The Voynich Manuscript: An. Elegant. Enigma

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1 The Voynich Manuscript: An. Elegant. Enigma


3 Contents Page l Tbt Knorm Foe& The bnuseript As Fwnd 'rhcibmnhutwyoftbempndpt... 2 Awnusl of Atuck m-the fmbkm: ASwy Conjaetm Concarning rhr H. m of the Manuscript Autkwrhipand h r p... ~ 22.1 AHw.eForgery.wN~~~t~? Who Wmtr ft. md Why? m d Cindtrlyiving language... 3 Avmusr of Attatk: The Dtawings Rrlrtionlhip of thc Ihmwings to tbt Text Nature md Cbatrcteristics of the Drswinp Rwraicm and Style Pighents nnd Inh Rctatimhipr to Swaa 0th Ululvatcd Wanumipts... a3 ~ancratd~~ifie~.rmof~... 3A 1 Herbrl Ihrwkys Wumrrmtid Drawinp As~onmicrl Ihmwinp Cmmological or Medagial Drawings Drawinn FmwringHuman Figurn Networkof httcs. Fob Small Mugiml M i Meanmg of h Co1l.ctim d h winp 4s a Whale....l.....I... 4 Avtnua of Atuck: TheTmrt Xanuc md Cb~ttiiaim of the Voynich Script Rovrnimn and St* Relationships to Known Scriptsad Character Sets Attempts to h m p w the Symbols into Elements Variant m d Embrlhbad Fmns of SymU...' th Seripud Hamb Limu Saqwaers thmt Laolr Lit "Keys" Cryptanalytic md Stylistic Attacks an the Tat Phenomena in the Text Which Must k Aeeounttd for by Any Theory... 5 Mmja Claimraf Dcciphermmt Sewbold r The Latin Text Cipk The S hhmd Cipher Fwly... $5 5.3 Strong s-4 BNmbmUfh.... 3: -' 6 Hhtory of Other Substantlrl Analpic Effionr The Fwma in Which the Manureripr h Bsan Studitd Ill



6 Foreword Tk hiswy of my conneon lwirh the Vqntch m~owript is as fdlows: in 195 I Mr. With F. Friedman introduced me lo fhc manttsrripr md I rpent my spc rime in stuely~np thc combinations of thr masr cmmtmlv ormrrinp s~mbols. I urea a rrpwr of my work for Mr. Friedman. I should mention that the only pn of the mnnuscrcripr which was avaiiable to me at the ame was the wary pages at k md which cmtain nu illurpadons. In fact he delibcrnlv used me as J mud-ht wld me nothing dm than rfie infamation about the manuscrip contained in the bck Thr Gpk of Roarr &con by Nrwbold. On the strength of this d g I came to the rather definite conclusion thar the text could not hvst k n mid u m l y by rhr htlluon of single sfmbotr 6w k e r s wlunwr the lanpuagc involved. Subwqumdy.born m1w yari ~po I red a pper ro the hitimate Bibliophiles cwcring the historv of the manasmpt ad mine of die at#mpr so decipher it. This pnprr. a1- unaimed. was p n d in an i m d office journal. In rht fall of 1975 I red a pap om therubim-ma pup ofvcdlcapu~ k thu occasion waa rather widely advertid wihin the organization. it stud quite a large audience and rht attention of some of thwr who attended was drawn to the srudy ofthe manuscrtp. Frm the rimt when Mr. Frirdntan's bcaith k p n to fail. I have acted as a sort of unofficiai cwrdinator of the work nt romr d c)lc pcopk who have km whine on the"problem. and when Miss Mary D'Impcrio told me oi her rnlnclr. I ~ugpttd ha1 she Add assume chis mnpmibiliry. S k wrim a far morc compsthmrivt and mac vhdarly survey of chr probltm than mine and it ~ believe. kcomr the defiaitiw barkground of fume work in this field. To my knwkdgc thm haw btrn thm rather txttwive aoalvm of the mipt of the mmurcrip~. bv Mr. Friedman. br mt. and h Clpain frcs~~lrr Crrrrier. Of t)mr. f Miwe Capn Cnrrkr's to k fnr tht most cornpine. All three have -Id rimilar cmdusions st any me in lomt ~rpmr. and I Fad mpif quite ummc to accept any sup~crred mlution unless it mke m a t of these urolp. John H. Tiitman

7 Introduction Tk reader ma? wtl wonder. "Why still anher pper on the Vqnich manumipr!" So much har ken wrimn alrcadv on thtt mart died. mart curious. and mart mysscriow manuscript upon which so many r-rchm haw exhausted their dadn in vain. PethPp~ a few words of +amtion mipht be in &np the wngc for the reader. and in pramring the morirrtion for this monopirph. As a etiativelv recent newcomer to the ranks of Vwch manuxript mdcno. I have unwittinplv rtuaced rhe ncps ~i ai1 m: prtd-5. tcdimrwrinp rhcir lourca, repring heir exprimmrr. prowing excited ovtr the same promising leads that cuwrd hem. and learning onlq Lota that all the things bad ahdy k n tried a d had failed. ohn several times. I have M wish to impiy that I rcgrrr any of my efforts. In fm I little nupd. when I was first ~ntroduced ro the promem of the.. Vech,-nuscrip at &qadi? -. Tilmn's.. iernve in Novcmkr that I wwld sped dl mv rp~rtime for chr next ear an an inrclle-1 and sparinul but& rprnning rn many immries and raneiq over so mnv of an. hirrorr. philosophy. and phi-y. I hove &oroughlv enjoyed mrv mmenr of my invcsripouons. and would not pivc rhrm up or anr pcc. Thc fact mains hat, in +re of nu the that orhtrs haw written about the rnanumipr. there is. to mr know. ledge. no rornptc smv of aii the apprmches. id=. kkpraund information and analvric studies that have ~mrnulactd VWCI the nmrip hhy-fiw vmrr Jim the manuscript war dixovtrd by Wilfrid M. Vopnich in Mar of the papers have ken witten 4th~~ to schrnmc or m ~ fua a prticulnr t h y. providing in pnrslng a brief planer at others' cfforu. prnari1v tr~ sweep rhem our of the way. Some prneatauonr p d e pd tmunmu of m e orp~n of the problem. norably rho= br Vo)nich ( 1921 ),1Yeuhld ( Tiltman ~1968l. and Krirc)#r ( 1969). Much vital information. howcm. is to be found only in unpubiishd naris and papar inamuibie to mosr mh. I have felt that it would k useful to pdl together all the inhmmtion I could dmin from J he #num 1 haw emmud. ad to prrscnr it in an ofdcrly fahim. I hope char the &Icing SUM? will prwide a firm basis upon which aher &a m y buikl their work. whether they seek m decipher the mt or simply to I- mare abut the probkm. This m~tograph mi1 k arranged in h main xctions. Firu. I will pre~nt a survey of all the basic facts of the probkm: the "givem'*. u ir were. M. f will ap rn cover all the pri~v avenues of mock and the informarion relevant ro each;. the wnal chwaearidrs of the manumipi id, the drawings. and rh* rexr. Third. I will sum the maim daims of decipherment and Mhrr substantial analyzic work carried out by varw mearchers. Fourth. I will prandc a rapd sketch of mflararl d background topia whh rrmr likely to k uurrhl. An -ive bihi yranv is included. compnsinp bwks and.. p~on the Voynich mawripc ioelf and on a varier? of relared wpu. I wish to rrprw my apprao~rim for be gmmuur aid of John H. Tiltman, without wh& enrourapcmmt this monopa* would never have hen rwaplrrtd. I wisb rlso to hank Stuart Buck. Edwin S. Spiegdtbl. a d Stuart Mlintock. who proofrd my mnusaipr and offeral mon y helpful criticism and ntpons.

8 Chapter 1 The Known Facts It seems impwcsnt firu of all to distinpuish clearly the givens-the incomrwtrti blt facts avallabk to all SVJ~~JS of the mmruaip-and the lush v t h of conikfure Chat has accumulated mund the few meagre rertarntlcs we hart..a c h pbyucp1 Wipuon of the &ex iaclf is providrd by metal authars. Tk rnv in the cmlogue of H. f. Kraur (nnaquahn bookdcakr pad owner OF the mrnmipt for a numb- of y m ) provides an ntcrllear. rompact sketch IK~ fipe 11. In kef b mystmiom m&pmmiswir a-sd- q~prtp durn. with leav~ of vawinp size but of on averape nine by ix urchtr. m e multiply fcllded. Morr psdn contain. in addition to copious wxt in the unknlrwn Icript I which 1 will d the "V~pich mipt" thrwpht h s ppcrb. &red pime of conridt~abk varic, whwc mcaninp ir u p ru conicrtute. Mw alppeor w tepre#nr plants. amdogid Qr mdogicd moraial. and phatmarmcical recipes. while a irw show hu.- figurn rurroundtd by bizam objects in,nnesof udmrminrd import. The tat and drawinps will: k stadtd in derrmr derail in Chapters 3 and 4. The mamm~pt hr rw m r ; he fi pap contains only four kief paragraphs of wxt withous pictures. but w~th an apparent d e *nrmpl at rubrication by rncana ocmlargod and crnklfhhtd initil choranar in red ink. The tasr pap shwr a few Lims of mitiug near the tap. in a d i h t scrip or mixture of miprr than the hulk of the text. along with a few srmhls from the Voych ~cript. ad a mnering of sketchy drawinpr of airmls. people. a d otk unidentifmblc hem in he oppr left mmr. Some krrr in the body ofcht mwript a h w i n mings Ihplv iucpilk) in mipa md hands.ppnrrndy difiirrg from dse majority ofhe ten. Thcv otppicrl scraps of wid* wit! he ddt with more fullr below. We hart une bit of conrrrrr data 10 mplail: a Jetm. hrd h n the pap of the mnumipr bv Willrid Voynich. Fium 2 sbows rhrs h. and figure 3 provides irs tranrlrum frm LPcin u prepad for Vomich and published bv him ( p. 27). T hc ktar was wrim bq Jmnnus Marcus Maru in Rapuc to nccompanv his pift of the manuxripr to Arhanasius Ki~her. 5. I.. in Rome. The letter 4 5 rhe following did faas to our bledpc i as flrshcd out bc the mearch of Vwnich. which he dmrik in interesting derail in the work cited ahel : Tbe mnnurcripr was in he haads of Jmnnus Mucus Marci (A.D I, official physician to Empcror Rudolph I I of Bohemia (AD inrhc y r 1665 or 1a6. - It had prevlourlv bttn in of ontar more Mtm prrm. mhcrwise unidmcifid. probablv associaled w~rh rhr court of Rudolpd~ f I. it pfed fmm he porra~ion of hfarci to ArbaMsiur Kirchcr in 1665 or and remained in his hands for an unkaown pad of rime. It had brm old to Rudolph an unidentified perm a1 rn unwalrd rime fm the larpe sum of M)O ducats. according to infwmanon provided m Marci bp. a Dr. Raphael Miww~kv (AD ). who was a hmiliar rr rhe mns oi Rudolph and hl succcwm. haher nueptr of inkmalion wu wmprd from the tnigmatic pap of he manuscript iutlf as a mult of a fortunate accident. A mishap during pharopphic rcprwlmion of the maawcript rmaled a partially t d sipnature on the first page. Examined under infra-red lighr. him ripmarc was found m bt "Jacob;?i Tcpcte", that of a man identified bv V O W PJJPCO~S Hw~lcky de Tcpencn Id , Thu mm wu dirmor of Rudolph's hnirai pardens and alchcm~cal Iabonterv. He dd mot quire the ptent of nobiliq with he ride "dc Tcprcz" until a h Thus. wc have one ddiuonal fau: he manuscript was in the hands of anolhcr familiar or Rudolph's court at m e time during he period from 1608 to Tht Lou ht of concrete mdmcc we haw is the whmc the manuscrip wol found bv Veich in I91 2; this source was kepr secret for some ~cprs. in the emtion that Voynuh mipht wish to murn a d purchase more rnanusrriptr there. It was ultimanlp revealed lo bt rht Villa Modnponc. in Italv not far from Rome. The foliowing is of informanon conraning Mondraponc, parherd bv John Tilmn: "....A rib m Fr-ri new Rome. burl, k cardinal hitrmpl rbr In 1582 ~upc re par XIII rrrd horn hl,lrmdr&mt thr sht cakndaf. The *ilia a-ir rvrmnllcd In tht Almnp lamilc. as In lhll! A lam mtmkr bcqucarhrd Fhr Mtlndrdamr rn 109; ltiltrnyn 1%. p :. bull rcfwm~ryr liku* atht Vancan Likan. la 1&5 ttu will& kame a Jnwr Ulry which was fin*hv c l d

