An introductory guide to the key terms and interagency initiatives in use in the Children s Services Committees in Ireland

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1 An introductory guide to the key terms and interagency initiatives in use in the Children s Services Committees in Ireland Stella Owens This document provides an introduction to the sources and origins of key terms and interagency initiatives in use in the Children s Services Committees in Ireland. It is not intended to be comprehensive of all terms and initiatives relevant to CSCs at this stage, but rather a starting point which we hope will be added to with suggestions from CSC stakeholders, as the work on CSCs progresses. CES Reference Paper 1st edition June 2010

2 Acknowledgements The Centre for Effective Services would like to thank the following people who made important contributions to this document: Deirdre Fullerton and Liz Burtney of Insights Research who did background research and early drafting; Deborah Ghate and Katie Burke at CES for their helpful comments on various drafts; Aisling Gillen, National Specialist Family Support at the Health Services Executive and Elizabeth Canavan, Principal Officer, at the Office of the Minister for Children and Youth Affairs. Any errors remain, of course, our own responsibility. Centre for Effective Services 2010 The Centre for Effective Services is a not-for-profit company limited by guarantee (company number in Ireland) and is governed by an Independent Board. The work of the Centre is supported by the Atlantic Philanthropies, the Office of the Minister for Children and Youth Affairs, and the Department of Community, Equality and Gaeltacht Affairs. Further copies of this report are available to download from our website: Hard copies can be ordered from (Please quote reference P016 Key Terms Reference Paper). Centre for Effective Services, 2010

3 TableofContents Introduction...3 TheCentreforEffectiveServices...4 Originsandobjectiveofthisdocument...4 Sources...5 Structureofthedocument...5 Section1 WorkingTogether...6 Interagencycollaboration...7 Section2 PolicyFrameworksrelevanttoworkingtogether...9 Ireland TheNationalChildren sstrategy(2000) TheAgendaforChildren sservices(2007) NorthernIreland OurChildrenandYoungPeople OurPledge EnglandandWales EveryChildMatters(2004) Scotland GettingitRightforEveryChild(GIRFEC)(2005) Section3 Modelsofchildandfamilydevelopment EcologicalModel HardikerModel Section4 Assessmentframeworks FrameworkfortheAssessmentofChildreninNeedandtheirFamilies MyWorldTriangle FrameworkfortheAssessmentofVulnerableChildrenandtheirFamilies CommonAssessmentFramework IdentificationofNeeds(ION)andLimerickAssessmentofNeedSystem(LANS) Section5 Specificinterventions/initiativesforinteragencyworking DifferentialResponseModel(DRM) RestorativeJustice RestorativePractices CentreforEffectiveServicesReferencePaperPage1of42

4 Section6 Dataprotectionanddatasharingprotocolsforinteragencyworking DataProtection DataSharingProtocols TheYoungPeopleatRiskProtocol(YPAR) Section7 Technicalandotherterms Outcomes Indicators Evaluation Participation RiskandProtectiveFactors Section8 Bibliographyandresources CentreforEffectiveServicesReferencePaperPage2of42

5 Introduction The Centre for Effective Services 4 Origins and objective of this document 4 Sources 5 Structure of the document 5

