1 U. S. C O M M I S S I O N O N C I V I L R I G H T S The Multiethnic Placement Act Minorities in Foster Care and Adoption BRIEFING R E P O R U. S. C O M M I S S I O N O N C I V I L R I G H T S Washington, DC Visit us on the Web: J U LY T
2 U. S. C o m m i s s i o n o n C i v i l R i g h t s The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights is an independent, bipartisan agency established by Congress in It is directed to: Investigate complaints alleging that citizens are being deprived of their right to vote by reason of their race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin, or by reason of fraudulent practices. Study and collect information relating to discrimination or a denial of equal protection of the laws under the Constitution because of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin, or in the administration of justice. Appraise federal laws and policies with respect to discrimination or denial of equal protection of the laws because of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin, or in the administration of justice. Serve as a national clearinghouse for information in respect to discrimination or denial of equal protection of the laws because of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. Submit reports, findings, and recommendations to the President and Congress. Issue public service announcements to discourage discrimination or denial of equal protection of the laws. M e m b e r s o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n Gerald A. Reynolds, Chairman Abigail Thernstrom, Vice Chair Todd Gaziano Gail Heriot Peter N. Kirsanow Arlan D. Melendez Ashley L. Taylor, Jr. Michael Yaki Martin Dannenfelser, Staff Director U.S. Commission on Civil Rights 624 Ninth Street, NW Washington, DC (202) voice (202) TTY This report is available on disk in ASCII Text and Microsoft Word 2003 for persons with visual impairments. Please call (202)
5 U.S. Commission on Civil Rights The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights is an independent, bipartisan agency established by Congress in It is directed to Investigate complaints alleging that citizens are being deprived of their right to vote by reason of their race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin, or by reason of fraudulent practices. Study and collect information relating to discrimination or a denial of equal protection of the laws under the Constitution because of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin, or in the administration of justice. Appraise federal laws and policies with respect to discrimination or denial of equal protection of the laws because of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin, or in the administration of justice. Serve as a national clearinghouse for information in respect to discrimination or denial of equal protection of the laws because of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. Submit reports, findings, and recommendations to the President and Congress. Issue public service announcements to discourage discrimination or denial of equal protection of the laws. Members of the Commission Gerald A. Reynolds, Chairman Abigail Thernstrom, Vice Chair Todd Gaziano Gail Heriot Peter N. Kirsanow Arlan D. Melendez Ashley L. Taylor, Jr. Michael Yaki Martin Dannenfelser, Staff Director U.S. Commission on Civil Rights 624 Ninth Street, NW Washington, DC (202) (202) TTY This report is available on disk in ASCII Text and Microsoft Word 2003 for persons with visual impairments. Please call (202)
6 The Multiethnic Placement Act: Minorities in Foster Care and Adoption A Briefing Before The United States Commission on Civil Rights Washington, DC Briefing Report
8 Letter of Transmittal The President The President of the Senate The Speaker of the House Sirs and Madam: The United States Commission on Civil Rights (Commission) is pleased to transmit this report, The Multiethnic Placement Act: Minorities in Foster Care and Adoption. A panel of experts briefed members of the Commission on September 21, 2007 regarding the enactment of the Multiethnic Placement Act (MEPA) and its effect on reducing the amount of time minority children spend in foster care or wait to be adopted. The panelists also discussed transracial adoptions and whether they serve children's best interests and assessed the Department of Health and Human Services' (HHS) effectiveness in enforcing MEPA. Based on that discussion, the Commission developed the findings and recommendations that are included in this report. Among its findings, the Commission notes that the number of children in foster care, a disproportionate number of whom are black, has grown over the last generation. However, since MEPA and its subsequent amendments became law, the adoption of black children by white couples has increased and the amount of time they spent in foster care decreased by four months on average between 2000 and The Commission also noted that although MEPA encourages state and local entities to recruit foster and adoptive parents who reflect the ethnic and racial diversity of the children, it does not discourage transracial adoption or require a preference for same-race placement, The Commission recommends that HHS continue its vigorous enforcement of MEPA by conducting compliance reviews and imposing sanctions as necessary to ensure that states, agencies and government personnel are in compliance with its provisions prohibiting the use of race in placement decisions. The Commission also recommends that Congress allow reimbursement for legal guardianship similar to that currently provided for adoption, reiterating an earlier recommendation made by the General Accountability Office. This would help increase the number of homes available for permanent placement of African American and other special needs children. Most importantly, it is in children's best interests to be placed in safe and secure homes. Part A, which consists of the body of this report, was approved by Commissioners Gaziano, Melendez, Reynolds, Taylor, and Thernstrom on December 4, Commissioners Heriot and Yaki abstained. Commissioner Kirsanow did not vote. Vote tallies for each of the Commission's findings and recommendations, which make up Part B of the report, are noted therein.