9 ~.tbtn.isdrrcrdfk#ruforccrtriaobodt~tnipluticcodcx: wbor~ntstudcaph~vcsenmrhrlxmk d.radthekmrrthrraamprwad icwh had. artid at oa rhe i&. pip-. a puc)rmcar; d &a attempt hu been ade ra armim drt pages udct rpceial liphr fat ldda~ wridng.) U p thk mngrr foundaim of faa an impo~rng edifia of dcducrion a d pssworlr hu km a d ttvoryh errreirc tercuch ad pamsxem dddq. fitrt by Willrid Voynieh. ad dxn by a rrvarrion d Lnm nudenu. t#r~oasdtbirppawilldtrlin~~wiph~~~~frhieh~rpdlsodnadd~ *rl~rnhtlrrrlfpeearr~fr&~ A wt of solid kaci~ enarks an k mmbkd Erom the mrcu ddkd above. ad summarized as fdldws: ~~~rrrintbehadrohr#m~pr#m~brotyhtitror~s~~amr6mtkfar1608. hwuindte~djltobllldetepcacrtfm~omtamepfda ~~rad~hirdc#h in It~kkibrol#timtb~.aocbcrpnon; rho wilted it to$-nus Muarr Muci rowdm bcswc 1665 a it wu ~ nbp t hduci h Prague. dmrinp i665 or rn his old mtr, ALhanuitls Kire)Hr. in Rome. It did am th )br mmr h o d his- unril it was d i d by Wilfrd Vo?nich at the Vilh Mondrrponc. FTPK~II. Iuloin I912. k rbr dnrh ob Vopnich in tht mpndpt remained in tbc tuur of his dm (author of a dl-k-n nouei. Tb-, which caprwi grmt m i y in tk him Unioa). Mrs. Voymich died in July Miss A. M. Nill. a C m a d u r d r ~ o f ~. ~ ~ ~ ~, a r S. w r s ~ ~ ~ ~ d f h t m ~ 1trupdi8drnJoly bytirnrP. Knw.NwYork raciqwirnkkdkt. fws24.w. bus rrld tk mm&p n $100,000, aid Lur at $160,OMI; hl tried rrpldlp to find a b u far ~ it at time prim. Find?, in br it to he Beinceke h e Bodr Libruy dyde Unimdry. where it now mnritu. camlopucd as m e 808. ad nld at $ ar $ rrordiv w d i h mum. finki~~uaa mamninp Phe modern m o d h e rmn&pruokri~~cd fromkimm 1%8mdfromunpllWnaakcpbr MkNiIlfor Mfand for Mr. ad *. vm.1

10 Chapter 2 Avenues of Attack on the Problem: A Survey In lhir thapr I will mmpr m rwn u much as &Me of tk gnat variety of conjecture. rcasoniq, research. and inwtipon that has brm unicd out by a wide nngc of xholpts. from Vqnich down ro those of recent rears. I have arranged this material udn r M a of toplcr rdq ro impormt charmerisria of rite mmuscripr. ria provtnlewe. date. arigi~l knguage. aurborrhip. ctc.1. wh&~ haw excited the curiosity and exercised rhe inpenuir~ of all its manr mrdenrs. I cm la J claim to r h d d p c of only n smdl put of he mrk rhar mtv noar k in progress or that map hare been doat in the meat pan; many Popet have undoukdlp carried on tkr wrk done, and their idtar and results haw hcome knwn only to rhclr immedb~&yn d.s&a~snror~ Any day now. a.m PMOUnCCmCnt of success could break upon the wald from one of thne &u. I hopc that tht pc~cnr summary, horvmr iacompkot. may Ecrve.rn carhcr tgcthcr more informuon hut rht manuscript d in rae~chcrs than has hithmo been a~ilak in one place. 2.1 Conjectures Concerning $be History of tbe ICIunusc~ipt ~UKI afm his d i w r d the manuscript. Vwnich udcrtwk a rcrr uumpcanc and thurr~ugh invrsric~trtm its h1 ~rilr.. He rvrned up a mrlrh of internring dam. and d c d in pitcinp toflethrr a plausible squmcr of events to fill in mos1 cri the bmr rpo~ kwm th known kachm9tks. Ht tncrd the oripin of the manwript ro Rqcr Bacon 11214)- 1191! I. A knrd Froncircrn vholat ad philwopher. rcnowncd in her timer For hu occult powers. Of Ropr Bacm much more will k said Llow [see Scaions and Chapwr 7). Voynich mtcd rhat he had fastened upon Bacon as the most Iikelr cnadidnte f# au~bdcfhip by a pmccu oi dimimtioa, wing, as he did. a thirrcmth mwy dm for he mnuwpt m n kfwe he saw the lmcr h Mara mcnrioaing the similar bdief held by wmeont or the court of Rudolph 11. Vovnrch's rrnammt of his mwning whik -mining the muscrip at the castle whm ht found it is wmh quoting in full. "Em a d v brief alraimamm of+vellum u p which it wan dm. ihecrlliyrphr. th kawlrrps and the plnmmtr supnnwd trb me as thr dam of IU mpn dw hmr prr dthr th~mmh m. 'b dramap l h r d n ou k rn rn~rluprdu wwk un nmrai-phllrnophr. I h l v *mudacd the qu- uf pouik.awh#ship of Ebt rwk rd tilt lum ulaalr rwa thlrlcmrh anturr uhdarr uhta r r d hawe wrmn un luch a v v of ul- oroursd w mr: hrrr. Albrmu M~nur b mhuacal ad pditinl paidoa PI swh dw it rwld noc have km mmtln for him m mr t*i has wrtunm rn r~phrr. &nc d v. tk FraKi~ln Frhr. R w Bama an infvriulr gram W, who had km prstcursd on m n t d hir ananrr ~ nd wtuw d f i r dtromcr~ts hd km r n ~ u bhtk m +t. w. fa' mar ears' hr hd kin W r n ~ bhu r ~ nrdn tit *na. adheh~mrelf~~nb~bwrt#~rfdh~&n~h~~#ererr~nrrphu." 11921,pp ] whom I M mix dimmmud fmm canvderatlam b r~~ux -'It was m unf~lme ameakr Pncmrlluraipun#~mcl~ &dnchmr 1 ftrddwhcm kwlnprt#brr lbe5 dur 1Mu1.. rsh~rfi was whrd m he front ewrr. bust of IU k c dur 1 hd rcprkd ir nr dm ronwqmcr. a d thrrefmt arelad rt durtnr rhc ttrrt Lxarmntnm &the mmpmip." I P He must have km ~rifitd id& to find his wfimural adbution of the mmuarip to b n thus dmmaucalir- ~orroborrnfed. Nac. Voynich turd his attention m teasing as much additional information as he eould from he faas at his disposal. Hc. uacovcred a quantity of fdnating &ad cone#ning the prxmges mentioned in rhe icercr and ochcrwife sujpmtd to have bnn rrwrd rrith the mmruaipt. m y of them familiars of Rddph I1 and mrmh of his court The suhm of Rudolph. rhe scimtif~ and p u d m - d c m ~ ~ ~ m char ~ l pl lw l up mud him. and aswnishiq k k of Icimciw. rpia. ChPrlPLPILI. ad aka flamimyanl ~~llver~td upon Piape during Rudolph'a reign. is in ituif a vpluable area for study. The work published on chis topic by Bolum (19041 is quite out of bet. a d while enjoyable reading. fails to do jujtiee to the subject in the light oftday's ~hhrrhtp. Ewns 11973) prwidts a led. upto.&rr pmmnrion on Rudolph a d rht ehlmrm and i d g culture surrounding )us cow Evrar makes i udizinglv brief mention of the Voynich tn~umip. but docr na add anything m wr kwwttdgt of ia origin. Hae. in brief, u my ehmnologiii wtiinc of the ttypahews VoyniDh PC farward m fill he Rap in the known hinwv ofhe manuraipt. and ta sugpt hvttrtr Encs of invcsripntion to compltte the picture loll informs& in the outline blow is from Vwnich 1921 ).

11 LDttcr half of the thirteenth century. The msnmik was penned by Rap Bacon. as r r-d of his smer di~ovcrie~ of Kience or magic. -15)8? Thr maurcripr d in some rnomjtic Library in England vn~il he didurioa of the reiigiwr horn at the rime ofrhe Refwmorioa: tius d#awtkln brpn in t 547 Many Baca~ mmwp (me say.r many u I200 a11 tdd) were eolkeoed bv Dr. John Dm. ElizabnhPn mal)lermrpti&n d ~rmkgcr (of whom rnore will k nid kku in Cbapar 8). He obtoined rherc. Voynieh rhra~gb his d m wilh John DM*. Duke d Nmhumkrlond. who uamkd I large fwnrne throllgh the r a w s +adon of rdipb houses during tiu Ilefornutim. Our mnuxript toum have aomr into Dn's hands as earl* u d i n p m Vgaich. Whik it rolr in Dee's 7, )It d e v i v aramptl m dedphtr it. u d b a mnork in a much lam kffff (dad 1673) quoting Arthur Dtc, John Dee's ron. m dw effect fbu bt hod ~ t his n farher spedinp muetrumrovern~"~in~trogiyphi~'(on~smrmr.rerplpo~8.9k~l fodm Dee. failing in )rb mnnp w ddpk it. crrrird the mrdp op Pqpe on one of his visio to Rdph'r oourt kcwrm 1384 tad It WU. then. rn Ikc a s k m e tepre#nting bim that Rudolph pid the 600 ducats which wu his prirr fm the mrep. It wu p'oboblj a h Ikt who Ewwid Rtldoiph or orhm at the court d Roger Bocon'r authonhtp; h e wu m a cwuidmble kgree with BQL#I dtmqhwt r of his life. ud hsd r large part in drrreminteing knorvl+ of h ' s wak and mfwbirhiq rhr npmmm of zhr rhi-th-mturv friar. mndemntd bv th: Church d his comcmporork to mtua d mgk. Dee c#n claimed to k a d d m r of Bamn [whose real name. Dtt chimed. hd km "David Drt" and m ltopa Bsron pt dl) ' Rudolph made various rntmpu #I get the mnnurpipr d+ by his ~t~blr of KhQIPIs ad expens. In rhir endeavor. hr may hart committed the rmnbpt for wrlriry prpam. im dte kteping of J& & T cpmm. whose namr was mimn am t. and who m y b.vt krp it lfper Rudolph's obdidoa in 1611 ad the rubqucnr lootin# and diswludoa of the Emprror'r emarivc murcum ad dmh~t Siw dt Tcpnm wu en& in he auld not haw mitanhirrwneoathrm*nwipin&fotm~~ebeboctrhrt&~ dt Tepeu did in ad we hre no mid- for tbe him of rht maaluaip between LhPf wmt and iu rppmnnct in the hands of io nm koown ow=. Mud According m rhr Mua. kacr, rhr ma-p ru in the prrdm of an unknown owner. mutual friend of Marci and Kuehcr. fmr lamc u b n pid; iadak it my hvt prsed rhmuph m.1 hdr during that time. It mu* haw e~mc intu Mads p#shn d i n e kfart since Marci was able to d i it with Dr.Raphael. wh died in char?a. Vqnich suggests (p. 419) thrr " m e d into ~ tht Bohtmka Sme Archim will ltd to the dikovcry" of tht andmaw frlend of Marci and llso of Ki* w b hd tht monuswipr men 1622 and During rhr time krmn 1644 aad 1665 or wearc re~wnnbly caroin that the manuscrip was in rht of J-anus Mucur Mua ad that it d m pad ilwo eht hads of -u~ Kkck. What Muci a d IGrcher didwi&itwiikduyhad hrcdonolknorr Vwnich saqs. "my own imprtrrioa is bt Kk&a kfi tk umndpr m wmeo~c n the corn of Puma. whcrt hc hod pocronr and hiends. and it probrbly rtmhd in Pbe w o n of o mankr of the Earn= family until. wirh other mnwip, it r r d ~ ~ ro rhe edlreriaa in which I hind L*' ip. 430.) kwr rcltprtha~ hwe rddcd d g a h W h to &is chtawbgy #I inguiidy M out by Vgnich. Brumhu#h ( p. H7) Suggmr th.1 K~dff bimwlf -7 hrvc dcpdsvced eht mnbp dhly inw the Vib at hdondrap. john Mndy (1921b, p. 188) &mr that "it u dar dur hdtrd did noe dw nuntrraip in 1640, w b I# wu with Kitdm in he". 6aee hr would mtudy ~irm i to Mer dwm. Ht a b mpu thrr Mud. in the prcfrcr of a work cndrkd " h m 0-m Ida". meationr u his mdia-in-hw oat W. &ughm of Dhiriur MLmaa~e. who bmmt dirmm of Ruddpb'r Impcrbl Mo#um. Manly implies tht Mkrone mld have bm tbe unknown fried w h bequedd the nuniucrip to Marci. FiarUy, Manly provider the i-g bit of iaformk rbt the 600 durn, Rddph's pfmr far d# mnnuzaip, wwld be dw equiviknr of S in 1921, ad he cwraibllan lbmr nrw data repudiug de T w : rtrir seirndrt ru &id ID fk thc-ooonuy during disnrhnm tbu plrct in and ma! well have paned with the musuipl &m. sine it rppvmtly &ad in Pngue. Robm Smle. an eminent hifforinn ad Boeonira,ddu wtro h did many of Ro~cr Bum's rwrkr (Bacon ). mmn with Voynieh in ~mmccdng tht mannmip wid^ John Dee. He mw "Mr. Voynirh is, we klievt. right in hrs conjecture hat it was Iold by Dct m the Em- Rudolpb at rhe dad of the shenth century. attributing it to Roger hm. and that it wm +b4y 'dw h k mmining mthillp hut hirroprlyphicr' of which Dtt's mn rpoke to Sir. Thus. Browns." (Sack 1928b. p. 543.)