6 Introduction TheCentreforEffectiveServices TheCentreforEffectiveServicesisanindependent,not for profitorganisationworking acrosstheislandofirelandandfundedjointlybyphilanthropyandnationalgovernmentin Ireland 1.TheoverarchingmissionoftheCentreistoconnectthedesignanddeliveryof serviceswithscientificandtechnicalknowledgeof whatworks,toimproveoutcomesfor children,familiesandtheircommunities.weprovidetechnicalandorganisationalexpertise tosupportthedesign,implementationandongoingreviewanddevelopmentofevidenceinformedservices.ouraimsare: Topromoteandsupporttheapplicationofanevidence informedapproachtopolicy andpracticeinchild,familyandcommunityservices Topromotethedevelopmentofcollaborative,joinedupworkingthatisoutcomesfocusedacrossresearch,policyandserviceprovidingorganisations TobuildcapacitywithinIrelandandNorthernIrelandtotakethisworkforwardin thelongertermbydevelopingknowledge,skillsandcompetencies. In2009,theCentrewasaskedbytheOfficeoftheMinisterforChildrenandYouthAffairs (OMCYA),partoftheDepartmentofHealthandChildreninIreland,toassistwith,and adviseon,thestrategicdevelopmentofchildren sservicescommittees(cscs).athreeyear projectplanwasagreedbetweenthecentreandomcyawhichoutlinesthesupportthat CESwillprovidetothecontinuingdevelopmentoftheCSCinitiative. Originsandobjectiveofthisdocument SincethefourChildren sservicescommittees(cscs),dublincity,southdublin,donegaland LimerickCitybecameoperationalin2007,numerousdifferentmulti agencyinitiatives,tools, methodologies,andapproaches,eachwiththeirownterminology,havebeenemployedby CSCs.TheOMCYAhasaskedCEStoproduceabriefdocumentwhichofferssome explanationanddefinitionofthedifferingtermsandconceptualframeworksrelatingto interagencyinitiativesthatarecurrentlyinuseinthecscs. ThisisapreliminarydocumentthatwillbeaddedtoastheworkofCSCsandCESprogresses. ItisintendedasaquickreferencedocumentforCSCstakeholders,andattemptstoprovide readerswithasuccinctandaccessibleintroductiontotheselectedkeytermscurrentlyin useincscs.thisdocumentisnotintendedtobecomprehensiveofalltermsrelevantto CSCsatthisstage,butratherastartingpointwhichwehopewillbeaddedtowith suggestionsfromcscstakeholders. 1 TheAtlanticPhilanthropies,theOfficeoftheMinsterforChildrenandYouthAffairs(OMCYA),andthe DepartmentforCommunity,EqualityandGaeltachtAffairs(DCEGA). CentreforEffectiveServicesReferencePaperPage4of42

7 CESwillsoonbeproducingamoreextensivereviewofkeyterms,constructsandevidence relevanttointeragencyworkingwhichwillexploretheseandothertermsingreaterdetail. Sources Materialforthisdocumentwassourcedthroughgovernmentpublications,policy documents,books,journalarticlesandotherpublishedandunpublisheddocumentsand briefs.relevantirishandukgovernmentwebsiteswerealsosearchedandgoogleand GoogleScholarsearchenginesearcheswereconductedusingalimitednumberofkeywords. Allsourcesarelistedinthebibliographyandresourcessectionattheendofthisdocument. Structureofthedocument Thedocumentisdividedintosevensections.Thefirstsectionisconcernedwithinteragency collaborationandintegratedworking.sectiontwodescribesthepolicyframeworksrelevant tothecscinitiative.sectionthreedescribestwomodelsofchildandfamilydevelopment andsectionfourdocumentsassessmentframeworksrelevanttoworkingtogether.section fivedefinesspecificinterventionsandinitiativesforinteragencyworkingwithsectionsix focussingondataprotectionanddatasharingprotocols.finallysectionsevendefineskey technicalandothertermsrelevanttothecscs. CentreforEffectiveServicesReferencePaperPage5of42

8 Section 1 Working Together Interagency collaboration 7

9 Section1 WorkingTogether Interagencycollaboration Collaborationandpartnershipbetweengovernmentagenciesandorganisationshasbecome akeyconceptunderlyinghowweprovideservicestochildrenandfamilies.theseideasnow informalargebodyofsocialpolicyinitiativesincludingsomestatutorydutiesofinteragency co operationandanemphasisonworkingwithserviceusersandcarers. Differenttermscanbeappliedtotheconceptofagenciesworkingtogether,andmanyof theseare(confusingly)usedinterchangeably: Interagencyworking:morethanoneagencyworkingtogetherinaplannedand formalway,ratherthansimplythroughinformalnetworking(althoughthelattermay supportanddeveloptheformer).thiscanbeatthestrategicortheoperationallevel. Itcouldinvolveplanningandworkinginparallel,butitdoesnotinvolvethe combiningofsystems,processesandteams. Multi agencyworking:morethanoneagencyworkingwithaclientbutnot necessarilyjointly.multi agencyworkingmaybepromptedbyjointplanning(the usualsenseinwhichthistermisused)orsimplybeaformofreplication,whereby severalagenciesworkinamoreorlessunplannedwaywiththesameclientorclient group.aswithinteragencyworking,itmaybeconcurrentorsequential.theterms interagency and multi agency (initsplannedsense)workingareoftenused interchangeably. Joined upworking:policyorthinkingreferstodeliberatelyconceptualisedandcoordinatedplanning,whichtakesaccountofmultiplepoliciesandvaryingagency practices.thishasbecometheunderpinningprinciple atleastinaspiration of almostallcurrentuksocialpolicy. Finally,integratedworkingiswhereeveryonesupportingchildrenandyoungpeople worktogethereffectivelytoputthechildatthecentre,meettheirneedsand improvetheirlives.integratedworkingisachievedthroughformalisedcollaboration andco ordinationbetweenagencies(thatmayretaintheirownseparateidentities), atalllevels,acrossservices,inbothsingleandmulti agencysettings.itrequires commitmenttocommongoals,strongleadershipandmanagementandisfacilitated bytheadoptionofcommonservicedeliverytoolsandprocesses. Integratedprocessesarekeytothesuccessofintegratedworkingandcaninclude: o Informationsharingbetweenprofessionalsbasedonguidancetoensure understandingofwhen,whyandhowtoshareinformation o Commondeliverytools,forexampletheCommonAssessmentFramework(CAF) inenglandtomakeassessmentmoreefficientandreducetheriskofduplication. Italsoencouragesasharedlanguagebetweenagenciesandimprovesreferrals o Aleadprofessionaltoensurefront lineservicesareco ordinatedandcanactasa contactpointforchildren,youngpeopleandfamilies o Developmentofefficientdatasharingprocessesincludingexplorationof electronicsharing. CentreforEffectiveServicesReferencePaperPage7of42

