical universities (45 %) and UAS (61 %) claimed to have referred to specific areas that were of interest to them, while the results for universities of the arts (78 %) were above average; with regard to concentrating on the vocational requirements of the labour market when deciding on the design of the course, medical graduates had done this less (17 %), while UAS graduates had done so slightly more (33 %). Certainly, the retrospective evaluation of the degree course is also of interest within the survey this was covered by a separate complex of questions. Relevant results shall only be presented briefly here, using the example of two specific questions. To start with, the level of satisfaction with the accomplished studies is remarkable: 68 per cent of participants claimed to be very satisfied or satisfied with their degree course overall, and to a large extent this also applies to bachelor graduates (Bachelor 69 %, Master 66 %, Dipl.-Eng. 81 %). There are, however, significant differences between the types of universities: Graduates from Universities of Applied Sciences appear markedly more satisfied than those studying at universities: 81 per cent from UAS were (very) satisfied with their degree course, compared to 67 per cent at scientific universities, 51 per cent at medical universities and 74 per cent at universities of the arts. (Viewed over several cohorts the level of satisfaction can be seen to increase slightly.) More than seven out of ten respondents would be (most) likely to choose the same degree course again (73 %; BA 72 %, Master 71 %, Dipl.-Eng. 79 %), or would attend the same university or the same University of Applied Sciences (72 %; 70 %, 71 %, 77 %), but only very few would decide not to study again (4 %). The differences according to type of university are less obvious here (same degree course 78 % UAS and 80 % universities of the arts versus 72 % scientific universities, 74 % medical universities; same UAS/university 72 % UAS and university versus 66 % medical universities, 70 % universities of the arts). 19

18 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria Incidentally, it is not always possible to distinguish a clear division between studying and occupation (diachronic, consecutive relationship): Thus, only 35 per cent of respondents claim to have had no vocational experience before or during their studies leading to their first degree (Bachelor 36 %, Master 37 %, Dipl.-Eng. 28 %). Some had gained vocational experiences before studying (28 %; BA 29 %, 25 %, Dipl.-Eng. 36 %), the majority had done so while studying (57 %; BA und Mag. 56 %, Dipl.-Eng. 63), choosing activities that were relevant to their degree course. The documented combinations existing between first degree, eventual gainful employment and further study are clearly rather complex and require further in-depth analysis. In any case, the simplifying model that is circulating in Austrian public discourse and that describes a completed bachelor degree followed by a bolted-on degree due to lack of employability only corresponds to one, rather small, aspect of reality. 5.2 Studierenden-Sozialerhebung 2009 Study motives and labour market experience of master students Thomas Unger As mentioned above, most Bachelor graduates in Austria continue their studies immediately with a Master programme. Hence, the question arises why do they continue? And more precisely, is it because Bachelors are not (yet) accepted as higher education graduates on the Austrian labour market? Answers on this question are provided by the Studierenden- Sozialerhebung 2009: Only less than 20 per cent of the consecutive master students looked for a job after graduating as Bachelors. However, another 2 per cent found a job without searching, and 18 per cent continued working within their previous job. With job, we refer here only to qualified jobs where an higher education graduation is normally a precondition. Overall, nearly 85 per cent of the consecutive Master students work during the term. Nevertheless, more than half of the consecutive Master students state, that they never had the plan to enter the labour market after finishing their Bachelor study. Looking more into details, we see great differences in this pattern, first of all by field of study. Among Master students at Scientific Universities, 17 per cent have looked for a job as Bachelors. However, the range here is between 4 per cent in Sciences and 27 per cent in the Arts. Part of this deviation is due to the fact that different proportions of students kept their previous job. However, three quarters of the Master students in Science report never to have thought about looking for a job as Bachelor, whereas this quote is around 50 per cent in all other fields of study. Most successful job seekers where students of the Arts (70 %) followed by nearly two thirds of the Engineers. Least successful were indeed students in Science (54 %). There are hardly any gender differences in this behaviour pattern, but female students in Humanities, Engineering studies and Social Sciences report significantly more often never to have had the idea to look for a job after graduating as Bachelors. Quite different is the answer pattern among Master students at Universities of Applied Sciences. Even though, we see a higher transition rate from Bachelor to Master studies among graduates from vocational courses than from full-time programmes, far more graduates from vocational courses looked for a job: half of the graduates in Business Administration and 40 per cent of the Engineers compared to 7 per cent of graduates in Business Administration and 27 per cent of Engineers from full-time programmes. On the other hand, only about 5 per cent of the graduates from vocational studies mention never to have thought about looking for a job after their graduation. Among Master students in full-time programmes, this ratio differs between 58 per cent in Engineering studies and 84 per cent the highest ratio of all student groups in Business Administration. 20