12 2.2 Authorship and Purpose m y studem have hod. ar tirnn. m uncomhble suspicion that tht mysreriwr codex upon whrh so much fruirlesr rfh bd bnn ipnr might k a frbrie~rian. io text reprc#ntlag nothine m&yful or orderly enolgh w bt capable of d e c i w and rtparlnrioa. WiIfrid Voynich sctim w have felt hat the mandpl was mqutstionably a of a rhvcetnth-ccnsurp ad^^. and rpcihilv of Roger Barn. Dr. Alkt H. Cmer (one time technical hirwrian ofthe Armv kmriry -I -the opinion shad bv mou studma who have grappled with rht elcpon~ puzzle when he SF, "So much rime ad ~o much ap- in vellum of aecumt quality went into it. ir cannor be a hoax... It 15 metivrbly the work of a wnlthy a d Icprrrtd. if dermgad. pm. bur not r hoax"! 194. p. I 1. In an ear1r. repwr. John Tiltman, one of the most faithful ad rtiwoughgoinp of the rnanwipt's studemu. e*prrsscr his considered confidmcc In 1s aprhcnticiry: "I do not Idkc cht mlnvlcripc is cwnpleaiy muningks. t4e ravings or dowllingr of a lmaac, nor do 1 beli~ it ir just a h-k is m clabanw ad coariamt for richer.... Abwrt tht worst chi* ir can k is a deliberate fwm'h 1 regard this as ratha impomk:..--." (195 1; p. 1 ). - In a rnm mnrr pmeararioa. Tiltman mteram eh#e judgements, refwtnp to accept ssppwions that the manmcrlpr conmicu ody "mcpninglers -lings". He mtinurs. "There is mare senst to the idea that the work is a forgery. Thu I think is highlv unlikely, spaally if Capn Currk'r k art correct." (Tiitmn 1975; the refmnce to Captain Cgrrier anmw his findings of muluple "bnds" in rhe rcr~ b which ree Mion 6.8 below.) Erw~n Panofskv. a prominent ~holdr of medinal and Renaiupilrr ~ C I dad. the welpht of his tmning w his vicw: "I should like to reiterate mr upin~un that rbr Vuynich inandpt. whichcwr im place of &gin. date and purm. is cmolnlv a perfectly nlthmtic docgmtnt" (1954, p. 3). Fdly. EIirnkcb FriadmPn. wife of Willwn Friedman Ipromintnt ayprohglst and srldent uf the mpnrurripr) ad r distingturhcd xhoiar and a~proiogist in hrr orm right. aprclks a similar opinian: '-All xholars cmnpmat to judge the manuscrip... wm-ad rdu arc-agreed hat it is defiaidy ncu a hopx or rhc doodling5 oi 3 psych but is a hwaogctmw. aeruvc wwk of r Kfiw hdar who had mething rrr convey" At tcrrt oat rcam h spoken out in fpwr of an m n g vicw, -ring h r rht manuscript is in fact a forpm.. and may contain a conridcrak qmnuty of mtaninplerr "dummy" tm intmdcd mm1y ro fit1 it out to an imprcrsivc Iepth. Rok Brumburgh (1974, ) claims hot dw book wm cxpmrly ad cakulatedly dcripcd bv some sixteenth. ceanrry oppmnin in or& t~ fod the Emperor Rudolph into parting with the large sum of money rhat he did. mdd. qmd to okpin it. To rhrr ad, the mt wu provided with a mtrh of apparrmr~ nsy "kqs". and just enough cnsilv dcripherabk matetinl on the k t page ro cmvinct Rudoiph's c x p h t it would prwc m be rdable with the expendi~ure oi a d k mount of e k. Fakd "evidence" was ah pl~d on the h t pge. -ding ro Btumhugh. m prsociatc the KEfn book cldy m Roger Bacon-that ewciung ad rnysmious pos~~un of imprcrriw Kimtifir and occalt wen in whomjohn Dec M k n busily taisinginttrt~to a f d pi& at Rddph's cwn. In spirt of aii this. Bromhugh sham r)sc vim that thr manuxrlpt is not mlly meaninpla. He mys. "There is an mderlpiup tm... and mncr ar lam. by dlborotirr work, it will k read. There is no way of pndictinp whit it will sav: it could k anfhing f om a standard botany textbook ao fmrnulae for tlw Elixir of Life deriving from Roger hm" I p. 334). Fdcr Thcodon C. Permrn, moth= dediaced bng-arm mdmt of the monwripr who porscrsed a wide hckp~nd of learain$ in history and philology. qmucs his view thus: "Thm is agmment that the ccxt of the Vovnich manwpl obtyr uniform nrks which ue ronrwt a d unchawing throughat the whole 246 want quarto papel of witing-indicating that tk seti p contained an imlligi ble mcania~ for irs writer" ( p. I 1. NewW. F-Iy, and Svonp. drc rhm other pnnaprrl clnrmnu (btridcs Brumbaegfi) ca lome dcprce of success in deciphering the manuscript. dl it as a gmuinc and serious prduetion itha of the thinecnrh or the ixttenrh ccnturr. Wiiliam Friedman ah. whik not m my knowlcdpc haring the mansscript with anr retic author. repardcd n as a valid document with romt content mpwe of king deciphered and d. Some d m n of the manuxript. and others who didaim my inarcrr in it. ham d v a d rht view that its content can have no value for ricnce ar fm the mdy of hum thaugkc. filman. in his euly rep^ to Friedman. says. "I do nor in anv case iqine rhcre is anvlhing hiswiafly or KiePtjfually irnpmnt mtaincd in rhe mmusaipr" (195 I. p. 1 ): this. in spire of his cktp and long-mriautd i- in dw problem and his firm W o n of the rhewy dmt rk mandpt is cmplctelv rntaninfilcss w fraudulent. Eliztkth Friadmn indicates that the lack of miow interest in the mnmaipt on he pan of scholars was. on at least me e. a cause ofdisappwnent to her husband in his rncarch: "It apprs to k pibbcrish to mmy mious.mindd ac?demicr. who arc apt m =off rr rht id= rht its mlutim would k of an! value ta, ~ence leornin~-as did a p t foundation to which Friedman once applied far a gronr for the dmiled study of the manrmpt. in the opinion of the board. a sd~tim would not advance haman krwwledfc. Tht rnanujaipr prohbly contains on17 uivia. the board said." (1962) - J -w +.

13 I must mnk that 1 can scc lidc justire in the r-np of hoar "academia" who dismiss the Varnich manamipt WJI tit had. Itm wht cpn anlq k rhr ma1 superficial aennrion. Even if it is. in h. a fabiurbn adand wih the cow ui R~I1.~~of*rbono#kirrpusyfmonc8o.11~rhaofR+'rfrraib~adrhtprrcitpb~ inpbt~~d~dpobaerirai*id#.rpryoeiatbo#timerdpro* ~ ~ d ~ u b ~ r b t ~ n r k i ~ d r d t h i t m r c l e n r o d o i o p i r c t w k b i n a ~ ~ o ercncrdmcmi~ifehtmr#oeripira~on.horcrcr"~a~.dtpwnfromt.tlirrmp~id. dehrmial, a it hu at I- u much inainsie i- md "lcirntitu imp h he huccrrr of Wrrarn hqbt u do arha rimihr m n d p which uc rrsdrbk. d ro~mn only om odpic li-e.. t k arc eiober uu~cal. or rlchemiepl. # mdd). llepttlbk oebdur rpprnndy #cao d6mr in d y i q "w* mun&prr ofhs n-pc. dm*eprnd~ofrbrkli*erro#erpkd. ThrV~mraorcriplppcaorrbtdiDtb~heombianina#~nlo*#6audi~tdirrrddircipiim. ~ ~ w i & ~ ~ o o ~ t k e m i m r ~ ~. I d i t a ~ u i d p r o n d t a h y i m c r r r r i q ~ c o i a or donrim inarrela~fl ru dkic disdplines. u,kosr in dw kuth.m prrriccr 06- individual a KW. Finallr. ~ifobrranirsatny~lyle~r~a~~ttultracmr#rmr~rrdilrrt).).rdeeiphamcluof~tminwlmt 6dapdtatt w~-suipwasrhwxaifqem: 1 text. W pd out the lmprh of rht hmmr or m rn SA "eorrtr" mr within which a rhaocr w p c is Wen. 1 cannut. h m. set any iurifiution for dbmirnl oh rhr mdp *r ttivirl or uammh? of artful ad n d c nudr. We can ~iaprlotfoc~~~a~~b#ceddka~lcurkpr#dpuimralarm#erbwrit. Rqm Bacon (AD u Au*. Vornich, u we have ~ccn bt. r~ crrpin of Bscon's authorship from r h t ~ f i d ~. # ~ 1 S e a r i w L l ) d ~ b c ~ WhR.N&.tixihwwld h. btdedpbermtdu~bodr. ' -Irbm~~kaa~of.o*eIrrimrikreKufbnosocnprobkrork pondralt the raipmt rich m arl subqm lor. Tk 6m chap of tkt W &scribing Nmbold's findings an eralkru Aeuh d Bqer W s tik writings. d dwqln. indicating rht hr tud d c a thorough studr ol the ~ ~ a m u friar t ad y b wah ( 19fB. gp L 1. MaMm Bud acpu Nmbold'r deriphmmmt. d k h ~ w g O L b C r ~ r a d ~ q m t r r b r n ~ ~ r b m i r a o c o o d o d r e ~ r p i a ~ ~ a ~ n n rorhashipdh~~b?.~(rhnhaukinhiraoogrrph~arrprrrmorl.qcro~p?dbirwork).johnm. Maall 1- li#nrt Kbdu l.ra tefvoed MrrWr rollldaa) r*pr#rcd lais opinioo &us in m mlg ammmt: "Thn rhr murerip is Bacmr'r. M wen thrr u dotu Erom he chimenth awry. annor thm k prown by doeumenr~rr e*idtlwc.ku~irmnidmot~thucnditio~d~~ofdlt~iplipklfdmri~..." rt921.p T~~rirhdrirvirr:'~brs~noIolidcridraee~t~~~irwrbp~B.crm.ora o~pgd~rakb*bim"i1%8.p131.anomberd~~jr)vlb..wrrprd.i~h.ild.ritfimfhusium. N M s m have pnvm thu 8.apa ru tbc andw (Cmm 1929 Gilwn 1928). Fa inha hrrion of &IS quertion.~qloper7klorv. ~IkopnN~rhcAt#hor.~~ueio#tmph.ckin~~ofBocon~uthtIcribeorcm~butorof mnvo~a~tluin~au~ptbr~ea#ardromt~~tbeir~ofmarl~durh~bodr.adlc~.. lppum~m~&iturlrarre~p*d~rr#ls.~~opinionrdatparr&tilyr~emmnu~p Muad 1MQ.d~mlPcbpwtormbmbtcarrwrSr~Bvoaor~ue(llikd~wh.r*bemr~~mancopicroi ~rworluduttrprt~~~l~hm111.1~~~~mehcfarroaarhadfi~aotltrin~.sdlloebrrr~~~(boe auhnhip mt, 8-7. in #end. bpt &mllr u r pan of their anphadr rejcaion of hlmbold's hphcrment and hsrmil#lcionoftbc~pm~rl#icriphjueh~~~claivirinuthtiavdaaoftk eoarpollrd~d~~rad~orroo~macrrrirbiaafrrl#ofrrfat#croaa*lvhpro BooPa'~timcr.~~vbustrprd~yrbot"Tht~~lheorrbinmvopiionarv~widrrllr)K avrikbk b ad hrr becn eomiadqly dispmed by Mr. lir. in M v ' s articles dmsowllnp NewM's ehrorin) (1954-p. 21. Dr.thultrSinp.cmiuenr miu!of&na. saidin a her wfhman 112 Novcmk. I957\:*'1 am m the cm~lusim rhnt all s m of A b k d p of he Inpin reftftiq NmWs deciphermeat J