10 Table of Contents v Table of Contents Executive Summary... 1 Findings and Recommendations... 7 Summary of Proceedings First Panel: Enacting and Enforcing MEPA and an Assessment of Minority Children in Foster Care Joan Ohl Kay Brown Discussion Second Panel: The Best Interests of Children and the Role of Race J. Toni Oliver Joseph Kroll Rita Simon Discussion Third Panel: Has MEPA Achieved Its Goal? Thomas Atwood Ruth McRoy Elizabeth Bartholet Linda Spears Discussion Statements: First Panel Joan Ohl Kay Brown Statements: Second Panel J. Toni Oliver Joseph Kroll Rita J. Simon Statements: Third Panel Thomas Atwood Ruth McRoy... 90
11 vi The Multiethnic Placement Act Elizabeth Bartholet Elizabeth Bartholet Commentary Linda Spears Commissioner Statements Statement of Vice-Chair Thernstrom Statement of Commissioner Yaki Statement of Commissioner Heriot Statement of Commissioner Yaki (Rebuttal) Speaker Biographies Thomas Atwood Elizabeth Bartholet Kay Brown Joseph Kroll Ruth G. McRoy J. Toni Oliver Joan E. Ohl Rita J. Simon Linda Spears APPENDIX Questions and Answers Regarding the Multiethnic Placement Act of 1994 and Section 1808 of the Small Business and Job Protection Act of
12 Executive Summary 1 Executive Summary The Multiethnic Placement Act of 1994 (MEPA) 1, was intended to encourage timely decision-making in the adoption and foster care systems, including addressing the problem of discrimination on the basis of race or ethnicity. The act was introduced by Senators Howard Metzenbaum (D-OH) and Carol Moseley-Braun (D-IL) to promote the best interests of children in out-of-home care by ensuring that they have permanent, safe, stable and loving homes suited to their individual needs. Of particular concern to Congress was the chronically low permanent placement rate of African American and other minority children due to the practice of racial and ethnic matching policies, and the limited success agencies were having in finding African American and other minority adoptive families. 2 MEPA prohibits the delay or denial of foster care or adoption based solely on race, color, or national origin, and requires state agencies to make diligent efforts to expand the pool of foster and adoptive parents who represent the racial and ethnic backgrounds of children in foster care. These mandates apply to any agency that receives federal funds and is involved in some facet of foster care or adoptive placement. Congress believed that these two approaches would increase the pool of minority adoptive families and remove barriers to children s placement with available qualified adopters. In 1996, MEPA was amended by the Removal of Barriers to Interethnic Adoption Act (IEP) 3 which removed the word solely from MEPA s prohibition against delaying or denying an adoptive placement on the basis of race, color, or national origin. IEP retained the requirement that states diligently recruit potential foster and adoptive families who reflected the ethnic and racial diversity of children. IEP also added provisions addressing the rights of prospective adoptive parents and made noncompliance with MEPA/IEP a violation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of To better understand the issues involved in transracial adoption and to assess whether MEPA was achieving its purpose, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights (the Commission) conducted a briefing in Washington, DC on September 21, The following five questions were posed to nine panelists: 1. Has enactment of MEPA removed barriers to permanency facing children involved in the child protective system? 1 Multiethnic Placement Act of 1994, Pub. L , 108 Stat McRoy written statement, pp of this report. 3 Pub. L. No , 110 Stat. 1755(1996) (codified at 42 U.S.C. 671(a)(18), 1996(b)). It provides that not later than January 1, 1997, neither the State nor any other entity in the State that receives funds from the Federal Government and is involved in adoption or foster care placements may (a) deny to any person the opportunity to become an adoptive or a foster parent, on the basis of the race, color, or national origin of the person, or of the child, involved; or (b) delay or deny the placement of a child for adoption or into foster care, on the basis of the race, color, or national origin of the adoptive or foster parent, or the child, involved U.S.C. 1996b (2009).