19 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria Hence, not surprisingly, students in vocational programmes want to continue studying alongside their work. However, we suppose their transition rate to Master programmes to be anyhow higher, because a Bachelor is of less value than their already accomplished years of vocational experience. Only a Master provides them with a comparative advantage for their future career. Else the situation for (mainly young) graduates from full-time programmes at Universities of Applied Sciences: They have chosen an applied education programme because they wanted to enter the labour market quickly and with more practical experiences than from a Scientific University. Hence, its rational for many of them to leave the education system at least temporarily. That seems especially to be true in Engineering studies, where the labour market has a great demand for graduates. In general, male students looked slightly more often for a job than female students and as older the students are as more likely they searched a job after graduating as Bachelors. Among those looking for a job as Bachelors, around two thirds found one (i.e. 12 % of all Master students), one third was not successful (i.e. 7 % of all Master students). Among those graduating during the ongoing economic crises in 2008/09, this ratio fell to 50 per cent. In general, graduates from UAS were more successful on their search (between 55 % and 80 %) than graduates from Scientific Universities. Most common strategy, which 65 per cent of those looking for a job adopted, was to apply for an announced position. Social networks have been used by 40 per cent, blind applications by a third. Career fairs were a tool of finding a job for just 11 per cent, the employment centre approached only 9 per cent and placement centres of their higher education institution only 6 per cent. There are no gender differences visible in the used strategies apart from the fact that females used all ways of finding a job more often than males. We did not directly asked for which strategy succeeded in the end, however, we can report which strategies have been used by successful job seekers: Nevertheless, only an intermediation by teachers (which 10 % received) showed to be significantly more successful than other strategies. In general, successful job seekers searched on average for 2 months and contacted 10 potential employers. Non successful job seekers searched (till the time of the survey) on average 6 months and contacted 13 potential employers. Engineers from both types of Universities needed a bit less time to find a job, but contacted significantly more employers. Graduates from Humanities needed on average 3 months to find a job, but contacted only 6 employers during that time. Females searched significantly longer than males and contacted more employers. However, this is due to the gender specific choice of field of study. Graduates older than 30 years had the longest period of search ( 4 months), but contacted less employers than their younger colleagues. Nearly half of all students in consecutive Master programmes admit the statement that there are no adequate jobs in their field of study available for Bachelors. This is far more often mentioned by females and by students from Scientific Universities, especially in Science (70 %) and Humanities (62 %). On the other hand, only a quarter of the Master students regards a Bachelor as a sufficient qualification for a career entry. Again, females are more sceptical than males, just as are older students, students at Scientific Universities and students in Science. Anyway, three quarters of the Master students think that a Bachelor is not regarded (and paid) as an higher education graduate on the Austrian labour market. In this point, both genders, students of all ages and in most fields of study agree to the same amount. The only deviance show students of the Arts, where only 56 per cent admit to this statement. Needless to say, that students who found a job as Bachelor are more optimistic about the employment chances of Bachelors. However, even two third of those state that Bachelors are not treated as graduates on the labour market. 21

20 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria 6. Professional success of bachelor graduates Helmut Guggenberger (ARUFA) The Universities Act from 2002 ( 3) establishes the following as one of the duties of Austrian universities: 3. Scientific, artistic, artistic-pedagogical and artistic-scientific preprofessional education, qualification for vocational activities that require the application of scientific knowledge and methods, as well as the development of artistic and scientific skills up to the highest level (bm:w_f a 2009c: 16). (This is followed by 4. Training and encouragement of young scientists and artists as well as 5. Further education, particularly of graduates ; l.c.: 16f.) Austrian Universities of Applied Sciences are subject to the Studies Act for Universities of Applied Sciences, which has the following to say about self-concept and goals in 3: 1) Degree courses offered at Universities of Applied Sciences are degree courses at university level, that serve to provide scientifically-based vocational training. The primary goals are: 1. To ensure practical training at university level; 2. to impart the ability to solve the tasks faced by the respective professional field in accordance with current scientific knowledge and with practical requirements; 3. To promote the permeability of the educational system and the professional flexibility of graduates. (FHStG 2010) Pre-professional education, qualification for and training of, or scientificallybased vocational training, practical training as well as imparting the ability are intended to contribute to the professional success of graduates. Initially, what comes to mind is work in an employed capacity, whether this be (decreasingly) in the public sector or (increasingly) in the private sector. It should not be overlooked that the perspective of independent or freelance activity is a small but not insignificant sector of academic occupation (according to the Austrian REFLEX study 11 % of the graduates from universities or UAS were self-employed following graduation, cf. Guggenberger et al 2007: 25; in the preceding CHEERS project the share had been 8 % of university graduates, cf. Guggenberger et al 2001: 6). It should not be difficult to describe the vocational routes of graduates emerging from different institutions belonging to the tertiary sector using statistical criteria. How, though, should one measure something called professional success a question repeatedly asked in relation to studies on universities and Universities of Applied Sciences? The following can be considered indicators of professional success (cf. Schomburg ): Destination types: gainful occupation vocational training further study unemployment / seeking employment children, family etc. Success of the search: length of time spent seeking employment Income Conditions of employment temporary/permanent part time/full time Vertical adequacy / fit Horizontal adequacy / fit Job satisfaction Which of the options mentioned in the preceding chapter to be considered as interplay of ability and opportunity did the graduates choose? ( Choose may be regarded as a 22