14 was simplr nonsma." Fimllr, Lvnn Thorndike has. wrth charncteriruc rmphuis. stated his optnion that "There is hard!% one chance In fih that Ro~cr Bacon had an! connection with the prwlucrion of the Vomich manuscript.:' p Anrhonv Askham as Aurhor. Dr. Leone11 C. Stronp Iwbwe claim# to n decipherment of the mnnuscripr arc discussed in Smwn 5.3 below). insisted that the aurhor was a sixtmrh-mmry physician ~ mcd Anthonv &ham (or A~haml. who had pubiiuhcd #vwd almanacs. udogical works. ad an hehl. 1Tikman has fmd out rchm to a numk of these. as arty pritd bodcs: ftt Askham 1 WBP. I948b ad 1553.) Strme chimed. further. ro have deciphered Askham's name on folio 93 of the manuscript. No otkr d m t has ampred this thv, and Srranp-s ppcd rcadinpr ui thc rat have bnn empharicallr tcjmrd. 0th- Gtmfrl Suwrims Rcpudinp Authmhip. Dr. Cam claimed to ~c evidence of "a copvi~r 31 a-wl;" p. 1 r. Ht mcnrions duplicarim among thc zdioc diapramr. there kinp in fan two leaves b i n p [he Ram. Aries. and showing the bull. Taurus. [These diagrams arc. in mlity. quift dikcn~ whm examined cartfullr. and the apparmr "duphcptions" an onlv superficial; the poiring of diapams fw these m zdw ipns cknrlv bad samr dcfin~tr purpose known only to he author of the mmuzrrip49r. Singer. in n Ma to Ti16 I 12 November I expresses rhe opinion hat rhr origin of rhe mrnujcrip was mmchow rthd m Rudolph's court and m J&n Dre. Whiie he docs nor iurrher ~pecifp. rk mmte of rht mnmion. one pinr the imprerrion h he maq have had in mind an idea similar to Brurnhu~h's discussed a h. Panohkv Rprer t)tc followiop virw: "Mp idea alwap was char the manuscript ws written bv a dmor or quck rtqinp to impm what ht conridefed Kcra knowldpe to his son w heir" { p. 2). 2.3 Pmvenknce and Utrderlying Lunguage Eagknd. M e a l Latin. Voyaich. as we haw sen. meed rhc manuscrip ro Roger Bacon. in the England of the ktc thimnth cmtuq. Ht prohmy ah. thmk. assumed the underlying "phnmt" to be the medieval bun of the Schools. urrd by h in all his surviving works. NrwW (1928. p. 44) a h gigiv ej thcmnnusmipt m English mipin. claiming to resr his opinioa an "he judpmcnt of am" not funher identified. bad am rhr parchment. ink and sryle of the drawings. His propwed dteiphermmt produced r form ddd Lacin. ffic Ian- which Falp (1943) chimed to hmve discwertd in chr manusaipi was dm Lotin. but in a system of ahhwiatcd forms not midaed ~~ept~mc b!: 0th- scholars. who u~nirnoudp rejected his?dings of the tntt. En~hnd. Medieval En~lish. Ltomll Strong (19451 maintained tbat ht hd dtaphmd the text a5 medieval Enplirh; as we wit1 see in Smm 5.3 klow. orha dmn have rejmed his theory and drr plain- be produced. both as valid mdimal English and as a cwrect deciphament of the nxt. Unrpeutitd Eruqmn. bun. Ebitckth Friedman (19621 stam that her h h d. William Friedmu. ~prred with orher qualified cxpm that "tk orru~cry of migin is definitely European; it might k Engtnd. Fronct, Irah. or whar is now German?." She &, further. ehpr "tk aexr is bd u p a wriam language rhac L probablv brin. the lanpuapc of all le~rncd and scientific diwoutscs of that pctlod, but nu7 k nwdiwal EapEsh. French. Idinn. or Teutonic." Thnc v~ews mm ar leave us with n dimwaginply wide choice. indicpring that che "apertr" could fix upon no &finire cvidence to narrow the a m of chclr search. It~iy. Hellmut Lrhmnm-Haup BiMiogmphid Consult~ot lo H. P. Kraus (own- of Che manulcript h e n 1962 and 19691, suggested in n lmcr tojohn Tiltman ducd 1 Nortmbct chat Italy was a likely country of oripin. Ht states. "Whik bmh pdmgraphidly and hmidly JprPking. Idp is as likely a pkc of wigin as any ocher country of Eur~. rhm is no evidrnee chat rhc maep mun hwc ken m*de in Venice. or *hat in Northern Itale. The vbility tbat it comes from Central or Southera Imlv h s6ll opcn. and rhir mild very well mean exposure m the Arab world." He propo~cs that Arabic should be mdmd as r cadidote for the uadertyiq Iqogc. Etokrt Smle su~gesu that m e of he writinp on the lur page m y bt "perhap in a Norrh ImIian hand" (1928b. p. 564). Brumkugh draws evidence from dcrails in of the drawings for his of a relauvciy late &tc and a Etuopn prdcncc. Thus, in one of the rodiac-like arcukr diagram. he says mars a fifiemth~cenn~ry Fhtine archer's hnr in his dillion (thwph it 1s mouchrd ovtr the monrh nome)" [ 1975, p. 349). Germany or E m Europc. Chades Sioger. in a lecrer m Tilunan dated 12 Nowmber, states his feeling that rht manudpt is "of Germanic orifin", and " md rich John Dce and that rcrn of mwemtnt." He givm a somewhat fuller ~ f ~ d m this ~ view t in marher kmtr to Dr. G. M. J. Fkmming. undated ht okwrly wrinm or abwc the same time: "The iudgement that I ford upon the mumipr ms that it w*l Of the sixtetnrh century. of South German work and -- pdblg rehted to Pnpe and John Dct." Singer aim sugp that Czech. P&A. w some other East-Cmttal European

15 1- cholrld k carriderrd m k l t c rhc #n. Fmullltely for itku of fht mnurcriprs. who^ difficultirr are alrcadv sufwf burknwme. ht anrikn Magym "hifl~ unlikly." M Siqm tio obe kmrarfhmiq1 d Pamhky p 2). mmtioa a diq ofloiar IEuared ph= on the kpyuh~~;thisrrdilyr*rpopwsd.rppueatlyiaapri~clommuniclcion.h BiehrdSobmoadf 0.". a wdinnl -pion m#nimg "(If nrcfi d suda a coadirioa pmrih). then rpkt p t ' s milk or..." fbir"pnoiprim".rlriehbrrrkrotfismia-rclllrrs~r.~~mueoariaroorrirbcbrprrcbdiop~onchrliar.he ~~~~~a~in~iipofocdnbrief.rordrkpadoafdio~.atnafip~damsni~apoa)ursbrrkas if6dtaderdd~~~~nlsm~~~er~odr~lanpl"dermwocil".~nprrr~hc&ip~~ nnedl#foaracnrhc*neurf.vgaich ti92t*p.435)~tbrrmanur;am~ipe#;h~lfoftbc~~ ~.urrb.rr-~ncrbda~~"btbt~d~."r~dpprdrmmrink.rlda~led dnriryr pbad ebr ma- in pbe rbiro#nrh aaauy. (3928. p P- syr. "I rpcc wirh Mr. Tiltman that the i u ~ o n o f a ~ w ~ ~ L i r d d ~ t l b l e r ~ h r r r ~ r f r i r l ~ ~ d u r ~ t & m * ~ p. durpawb mmw manurerip d Sz. H i d of 8iqm rbaw dmwiqs ibng dte iaflut~t of the hnvmlr Mics a d r ' d j d r#otr u p tk mimror Lk of tbe turh. The -Ltr cmm mrn~rcrrpa Variran 1906 hu lomrwhn dmibr urronomial dmwiw" (1953. p. 2). Saedr pmvidcr t& Bdbrnap -n# ~ommrnrr. with tk bmcfir of trir b k d p ad Clmiliviv wirh dd nmnlrvripf tiad in pcticuhr I)lt works of Ropcr BBcoa~:"Theonulr#rbodrof&;Phr~erruaock~~rdl~mir~oomBDrebe thid~llt~1~r.b9t1#t~,~inlrb+~~dk~tcmriadorringtothcir~lcrr~of - ~Lht~oi~irh~.Lir~~Pbt&ofanwa~hwoocwapiePdyaeopaddmad#upl QC inflrcafe" 119tsb. p 563). fikmh w. Hqh O'Ndll. a F.Amrrian baa&. plmm m Mda ofcmnia plonr drawings as Nrr Wwld we: "m rturliy dmdhh.. r~ fdio 93. which is q& p&id? dn runflorcr. Wiambw huur L. Si* bataim b*e Ppccd with me on this drrcrmih fbir immcdi.otly dlr At dare ~bm*dd~plrarrer*h~metuoph~fimlimibgblumboroahir~nfromhirdw*apr~. ~~ololv~adnrilywbiebd#jaoc~m~prti*ceompaain; ~ r P i n l y ~ i n a r n. ~ i a E v a p r ~ a f m dta... & r h It--ytodrhrs ma- u h*ing km mitam Jprr 1493" I1944 p. 126). Otkcr rlylhrr -. horrw. mmplmh *at O'NeiII's ~ofcberunadlver.ndpcppaphm,drrrrr~drintkird.imthu-ofh~pimrrd-inthr rmarraipt arc of New Waid Hbt W m - h p 1bi-#uul caarpltpw #r H. P.b) Iwsd in a icl#r m'i*id.oed 1-. I%3,ehu"thtrtnrwrr~mrbtdrorofIbtCMIImroorctip*~d.~ra litdrriar. tk p r 1400." Sixararhtrrmuy.Rnofiiryddrbir*oia~lortre#~alrotdoaCorrbtori~nof~m~mdcr:"W~h aor60rtbtlpaflwcrimidearifid~d'~ri~/... 1~hwrbolyhr~itrru~d8litdr~~m~~bour Horcra.riaCedw~doht~ilyrbfrirlypr~mwrmrhtkar&lr,~~h~d~~ ~, w a J d n o r r # m m b r ~ I ~ n # p b r m ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 & 1 ~ ~ ~ a o i a 0 # a # o F r h t I & r Brarirl*act~irrridcl#.Tke~hir~mt&c~oftbtsaiprthe~leofdrawingmdmluch~umcr urrrinnidcnotmocrerinpyr.6prmfd,splio72r#t0[probabl~ndariryoot&~maindk~ rcpmcaorioarj." (1954. p. I). Ekektb Fdmm ~rt#r tht of erpn opirdon ar the time u follows: "Pwpbic agree Ltur h ainve of hr dn- she Miry, tbe id ad dm. ca..iadiaa h t tbc -cobthat pud butotrofa tm.rad. pcnod.*~-rtru t k ~ e p r i d i which n it was rim plusamiaurnrc#lrmm"(l%Z). AH. r i d a r m o f Wipr Hill la frid o f k Vqrricb wbo him whm he rnmtnsd t& uuaurcrip in (19461: '7k-4th drr- -ally rbtm*tarioar ofdu Liiwdramnp in rhc - ~ m & J I ~ ~ ~ p c ~ ~. f h i t t b t m a n ~ h h h f b l l l ~ ~ O b ~ ~ ~ I a n & Thrrrir~'GadriE'~aagulrrrbolarhcm.T~~fudmnrdd~iarheirrtpkrhrinflvmaofrhe

16 rcalirm of a later perid. The coloring of he illustrations may well supprt a later dare than the rhirrcenth cenru?'' I p. a,. hnmg ioac agnnng on a sixtenth-century date for the manuscript is Dr. Charles Singer. who xam in tur Inter to John Tihn ( 12 Nwmrkr , "The dm of the mnnusmipl would. in my optnioll. bt mewhat in the aeip h borhwd of 1520 oa pahaps a tinle ha...." We hw akdy =a rhar he onn near the migin of the rnanudpr wirhlohn Dee and Prague. LCOlKU bong m*kn an m a g luggution, thu 'The fmrmr and use of -in prmlirr symk (mirror ;mopes. of che lerlian d at di and el. resprerivdy) ore evidmca that the author wu probably hmi1iu with rhe manuscript of Lronudo & Villtj'~ 'Ammy' Iwtiften abut 1510)" t1%5. p Saon~'s idcntifiatim of hhnr Askham as aurhor of du manuraipr a h h i s him m place it in d~c simtnrh century. since Uham's knaarn wwks wrre publirhd fmm 152Son. Bokn humbough prnmn perhp the mm M e d and spccif~ midcncc for a sixteenth-mrury date: " seemed plnur to me from he oumt hat thia is not a thiith c c v manuxrip, and I hbd Wer Rudolph I1 or mv d his nrpcnr em bpd ~ ~it.~r.ia.wwpph.* Roc Bncon. DcePil afm deuil poid m a btcr date dm m IIOO ohan Sagittarius wears a fiftenh-aatury Flaenrine prcba's ha in his med~llion {though it ir mouchrd wcr the mmch rum). A dodr. tuckal away in fdio 8Sr. hu a h hour d long minute hd, a sryle nor dcvelopcd until the fifmhth century....fa shm. ths mnureript is pt crrlint a compilation of abwr 1500" (1975. p. 349). (A numbtr of the poim B~imkugh cmplop rn bol#tr his argummt dew upon his own detipbtrmt and assmind vcific idenrifications of he sy:nbols with numerals. erc.; 1 have o m d tit&. reraining only his mwe objmively hd commcnrs, Fw further dimusion of fht "dd'. m ) Finrll~. Jdhy Kfischa hind. in rhe of his much. tk opinions of a number of cwpcra at Mard Univmttr conaraing ohr dare a d +cocc of the manusaipt Im Seaion 6.7). Ht rrpwu thrit jdgcmem as folhs: "PmtPr# Gila toarpbk I- of Mdid hf, h w d Uai*miq). I. ovcr -a d tbr rmwmpl. dud rht avmrrnprur*ormdr aaaydu~gptdthrrkwny ehr kr k m dpumtrbw~mori*tadbf thrdcwrt m kreprwh~ ~ful~fromrbc~l~sritaotia&~~drrplmrod~dif~~mrrthe~auwnpuindccd&dk phm ad rd wdagd -. rkm dak lim ofnuoning u quim~mplbk. Ttsc due of the mnumipt was apaln plrrd la'* c m Mr. ~ R* Dmnir (mem of mrawriprr in m m tibrm of the Hmud bucp bkurr. Mr Prnnlr ldmrilicd mp to k in dk yk d the ammtth mruw humrain scrip. A& duinl: of tk manulmpr rru dw to Dr. Frankbn Luddm. Dr. bdkn dmrmind dw dur =I king m tbc plod 147'1 m 1'150. His -hod ofdatiq IS bod up^ lnrlvz~nr the wte Di the dmwltqa: Itw htnra of thr nudefiluta: rl# wifilm ofrk h - l drviryr." 1Knuhrr 1%9. pp ) In mnridmtion of this d e w of many pmnwmmenu mode by ~holnn and cxpatr. 1: haw mode a rough "box score" ~umrmriring tbr opniwrs. It is uudc. hn it my aid the mder in bringing m e wder out of thr rnulriplici~ of judgollcnfs hr, hvt acnrmuhtcd over he pars during whih the mymrlous m~nuxripr has ktn studied. In the ~allr shown kiw. I hbve ~biwrtity assigned a rn of "2" to ruch $s "in the judvt of apern'.. or "the consmuus of opinion". Pad I lcorr d " 1" oo the aplnion ofa in& wirer. richour ampang to weight them in any prcam dcuil. dr m m la To mv mid. this rummsry of rrpm oplnim don. in fact. lead consjdernblr weight m a mlntivcly hu date for the mmuutipt.


