Regional cooperation in the IGAD sub-region: of transboundary water resources

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1 Regional cooperation in the IGAD sub-region: Using science to secure political commitment and financial support for joint management of transboundary water resources M. BABA SY Sahara and Sahel Observatory 1

2 OVERVIEW 1. Background 2. Objectives 3. Impacts & Outcomes 4. Components/Main activity areas 5. Risks and Sustainability 2

3 MAM TB WR in the IGAD Sub-R Background The IGAD sub-region : 80% are arid & semi arid areas where WATER is a key factor limiting the development Total renewable freshwater resources are estimated to be over 291 km 3 /year (2005, WRI) Poverty & development problems are particularly correlated to WATER availability & quality Increasing pressures from the growing human and livestock populations on land & water resources Scarcity of renewable WR with serious threat to sustainable, and balanced socioeconomic growth and environmental protection 3

4 Background (cont d) Jan. 2002: IGAD s 21st CM in Khartoum: Development of a regional water sector strategy that will : - Elaborate and implement IWRM plans with regard to transboundary WRM - Enhance sub-regional economic, social and environmental integration, contributing to a more effective use and a better management of transboundary water resources for the benefit of each individual member state Dec. 2005: Sub-regional validation workshop in Nairobi Mar. 2006: 11th Summit of IGAD in Nairobi (Expert & Ministerial level): Review and adoption of the project: Mapping, Assessment and Management of the shared WR of the IGAD sub-region OSS was mandated by the IGAD-Sec & its member States to mobilize funds & to coordinate the implementation May 2007: Grant Agreement between IGAD-Sec and AWF/AfDB 4

5 Background (cont d) : Problem definition and sectorial priorities Key issues that have emerged from national surveys & regional synthesis: I. Lack of adequate data, information and knowledge of the water resources and its use II. III. IV. Lack of focused IWRM based vision Inadequate institutional and organisational capacity to deal with TBWRM Strategies for coping with drought and flood and the long term challenges of degradation and climate changes 5

6 Background (cont d) Low level of water use (about 3% of the annually renewable water resources volume) Water demand for various sectors: generally poorly understood except for some work done by FAO on impact of irrigation Need for understanding and quantifying demand by sectors as well as future trends Need for clear understanding of the risks at country and sub-regional level through water resources, environmental and socio-economic analyses of the transboundary waters of the sub-region 6

7 Project Objectives To promote IWRM principles in transboundary water resources within the IGAD sub-region To produce reliable and easily accessible information for each shared water system that will serve as a basis for equitable sharing of WR To plan joint development of major priority transboundary aquifer basins that offer noticeable potential for water based development activities To initiate arrangements for joint planning and implementation of transboundary water development activities within major transboundary water systems 7

8 3. Project Objectives (cont d) TWRM Approach A strategic approach: IWRM (Principles) The three pillars of IWRM Integrated vision Environmental sustainability Social equity Economic efficiency Integrated tools for planning and decision making 1-Enabling environment 2-Institutional framework 3-Management instruments Integrated management of water as a resource and integrated framework for provision of water service 8

9 Major Impacts Impacts & Outcomes Creation of an enabling environment for IGAD & member states to address the challenge of poverty & environmental vulnerability Improved water availability & a framework for water & food security Reduced impacts of flood & droughts Improvement in livelihood & health conditions Mitigation of erosion, siltation, and loss of biodiversity Attainment of common goals related to MDGs Shared VISION of joint management of TWR based on 9IWRM

10 Impacts & Outcomes (cont d) Main Outcomes Building & enhancement of the capacity of IGAD & its member states to implement integrated transboundary WR development & management Reliable & easily accessible information & data as a basis for equitable sharing of WR Improvement in the understanding of linkages between WR, environmental & socio-economic issues Improvement of water governance capacities to address water related development problems Better guidance for policies & strategies to IWRM & for joint development of transboundary water systems that offer potential for water based development activities 10

11 Impacts & Outcomes (cont d) Towards an an effective Cooperation for for sustainable development Environment DegradationSustainability Balance of compromises Politics DisputeCooperation Economics FragmentationIntegration 11

12 To the water system Sustainable mgmt. of resources Impacts & Outcomes (cont d) In In the the context of of TWRD Shared Vision = Benefits sharing From the water system Because of the water system Beyond the water system The «basket of benefits» from cooperation water quality, water flow characteristics, soil conservation, biodiversity etc. Water uses for economic development agricultural & hydropower production, risks mgmt., environmental protection & water quality, etc. From passive to active cooperation enhancement of trust, from conflict to cooperation & development, etc. Regional cooperation & integration scale economies & for developing markets and trade, etc. Ecological dimension Economic dimension Political dimension Catalytic 12 dimension

13 5 Components / Main activity areas 1. Assessment of Data, Information and Knowledge : Data harmonisation & exchange & enhanced water related information transparency and cooperation between countries OUTPUTS An updated knowledge of the physical potential and development needs of transboundary water resources A comprehensive understanding of the surface and ground water resources & formulation of common vision & 13 strategies for the SD of the transboundary WR

14 Components (cont d) 2. Socio-Economic Analysis and Assessment :An understanding of the water demands for various socioeconomic needs & quantified assessment of water uses OUTPUTS A quantified assessment of the sub-region WR potential & demand by various users Elements for decision making & for planning Consequent support to the elaboration of the TB WR strategy at sub-regional level 14

15 Components (cont d) 3. Environmental Analysis: An assessment of key environmental issues: droughts, floods, water pollution / quality, climate variability / change, land degradation, biodiversity OUTPUTS An identification of key challenges linked to WRM that are of national, regional and global concern An identification & mapping of the vital water catchments & pollution sources threatening them Design of coping strategies and action plans 15

16 Components (cont d) 4. Preparation of Digital thematic Maps & GIS: A common sub-regional mapping system for thematic data & information & a functioning GIS within IGAD OUTPUTS Sub-regional digital maps & a functional GIS on various themes as well as land use/land cover and risk zones Linkages between surface water & groundwater patterns Analysis & Management tools for awareness & decision making 16

17 Components (cont d) 5. National & Sub-Regional Capacity Building: Strengthening national capacities & build up subregional capacities in the areas of integrated transboundary WR management OUTPUTS Development of a shared vision & strategic action plan for sustainable WR development Consultation mechanisms for elaboration of a road map towards enhanced cooperation Development of institutional & organisational capacity 17 for joint activities

18 Risks and Sustainability The main risks are related to: 1. The possibility of not being able to cover all the IGAD member countries due to the prevailing situations such as political instability & related ones 2. The lack of political and institutional commitment of some countries to engage in data exchange and cooperative planning 18

19 Risks and Sustainability (cont d) The project is sustainable because of the following: 1. The difficulty of access associated with security problem will be addressed from use of historical data & past, current satellite imageries & hydrological modelling 2. The project takes into consideration the 3 pillars of sustainability: environment, social & economic & is also gender sensitive 3. The national teams will implement the project as part of their daily work 4. Participatory approach in project preparation & implementation 5. The approach developed by OSS is efficient in terms of ownership & continuity beyond the implementation period 19

20 Implementation Structure 20

21 Communication IGAD OSS Member S NFWI NC Letters from OSS to NFWI-NC,IGAD communication - IGAD RC - Only 2 NC - No comments & suggestions as D SH How to significantly improve communication? Let us think over it collectively Consultation Mechanism agreement Between the countries 21

22 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION 22

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