21 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria euphemism, in cases where there is an insufficient range of choices available or where personal resources provide some freedom of choice). Upon completion of the first degree, four out of ten respondents moved directly into an occupation (40 %; Bachelor 41 %, Mag. 41 %, Dipl.-Eng. 44 %); for approximately one fifth the transition took up to three months (22 %; Bachelor 7 %), for one tenth it too four to six months (12%; 5 %), another tenth took seven to twelve months (9 %; 7 %); a total of one sixth (17 %) took more than twelve months for Bachelor graduates this share was one in ten (41 %; Mag. 13 %, Dipl.-Eng. 9 %). This may provide us with the first clue that if graduates from Bachelor degrees or degree courses decide to continue studying, they do so due to transfer issues. When asked about their professional situation (multiple answers were possible, including, amongst others, a combination of studying and working), more than three quarters stated that they were in a gainful occupation within 6 months after completing their (first) degree (in total 76 %; Bachelor 61 %, Mag. 79 %, Dipl.-Eng. 82 %). One fifth, seen as a whole, continued their studies (20 %) while it was almost half of the bachelor graduates (46 %). A rather small proportion devoted their time to child rearing or similar activities (14 %); at least one tenth were unemployed, in other words, were not in a gainful occupation, but were actively seeking work (11 %). 43 per cent had one employer after completing their degree (BA 48 %), 31 per cent had two employers, 15 three, 12 four or more. If they had actively sought work, this took 5.3 months on average (Bachelor 5.8; Mag. 5.8; Dipl,-Eng. 3.6); and an average of 20 employers were approached (BA 17, Mag. 24, Dipl.-Eng.13). The most common routes taken during the search for employment (often multiple answers) were these: Applying for advertised jobs (79 %; BA 77 %), direct contact to employers or clients / blind applications, unsolicited applications (67 %; BA 61 %); furthermore there followed assistance from friends, acquaintances or fellow students (30 %; BA 29 %) and internships during the course of studies (22 %; BA 24 %). The following approaches emerged as relatively successful: Applying for advertised jobs (42 %; BA 40 %), direct contact to employers or clients / blind applications, unsolicited applications (19 %; BA 17 %); assistance from friends, acquaintances or fellow students (10 %; BA 9 %) the job market service, or company contact fairs proved to be practically insignificant (1 % respectively), as did social networks (e.g. associations, political parties, student organisations). With regard to types of transition or destination and the success of the search for work, there are no dramatic differences between traditional and new types of degree to speak of. A more detailed investigation, however, reveals some interesting results: In the first six months after graduating 62 per cent of all respondents were exclusively in regular employment, while this only applied to 42 per cent of bachelor graduates. Ten per cent overall and 28 per cent of the bachelor graduates focused solely on studying; nine or respectively 16 per cent combined studying and working; six or respectively four per cent were actively looking for work. The professional position occupied in the first employment upon graduation naturally disperses when a differentiated breakdown is applied; scientifically qualified employee without management function were most frequently named (overall 25 %; Bachelor 24 %, Mag. 20 %, Dipl.-Eng. 40 %) as well as qualified employee (e.g. employee in charge) (total 19 %; BA 17 %, Mag. 21 %, Dipl.-Eng. 17 %). Looking at the gross monthly income of the first occupation, filtered by the year of the last completed degree for all working respondents, initially some fluctuations emerge: While overall the amount lies at 1,829, the lowest value is 1,815 (2009) and the highest is 1,862 (2007), without revealing a clear trend (Schomburg : 18). Including persons in part time occupation is problematic though, if the extent of the part time occupation is not also considered. If only full time occupied persons are considered (for whom, calculated over the years of the final phase of studies, the average is 2,157 gross), an increasing trend 23

22 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria becomes apparent: from 2,124 (graduation up to 2003) to 2,253 (graduation 2009; l.c.: 21). Filtered by branch of study for the last degree completed, significant differences in the gross monthly income from current occupation are revealed: humanities and cultural sciences (2,386 ) lie below the average of 2,967, as do natural sciences (2,569 ), the arts (2,675 ), and legal sciences (2,843 ); engineering sciences (3,087 ), social and business sciences (3,206 ) and above all medicine (3,426 ) lie above the average (l.c.: 24). Nevertheless, we find most remarkable differences regarding the gender variable: first occupation male (full time 2,373 resp. all employed persons 2,175 ) and female (1,834 resp. 1,566 ) current occupation male (full time occupation 3,221 resp. all employed persons 3,021 ) and female (2,493 resp. 2,185 ) graduates. (Combining these and other variables, further analyses should go more into the depth of the complex of questions concerning graduates income.) Distinguished by type of degree, the following picture emerges: The gross income of the first occupation following the completion of the degree was 1,828 (arithmetic mean) for all gainfully employed persons; bachelor graduates lay clearly below (1,605 ), but so did graduates with a Masters diploma (1,713 ); diploma engineers, on the other hand, were visibly better off (2,315 ). The same does not appear to be the case, when only persons in full time occupation are considered: overall 2,093, bachelor barely below (2,037 ), while master degrees where quite clearly below average (1,961 ), and Dipl.-Eng. lay markedly above average (2,429 ). Viewed by type of first degree, the picture with regard to the current occupation is as follows: all persons in gainful occupation receive an average gross monthly income of 2,543, bachelors lie distinctly below (2,003 ), masters lie somewhat below ( 2,459 ), Dipl.-Eng. are above (3,002 ); overall persons exclusively in full time occupation can dispose of 2,842, bachelors of 2,480 (in other words, clearly lower), masters 2,747, Dipl.-Eng. 3,159. As far as the conditions of occupation viewed in detail are concerned, little validation can be found for the frequently invoked trend towards precarisation. With regard to the first occupation after graduation the picture is this: Six out of ten respondents had a permanent job (60 %; Bachelor 64 %, Mag. 58 %, Dipl.-Eng. 73 %); seven out of ten had a full time occupation, while there were greater differences between types of degree (72 % overall; 59 % Bachelor, 70 % Mag., 89 % Dipl.-Eng.). In short: permanent employment is dominant; viewed across the cohorts, temporary jobs are on the increase; in their first occupation bachelor graduates tend to be more likely to have temporary jobs. Full time occupation prevails, with the share of bachelor graduates represented lying below average. The contractual working week was 34 hours on average (BA 31, Mag. 34, Dipl.-Eng. 38); the actual working week was 40 hours (35, 40, 44) in other words, significantly above the contractually agreed number. Most of the respondents did not go through an initial training phase or induction/vocational adjustment period (69 %; BA 72 %); not quite one quarter did go through a vocational adjustment period (informal training, training on the job; 24 %), barely one tenth had a training phase or courses (9 %). Turning to the occupation at the time of the survey, a somewhat different picture emerges: eight out of ten respondents are now in a permanent job (80 %; Bachelor 63 %, Mag. 84 %, Dipl.-Eng. 86 %); more than three quarters are in full time employment, with fewer differences between types of degree than previously apparent (76 % overall; 74 % Bachelor, 78 % Mag., 85 % Dipl.-Eng.). Clearly, bachelor graduates are markedly less likely to have a permanent job, but do not appear disadvantaged in terms of full time occupation. The contractual working week is now 36 hours on average (BA 32, Mag. 35, Dipl.-Eng. 38); the actual working week is 42 hours (37, 42, 45) once more, this is clearly above the contractually agreed number. Most respondents report that in their current occupation there is no initial training phase or induction/vocational adaptation period (70 %; BA 73 %); around 24