18 mmndpc). In SKwn wit1 di-u Jomt other mmulcrip that have ken mmdd as poliblv comprrablr to the Vopuh mrauuripr. 7berbmrrrrmymirnprrrriwrofhdq&ofohemoa&p: nwihrrtbthwhdrv yrmeolhcr ~udenu brwdo~it. -e.dsw xi.pld ad oda rbu my i - d u -" VWdr mnmmhws his imprtlsi- of a ~ a bmrrn ~ r ~ &is mmwip ad Ibt ak. mote n-ptcal mcd&al rirbwkhirprr Bwad: " Irmr~m~yd~~prsdwithrt#othcrmnwrrips.wirhthtitri~ (1921. p 415)- Dr. trnt +ma dcuikd ~ d p b r ~ ~ ~ m b m d # ~ p p i ~ bisprn#lrlrrorr~on, a d + ir ; usdjpm:'ihrill~arcdonerithgcrt~,mrithaamtimwprwidiapa~iagpin~rebutnthcrrnth #eoneg of dad. we. u Wirt Nil1.e out. Ihr kid of drminp that a 1Ekntix would mk fa 1). ~ ~ m ~ ~ m ~ ~ d I & ~ n ~ p o r m ~ o f e t ~ i r i p p u c m ~ Tberra300~~(#rcaupiti~)h~r&~.Toromt.dK?.mpklrtq;#r&r. thcg ~ffm h y. ad chitdirk Am am- amdm in Sdmsik AAmrriaa trker r mitical ad mnmproour vim: "The pcmra uc d y drawn in by a palan who ohiouslg rar #mewbat htkinp in rreirric abiliw, evm for i rhm-enwy seribt" L1921, p Apin.drtlli# aoth# -a 6mihropmm r fm phm: "The Klik ~n#a~~1~111~,brscfb#rrjomccimmrrmiadlud~crudr~rrr+ia~ryupona **~rrr#dkowwr~~b"(~.4~).~~.bbirirmmj&tiimua. 12Nacmkr1957. aprroa.imibr~htbr~dicciedc~dbphol~m:*t&~rcrof~orroa boroaicllurlihtofthe~ado#~~doodlilyadwehildfmmkd~no." ArriIlrlrokdintl#d~of~lrripbaar141.1).~~~rrudtna~brietiymmt#nrtdtheuyleof t&hrily~mrwiarhdrj-opaemiqtt~q#d-ofpbrillrauoeript.aontofr&mpavlk "~fd~~~~op~nmulu~r~rrdanam"crpm'*r#harbcr~ficd.~rtbrrrwmrbove. -rmurrkr."hbarryah.rthed-dhlrcro-~nerpddmsdir*rl.dbrmirrrnetiafl-" (t92bb. p. 563). Clmr (1946) den rn tkc "w of& h~mrrr tigum and eht kk of "Godric" nrtt u + v j k foradowir#rthradkthim~n~horf#vr#ruhrcnnuier.~aaofik~ t1914.~. 1)-chr~leofhdtaai~~"birlv ~';k*srpperhchrrekaonideaerofhtl#arrfromaheih~qk.hrum.itapp~uif~, ~brj~abmeffed8mll~~d~.mmprn-d~r&~k0fehrv~ch ~ d r r ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ p r a B * I r i o r r r ~ r d ~ d r r d ~ o o r # o f o l r r q p # d m s Pip- d fn&s, 3Z3 Re&#'d#s to Some 0th I- Msuwrnm~ W~ro~rashr~dir;rppoi~~ylinkto~mPhirPopic.OarprimItnimprtsrioa.rh~jdyaaot.I1L~t~~zirre qwlity af the pie~trr~ ad the difficultyof idcntif?iry with any what they poruay, lw c a d most funiliuwi~m#ttonr*ndanrlmrbrrrlrmauwri~m~uprharh.adrin~rf#rtbcmwr~glr#r.thr " ~ ' p i c t l t r a o f ~ ~ d t h t ~ ~ r r w e i r m d r i r b ~ ~ t i y n s o f k r ~ i p

19 the most immcdlatc ptomtv for cornprim5 to orhcr herhi or asrrological drawinpr. Panofskv I199-i. p. 1 I addresses the problem as fo1lw.s: "Mnnu~pe in phin lpnpuape remotely comp~rnbte w rhe Vornich manu~ript arc. unforruwttiv. of ~t kaa~ four kinds: first. herbals: mad. ctnrndepicnl a d astrolo~i~l trearjses; third. medical trcatiscs in the narrow sense oi the mm; founh. pribiv. waiw on alchemy." He sugprs rhar rht mystical drawinps of a thimenth.~cnturr monk. Opinnus 6 Canisrrir. may be wrrth mining as comparable amolopiat and mmdopial works. Father Pcrtrsm p. 2). mmtionr the visio~ip mianps and drawlnps of St. Hildepudc of Binpen as pwdblv comparable. and he rccmmends the fouromrh.cmurr Vaticpn manuscript 1906 as simkr ro m e of rht as~onwninl drawinps. Tihman sates his &nridmd opinion: "To rhe k t of mr kowledpe no one has k n oblr to find anr pint dcunnrn~on with aslv other medimal manuwripr w early printed bwk. This is all the stranger b u g the range of wricin!: ~nd lllu~iar~on om the subjm d tht plant wald from the early Middle Apes right rhrwph into rht slxmnth and even ~vtntwnrh ccoturia is vtrv limid indgal" p. 1 t l. ELinh Friedman trpmscs kr own and William Fricdman~~ views w ka she notes flady; "50 far ;u is knoarn, Ihm is no... km or crib." [ f 962) [For those unhmihar with the term rs used bv rrvpnalvru a "rrib" is a pnlkl oa comprablr tar in a known h n m that can k used to break into an unknown text as rht three pamllcl inskipons in different saiprs on the Rmttta Stone were cmplod in the declphcrmtnt oi fptprian A crib can a h roke the form of a pa as to the subject matr. or individual words that might bt found at d n places in an unknown text.) Opicinu~ dr enismis (AD ~a. 1336). R. Sobmon t 1936 I dexrik rht v~siorur~ and mrstrcal dr~a-1np5 oi th13 monk on: &ows mmrivt illuscraaons of them. Born iwpavia. Itnlr. Dpic~nus had a diff~lrcult md unh~ppr. liie: he jell anz injured his head PI a child, a mishap which may haw hd a central pur in rhr iarcr cplsode of illness ad nsionr ah1r.h he d c d in thc nmrrrkabk book ofdrawings died bv hbmm, The draftmanship is rtrv dciical~ and beautiful. wth JO artifo'c quaiiq torolly different from that oi tl~c Vwnich manuscript. The desl~ns are txmme1v dense and intricate. wth msnv conceillric circles. tntrrjminp arcs a d lines. and bands k l v packed with tinr sets of numbers and Imas. Manr of thtm show arcfulty-drawn human figures with wdldrafd map of the wald and mhcr. smaller hurnan figures inside them or iaterlockiup with hi mdina. Map and archi~m~ral plans arc a prominent feature of Opianur' productions. as are Biblical symbols such as animab smndinp for the Four Gospclr. and the rip of the zdioc. One drawiii shows his entire aumbivgraphv. from his binh up to the vtnr 1335 w 1336 lwhm he drew the pimml. all pack& onto onc pnpc, Thy arc dl closdv rn-rwnttcn with Lcln text. in v e finv, neat lertcn: the rexr is prtmarily ahuf wcinus himwlf I his kiinp. his sinfulness and unwotthincss. ~ n tm s hi5 life. ac.1 rcpresentcd in srmboiic ways inwrmwm with rciipiwlr srrnhliun ad quotntlonr from the Bible and pawistic wirings. The only real similaricr a, the VwnKh manuscript drowinp is rhc encvcbpcdic qualin. in curnbimnp set manv disparate elemmts rymbdicallv within a muaural and smmtic unit. The apprance and rwk of Opiciausprdumons are mdl? at vrrirnm with thcx of our manusaipt: Opiciaus was a maid mist and draftsman. and had produd an &recr bodr of beattufui arrhirectural dmwinps of hi5 native town. Pavia. as well as a numkr oidcvutimul rt1ipiws tracts. Sr. HiIdeprdc k Binpcn t A.D ). St. Hildegarde. r k r d a c&vear in Gcrmv, was pihed with pn-cn of prophecv and rnrrciml vision. Sht produced m a 1 books dncriknp ad illumdnp rhue viuons. as well or a book about the cauws and cum of disease. Her drowinps appnr ~ansid~ablp more like those in QW manuscript on the fpce of it; thtr. arc relatiwly "provincial" d "crude." and haw none of the delican. and prohional quality of Opicinus' drawings. Hildegarde's drawings hove some of the rpmc svrnbdk. "conr~trd" quafn as thwr in the Vwntch manuscript Ther how ratha different drmem of content. h-: animal heads ad mmgnizablt fipum of Christ and the Virpan. for nample. h e dtht drawtap appr to have banks drays. U s. m hme~ Ijmih ro thode on Jome Vopnich rnanusalpt folios. There is 5tdt or no tmt or IokUinp within anv of the illustratim I have sccn of Hildeparde's works; heir meaninp rs c*plifltd in conncctad mt elsewkt in the bookr. Thar nrmhlurn. u wid chert. is rnurciy Blb1ic;il and Chrisuan r a sun-like ball of flamt re- Uuist's burning lour: thm mdkr uus above it arr the Trinitr; hcd rpwtrnp vapors arc peopk prcschin~ the G-1 ar using d s to do the wcrrk of che h l. m.1. Thc designs have a hiphlr. s~merrical. ahact ~ U P ~ similar R ro many Vovnich ptctum. ard m e how similar manpclnenzs of smail ah or mdiatinp liner in bands around a circle. It is amusinp to m. a h all the poncifitptions of clcpmr about "raund" fipurrr ad the absence of "Gochic" Fh in the Vovnich muscript. hat Hildegarde's wlfth-ctnturr hum figures ate wil-fi1lcd-0~1. vivac~our. plump. and livclv. (For a pood di~wrion of Hiidcpadc's wotks md rcpductionr of many drawinps m Sinper.19->. pp )

20 Ac~rirLof~~redar.Irinpirootbt~ppur#cdtbrr'~iarpmckPilinrbt~orinp ~ : k ~ - i b w r ~ k o r, ~ m r a v d ~ ~ h ~ o r i a n i a o b i r p l p a. d ~ a u ~ l ~m~rt.&w~wmc~ot~oollpmroojktcdawbo~okrin~~~a~ofthr ~orrrip.noncdrbc#lurar~)rpvedicdhuwo#dadm~i~t~ummmo~obthwd~mr.ordi~uswd rkr in my my, nr#pcn~ For r b mag d m d dcuil5 on thu m dut fdio which Jomt student happed to find u#fpiaqg=:hu,in~witbapmeplrrrbcor~ dk.~wn.thmfm. 1 hoprobtrnhrwillkuwirh me ~~tbe~wmerrtru~y~didvid~sl'~iadm~~ptoclm~piprrrithrfi rpcik~ddcpit~iprr4proridcr.nomrirwdetudfiatimoft~emior.mordi~mb~t1u~ m Hrrb.IMqs. At first ghce. thr no- i U m of rrhde plum, d l y.eeomp.aied by onc a mwt pagfaphr of #wr, rcrm m&tbekbopcofa~l.ccrdron~be~.otharadeaeibrvrkat:rbeifcf6#trvi~ytothtnskd ~~.a~oftbaedn~lo~~oimill~inorber~rithmkrebucrad~ DLcbertr FrdmaammmrrimtkmoaIpbddIfride~tifih.mempoufdhc "-a rdl*leaam- Dr. HrybO'NcilLkliemtbt brbuidencikdm Amaiaaph#irr~~~loolhcr~hroprmb#roedrhir.d~rb#aoaedo&plPnu~d u i ~ m A m e r i e *. S i * o # a ~. ~. h u ~ i ~ y ~ u E o r ~ ~ e h r ~ D u r r b W.ThtrrmPinder~~pori~:in..tbrm#~bebaproaae~~rbe2#m~wanorhcr.rhehvtrud fbmn op rdli aha A few dww i-ty rm a Flarrtr smmurer." ( 1362) U h n d y, sins Mr. Friedma's aniclt * rpparsd inr~pr.ltrmwuaoeiptionofthrrefmancohoira's~ubwnriddiwovrriej. I&veaot.wfu.boriabk 0rrrrtn!op8~rolrrahchir' ' PecPrmlppernmbmobPiasdrdrPilsdIirrufHdm'rikatif~ f r o m ~ l ~ e # ~ m. d # # d a u n f d t b t m o a h h ~ h r p i r e $ ~ n. W r ~ d ~ q ~ ofhdm'sfiadraphrerrriarnrpebut~il~19751&~~tm+rreqrebelarrra~montiarlrtuathortof O'W ~#hdrrrmmoo~d'neid's~~dthtjrafiacr~anfdio93r11p44p- 126I.Ian wnq the dl. s k h y h w i unllgcd ~ in tom wn #I a "phraucendal jar", possibly npmanriag a rrcipe fa an khl mimuc. (Fa a dirorrrion of the# "33mnx~dmt" drawings, w Scrr#n kbw. 1 Tk obi- O'Ntill ~ er peppcrbuipcaldw~kkr~dn~~or,~epriarbbdrl~widopeedbytbrjpibcd *~~ookdirarrsedfitrcba~.tbir~ir~1~bfclre6rccq~tlrefutdorad~cta.daor ~-Tk"pppnm'~ru~~~nghbbirdeeipbera#Pt; k ~ t h u t k c d a i ~ d a h e "pppr"~t*rbertbud~anrvorrdddibm#~11414,p.~).~rtodtaabtrr~r~*r idmd~thrpbnr~~m~ebr~dordy-mdieddt.~iatk,aun~fbrlbrdpl1# O'Ndl. a d Hdm IPnaren 1966). Atrbir poiru. I ropldiiht toprwca kid-aoaarniry tk-kn ofayk innuny pl.ntnrumrer lhownh~betbrlfolios.fawht~urr#tb.irillpm*ium~ownrobjeerirr.ddrrddlypnwap1.&~,in. chthaprtlrrt~mrv~~cpbtrrm~nttht#dn~morrd~ddrbtitmn~nr.fhtplurt pm~y~rt~avioprw.~.~nboir.rith.a.barm-k-madsd~hrd&