10 ForCSCpurposes, interagencyworking probablybestdescribeswhatcscsaretryingtoset inplaceatthelocallevel,withaspirationstoachieveatleastsomeelementsof integrated working asstructuresandprocessesevolve. Interagencyworkingisanactivitythatcoversabroadrangeofactionsandcanbeappliedin numerousareasandsettings.accordingtothechildrenactsadvisoryboard(caab)2009 interagencyworkingcanbe: Formalorinformal:informalincludinginterpersonalcontactsandinformalchannels ofcommunicatione.g.ad hocmeetings,correspondenceandphonecallsorformal includingorganisationalstructures,jobdefinitionsandinstrumentse.g.plans, agreements,contracts Verticalorhorizontal:verticalcaninvolvejointactionsofagenciesfromdifferent governmentlevelsorhorizontalinvolvingthejointactionofagenciesfromdifferent sectors Policy,operationalorfront line:interagencyworkingbetweenagenciescantake placeinrelationtostrategicorpublicpolicy,organisational/operationalorfront line deliveryissues. Tomlinson s(2003)definitionof goodpractice ininteragencyworkingadvocates: Fullstrategicandoperationalcommitmenttocollaboration Anawarenessofagencies differingaimsandvalues,withacommitmenttoworking towardsacommongoal Involvementofallrelevantpeople,oftenincludingclientsandtheircarers Clearrolesandresponsibilitiesforindividualsandagenciesinvolvedincollaboration Supportiveandcommittedmanagementofstaffinpartnerships Flexibleandinnovativefundingmechanisms Systemsforinteragencycollecting,sharingandanalysisofdata Jointtraining,withaccreditationwhereappropriate Strategiestoencourageteamcommitmentbeyondthepersonalinterestsofkey individuals Effectiveandappropriatecommunicationbetweenagenciesandprofessionals Asuitable,andsometimesaltered,locationforthedeliveryofservices. CentreforEffectiveServicesReferencePaperPage8of42

11 Section 2 Policy Frameworks relevant to working together Ireland 10 The National Children s Strategy (2000) 10 The Agenda for Children s Services (2007) 10 Northern Ireland 11 Our Children and Young People Our Pledge (2006) 11 England and Wales 11 Every Child Matters (2004) 11 Scotland 13 Getting it Right for Every Child (GIRFEC) (2005) 13