23 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria one quarter had a vocational adaptation period (24 %), very few listed a training phase or courses (8 %). What can be said about the interplay between studying and occupation? When asked how they would characterise the relationship between their field of study and their current professional scope of duties, the answers varied according to type of degree: Equal shares of 39 per cent each stated that their chosen field of study was the only one possible or the best in order to fulfil their professional duties (30 % Bachelor, 38 % Mag., 34 % Dipl.-Eng.) and also that some other fields of study may also have been adequate in preparation for professional duties (44 % Bachelor, 38 % Mag., 50 % Dipl.-Eng.). There is little agreement with the assumption that a particular field of study has no relevance whatsoever within the professional scope of work (13 %; 16 % BA, 15 % Mag., 8 % Dipl.-Eng.) or that a different field of study would be more useful for the professional duties (9 %; 10 %, 10 %, 8 %). The relationships between the completed field of studies and the professional duties (horizontal fit) do not appear to be particularly tight, especially among bachelor graduates (but also, somewhat surprisingly, among graduate engineers). Viewed according to the adequate graduation level for the current occupation, the following becomes apparent: Most respondents, 70 per cent, perceive their university degree level as most appropriate for their occupation (Bachelor 61 %, Mag. 70 %, Dipl.-Eng. 75 %). Only a few believe that no university degree would be necessary (13 %; 19 % BA, 14 % Mag., 9 % Dipl.-Eng.); fewer still, that a lesser degree would suffice (9 %) or that a higher university degree would be appropriate (8 %; Bachelor 12 %, Mag. 7 %, Dipl.-Eng. 8 %). Bachelor graduates are more sceptical with regard to the suitability of their degree level (vertical fit) than graduates from traditional degree courses. This may indeed motivate them to engage in a masters degree with a focus on their studies, either accompanying their occupation or following a phase dominated by work. (It cannot be ruled out, however, that the public debate on bachelor degrees is nourishing this scepticism, though the reverse is intended.) At the time of the survey 59 per cent of respondents are engaged in the (private) business sector, which includes independent, freelance and fee-based activities (Bachelor 66 %, Mag. 55 %, Dipl.-Eng. 77 %). This is followed by the public sector, e.g. civil service / public administration (29 %; 25 %, 29 %, 18 %); and finally the area of organisations that are not profit-making, i.e. the non-profit sector including clubs, associations, churches, advocacy (12 %; 9 %, 16 %, 4 %). Bachelor graduates, but also those with a diploma engineer degree, have an above average share in the private business sector, fewer are present in the public sector; those with master degrees can be found in the non-profit sector to a greater extent. What is the main activity, the main professional duty that participants now face? In the case of bachelor graduates these main activities are in the technical (23 %) and the commercial (20 %) spheres, as well as in teaching, tuition and research (13 %); graduates with a master s level degree are represented in the commercial sector (27 %) and in teaching, tuition and research (14 %); as expected diploma engineers perform activities in the technical area (52 %), followed by the commercial sector and teaching, tuition and research (each at 11 %). (Overall the fields of activity are quite broadly dispersed; only after filtering by study field does the consideration produce useful results.) Job satisfaction is a rather subjective criterion. In response to the direct question, to what extent they are satisfied overall with their professional situation, there is little variation between the answers provided by the participants affected: Around three quarters stated that they were very satisfied or satisfied (73 % overall; 70 % Bachelor, 73 % Mag., 77 % Dipl.-Eng.). (Even the earlier CHEERS and the REFLEX studies showed that 4 to 5 years after graduating, Austrian university graduates claimed an above average level of satisfaction with their occupation, only partially exceeded by Norwegians and Czechs; cf. Schomburg 25