22 mrrhanical. in hnrmunr with the architmonic qualrr~exhibioed eiscwhae. Thrr qualitr is present even In the tlwtrs or *. - truits" thr prow from these strnnpc "molded-phuc" plants; the flower on tblio M v 1. tbr example. larks like J wr rlt merol spikn. riffidlv fixed +her: hwcrs in foiios 3v. 6r. 5C. Wr2. ad 9br look like the hoods uf vmt-pipes rct i~gurt 8,. (Again. rwnc Jrrikinp prallth will k mmtimtd in the alchemical manmpr discussed in Staion The prim in this omion of the monucript show rows of s d. ske~ht phnu or plant pans. which mrn to rmphs~xctnt s m n 4 - or hw-a the cxpw of the remsindcr. They are so abbrrviamf as to appear rlmtr~t Iikr mnenlrlnic ut s W m d s ~ rcfmiap h to phm a M r iiluswated mart fully in 0th fdiw. or to plants &erwise bmilirr ro the saik ad his eoyqucs. A drtcrmid effort bv wvtrnl dents m date thw skrtehcs'to rht hcrbai drawin-m has nor km var su~~errful. b~wrvcr. The orhtr wiient fafun of h p~ is the pence of ob- that have k n said w re~mble phnrrn~uucal jars or $rue mimeis. On SWIW fdim it.p.. 99r and 102~21. he jars are "kkllcd" with phrases or wads in the Voraich ~rtpt. uafatumtely ahm~ illcpik in rhc phmmpy a mv kawc the piemcnr fiilinp the U v of the jars in manc cam DD ohtt tht wndnp. In orhcr m. a "tpkl" mms to appr near the jar whd~ probablr relates to ~t. or to rhc "rctjp" it d r for. A similar " lhl" appcan nar each skd~ in rht rows; it hard to tell. In mt cases. whh of scmd ;eiphhinp pltmr is means bv each "hbtl". Qnt Or more prapraphs of tm are prewnt heen thr nm r of piaum. The iu ir urw1l~ at tht left marpin ofeach such row. urerkiblp rupg&np rhar the plants in char mw were to be ~d to make up cbr compund prestrip~l~ ~vmbdizcd bv that b. The kipn of Phi jars n urn wmcc ad florid. w~rh mar fitted cylindrical ltrrioru h a d b gmmmic dcupns. fam emkulshrntnu around tfie dp. curlr feet. and elaborate finials w hrdb on the top f mine of tht &net membliae. w the irrrvcrent modern eve. Ehc ccnd ornamenu on an al~rrmobik hd): ree fi~urr 15. The wmmmmtion and the "pip-smim"srruerure is similar in style to that of the "rmr" from wh~& wne fillures em- on asmhopiul folios Isee kb a d m some of chr fancp piatiorm vr ppr mcrurtr in the idtar ficaturing bumn f i p IMC Promimt a- the drawinps are a mies of cimbr desips appmrlv dmrlv dared to the months of the rear. and each provided with a cemal mrddion showiq n zodiac srmhl. A reeopnirnbit. if ddl)-.lpllcd. month name &s kcn written in what mm rrudcncs agm is n different and Iacrr hand thn hat of he V w hpt. Fipure 10 shows details of these monch mama The pop for Januarv and Ftkuarp ~Aquuiu and Capricorn) is miring. having bnn rcmowd Wort the manuscript WPI found bv Voynich. The uudtat'r first hope of p n e r n ~ rfimph k the known asswiation with moths or diar Jipns is smn disappiatcd. since rhm is AappPrdy lidc else in the dhpramz thot can k remocelv hated wirh crrmvcnriwrpi arpdgical diaprpms a d -. Mart of rk diapms haw rpproximuelv rhi~ female 6pm s h n ammd the prriphcw in om. m. or rhm rows: some of the kutrs arc fm-standinp. while ochers appr ro emcr~c from vlnicll or horizontal abiects Eke cans w tubes. =me of which are drraated with a variety of hmjdic-hkin~ dcrims. Somc of nude. bur whcrr arc pnial1r or fullv clorhed: the cfothinp visible ~lme of thr fipra inelukr wil. ham mar. and draptricr of considerabk claboratim. which should be wambk to a pniculnt pkc and umr with a M e -A. A fm of the fipwcr. pr nared br henen on his hand annxripu. may well bt mak rahr thpn female. A mrefu1 study of Lhc app.dy inantionalr distinctin doipns on their "mas" may p i d e a clue OD ickndficntiom of dte kinpr. ar pcrmit erorr.marchinp some of them on different diaprams. h e of he "cpnr" haw mncltnoru like tuele bdmmm. Figure 11 shows an anal?i5 of the numbs of figurn an he different rows in cad diagram: thue arrmpnmu mar romrpond to some dosrifirauon of the davr of rhe month import~nt for dim1 pocricc: for nample, he "Emm daw" or "aiual day". The moathi of April ad May with rdiac sigm Aria a d Taurus. sund wr in romrur m chr RSK in har htv each have two circular drlliolr~ I folios 70~1. 7 Ir. 7 lv. and 72r 11. and each tw ody f i b fipm u if he two dhpmmr for the Jpmt mmth were intended somehow to cornpkmmr toch aha. an idea s u m by rhe fin thar the bull w run is liphtcdwd in one ~PX a d dark-colotcd in the other. An amusing matter for -1 n m is the her rflnr the animal in cnrh CPK is mwnp a meal: her ir &nine wirh cvident relish on rhr leaves of a small shrub. md Taurus is appiyinp bimwlf with equal demmimrim to he mtenu of a sm of manpcr or fndbox errefull? ad rdisridv piad at his dispsal. These - h i s. in my vim. suppn a horticutturd. medicat. or qricubml ronmt rat& than a magiat or mwtinl one ~dthouph

23 this can be odc an ~mprcrsionj. At Jn! rare. 1 find ir a pleasing indication of the scribes prapmatlc ~ndoan-tn-catrh apprcach to hn subjrn matur. wharmer IG mcaninp may one day prove co bc. A number of ocher drawinps in which the sun. moon. and rrors art prwnintndr featured mar. bt prm~bon;lllv chsstiird AS vmmierl. 1 will mmpt to prcsent. in he foilowi'iq pra~raphr. a sketch of the principal stfurnual tlcmenm in each oi th. since ir is impiblc to reproduce mat of h m in this pap. Fipurc 12 providn a summrrv of the numkrs oi major e b in &= ~ &-pins &ng wih the "Klsnmolopicat" bagrams KI k di& in tht mt ~~ction. Fda 67rl shows a central face. pbablv represmanp the m. surrounded bq a melw-pid star: one sde of each nr ir decorated arich uprs. he o h filled in wirh solid pigment. In rhc cominurdon of he pair of ~pmenrs containint each tav. sin# wotds or phra~rs in the VVN& %rip altanare with proup of one or twr small Kars. Thrrc concentric rlnc5 oi trnr sumwd & w-. with a mrka idicaonp what mar k a starting powtion. Folirb 67rI ts based on J ~omewhpt rimihi Wn. sbmiap a wid el^-smilinp sun face in he enter of a srmm of seventeen double raw in rh~ch phrases of text alter- with proups of from or# to four small m. A single oum rinp of rcxr is inarrpcrud with decurac~ve. ~ ~ S. Fdo 67r2 is a mplcx tircular drsipn bad on twelvemajwdivisions.-in in cmm is an eight-pnd mr. surrounded bv a nnp of eiphr words. A dashed lint ind~cnru a srartiq point t ih. Twclvc moon kn. all faring to the right. occup~ tht nea ring outride he rmtral area: each is acrompnicd h a text strinp. Twelve pie-shaped ~pmmts extend oumard. nnr from carh of he wive m m focesi. hmi of these conrain Pdditionnl wrds. and a11 contain paracraphs of t-r. Each Kpmmt conrpins a pha. apprmmtlr wri~en in darkmpr heavier farhion. in its wm mmmlrr. A pdrapraph mnsisttnc $ti t h li~rs. lof wkh the mddlr one apprs to k in heavier ink I. is ~m bcncath the rirruiar dcsipn. Fdio b&l shows a rouphlv circular field of stars. arith word5 in the Vmnich hpt wrim kidt each. Ar thc lop is a larger circular m+dalli~n with a sun face. a riw of ttxr; a similar. klaknp circle conraining J mwn ha. a h ~rmnded bv tar. apvr at rhe boaom. Thm ate at lcur tmmv-eipht -tan with labels me mar h v t been cut off in the phmpy). h e dthe mrs dm xem larv or difirmcly.mbd rhon orlmr. a disrinction which mar have some sipnifieonct in the docvine of tbt suik. Folio 6812 w s m how a related or cornpaion diaprarn. apaln on A circular field d sun; in thh case. h-, only the twe~fmw I~PU in a mtrai duster art labelled. The sun face is at tht kmm. the moon face at rhr top of the star field in this diagram. Ammptr w cross-match the riap of mt around sun and moon. or the lpbelr of individual -1 on rhe two folios haw so far been fruida. Fdio 68v I shows r ccnral face. perhaps r sun. with a diadem or headband, rurroundtd by small flames w rays. A set of Jxrrm l a r double ~ ravs emerges frum the cmunl fur. onc side dark and the ocher filled with srnall scars, This Kerns similar in form m folio 67r I. and mar. bt related m it in rbr run-moon pirinp that wmr to form a basic the& in the ~mmalopical or alchemical doctrine invdved in the manuzcripr. The continua* of the thirt!..rwo ~ptate scpmcrrts conmininp the rays contain almate phrarcs of text and fidh d $dl WS. TW wm riags of rm surround the whole. wirb starring pwltionr indicated bv vertical lina. Flo 68~2 shows an ei~ht-poind. sun-like mnmr surrounded bv tieht ran: bwod this art four sermcnrr bv four rmtrifqal lincr of rat The is a further subdivision inm eiphr scpmmtr. ~parptsd br iour more cmuifupat tm lines emerging from rhc poinrs of the cmd "pcralr." Four fwms of small stars arc inmsperxd among thc qmenu. A rinplc axt tin$ surrwnds the whole. is starting pnt shmn bv a mid line. Finallv. folio 63r3 displae a moon face wichia a setem of eight major pie.shapd rdiatinp scpmcnts con~ainirtg iour altcr~unp fitu d small rmrs Pad mtrifupal linn of tern. sepnmted bv imk subidiaw lines of m. in n plan similar ro that of 68v2 irur dcxribtd. A Itngk tine of text surrouadr tbe periphery. in which no slorrinp marker can be discerned. It shld be npprrcnt h r thm is a syffcm~rit maat of ~ m wrr # in tht~ dlo~rams, f t mar relare ro conaad hurs oi nigh[ and CY- rim= or evenu pavemcd by d i b rl;urtr of san. or efkcp of the run and moon on the humors. elements. warn. ages of ma. winds. dircaions. crc. (m name m e of thc raarics hat ate proupd bv "fours" in medieval ~osmolopr and medicinel. A group of men d l ~lprs in one qmmr of 68r3!as rmred dm bv aher student~l. could well RpPmnf the Plkade~ Surclv a ariful and dtrrrmincd analysis of rhis mlch of strumred mnmr in ronjuncnon with J study of medieval d-ins should rum up lomethin? of urc to us in int+rpreriryt rhe meaning of the diaprams. - There remain manv brprrrnr bad on a hadammtniiy cikulpr pkn which show rdiating scpmenu. pipe-like w cell-like ekmenn, clorrd and wpr dusters. ad a rrmnl star-like or sun-like medallion. Text wards and single lmrrs are placed in or wrimn alone many of the nlls ad rayr. and in mncmmc wdar bnds aronnd them. with surunp polnu indicated. in.. some cas~~. k d l lines rn decorativt marktrs. Fipum 12 h a urmy of the numbers of rmjw dements in rhtse and the artronomical diagram. 11 seems likriy that a sysmnauc antmpt to mlare numkrs of related obienr mar turn up -me