13 2The Multiethnic Placement Act 2. Do transracial adoptions serve the children s best interest or do they have negative consequences for minority children, families, and communities? 3. How effectively is the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) enforcing MEPA? 4. What impact has HHS s enforcement of MEPA had on the efforts of prospective foster care or adoptive parents to adopt or provide foster care for minority children? 5. Has the enactment of MEPA reduced the amount of time minority children spend in foster care or the wait to be adopted? Joan Ohl, the Commissioner for the Administration on Children, Youth and Families at HHS, stated that HHS and its Office for Civil Rights have moved beyond simply providing interpretative guidance. The agency now determines whether states are in noncompliance with MEPA and enforces its mandated financial penalties. While there is no official Federal definition of transracial adoption, 5 Commissioner Ohl cited statistics from HHS s database which showed that the percentage of adoptions in which at least one parent differed from the child in at least one racial or ethnic category has increased for non-hispanic African American children and decreased for Hispanic and non-hispanic white children. In addition, the average length of the adoption process has declined for African American children, as well as for Hispanic and non-hispanic white children. 6 Commissioner Ohl stated that it was likely that MEPA was one of the causal factors but emphasized that the law s broad intended focus was to remove and eliminate discrimination in child welfare. 7 Kay Brown, Acting Director of the Education Workforce and Income Security Team at the Government Accountability Office (GAO) discussed a GAO study on the overrepresentation of black children in foster care. 8 The study was based on results of a nationwide Web-based survey of state child welfare administrators in 50 states and the District of Columbia; site visits to five states; analyses of state reported data; and interviews with federal agency officials, researchers, and other experts. Ms. Brown identified higher rates of poverty as one of the factors causing black children to enter foster care in higher proportions than other children. Other factors, including bias, cultural misunderstanding, and distrust between child welfare officials and the families they serve, also contributed to the disproportionate removal of children from their homes, she said. The GAO study found that once African American children are removed from their homes, HHS data show that they remain in foster care about nine months longer than white children. For children who cannot be reunited with their families, state officials reported difficulties in finding appropriate permanent homes, in part 5 Ohl written statement, p. 48 of this report. 6 The average length of time to adoption has declined from 55 to 47 months for African American children, 43 to 36 months for Hispanic children and 39 to 33 months for non-hispanic white children. 7 Ohl written statement, p. 52 of this report. 8 See African American Children in Foster Care: Additional HHS Assistance Needed to Help States Reduce the Proportion in Care, GAO (Washington, DC: July 2007) (hereafter referred to as African American Children in Foster Care). The report is also available on the HHS Web site: (accessed Mar. 12, 2009).