24 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria : 46.) Some differences are revealed when viewed by type of university: Graduates from Universities of Applied Sciences are slightly more satisfied with their professional situation (77 % values 1 or 2 on a five-point scale); scientific universities precisely represent the average (73 %), medical universities lie just below (69 %) as do universities of the arts (68 %). One possibility to objectivise fit is through the question about the usefulness of the qualifications acquired by studying: at least half state that they use these to a very high extent or to a high extent in their current occupation (51 % overall; 52 % BA, 49 % Mag., 56 % Dipl.-Eng.). Here, too, once cannot speak of dramatic differences, as far as types of degree are concerned. The picture is more complex however, when a distinction is drawn between different types of university: Usefulness is maintained to an above average extent by graduates from universities of the arts (72 %), also by graduates from medical universities (61 %) and by UAS graduates (56 %), and there is little downward deviation for graduates from scientific universities (49 %). It is possible to objectify the professional situation further by using the perspective of adequacy in relation to prior training. When considering all aspects of their professional situation (status, position, income, scope of duties etc.) related to their current occupation and ask themselves to what extent this is commensurate to their training, the respondents produced varying assessments: A majority of 62 per cent state that adequacy is given to a very high or a high extent, bachelor graduates are slightly more pessimistic (57 %), the master s graduates are roughly average (61 %), while the diploma engineers are rather more optimistic (71 %). Again, differences exist between types of universities: Adequacy in the sense used above is a given for an above average number of graduates from Universities of Applied Sciences (68 %), but a below average number of graduates from universities of the arts say the same; scientific (61 %) and medical universities (63 %) are around average. Why in cases where the professional situation does not appear commensurate with the education, or appears to have little in common with the studies in terms of content did the working respondents take up such a position? Overall, in the most frequently provided response, by 56 per cent in fact, it was signalled that this is not the case, and that the professional situation/activity is closely linked to the course studied (Bachelor 51 %, Mag. 53 %, Dipl.-Eng. 65 %). Viewed by type of university, there are some deviations concerning medical universities (77 %) and universities of the arts (64 %), where a close link can be found more frequently; scientific universities (55 %) and UAS (57 %) represent the average here. Where there is no close link, the following reasons are given for taking up an occupation that is remote from the study field (multiple answers occur): This job represents an interim stage, as the respondent is still in the process of occupational orientation (overall 19 %; Bachelor 27 %, Mag. 20 %, Dipl.-Eng. 15 %), the job allows for activities that are flexible in time (15 %; Bachelor 23 %, Mag. 15 %, Dipl.-Eng. 12 %) or this job makes it possible to work in a desired location (15 %; 18 %, 15 %, 14 %) or, alternatively the current occupation offers greater security (14 %; 13 %, 16 %, 12 %). Only 11 per cent reveal that they have not yet found a suitable occupation (Bachelor 13 %, Mag. 12 %, Dipl.-Eng. 6 %). However, when asked to consider all aspects of their professional situation and to what extent this corresponds to their expectation at the start of their studies, a less differentiated and altogether more negative picture emerges, in contrast to the usefulness of qualifications and the adequacy of the degree studied: Not even one half, merely 48 per cent overall, perceives the current professional situation as much better or better than expected (46 % Bachelor, 48 % Mag., 50 % Dipl.-Eng.); and as much as one sixth see it as worse or even far worse than expected (16 % in total; 17 % BA und Mag., 12 % Dipl.-Eng.). Here, too, there are differences between the establishments providing the degree: There is greater agreement with the Universities of Applied Sciences (53 %), an average result for scientific universities (47 26

25 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria %), less agreement for the universities of the arts (43 %) and quite significantly less agreement for the medical universities (36 %). How do respondents assess the study programmes offered and the study conditions? A separate section of the questionnaire is dedicated to this complex of questions; the results represented here may contribute to an explanation of varying professional success. The following describes the different ways in which the respondents characterise their studies: The majority believes the degree course was generally perceived as demanding (for 65 % overall this applied to a very high degree or to a high degree ; Bachelor 61 %, Mag. 59 %, Dipl.-Eng. 85 %) and they see their studies as wide-ranging (64 %; Bachelor 61 %, Mag. 64 %, Dipl.-Eng. 73 %); the majority also believes that the degree course is held in high professional regard (55 %; 51 %, 49 %, 72 %). The following descriptions are viewed as less applicable: Only 42 per cent agree that the course contents are known to employers (fivepoint scale, values 1 and 2; 34 % Bachelor, 38 % Mag., 53 % Dipl.-Eng.); for one third the degree course had a job-related/practical orientation (33%; 38 % Bachelor, 27 % Mag., 48 % Dipl.-Eng.); 30 per cent stated that the course programme could be flexibly designed (22 % Bachelor, 35 % Mag., 24 % Dipl.-Eng.). It might be possible, from the viewpoint of the graduates, to distinguish a kind of image problem pertaining to Bachelor degree courses: slightly less demanding, slightly less professional regard; in addition, employers are less familiar with the course contents (according to 41 % of bachelor graduates not very familiar or not at all familiar ). Bachelor degrees or degree courses are furthermore seen as being less wide-ranging and more highly regulated (flexibly designed course programme for 50 % of BA graduates not at all or not ) but, on the other hand, there is a greater job-related or practical orientation, particularly when compared to masters degrees. Practice or job-related elements in the course studied are assessed differently: On the whole, the item Relevancy of the transmitted content of teaching in relation to practical requirements ranked highest ( very good or good 54 % overall; 59 % Bachelor, 50 % Mag., 67 % Dipl.-Eng.); this is followed by compulsory work placement/internship semester (45%; 50 % Bachelor, 40 % Mag., 57 % Dipl.-Eng.) and combination of theory and practice (43 %; 50 %, 38 %, 56 %). The following seem relatively poorly represented: practice-related teaching content (38 % in total; 45 % Bachelor, 33 % Mag., 53 % Dipl.-Eng), projects during the degree/study projects/project studies (38 %; 47 %, 31 %, 59 %) as well as opportunities to acquire key competences (e.g. communication skills, team work, learning methods) (37 %; 47 %, 34 %, 41 %). Elements that remained significantly under-exposed included assistance in finding a job or becoming independent ( poor or very poor 70% in total; 65 % Bachelor, 75 % Mag., 54 % Dipl.-Eng.), assistance in finding an appropriate internship placement (62 %; 58 % Bachelor, 67 % Mag., 46 % Dipl.-Eng.), range of employment-oriented events (59 %; 53 %, 64 %, 45 %), preparation for working life (44 %; 39 %, 49 %, 29 %), courses offered on technology assessment, sustainability, etc. (43 %; 33 %, 48 %, 31 %). Unsurprisingly, degrees ending in a qualification as diploma engineer are seen (from the viewpoint of the graduates) as particularly job- and practice-related. However, this also applies to bachelor degrees to a significant extent, while masters degrees feature far fewer relevant elements. Overall, respondents who graduated from a university tend to assess practice- and job-related elements within the degree courses studied as underdeveloped; with some exceptions (assistance in finding a job or becoming independent; courses offered on technology assessment, sustainability, etc.; range of employment-oriented events), the same does not apply to UAS; on the other hand, all institutions that respondents graduated from were attested as having a relatively high relevancy of the transmitted content of teaching in relation to practical requirements. 27