24 in- mag LIM. I I 17. ~mbr in imdf had a supmi n(rru6~- in mrh ~ ~ ~ ~,. +? ~ i a ~ d # r r i a t s. M t d i c r o i ~ o l ~ ~ * o * * drb#ut p& of -mmrpoade#l#" c#npririnp of &-amkd d i q s dw cmld k in WOS. threa, fows. rp m dcr*nr ad trelves. In tht P- phhophl of d or +al nu-. ~ Ynumkn C four. -, fin*. d metvs wut conriknd rrpoarlty impomcu. fipe 14 slmws ~omc #cl of &menu emacted from mbkr in Apipp 11910); 33 impdmm ia ~IC Clhlr (rt Scaion ronrr vlkl hoiwiroapgmkcdnc- O + q a r i o u ~ ~ i m a ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ m ~ n - 8 b 2 1. ~ d * ~ ~ a m ~? ~ p y ) ~ ~ e e r m l ~ h ~ o r t o ~ r d e d ~ ' b w r ~ ~ ~ ~ r c d m a r i r b ~ n d i ~ r r p r d ~ p l. a - ~ ~ c e a d s r r n. ' l h i r h i n a u n ~ ~ a ~ o f ~ J b p e d ~ h hr- figurn m y k -; &csr 6pm ~cem k i y m tcpreftnt t child. a b. r rmn. ad an btat faward ~b~~~verrhe&dderchfi~ir~eopi~rpli.~ofonec.~behrmria~~kpfirr ' ' rpoood*rpor~bltq~.maua~-afu!w ariqdom.drcnu*e~boelinro~ ~~ckicadwpoiwd~.~h~~~lihl?.~bcd~.d*b-rbrfarapd m*nobttoorh-~.u~ia~34;klppeur~~~~ploridcs~~dorwltir#otht anwidwlirrsolrr~ mc- The -1 plan of tbt "four ah" dhpm joa kikd is hi~hir tcmiuiraat of r fig= ftom rh Anglo-Saxon mb?i&- II. p.. n#m-bmxon d i m smr fmr spm hll m. u d r, " ~ & ~ ad A did ~ ir ~ ina, kotiawad#parlcir&skorahmfiprrcririal:pbt&afbcrtrpolriwrrirhr ~ d ~ m b ~ ~ d i U i m t D e W ~ k i n ~ a d A n o o ~ a r i y d = # q I b t w h o k d d ~ ~ L r i n s c a ~ l r r. " ~ h ~ ~ p l o a l i q - * m ~ i p c o r p a a fie~."oneitkr~of~t#lr~fi~~mrclnnrrordr.loa#dkgibk.~hi~b#rmt~trkrtorht humarr. ptoprtia. d tkcm ["& &, "alidu*" "&-," "-b," =meplidur." "humidru": i!. "fripk."..hwnrdr:''*..-,.. "kyik" "ica"). F i of Pbir ~cm we wy o~mrnon in mcdi-1 urroigial d medral mlaoseripcr.radnfam~qllpil~060&"~m~"oarrll~~'drbrhllmulkiqe.ehoopfitlad~or ~ ~ i n ~ b ~ t a a ~ o f e h r I r r ~ * n i * r r + ~ " ~ " T h r t p l u l f a m o f l o c h brgmrr~a~aficrrrrrrithiivrrmarrriqirr~ritborbrr4apiratm~mstrdswforter rfsseriaptkcmirbrm~+mc. Id ad 1927; Bokr An* ueff mnwhbk diygrm oa M o 67v2 skm to d in dur dl h melf. unlike andinp in arher mtaureripcl. It r u w a m-id rhunt. bad m four mior diviria ttw mav bt rht waranr. Four puffs of vapor rolhinhhfooro#n#s.hjf~la.prtrrpr.~~blthwmwppo~lfwolp~mdm~. ~Nmbdd~oneamorroftbne~.rt"~~.")~domdlkc#rabiarrrdwrbr~hmtht ~m*~lflperbrpri~qtbt~poiarobt&chroadqnm~+~roaridrrpitrltr~iarider~ Uh-shapd obi- mag rkrry pipr w budr to Swm simple. I&. pm&c fipwcr (an "X". n "4". m. I. One of tha#6#au.inthrbwerkfr#1t~~tof~py.rhws~b3lo~a.fpc#ina~-~e~opnin~ot~~op. Jltpaimpoad~rdroltritb~3qmcaoodondk~rtcea.Padrcd;.rwrrill#~bdow.rhbPipvrireatwluf~ -~ia*1~~~llsdar~tcprrra~rooll~nupdtbe~~mr~.~").fbeoalo ~."~ritbphefoor-~~isdl.~oeaua.acpbaim--iachem~~ daminr baq crpwadd in &is taim wwk fht rairyinp of &lu a dw lrhhoufh NH fitnl alm~ lines in #mrneuiai rrmnpernmu is rrm in Pi& (Elifltr a d P h r wbc the iamt is to "star pmres" or ~o(umkcmptolrsdi~mrpldrburaar~~&4).som*wburirniqrchu#aer~a~dr~ofdorracirdc~~tlr~ aait#uesnn:a~~lmrluauripm~uin#rmt~~&lt~#)8.8d9.4.dfi~41md42~. * ~llp~etffiin~~mm.rr~h~iikm.riromdrorar&~pp;i#brrdrofltxrdira~~l~udkrrem -- t h r f i l C o r a h a r r a a r f ~ ~ ~ n d ~ m # e ~ ~ ~ l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ f i ~ s i n their raid hds e m to point at. psp. oc sumh. The mncture of eight h d s of ltra in ma emup of four euh is b imilar to d ~ of t many other dirpms in drt mrnurcript fhir. too. diqmm rkrl camaim ~qu- of '

25 cnip~ltir -bols rrpod four tim d rhe =and of in conaamic rrxr rinp It is one of v m fw cases of rrul~callr. rep.dly: ~ucrm~baria~hr~urd hukm~u~sardmmuchanenrioa~uudmrsa~a pk"km" t~rr fipe 241. ~dio~3bthtdrrrioprefrmdmb?bbddua"+~"aanrrnldrdtisd~habaitoornliim ~~emar;e&mppcrhlf~olc*ifiw~rihkfromropm~.fhirplratrrcmkrhercribbled~c C~in~~offolioB-84*3(hwhich~cckbr). Aword~pbnocurrrimenindoFthellpprhll*tr.ada ~pnsnpbiarhth#mpcpdt.ati~of#n~rhirfi~.wirhodngpoimrhornbvamrkrr. Four mpt mm arc scptrrtd bv gracefully-cwriap hndr of pas: *in these arc wamv a ww outlines. definjnp ficidr c#wiainp curvinp row of w s om the wmt spml plan. Frmh the mp mm of each wavr olltlilpe. fwr smaller curved mhd~ +ollmrkinhtnmcphnof~o~~ffm~~ have ~ctnsofrbqurdvinaherdiapramr. An olmcr oi am larrolladr rht whole. irr m dearly multed by a m*c sip This dcripn. wih k hdoufwr m~ & rrfa ro Iht ap, bmm, a r& like. Ir rsly a h luvt a -1 irnficarion. I~MC & ~ o ~ v ~ ~ i n ~ ~ ~ u ~ S a m d ~ m b d i c ~ o f r b t ~ * ~dio 7[hl -:r-h-pantcd b. poi=. It is ~p,madtd by r curiour riap of fihcigh arefulll-drawn dl-like obicas. altcmrrrlg empl a d orr~pwd bv pits of k.nd a rrag of tm. r V' II1C. waw- OC wts emmw from a warcry fa ~urroundinp he imcr rirek. Nine buds of tm arc written rdiallv outward from the inmstim of t h waves. ~ Thm -tric rinfr of w surround he whok. There is little to aid ur ~ra uadmtdinp chis drawing ahcr dun a pdbk focus q w8m as anekmnt a moirrure as a propurr.. with their ciirctr on h&. a d dx n& & nine. d Fd#~oho~ar*nmlrix-poiared~tu;h~kehr~d~d~urfldbmctnthepo~no A ring Of ma ~~fir~umb &is mural m. &load rrr hpfk pip-like. &qad r a daacly ~ podted KO+. with withaaacralcight.pointrdsur - haw unrll'aprs hwcn iu poinca Tv-ei* pip.likt thiw m~fp rdie from the m. with a tcxt word or phrue wrim a k the mod of trcb or thw~h &in# from it. T h rinp of text run arwad thr wwr pcriphcry. A d moon fpce ormpks the crrr~rl field of hh 85-86r4; five frothy a bubbly cmcenaic rings ob nk d l + w vrvla~~uollad~~.fhrbtdr..rmr.radrhopldmofdoorbumrafi~rirrfwmthemiddler1ap~1hma~1. ~ ~ r m ~ ~ mad i Jric w d W. ur~i~ubhdkobjscuo#o~rbirhmrv kacrm. Fmtlimsoftcxt surropsdtbrrhok.rith~cbdl~~~~#~ntht~ Foko85-86~3 admpinsawrymn~dmmqdanridbyfour~wapkx~jhrpd rouphlvlikeind cones cmcl~iaph~t~nmd~~dr*mdmpinrudwmrd~anrrr.ihrupprlcftc~ntlooltswrcac~urtrr pp. doudr mr ds: from ie up. d i d mwd rk cmm, r rpun of mne s u b issues. with I)# head and h d of a human figure cmcqinp fmm rhe durn W e it. The uppr ripht ~~umvr is like i broad cuk mode up of sales or scallop w in m ~ i rro+r: t from K P h ~ #d~ f 06-par ~ QT wid mp tow4 rhr am. and within (his a brd is flrinp ~v.~rrob.rer~urmorr~inbamd~#moobtmodeopoflr~of~~fibersw ~#cmrrriretorrofallr.oat~forchr~iadlpdawr~araimrimrdiamthra~d~t~ rirh8h~~l*r~d.rifperia(lrolldonr~ofphe~dfi~~olrra~~dhpkaw ooaarrrttsdriphthiad.f&~op#. iuckhrimeorna. cmioao~ofvap. b w d h a bird seated onitrrpnt.~ifmam:brndiapmtrthtjtpoadbirdortrhmbnch-likt~aoneulkr.four~tpuapnphs - ~rhrfortrjid~drlltpl~rbermnthr~~u.dolifjlpvyraphirpl#*diarheuppcr~~~~m.. It seems p 'ble thpt thr h r ps my nprtsmt the Four Winds cmwpnp upon the torth. ad that ths diapram. like 4 ah of thb kan. m y k eoaaraed wirh & ltuonr and he wcuha. The nestinp btrd. md the wher. possiblr mipr#ing. bird would k expliabk -din rbir 6nmr of rrfaearr. A dbbkd &pm of I ride with rhree rubwcrionr. like chle in idio 68~3. dm adrrwirt q of dx pr(r; aart lo ~nwlcd lanu ;t is o diradcrtrlaiwli~thutnrrnbkr~~-~arrbi~rrriprfhirdbbltirda#t~fimikprrdin theha ~apmofcdio66r.+hrrri~~ramsookrs#illlrdrirhad~-fan#d~#~i~prc.1~~21 fordtrpil of*lctiw phrrsrr.1 fidu. fnb?or2 rhmrs 8 matd hrc. wv 8 zon. SUrTmndd bv tqh! krp ~c~rnents eollelinrap petal.likr ravs. A mall rinp of- row mund rhr amcr. ud h mar lincr of art surround the whole. 7hc oum liorr mppnr to be in mo pn: the OPO~~ pit has a COmmOcl ItPniq point i d i d b a double mial whik the inner pur hra a different common Apuopnphdomorr#nprlriaohtdcsi~oontheupperti~rmarrolthepopa -.. fbrrbmrr~-hsdll~bkampledtdi~~osonofthr#ia#r*uiryc~&~mcanbrao~nrdoi ~mrherrnooatdi~~*rihbkm~hrht&rd~mrcaadrorhtm~rupmr~indho

26 wrcful and rrmmatic cw~rnimriun. I bclitrv it has been rou rdilr dssumed br mmr students that the ctr~ulncl an the Vomich rnanwipt were tm "weird" and n d c a l to warrant rh~s atrenttun. The research must rwt the ttirwn ~ t r mumnc who has access 4 PI 1 do wt have) to a larpe number of medicval manumipn. or brs~milt copes cti thew..+ rhwough iaveuleauan. punuiap some of the sttiking icono~mphiral elmma in the drawinps, miphr rum up some uwtul pardkk that could provide an u&standinp of the text hwimgs F~atmi'ag Human Fipwcs.,ti JII the show squenm of human iipurcr. alrnwt inr rr~~bl~ Tbr dnwinpr on h[ior 75r and v and f6r fhruuph 84; arc pbablv t h must ~ rnritcrious dnd bir~rrt enipmns with whih I)le Vwnich manumipr mftmts us. T k nucrc and female. Plld (as ha betn VCI)' hqmlv a d mmmbr mhtr med bv =her nudents r quite plump and mtrimlr In farm. Most of hem haw discen& Pbdomtns and bulpnp hips; they mainle do m present an aworance of volupruaus buy rn the modrm Ammican ere, Thr. rather one of agncuhtai ftrulitv, maarnal ftcundirr rnd nourishment. or wnhinp on a similar pnpmalic plane. Many of he figures mm to haw long hair. crowns. w ehbrrr~te dlr in spitt of their OChemise complete lack of chhinp. f heir p e r arc lively. expressive. and varied. Tbe femak &urn arc shown vuiodv rimq. ondinp. L?ia#. or &mist disposed in or on curiour objem like tubs. tuk. pipes. COP!-mala. pitpin. pods. or plprformr. Thc~ obi- art drawn In chc same chunky. LIockr stvlc ot architectonic #rl.liy as was noted above in ammion wirh thr planrr. In fan. romc of them look quite a ht like the fruits. sd pods. ad roar or mm structures of these *trv plant drawinps. Nwe. for example. the mo ruikanp werid obrecrs. -hat mmrbtinp mi- or h h blinp fum crmd on blia 83v; lo mv eve. thtv ckir resemble the rwin fru~t~ i I cm ohe plant in folio 90r 1. A mumre on Mio 79v of thm pipts surrounding a lorpa ccnud mk -mblu the rm crmn d & m e plomon folio %I. Simikrly. r Pipvtrtc smmurr on folio 77v d e up of dame nest- or &it-like swcllinps eonnreard by pipcr. with t h e tukr-wre &em hawing from the ernad swlliqp. lodrr to mc like he rmt crown of a plant with h mrin stmscod by rnderpmund nok (w fipe 15 for exrmpln1. Some of the frmrk fipw wrm to trt holding rpindk-bpd obj#rs that cwld k fruiu or sted pods. Thr pipe-like mpetpm that ail uound che fi~ura (d illco whreh. or from which. &ev appcpr w k uammtrtinp wmt rnwmiour or hquidl cod wrll repmmt plant pm such u m or urm in KhemPEic fam. A h to k remarked upon arc chd*likt clulrcrr, puffs ad sprarr of vapor emerffinp horn rht aummr vtnu oi rhm pp, and rht suhontial.lwking rubs of liquid in which p u p of ftmak fiputs smn m be riming. drip. or mwiap &UL Some farm of humor. crsence. rnoisnrrr. M sap ~ c m be of ~ prtmory imporclnee in the dbnc e*prclacd bv [hex pictures. In some fdros (e-p..'5r. ro the kfr d a ddinp Iinc of figures; 82v. at tpp rifit ud a h two mac klou. center 1. arc-tikt strumurn seem to span openings in some of the litlle ~mcs. Thue Iodr a pttpt dnl like rainbows, dthoulrf! without seeing the original colors one can only m: mm of the arm ~ctm K, k four ar iive scparsa cmccnuic xpnrncr with a darker band or the top. r For a di~eurrian oc an ahmid drawing conraining a ppr with rnuhpic vcarr rmiinp vapor. in a style rimilr to the ppcs on h folios. ser Won Another impwrtnr.detail to k k in smud of the drrwinps of thls section is a di aorr with one low arm t for ma+. rr the mp of Ma 7%. minp u a locw for dimfiq rays: m 75v to the ri~hr wiha a field of nvs and clouds: on 78r rt he foeus of a Rnpr- or cloud-likedwrcr at lrpper kfr; ad on 7%. mp. at the focusof a frilly canup? of ravr wcr the head of a figure who al~o hddr a mu in hrr badl. T k symbdr arc quite r d and unokrusivt. but usudv Kern to fwm a Ctntflll focus OT mipin for raw -np upon chc hak fipurcr. The obriolu ia#rpmoum is ant of Divine itlumimdon or inflmm pmmodnp tk hndrrinp. nounrhiap. or hew vim= ob the humors mtrollcd bv. or reptncnrcd bv rhe hale figure. The aosm pmdc.a uamirukamy Chrbhn frame of rekcace for nht domine King nrpwndcd bv he vrih of the mmuaipr-a polnt am fprcifdy mnukd opoa by &er studem ro my kmwlcdpe. Wkt arc we w make of b mng drawinpi A porkbiltly rhu i d o t l y -s m me is &at rhey may relatc chc bin= of G a k humoral mcdieine. with - itr four "digaimma" d various byprodurn at dffmnt rtaees. to he nourishinp or curative properriu of the plan= or pn~nproonr of thr kbol and phprmccudai fdiw. Anather +bilirv is a r m of thrrapuac baths; this wu a mmmon fraturc of medrevol &dm; warmth ad moinure wm s u e to k, in ihmntk. heaenp form. h is musing m in this manmion that Rogcr Bum. in his mcbl wmk De Reurdaurmr Acrsdmtium S m e d (Baron 1928al. mommmdr pcrfumcd orlr. warm e f h. ad rhr applicuron of prmou~ "o~~ulta" such as lip-ah. "hem bone of a m$." a d viper's flesh. ITh msdical work was a mpmnt and complete compihon of diet medical mica such as Gdnr. Pdo-Arraatk. and numerous Arabic writers. ad was plapiarmd and npkited bv Ian phy~icianr; link in it. -, vpr ariginal with h.)