12 Section2 PolicyFrameworksrelevanttoworkingtogether Ireland TheNationalChildren sstrategy(2000) TheNationalChildren sstrategy(2000)setsoutaseriesofobjectivestoguidechildren s policyoverthetenyearperiodupto2010.itseekstoestablisha wholechild perspective atthecentreofallrelevantpolicydevelopmentandservicedelivery,andtoimprovethe qualityofchildren slivesthroughintegrateddeliveryofservicesinpartnershipwithchildren, youngpeople,theirfamiliesandtheircommunities.thewholechildperspectivedrawson researchandknowledgeaboutchildren sdevelopmentandtherelationshipbetween childrenandfamily,communityandthewidersociety.itidentifiesthecapacityofchildren toshapetheirlivesastheygrow,whilealsobeingshapedandsupportedbytheworld aroundthem.theninedimensionsidentifiedare:physicalandmentalwell being;emotional andbehaviouralwell being;intellectualcapacity;spiritualandmoralwell being;identity; selfcare;familyrelationships;socialandpeerrelationships;andsocialpresentation. TheNationalChildren sstrategyidentifiesthreenationalgoals: Goal1 Childrenwillhaveavoiceinmatterswhichaffectthemandtheirviewswillbegiven dueweightinaccordancewiththeirageandmaturity. Goal2 Children'sliveswillbebetterunderstood;theirliveswillbenefitfromevaluation, researchandinformationontheirneeds,rightsandtheeffectivenessofservices. Goal3 Childrenwillreceivequalitysupportsandservicestopromoteallaspectsoftheir development. DevelopmentofanewNationalChildren'sStrategywillbeledbytheOfficeoftheMinister forchildrenandyouthaffairs. TheAgendaforChildren sservices(2007) TheAgendaforChildren sservices,publishedin2007bytheofficeoftheministerfor ChildrenandYouthAffairs(OMCYA),setsoutthestrategicdirectionandkeygoalsofpublic policyinrelationtochildren shealthandsocialservicesinireland.theagendaisa frameworkwhichappliestheprinciplesofthenationalchildren sstrategytothe implementationofpoliciesthroughservicedelivery.atthecoreoftheagendaisthe promotionofwhatwewantforourchildren goodoutcomes. Asawayofensuringacommonlanguageofoutcomeswithinchildren sservices,the AgendaforChildren sservicesdrawstogetherthevarioustypesofoutcomesfoundin contemporarychildren spolicyandpresentsthemasasinglelistof7nationalservice CentreforEffectiveServicesReferencePaperPage10of42

13 OutcomesforChildreninIreland.The7NationalOutcomesenvisionthatallchildrenshould be: 1. Healthy,bothphysicallyandmentally 2. Supportedinactivelearning 3. Safefromaccidentalandintentionalharm 4. Economicallysecure 5. Secureintheimmediateandwiderphysicalenvironment 6. Partofpositivenetworksoffamily,friends,neighboursandthecommunity 7. Includedandparticipatinginsociety. NorthernIreland OurChildrenandYoungPeople OurPledge atenyearstrategyforchildrenandyoung peopleinnorthernireland (2006) TheoverallpledgeofthisstrategyinNorthernIrelandistodeliveronasharedvisionforall childrenandyoungpeople overthetenyearsbetween2006and2016.thesuccessofthe strategyistobemeasuredbyimprovedoutcomesinkeyareasofchildrenandyoung people slives.theoutcomesframeworkidentifiessixoutcomes: Healthy Enjoying,learningandachieving Livinginsafetyandwithstability Experiencingeconomicandenvironmentalwell being Contributingpositivelytocommunityandsociety Livinginasocietywhichrespectstheirrights. Children sservicesplanninginnorthernirelandisaninteragencyprocesswhichischild centredandaimstosupportfamilies,carersandcommunities.astatutorydutyhasbeen placedoneachofthefourhealthandsocialservicesboardstosetupanareachildrenand YoungPeople scommitteetooverseetheinteragencyplanningofservicesforvulnerable childrenandyoungpeopleintheirareabasedonthesixoutcomes. EnglandandWales EveryChildMatters(2004) In2003,intheUK,theGovernmentpublishedaGreenPapercalledEveryChildMatters, alongsideaformalresponsetothereportintothedeathofvictoriaclimbié.thepaperbuilt onexistingplanstostrengthenpreventativeservicesbyfocusingonfourkeythemes: 1. Increasingthefocusonsupportingfamiliesandcarers 2. Ensuringnecessaryinterventionbeforereachingcrisispoint 3. Addressingtheunderlyingproblemsofweakaccountabilityandpoorintegration 4. Fosteringstaffmoraleandtraining. CentreforEffectiveServicesReferencePaperPage11of42