26 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria Conclusions Helmut Guggenberger (ARUFA) Two recent headlines can serve to illustrate aspects of the public discourse on academic degrees in Austria: Increasingly precarious working conditions for academics (APA ); Rising unemployment among academics despite positive trend (derstandard.at ). These and similarly striking phrases point to two reasons for public concern: That there is poor (here: precarious) occupation or unemployment (i.e. no occupation) for university graduates. While the first information is based on a study conducted by the Austrian Institute for Research on Vocational Training (ibw, cf. Schneeberger; Petanovitsch 2010a), the second rests on the labour market statistics that are continuously produced by the AMS (Labour Market Service) however, neither of these sources suggests such sensational headlines. The results of the project Working Situation of Graduates from Universities and Universities of Applied Sciences can contribute to a factual and data-based discussion about the vocational practicability of academic degrees. In the winter semester of 2008/09 Austrian universities offered a total of 298 Bachelor, 455 Master and 93 Diploma degrees for enrolment; in 2003/04 the relation was still 157 to 198 and 227 (bm:w_f a 2008: 137). At the time, some universities had already stopped any new enrolments to Diploma degrees (l.c.: 136). Due to the fact that in addition to having the option to transfer from an initiated Diploma degree to a newly established Bachelor degree course the Diploma degrees can be completed within an appropriate timeframe, a certain kind of duality is expected to continue for some time, of graduates from old, or traditional degree courses and graduates from new degree courses, which comply with the three-tiered Bologna structure. Moreover, there will continue to be a range of combinations of studying and working: Bachelor, master and doctoral degrees completed back-to-back; alternating phases of either exclusively studying or working; various manifestations of students who are gainfully employed or gainfully employed persons who study No doubt, the heterogeneity both of forms of studying and of transitional forms will provide a number of challenges for the establishments in the tertiary educational sector keyword job-accompanying courses of study, but also new forms of blended learning and e-learning. In order to identify key features of the new academic degrees, as well as distinctions to the traditional degrees, selected results were presented in this paper for the most part from the perspective of the type of first degree. This involved comparing bachelor degrees with diploma degree courses (Mag., Dipl.-Eng.) In some instances this comparison revealed fewer differences between types of degree than between types of university (universities, distinguished as scientific, medical and artistic, as well as Universities of Applied Sciences) for example with regard to satisfaction with the completed studies or with the occupation. Table 5 Study and job satisfaction first academic degree (details in %) BA Mag. Dipl.-Eng. total scient. uni med. uni art. uni UAS Values Values Q. D8: From your current perspective, how satisfied are you overall with the degree studied? Answer scale from 1 = "highly" to 5 = "not at all" Values Values Q. G5: What is the extent of your overall satisfaction with your professional situation? Answer scale from 1 = "very high" to 5 = " not satisfied " 28