14 Executive Summary 3 because of the challenges in recruiting adoptive parents, especially for youth who are older or have special needs. 9 J. Toni Oliver, Co-Chair of the Family Preservation Focus Group, National Association of Black Social Workers, contended that MEPA ignores or accepts racial disparities at the initiation of child welfare services and focuses only on the resulting outcomes. She contended that MEPA has not eliminated minority overrepresentation in child welfare, but acknowledged that its requirement to recruit prospective foster and adoptive parents that match the ethnic and racial makeup of the communities of the children in foster care has been beneficial. 10 Ms. Oliver said that in large states such as California, Illinois, New York, and Texas, the proportion of black children in foster care ranged from three to more than 10 times that of white children, and the foster care system in these states and their cities was almost exclusively black. Ms. Oliver argued that the child welfare system as a whole has negative consequences for minority children, and that the focus should be more on the policies of a public welfare system that is difficult for minority families to navigate, resulting in the removal of children from their homes and their placement into the foster care system at disproportionately higher rates. Joseph Kroll, Executive Director of the North American Council on Adoptable Children, argued that HHS was interpreting the law to mean that adoptive families should not be given special training to enable them to meet the unique needs of adopted children of a different race. He stated further that if adoptive families are not prepared for what their children may face, neither the families nor the adopted children will be well-served. Mr. Kroll claimed that HHS s Office for Civil Rights has focused on only one of the two requirements of MEPA (the removal of barriers to transracial adoptions), and has made no effort to enforce the law regarding the diligent recruitment effort. Mr. Kroll also argued that MEPA is being used to protect the interests of white adults rather than the interests of minority children. He stated that the best interests of minority children need to be considered first. Rita J. Simon, of the School of Public Affairs, Washington College of Law at American University, gave a synopsis of a longitudinal study from her book, Adoption, Race, and Identity: From Infancy to Young Adulthood. Researchers followed the lives of 213 families in Illinois, Missouri, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan over a 20-year period beginning in In the first round of interviews, parents of these families were asked general questions ranging from demographics to their reasons for adopting a child of a different race. The most common response to the latter was that they could not have a first or second birth child and wanted children. The children in these families were well aware of their race or ethnicity. During the second round of interviews, only the parents were interviewed. Although they were happy with the adoptions overall, one-third of the parents reported their adopted children were exhibiting problems such as stealing from other members of the family. In the last round of interviews, the children, then adolescents, reported feeling comfortable with their racial identity. At that time, more than 90 percent of the parents reported that they were happy they had adopted across racial lines. Dr. Simon stated that an important aspect of the 9 Brown written statement, p. 63 of this report U.S.C. 422(b) (2009).
15 4The Multiethnic Placement Act 20-year study was that it showed that transracial adoption causes no special problems among the adoptees or their siblings. 11 Thomas Atwood, President and Chief Executive Officer of the National Council for Adoption, stated that transracial adoption led to a healthy, positive outcome for children, as evidenced by studies of transracially adopted children that reveal outcomes consistent with those of children adopted by parents of the same race. Mr. Atwood claimed that states misinterpret MEPA and abandon good social work practices for fear of violating the act. He stated that MEPA serves the best interests of children in the following ways: 1) it reduces obstacles to transracial adoption and foster care placement, which has resulted in successful transracial placement; 2) Part B of MEPA prohibits consideration of race when such consideration would delay or deny a child s placement; 12 3) Part A of MEPA allows children access to transracial placements by restricting racial discrimination against prospective parents; 13 4) it allows for exceptions in circumstances where the child has a specific and demonstrable need for a same race placement ; and 5) it requires states to provide for the diligent recruitment of racially diverse parents. Mr. Atwood said that HHS should make greater efforts to clarify these issues and that states should reform their policies and guidelines to follow the actual meaning of MEPA, rather than the mistaken notion that MEPA prohibits any discussion or consideration of race. Ruth G. McRoy, Ruby Lee Piester Centennial Professor Emerita at the University of Texas at Austin and Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute Board Member and Senior Fellow reported that the majority of children enter foster care because of parental neglect, while others enter as a result of physical or sexual abuse, developmental problems resulting from prenatal exposure to drugs and alcohol or some combination of these factors. She acknowledged that although there have been small increases in the number of transracial adoptions of African American children, there are thousands who are still awaiting permanent placement, especially older children. Dr. McRoy stated that data indicate that half the adoptive mothers of black children in foster care are 50 years of age or older and usually are related to or have been foster parents to the children. She also argued that if more services were provided to birth families, many African American children would not even enter foster care and languish there indefinitely. According to her, there are 510,000 children in the nation s foster care system, and the transracial adoption issue is small compared to the difficulty of finding permanent families for the 129,000 children needing adoption. Elizabeth Bartholet, Professor of Law and Director of the Child Advocacy Program at Harvard Law School, disagreed with other panelists who argued that efforts to recruit African American parents were insufficient, citing the same rates of adoption by African Americans and whites (in her view a sign of successful recruitment), there was no need to do more to recruit potential families. She attributed the rate of African American adoptive families to a government policy of creating differential standards favoring minority applicants under a 11 Simon written statement, p.80 of this report U.S.C. 5115a(a)(1)(B) (2009) U.S.C. 5115a(a)(1)(A) (2009).