14 Followingtheconsultation,theGovernmentpublishedEveryChildMatters:Thenextsteps, andpassedthechildrenact2004,providingthelegislativespinefordevelopingmore effectiveandaccessibleservicesfocusedaroundtheneedsofchildren,youngpeopleand families.everychildmattersisanecological,integratedsystemthatiscentredonthechild andtheirfamily,servedthroughserviceco ordinationandsupportedthroughintegrated organisationsandagencies.theemphasisisonpreventionratherthancrisisintervention. ThemainaimofEveryChildMattersistoimproveoutcomesinfiveareasforchildrenand youngpeople: Behealthy:physically,mentallyandemotionally,sexuallyandenjoyahealthy lifestyle,freefromdrugs Staysafe:frommaltreatment,neglect,violence,exploitation,fromaccidentaldeath orinjury,frombullyinganddiscrimination,crimeandantisocialbehaviours,have securityandstability Enjoyandachieve:bereadyforschool,attendandenjoyschool,achieve academically,personallyandsocially,enjoyrecreation Makeapositivecontribution:engageincommunity,demonstratepositivebehaviour, developpositiverelationships,self confidence,skillstodealwithlifeandenterprising behaviour Achieveeconomicwell being:engageinemployment,trainingorfurthereducation, bereadyforemployment,liveinsustainablecommunitiesanddecenthomes,have accesstotransportandmaterialgoods,liveinhouseholdsfreeoflowincome. MeetingtheaimsandachievingtheoutcomesofEveryChildMattersisdependentonaction takenbylocalprogrammes.thisshouldbedrivenbylocalanalysisofprioritiesandmet throughintegratedstrategyandgovernance,processandfrontlinedelivery.thisapproach emphasisesintegrationandsharingratherthanduplicationofeffortandfragmentation.the integratedstrategycallsforpoolingofbudgets,jointareareviews,sharedassessmentof localneedsandasinglechildrenandyoungpeople splanproducedbythelocalauthority (seefigure1below). Figure1Integratedframework,the Onion diagram Source:EveryChildMatters,DepartmentofChildren,SchoolsandFamilies CentreforEffectiveServicesReferencePaperPage12of42

15 ThisintegratedstrategyissetoutinEveryChildMatters:ChangeforChildren,andplacesa dutytoco operate onallrelevantpartnersinthemakingofarrangementstoimprovewell beingandoutcomesforchildrenandyoungpeopleintheirlocalarea,throughthe establishmentofchildren strusts. DurhamChildren strusthashadcontactwithsomeofthechildren sservicescommittees andtheomcya. Scotland GettingitRightforEveryChild(GIRFEC)(2005) GettingitRightforEveryChildistheScottishGovernmentprogrammetopromoteeffective partnershipworkingbetweenagencies.girfecisthefoundationforworkwithallchildren andyoungpeople,includingadultserviceswhereparentsareinvolved.itbuildsonuniversal healthandeducationservices,andisembeddedintheearlyyearsframeworkandvaluing YoungPeople:Principlesandconnectionstosupportyoungpeopletoachievetheirpotential. Itsetsouttodevelopallchildrenandyoungpeopleas: Successfullearners Confidentindividuals Effectivecontributors Responsiblecitizens. Embeddingtheinvolvementofchildrenandyoungpeopleintheplanning,designand deliveryofpublicservicesisaprerequisitetoachievingtheseoutcomes.moreoveratan individuallevel,theactiveparticipationofeverychildandyoungpersonshouldbeintegral toimprovingtheirwell beingacrossthenationalindicatorsofbeingsafe,healthy, Achieving,Nurtured,Active,Respected,ResponsibleandIncluded. GIRFECdescribesthekeyprinciplesandvalueswhicheverylocalauthorityisrequiredto adhereto,inordertoimproveoutcomesforchildrenandfamilies,intermsofchildren s broaderwell beinganddevelopment.thekeyaspectsofthisare: Partnershipwithparents Co ordinationofateamaroundthechild Onesingleactionplan TheroleofaLeadProfessionalinco ordinatingtheprocessofintegratedworking. CentreforEffectiveServicesReferencePaperPage13of42