27 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria Two prominent objectives of the Bologna Process, namely the encouragement of students international mobility and the promotion of employability, also once the first three cycles have been completed, are at the focus of this representation. Further analyses, for example grouped by fields of study or by strongly represented single degrees or degree programmes, appear to present an obvious next step, and can be very well conducted with the data at hand. A greater level of differentiation by year of graduation would be meaningful in this context: Certainly, the different cohorts face partially changed conditions in the (academic) labour market; and certain aspects of gainful employment only become visible within the system of organised occupation after a certain time. What promotes and what impedes student mobility? Some of the newly established degrees or degree programmes include periods abroad for study or training purposes to a greater extent (cf. WK 2010: 4), and at the individual universities special units provide relevant support to students. The European Credit Transfer System should ensure that the mutual recognition of academic performance (comparability of workload or grades) steadily becomes less of an issue. However, practical experience shows that there is still room for improvement and as our data illustrates study-related periods abroad are still more of an exception than the rule. What promotes and what impedes employability, at least after the first cycle (Bachelor level)? On the whole, the Austrian university graduates involved in the ARUFA study appear satisfied with their studies and with the associated conditions; a few aspects (such as underdeveloped job-related elements in the degree, or a lack of awareness about course content) appear to justify criticism. The job satisfaction also appears to be very high however, we are not in a position to establish a truly objective picture based on a survey of students or graduates, and we should therefore not be too certain based on these results (it is also possible that respondents have few expectations or a low level of requirements). As far as horizontal (usefulness of qualification) and vertical (adequacy of degree) fit are concerned, no significant problems were revealed; only to a limited extent are bachelor graduates worse off here, as with regard to other criteria relating to (emerging) professional success. Table 6 Vertical fit last degree, current occupation (details in %) BA MA Mag. Dipl.- Eng. total scient. uni med. uni art. uni UAS My academic degree level A lesser academic degree level A higher academic degree level No academic degree required Q. H3: In your opinion, what is the most appropriate academic degree level for your current occupation? Summary: Measured against the expectations aroused by the public discourse we find relatively few differences between traditional (Mag., Dipl.-Eng.) and new (Bachelor) degrees, nor do we find disadvantages for the latter depending on the anticipatory attitude this result may either disappoint or satisfy. We do, however, identify clear differences between the types of university which may be largely due to the divergent tasks they are endowed with (greater scientific or basic research orientation at the universities versus a more pronounced practice and application orientation at Universities of Applied Sciences) and which may also be ascribed to varying conditions ( open admission to higher education, in part mass studies or admission, university place management ). 29

28 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria References APA ( ): meldung.html?id=zuk_ _zuk0046 [ ] bm.w_fa/ Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft und Forschung (2008a): Universitätsbericht , korrrigierte Auflage.Wien. bm.w_fa/ Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft und Forschung (2008b): Zukunftsbotschaften des Forschungsministers: Strategische Handlungsfelder für Österreichs Frontrunner Strategie Wien. forschungsdialog/zukunftsbotschaften_des_forschungsministers_0808bmwf.p df [ ] bm.w_fa/ Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft und Forschung (2009a): Statistisches Taschenbuch Wien. bm.w_fa/ Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft und Forschung (2009b): Bericht über den Stand der Umsetzung der Bologna Ziele in Österreich. Berichtszeitraum Wien. bm.w_fa/ Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft und Forschung (2009c): Universitätsgesetz Österreichisches Hochschulrecht Heft 14. Wien. bm.w_fa/ Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft und Forschung (2010): Dialog Hochschulpartnerschaft. Empfehlungen zur Zukunft des tertiären Sektors. Wien. aft.pdf [ ] Campbell, David F. J.; Brechelmacher, Angelika (2007): Bachelor Neu und der Arbeitsmarkt. Analyse der Sichtweisen von wirtschaftlichen Unternehmen und von Universitäten und Fachhochschulen. Formulierung von Empfehlungen. Forschungsprojekt im Auftrag der WKÖ (Wirtschaftskammer Österreich). Institut für Wissenschaftskommunikation und Hochschulforschung, Fakultät für Interdisziplinäre Forschung und Fortbildung (IFF, Standort Wien), Universität Klagenfurt. Wien. downloads/studie_bachelor_final.pdf [ ] derstandard.at ( ): Akademikern-steigt-trotz-positiver-Tendenz [ ] EURYDICE (2009): Higher Education in Europe 2009: Developments in the Bologna Process. Brussels: Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency. FHStG/Fachhochschul-Studiengesetz (2010). Online verfügbar unter index.php?cpid=f04b15af72dbf3fdc0772f869d4877ea&law_id=85 [ ] Guggenberger, Helmut; Kellermann, Paul; Sagmeister, Gunhild (2001): Wissenschaftliches Studium und akademische Beschäftigung. Vier Jahre nach Studienabschluss. Ein Überblick. Institut für Soziologie der Universität Klagenfurt. Klagenfurt. Guggenberger, Helmut; Kellermann, Paul; Sagmeister, Gunhild; Steingruber, Astrid (2007): Wandel der Erwerbsarbeit in einer wissensbasierten Gesellschaft. Neue Herausforderungen an die Hochschulbildung in Europa. Österreich-Bericht. Institut für Soziologie der Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt. Klagenfurt. Online verfügbar unter [ ] Heissenberger, Stefan; Mark, Viola; Schramm, Susanne, et al. (Hg.) (2010): Uni brennt. Grundsätzliches - Kritisches - Atmospärisches. Wien, Berlin. Huber, Michael (2008): Die Zukunft der Universität. In: Soziologie, Jg. 37, H. 3, S Kellermann, Paul; Boni, Manfred; Meyer-Renschhausen, Elisabeth (Hg.) (2009): Zur Kritik europäischer Hochschulpolitik. Forschung und Lehre unter Kuratel betriebswirtschaftlicher Denkmuster. Wiesbaden. 30