16 Executive Summary 5 system of race-matching children with parents that was practiced for decades. 14 In her opinion, MEPA is a very important law because it knocks down barriers to, and expedites the placement of, black children, and sends a clear message that states cannot and should not prefer same-race families in placing children. Dr. Bartholet distinguished between racial sensitivity screening and sensitizing prospective parents, and she agreed that there was nothing wrong with sensitizing adoptive parents to the realities of a race-conscious society but cautioned against a state-imposed orthodoxy on how minority children should be raised. Linda Spears, Acting Senior Vice President of the Child Welfare League of America, stated that over the years, the number of children and the nature of those children in the system has changed dramatically and white children now constitute a small portion of the children in need of adoption planning and services. She indicated that the number of children in the nation s out-of-home care system who need adoption has increased tremendously because of numerous social conditions and policy changes, as well as the needs of these children. In addition to the challenges mentioned throughout the briefing, these children are considered special-needs by virtue of being hard to place. She said when she interviewed both black and white service providers, she concluded that lack of competence rather than racism led to confusion about how to provide services for children and families of color before neglect and abuse, and, subsequently, removal from the home, occurred. The panelists fielded questions from the Commissioners on issues including: The number of children, by race and ethnicity, who are made available for adoption annually or have been put up for adoption in recent years, and the racial makeup of the potential adoptive homes; The relationship between family structure in the black community and poverty resulting in the higher number of black children available for adoption; The recruitment efforts being undertaken to increase the pool of minority adoptive parents and whether efforts at the local level within each state will be measurable; The term special needs and its application to African American children, as well as the institutionalization of these children; and Training on race and racism for adoptees and adoptive parents. A transcript of this briefing is available on the Commission s website, and by request from the Publications Office, U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 624 Ninth Street, NW, Room 600, Washington, DC, 20425, (202) , 14 MEPA, Briefing transcript, p. 118.
18 Findings and Recommendations 7 Findings and Recommendations Findings 1. The Multi-Ethnic Placement Act (MEPA), amended by the removal of barriers to interethnic adoption provisions, was broadly intended to remove and eliminate discrimination in child welfare, both for the benefit of children who needed permanent homes, and for the benefit of prospective parents who wished to provide permanent homes. Additionally, the passage of MEPA rendered child welfare policies and law consistent with the principle of non-discrimination by race. [Chairman Reynolds, Vice Chair Thernstrom, and Commissioners Gaziano and Taylor voted in favor. Commissioners Heriot, Melendez, and Yaki abstained. Commissioner Kirsanow did not participate in the vote.] 2. By enacting MEPA, Congress intended to remove barriers to transracial adoptions so as to reduce the disproportionate number of minority children awaiting placement. It was also intended to reduce the number of children remaining in non-permanent home care for long periods. [Chairman Reynolds, Vice Chair Thernstrom, and Commissioner Gaziano voted in favor. Commissioners Heriot, Melendez, Taylor, and Yaki abstained. Commissioner Kirsanow did not participate in the vote.] 3. The number of children in foster care has grown over the last generation. A disproportionate number of foster children are black. On average, black children remain in foster care longer than children of other racial and ethnic backgrounds. Some experts believe the causes of these disproportions include, but are not limited to, racial