16 Table1showshowtheoutcomesforIrelandandNorthernIreland,EnglandandWalesand Scotlandmapontooneanother,anddemonstratestheclosedegreeofsimilarityacrossthe differentschema. Table1NationalOutcomesforIreland,NorthernIrelandandEngland&WalesandIndicatorsforScotland RepublicofIreland Outcomes TheAgendafor Children sservices Healthy,both physicallyand mentally Supportedinactive learning NorthernIreland Outcomes OurChildren OurPledge EnglandandWales Outcomes EveryChildMatters gov.uk Healthy Behealthy Healthy Enjoying,learningand achieving Enjoyandachieve Scotland Indicators GettingitRightfor EveryChild2005 Achievingand Active Safefromaccidental andintentional harm Secureinthe immediateand widerphysical environment EconomicallySecure Partofpositive networksoffamily, friends,neighbours andthecommunity Includedand participatingin society Livinginsafetyandwith stability Experiencingeconomic andenvironmental well being Contributingpositivelyto communityandsociety Livinginasocietywhich respectstheirrights Staysafe Achieveeconomicwellbeing Makeapositive contribution Safe Nurtured Responsible Includedand respected CentreforEffectiveServicesReferencePaperPage14of42

17 Section 3 Models of child and family development Ecological Model 16 Hardiker Model 17

18 Section3 EcologicalModel Modelsofchildandfamilydevelopmentrelevanttoworking together TheEcologicalModelorecologicalperspectivehasitsoriginsinBronfenbrenner secological SystemsTheoryofHumanDevelopment(1979).Itprovidesaframeworktounderstandthe multipleinfluences orriskandprotectivefactors 2 thatimpactonchildren.accordingto Bronfenbrenner(1989),howachilddevelopsisafunctionofinteractionsbetweenthe individualchildandhisorherenvironmentovertheperiodoftimethatthechildis developing.themodeltakesasystemsperspectiveonfamilyfunctioning,anditprovidesa frameworkforunderstandinghowcriticalfactorsthatinfluencedevelopmentnesttogether withinahierarchyoffourlevels:thesocio culturallevel( macro system factors);the community( exo system factors);thefamily( micro system factors);andthelevelofthe individualparentorchild( ontogenic factors). Thusthismodelismadeupof: Thechild,atthecentre,includingthedimensionsofhis/herdevelopment Thehomeandfamily/carers Thesystemsclosesttothechild,inhis/herimmediateenvironment,suchasschool, church,play/leisure Theinter relationshipsbetweenthesesystemsinthechild simmediate environment.thismightincludetheparents relationshipwiththechild steacher andtherelationshipbetweenthechild ssiblingsandneighbourhoodfriends Socialsettingsthatcanaffectthechildbutinwhichthechilddoesnotparticipate directlye.g.localservicessuchashealth,housing,socialservices,communityand voluntarygroupsetc Thecultureandsocietyinwhichthechildliveswhichaffectthechildthroughits beliefs,attitudes,andtraditions. Thethreeimportantpointsaboutanecologicalmodelarethat: 1. Itischild centred 2. Itbeginswithafocusonthechild sexperiencesbecausethesearethe enginesof development 3. Thenatureoftherelationshipsbetweendifferentsettingsisalsoincludedbecause theyinfluencewhattheyoungchildexperiences. 2 RiskandprotectivefactorsaredefinedinSection7 Technicalandotherterms CentreforEffectiveServicesReferencePaperPage16of42

19 EcologicalmodelsunderpintheNationalChildren sstrategy s wholechild perspective, EveryChildMattersinEnglandandWales,GIRFECinScotlandandtheWholeChildModel innorthernirelandasaframeworkforcapturingtheuniqueworldofeachchild,withthe childasanactiveparticipantinit. HardikerModel Inthe1990 sintheuk,buildingonanecologicalperspective,paulinehardikerandher colleaguesdevelopedamodeltohelpunderstanddifferentlevelsofneedwithina populationofchildren(hardikeretal,1991).thismodelisnowwidelyusedandhasbeen foundtobeausefulplanningframeworkbyboththeukandirishgovernments.themodel (seefigure2)outlinesfourlevelsofinterventionasfollows: Level1:referstothosemainstreamservicesthatareavailabletoallchildren healthcare, education,leisureandarangeofotherservicesprovidedincommunities.italsooffersthe potentialfortargetingresourcesthroughcommunitydevelopmentinitiativessuchasparent andtoddlergroups,communityhousesandwomen sgroupswhichmaybeavailabletothe wholecommunitybutparticularlytargetedatdisadvantagedcommunities. Level2:representsservicestochildrenwhohavesomeadditionalneeds.ServicesatLevel2 arecharacterisedbyreferral,andfullparentalconsentandnegotiation.exampleswouldbe BehaviourSupport,ParentingSupport,additionalEducationalservices,andsupportfor childrenwhoaredeemedvulnerablethroughanassessmentofwhattheirneedis,andvia targetedspecificservicesprovidedbyeducation,health,socialservices,lawenforcement andthevoluntarysector. Level3:representssupporttofamiliesorindividualchildrenandyoungpeoplewherethere arechronicorseriousproblems.supportisoftenprovidedthroughacomplexmixof serviceswhichusuallyneedtoworktogetherwellinordertoprovidethebestsupport.state interventioncanhaveahighprofileatthislevel.exampleswouldbechildrenonthechild ProtectionRegister,orwhohavecomebeforetheCourts. Level4:representssupportforfamiliesandindividualchildrenoryoungpeoplewherethe familyhasbrokendowntemporarilyorpermanently,wherethechildoryoungpersonmay belookedafterbysocialservices.itcanalsoincludeyoungpeopleinyouthcustodyor prisonorasanin patientduetodisabilityormentalhealthproblems. CentreforEffectiveServicesReferencePaperPage17of42