29 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Austria Leuprecht, Eva, u.a. (2010): Berufsfindung, Joberfahrungen und Beschäftigungschancen von Bachelor-AbsolventInnen ausgewählter Studienrichtungen in der Privatwirtschaft (Betriebswirtschaft, Wirtschaftsinformatik, Informatik, Publizistik und Kommunikationswissenschaften, Biologie, Soziologie). Wien. Liessmann, Konrad Paul (2006): Theorie der Unbildung. Die Irrtümer der Wissensgesellschaft. Wien. Prisching, Manfred (2008): Bildungsideologien. Ein zeitdiagnostischer Essay an der Schwelle zur Wissensgesellschaft. Wiesbaden. Schneeberger, Arthur; Petanowitsch, Alexander (2010a): Zwischen Akademikermangel und prekärer Beschäftigung. Zur Bewährung der Hochschulexpansion am Arbeitsmarkt. ibw Forschungsbericht Nr Wien. Online verfügbar unter components/com_virtuemart/shop_image/product/fb153.jpg [ ] Schneeberger, Arthur; Petanovitsch, Alexander (2010b): Bachelor-Studium und Arbeitsmarkt aus Sicht der Studierenden. Analyse nach Hochschularten und Fachrichtungen. ibw Forschungsbericht Nr Wien. Online verfügbar unter studien?page=shop.product_details&flypage=flypage.tpl&product_id=363&category_id =6 [ ] Arthur Schneeberger; Alexander Petanovitsch; Sabine Nowak (2010): Akzeptanz des Bachelors in der Wirtschaft. Befragungsergebnisse mittlerer und großer Unternehmen. ibw-forschungsbericht Nr Wien. Online verfügbar unter _id=364&category_id=6 [ ] Schomburg, Harald ( ): Arbeitssituation von Universitäts- und FachhochschulabsolventInnen: Übergänge und Beschäftigungssuche Qualität der Erwerbstätigkeit. Präsentationsunterlagen. Wien. Sennett, Richard (1998): Der flexible Mensch. Die Kultur des neuen Kapitalismus. 8. Aufl. Berlin. Unger, Martin, u.a. (2010): Studierenden-Sozialerhebung Wien. /uploads/tx_contentbox/studierenden_sozialerhebung_2009.pdf [ ] Weichbold, Martin; Bacher, Johann; Wolf, Christof (Hg.) (2009): Umfrageforschung. Herausforderungen und Grenzen. Österreichische Zeitschrift für Soziologie Sonderheft 9/2009. Wiesbaden. WK/ Wirtschaftskammer Österreich, bm.w_fa/ Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft und Forschung (2010): Bachelor welcome. Wien. AngID=1&StID=547824&DstID=0&titel=Brosch%C3%BCre,%22Bachelor,Welcome %22 [ ] Wolf, Vera ( ): Arbeitssituation von Universitäts- und FachhochschulabsolventInnen: Methode Repräsentativität der Daten. Präsentationsunterlagen. Wien. Authors Dr. Helmut Guggenberger, Dr. Maria Keplinger, Mag. Martin Unger, 31

30

31 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Switzerland Petra Koller Report presented on the International Conference Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Europe, Sept. 30 Oct. 1, 2010, Berlin Content 1. Overview about the study structure in Switzerland Description of the data sources and some information about the transition situation of graduates Graduates socio-biographic background and course of study Graduates international mobility Employment and further study of bachelor graduates Professional success of bachelor graduates...42 Tables Table 1 Return rate of the graduate survey Table 2 Degrees of the second cycle by university (in percent), 2006 and Table 2 Degrees of the second cycle by field of study (in percent), 2006 and Table 3 Graduates age profile (median / mean), Table 4 Proportion of female graduates by field of study, Table 5 Proportion of foreign graduates by field of study, Figures Diagramm 1 The Swiss Education System...35 Diagramm 2 Development of first cycle graduates type of university, Diagramm 3 Development of second cycle graduates type of university, Transition rate from bachelor to master courses of study...37 Diagramm 4 Mobility during course of study (in percent)...40 Diagramm 5 Place of residence at the time of the survey by nationality (in percent)..40 Diagramm 6 Employment situation of bachelor graduates (in percent)...41 Diagramm 7 Employed bachelor graduates by field of study (in percent)...41 Diagramm 8 Employment situation of second cycle graduates (master, diploma, Lizenziat) in percent)...42 Diagramm 9 Degree of employment of graduates in Economics (in percent)...42 Diagramm 10 Long term/ unlimited term of contracts of graduates in Economics (in percent) 43 Diagramm 11 Nature of the employment of graduates in Economics (in percent)...43

32 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Switzerland Diagramm 12 Professional position of graduates in Economics (in percent)...44 Diagramm 13 Annual gross income of graduates in Economics (in Swiss francs)...44 Diagramm 14 Annual gross income of graduates without management function in Economics (in Swiss francs)...45 Diagramm 15 Education requirement for employed graduates in Economics (in percent)...45 Diagramm 16 High satisfaction (in percent)

33 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Switzerland 1. Overview about the study structure in Switzerland Diagramm 1 The Swiss Education System 2. Description of the data sources and some information about the transition situation of graduates Table 1 Return rate of the graduate survey

34 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Switzerland Diagramm 2 Development of first cycle graduates type of university, Universities: Bachelor UAS: Diploma UAS: Bachelor Source: Swiss Higher Education Register (FSO) Diagramm 3 Development of second cycle graduates type of university, Universities: Lizentiate/ Diploma Universities: Master UAS: M aster Source: Swiss Higher Education Register (FSO) 36

35 Country Report on Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Switzerland Transition rate from bachelor to master courses of study Table 2 Degrees of the second cycle by university (in percent), 2006 and

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