bias, poverty, and the prevalence of single-parent families. [Chairman Reynolds, and Commissioners Gaziano and Taylor voted in favor. Vice Chair Thernstrom and Commissioners Heriot, Melendez, and Yaki abstained. Commissioner Kirsanow did not participate in the vote.] 4. Since the amended MEPA became law in 1996, the adoption of black children by white couples has increased. From 2000 to 2004, the time black children spent in foster care had decreased by four months on average. Multiracial adoption has increased, as has adoption out of foster care. [Chairman Reynolds, and Commissioners Gaziano and Taylor voted in favor. Vice Chair Thernstrom and Commissioners Heriot, Melendez, and Yaki abstained. Commissioner Kirsanow did not participate in the vote.] 5. Children are better off in permanent family settings than in foster care. [Chairman Reynolds, and Commissioners Gaziano, Heriot, and Taylor voted in favor. Vice Chair Thernstrom and Commissioners Kirsanow, Melendez, and Yaki abstained.] 6. Extensive research has shown that transracial adoption does not produce psychological or other social problems in adopted children, especially if parents are properly selected and prepared for raising children of a different race. Also, according
19 8The Multiethnic Placement Act to experts, transracial adoption does not seem to affect children s racial and ethnic identity. [Chairman Reynolds, Vice Chair Thernstrom, and Commissioners Gaziano, Kirsanow and Taylor voted in favor. Commissioners Heriot, Melendez, and Yaki abstained.] 7. MEPA encourages state and local entities to recruit foster and adoptive parents who reflect the racial and ethnic diversity of the children. It does not discourage transracial placements nor does it require a preference for same-race placements. The fact that black parents are adopting at the same rate as white parents suggests that successful recruitment of black parents is taking place. [Chairman Reynolds, Vice Chair Thernstrom, and Commissioners Gaziano and Taylor voted in favor. Commissioners Heriot, Kirsanow, Melendez, and Yaki abstained.] 8. MEPA s prohibition of racial discrimination in child placement does not prevent agencies from discussing with prospective adoptive and foster parents their feelings, capacities, and preferences with respect to caring for a child of a particular race or ethnicity. Nor does it prevent sensitizing parents to the problems that children might face after adoption by families of a different race or ethnicity than theirs. [Chairman Reynolds and Commissioners Gaziano and Taylor voted in favor. Vice Chair Thernstrom and Commissioners Heriot, Kirsanow, Melendez, and Yaki abstained.] 9. Since enactment of the 1996 amendments to MEPA, the Removal of Barriers to Inter- Ethnic Adoption Act, HHS has conducted compliance reviews which found that a number of agencies and personnel have circumvented MEPA s provisions prohibiting consideration of race in placements. [Chairman Reynolds, Vice Chair Thernstrom, and Commissioners Gaziano, Kirsanow, and Taylor voted in favor. Commissioner Melendez voted against. Commissioners Heriot and Yaki abstained.] 10. In a study of state adoption policies, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) found that states consider the provision of federal subsidies to parents who adopt a child with special needs to be helpful in reducing racial disproportionality in adoptions. As used in adoption, special needs is a term states use for children who have characteristics they believe make adoption more difficult (e.g., being of older age, having a disability, being a member of a minority group). [Chairman Reynolds and Commissioner Taylor voted in favor. Vice Chair Thernstrom and Commissioners Gaziano, Heriot, Kirsanow, Melendez, and Yaki abstained.] Recommendations 1. It is in the best interests of the child to be placed in a safe and stable home. [Chairman Reynolds, Vice Chair Thernstrom, and Commissioners Gaziano, Heriot, Kirsanow, and Yaki voted in favor. Commissioner Melendez abstained. Commissioner Taylor did not participate in the vote] 2. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) should continue with its vigorous enforcement of MEPA s antidiscrimination prohibitions. [Chairman