20 Figure2:HardikerModel Source:Hardikeretal,1991 Thestudyofpreventionsciencehasledtowideacknowledgement,thatearlyintervention (eitherearlyintheproblem,orearlyinthedevelopmentallifecourse)atlevels1and2, throughtheprovisionofbasiccaresuchasearlyyearsservices,producespositiveoutcomes andpreventstheneedforchildrenneedingspecialistservicesatalaterdate.theaimofthe higherlevelsofsupport(3and4)istochangethefamilycircumstancespositively,sothat thefamilycanonceagainbesupportedbylevel1services(andthereforenolongerneed specialistservices)alongsidethemainstreampopulation. ThusgoodgenericLevel1serviceswouldbethepreferredapproach,supportedwith preventativeservicesatlevel2,wherebyalldifficultiesaredealtwithinmainstream education,healthandcommunity.themoreneedsaddressedatlevels1and2thebetter. Level2servicesareessentiallypreventative,manyprovidedbycommunityandvoluntary agencies.theeffectivenessoflevel2serviceswilloftendeterminethethresholdforentry intolevel3.similarly,effective,intensive,targetedservicesatlevel3willaffectthresholds forlevel4.butchildrenincare,orinyouthcustody,orinanacutehospital,atlevel4are alsodependentonaccesstoeffectiveservicesatlevels3,2and1onthejourneybacktothe community. TheHardikerModel susecanbeextendedtoengageinpartnershipworkingwithother statutoryagenciesandwiththevoluntaryandcommunitysectortolocatetheirservices alongthiscontinuum.withamorein depthknowledgeoftheneedsofparents,children CentreforEffectiveServicesReferencePaperPage18of42

21 andyoungpeople,thisframeworkhasthepotentialtosignificantlyinformthinkingabout strategicobjectives. CentreforEffectiveServicesReferencePaperPage19of42

22 Section 4 Assessment frameworks Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families 21 My World Triangle 22 Framework for the Assessment of Vulnerable Children and their Families 24 Common Assessment Framework 24 Identification of Needs (ION) and Limerick Assessment of Need System (LANS) 26

23 Section4 Assessmentframeworksrelevanttoworkingtogether Thedifferentassessmentframeworksdescribedinthissectionarealltheoretically underpinnedbybronfenbrenner secologicalmodel. FrameworkfortheAssessmentofChildreninNeedandtheirFamilies (England&Wales) The FrameworkfortheAssessmentofChildreninNeedandtheirFamilies wasintroduced toenglandandwalesin2000(doh,2000).theframeworkprovidesasystematicand consistentwayofcollectingandanalysinginformationaboutanindividualchildtoenablea morecoherentunderstandingofthechild sworld,especiallyinsituationswhereachildis thoughttobe inneed.itisthereforesuitedtoassessmentwheretargetedresponsesmay berequired(levels2to4inhardiker smodel)itguidespractitionerswhenundertakingan assessmentofachild sneedstoaddress: Thechild sdevelopmentalneeds Thecapacityofhisorherparents/carerstorespondtothoseneeds Theimpactofthewiderfamilyandenvironmentalfactorsonboththechildandhis orherparents/carerswhileensuringthechild swelfareissafeguardedand promoted. Thethreedomainsconstituteaframeworkwithinwhichtounderstandwhatishappeningto achild(seefigure3).fromthis,clearprofessionaljudgmentscanbemade.thesejudgments includewhetherthechildbeingassessedisinneed,whetherthechildissufferingorlikelyto suffersignificantharm,whatactionsmustbetakenandwhichserviceswouldbestmeetthe needsofthisparticularchildandfamily. TheFrameworkisevidence basedandunderpinnedbyasetofcoreprincipleswhichmeans assessments: Arechildcentred Arerootedinchilddevelopment Areecologicalintheirapproach Ensureequalityofopportunity Involveworkingwithchildrenandfamilies Buildonstrengthsaswellasidentifydifficulties Areinteragencyinapproach Arepartofacontinuingprocess Arecarriedinparallelwithotheractionandprovidingservices Aregroundedinevidence basedknowledge. CentreforEffectiveServicesReferencePaperPage21of42

24 Figure3TheAssessmentTriangle Source:FrameworkfortheAssessmentofChildreninNeedandtheirFamilies,DepartmentofHealth, UK(2000) MyWorldTriangle(GettingitRightforEveryChild Scotland) GettingitRightforEveryChildinScotlandalsousestheassessmenttriangle(usedinthe FrameworkfortheAssessmentofChildreninNeedandtheirFamilies),referringtoitasthe MyWorldTriangle.Thetriangleidentifiesgenericareasimportantinthedevelopmentof allchildren,whichshouldbetakenintoaccountwhenassessingchildrenandyoungpeople. ItbroadlyreflectsthedifferentdimensionsdescribedintheEcologicalModel. TheTrianglerepresentsthethreedomainsthattheassessmentshouldtakeaccountofthe: Child'sdevelopmentalneeds Parents'orcaregivers'capacitiestorespondappropriately Widerfamilyandenvironmentalfactors. Itservesasastartingpointforconsideringwhatrisksmightbepresentinachild'slife,as expressedinthefigure4. Thisallowspractitionersanopportunitytoidentifypossiblerisk indicatorsusingtheareasprovidedbythemyworldtriangle.practitionersusingthis frameworkareurgedtoconsiderwhoisbestplacedtoprovideinformationinrelationtothe CentreforEffectiveServicesReferencePaperPage22of42

25 FrameworkfortheAssessmentofVulnerableChildrenandtheirFamilies (Children sresearchcentre,trinitycollegedublin Ireland) TheFrameworkfortheAssessmentofVulnerableChildrenandtheirFamilies:Assessment ToolandPracticeGuidancewasdevelopedbyHelenBuckleyandcolleaguesintheChildren s ResearchCentreinTrinityCollegeDublinandJanHorwath,SheffieldUniversity(2007).The designwasinformedthroughconsultationwith600practitionersandmanagersin commissioninghealthboardsandrelatedorganisations.itdrawssubstantiallyonthe FrameworkfortheAssessmentofChildreninNeedandtheirfamilies(DoHUK2000).The keyaimsoftheframeworkaretohelpstandardisepracticeacrossarangeoforganisational environments,throughanapproachthatisadaptabletoarangeoffamilysituationsand circumstancesinatransparentanduser friendlymanner. Asetofcorevaluesemergedfromtheconsultationprocess,uponwhichtheassessment frameworkisbased: Immediatesafetyofthechild Child centredandecologicalapproachtoassessments Inclusiveapproachtoassessment Recogniseindividualneedsofallchildrenregardlessofage,gender,ethnicityand disability Multi disciplinarypractice Evidence basedpractice Goodqualitysupervision. Thedraftassessmentframeworkconsistsoftwodocuments:atoolandpracticeguidance. Thetoolisconcernedwiththreedimensionsofthechild slife(theassessmenttriangle)that theassessmentshouldfocuson: Child sneeds Parentalcapacitytomeetneeds Familyandcommunitycapacitytoneeds. Theassessmentalsohighlightskeyareas(ethnicity,parentaldrugmisuse,domesticviolence etc)andindicateshowtheireffectmightbeconsideredagainstthethreedimensions. CommonAssessmentFramework(EveryChildMatters EnglandandWales) TheCommonAssessmentFramework(CAF)isakeycomponentforachievingEveryChild Mattersoutcomes.Itisasharedassessmentandplanningframeworkforuseacrossall children sservicesandalllocalareasinenglandandwales.itaimstohelptheearly identificationofchildrenandyoungpeople sadditionalneedsandpromoteamorecoordinatedserviceprovisiontomeetthem,particularlyintermsofuniversalservices(level1 CentreforEffectiveServicesReferencePaperPage24of42

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