27 Brumbauph ( I975 I has sen in there piaurc~ a recipe for the "Elixir of Lfe." dmipned to look tikt Roper Bacon.5 work t Bacon's medical tmtl~t. ha work tncitltd Eprs~uh & Irii~abiIi Portslate Artii et kturae. and some garbled or doubtiul rn& of hu Pkhnnical writings were the only frapmcatr of his writinps wctl-known in the sixtenth centurrl. Panofikr flm4. p. r). ruppw that the human figures may rcpnsrnf "uud qmriu" tranmitdnp the influences radiated from the stan ina plsats and dm Living things. Singer. in his lma ~o Tilunm. 12 Novrmkr prs fornard a diffment. though relami. suefcscion: "My own fcchnp-apain very va~ur-abut tht little iipurn of nude men and women in the wpm of tht body ir hat rhtv art con& with the "PIC&" of the Poracelsan or Spapvric Schwl. f his would fit in 4 wnh my suppcaion rbout)ohn Dee ad Bohemia." Nore that Snprr ses tubts. pulpits. and pipes in which the fipm lit u "arpanr of [he body." rathrr than as the plant parrs rhey recat1 to me. Fipurc 13 shows an ~nalrris ni the numbm ad ~roupiq of female and male fipurcr on rhc folios of this smion. This elaham aripv'of Circular rnedalhms~nr~-d~~men~ of a large. multiplv-folded pp. It has received Iialc vr no srudv or maon bv jtudmts; this may k pnlv kcaust tu compiexit~ ad bizarre character bqgjcl the mind alredl ovcrburdrncd bv the "qummr" m the modern eve d so much tbc in Iht mnusaipt. The failure of ~nnc students to pr. much anearion to thck kpns is a h p~ohbtv due 10 the pow quality of the phokkopv available m us for these pares The photompr mnde from Fatha kcrun's wrpnal q v is 50 dark. and the numerous maps of rnrt WfiKtn b e are there ~ rr rl hard ro mad. that it is almost unuu#e. A pblorwmric mpv which I recentlv obtained from the Bumke Library MIS rhe dttnils of &is rtmnrkamc drasinc m y clcrrly. Thae are nim elaborate cirmhr hp. in thm rows of three cnch. The central dnipn in rhe ddlc tow IS lorp dun rhe ahas. and caneaim six pharmaceuacd "jars" amaged in an ma1 panern with stars in the ccntcr. Beta-ten he mrdollionr art veils of dl-likr or fihs ~apmrru that link each circle to iu imdhtc neiphs. Oat medallion shows a suuntur like a d t and orhcr small hl+ omund irs ppky; rht castle has a h ~h. mmllartd wah and a rail mwal torrer. The mm of this figure cmdw a circular 6dd of sws and a spiral maagemenr of rext. Nearby. in rhr oum ram of tk pop. is a small rirdr maininp n dapam with Voynich #xr "words" within in segments. in che oppmiw m m of thc page is &c mli "rkk.h" mmtiod h Brumbaugh (abut which more will k said klo= 1. In the other mo corners are sun fa- swmundcd by wavv rays. Some of dre mcdacwu hue petal-like rrranpcmtnts of Tars fiud with smr~ mlhn~ features of the ~osmd~cal ad monomical folim d i d prmadv. Manv mcdaiiionr rrt provided with curious nrumm like bundle of piper w p n M s d-d aroud the pmphtry of [heir outer cirrutrr mtiiotr. This assemblage of symbol5 dtkms far more anentjon dun it hu so far mid. in mv oplnlm. sinrr ~t could provide m c eniiphmsinp sywhesis or frame of rehence fa individual diaprams e h h m in rhe manuscript. A mention should bt mode here of Brurnbrugh'~ identification of a "ddt kt" among rhese diagrams. There is a rinr circk. surrourtdcd riphrl') dmp vaguely raembliq Roman numerrk and what may be a small riap of text. on the extreme left side of he smmre. la the cmta of his arch is a uianguhr omnpemcnt of rwo inarrminp lines with three s ~ lspkm l strung on them. rr heit free d r ad at their intemction. Whik it is atx that rhis circular kipn karl mme supficial resemblance to a ckk fm. if smns pubic ra me that it mar a110 CePrtKnt a -'sw pitrure.. like rhore rri Prwtrt.\ ad rhc limihr Prmical charanerr mentioned b e w o n The two "hands" I d eo me as if hev are ~nrcndtd to be of equnl hprh. ad the "hands" am aot centered on the "clock face" as one would ewptcr. but ratfm arranged so that the entire trkn&ulnr suumte is nnd in the circle. An a d v similar triaa#dar strnbl with thret bails srrunp on it wcurs,. frrqucntiv arnonp the star spelis of Piwrix. and was used by al~htmlst~ to man arsrnlc. orpirnenr. or push I Gtslrn~n Tables IV. XXXXIII. XXXXV) Small Margindl Designs. k c are mall drawings of M e. arum&. and other Inr easily-identifiable objem on some ppprr, Folio 661. as hrr already ken noted, conrains a drawing of a man Ipng on his back clutching his stomach ru if sick or dead. and surrounded bv M~~WJ indeterminate smd obiem. The last pap. 116~. has m a 1 sketches of people. animals. and ather mvsrrrlous h a p in its upp left corner. Most of the pap filled with tm (folios 103 and fdlowinp) haw single wrs. some provided wtth mnsions like tails. to the left of tach parapaph. Thue paragraphs. a has bnn pmntcd our bv Tiltman I I975 I. probamv comprid approxim~telv 365 mipinnily. thercbv providing one "smr rmpc" for each dav of the!tar. psiblv a.wt-- of nsvolgical prcdicdwrr or prescriptions.

28 3.4 M eani~g of tbe Coliecfioa of k wings as Whole VqaiEbdhirimprcraonmfir#~t&rmn~p~"ebrdr..nlyrindIeacditm~m~arorkon uanl p!! j ' (1921. p 1). E W Fried- mp: 'The *- a d h q e scth ~ of tk moaojerip (115 ~)irprobrblt~inehrrrm.dhrm.llwripm~cillddtooerbnn~elusda~11%21. Plaoidr~prorikruorbcrk-rmrf:"SohuaabemdtmrkfarerhemrnPreriphPrbrtn~.~e~nrmr 4 cornpk: k a pd pbibphy nrplaiainp the mrdicrl of #rrerrrirl obian. puricuhrlr plmr. by mhal id- ma-id by wool ndirtiwl PIXI chose 'spiria' w)urh were kqvmdg klid w arumit the oaultporcrrob~~tarsmthecurh; 'dl?. nngd p~tpwer; thrd. a &scrimof md~ mupad as ma7 k pdwed b? mbirrryt idkidwl *no In rrtiaurrry" (1954.p. 1). H t b t h a t & u u d k r n ~ r a ~ ~ ~ p r * U d ~ ~ n l t r l l o f c h a e doarian~a#a#apabooit.m#**drtm~rebar d r ~ ~ m i t r ~ d ~ : m o b r i o o r ~ ~ m m n - r o ~ b t b t r a r k o f h ~ -of--) pro*idm r similar vim of the mndp u a whak "fbt ilius&aths in the roanu~rrpl make ir appc~r all ht mrpin ehrr the tm dtatr with msdiciall ptauu d their use in rndk.1 media. The drawings of fdior #em w Uu~aur urrolog t d mum. a d popribiv tht mdmd d vital wits f m n p u animate kings I represented bv d l audt 6prmP.... Mtpht not rk 324 spra sbrt porrp8phs a I comuin r sm of' 1pbie~inkraoblrofcw~arrrorhdrcriprl"(lm3.p. 11 &rrmk~~cerebe~urmakaacbt"elirir oflic*".~coia~thee~~ii~aforciarhorplbsdm&u.ppnrmk~workd~ b. An " ~ ~ ~ ~ t o f ~. ~ ~ o p m p ~ f m m a r r n e c y o f r u l i c r ~ ~ p a. i r ~ ~llat=fatnriqn&~~llurdal.bmmhghtbintr dx d prlthic macamrcion. a d~ wd rppheraon of the W' pp In dying ck M n g s in dtt d i f h #flims of& mlrwreripc, 1 haw eome w fed -fly rhu they invdr* a highlv s~.urifiei.l.darnvm~~cormormonic"lrayr(tr"thuwcrphc~rcprrrcaruionsorcormro.. dl lo mird ptknh kq m diliamr fdk a d in wiarr witb me urafwr. Thu pophic ". ~ ' a ~ ~ m m I r m. r d R # t F r i & i a i r r ~ P m b ~ ~ d f & V o + laipimbr*ripbbch.pbct4).j;q&1~ :bdk*t~&taotcf01.~~.rad~ariadedd~dall * ~ l y r ~ r b d r ~ t m p h i c ~ ~. s d ~ ~ d l t h r h m ~ f i t r c p r ~ c h e t f f a imolred.aa~oriapmodcmmapllocrclltorrmi~~grpk~~uwp#fam~ranl~wouldk &bile. if E*rricd our rirhin a dlv-reuwcd fnmm#k (i.e.. to pur~c and i&pw purmhr prmoluly ddopbd br tk sdmt Fonmning mtraiapful ttbms rmonp the forms). Mm will bc mid in Sccaon 6.9 rcpuding the u# of cornput mchniqua in d y i q d# rrunuvrtpt

29 Chapter 4 Avenues of Attack: The Text 4.1 Natm and Cbar~ctPristics of tbs Vopicb S e t Homwr mmpk and intdng the drawings arc. the Jcript in which rht bulk of the manuscript IS written is undouboedly the mm intripuiq part of the clcgsnr migma. Ir hor a dmprivrly flowin$. rhythmic qualiry that suggats lung practice a d fpmiliptity m the pmrt of Phe scrik a scriks. fhe scrip ~ m likc s n rrssonablc. workable. well-construcrcd ~lvnem of wrhinp. with a look of ad natural flow. On cboer impoh rhe surhce appearance of imphcitv vanishes, a d a nit1 mwt capuwillg&waamaaps,intht.h of an intricate but ~srucruraliv bpiul srstcrn of Iigrturiq or compounding of JmpIe form m build up more complex oudina. Wbrcver else may k allcped conmninp the value of he manusmipt as r whok ro science. I am muid that an uidemding of the ronstruction of chis writing system cnnnot fail m be of gear in me^ in he stlldv of human hupbt. It appears to be a mar hfbnv of trtiwrv and inpenuttr. Uafanannrrly. dtimugh manv mdcarz mrnrton the style. callipraphp. and aprance of the saipr as a tamr in thetr judgmrcnts d rhc dam lad origin of he m~nurcript p i & link real midmcc or derail to back up their cla~rnr. Nwhrre omoap the w m I b*vr exoarid have I m aay redly hctu~l or complete discussion of the mamr. Somt mrm mmrim. in pag. he pnbk derivation of ttk VoyniEh symbdr from "Roman minuxulc charanerr.*' McKaig (d.1 P P dttt ~ "the is mimen in a hutifully symmtviepi Icript that Pphdy rrrcmmn writiap used in ftaly in the 1500's" (p ' Rchtionsh~ps to Know Sm>b md Cbarartar Sets, A m p ro link the origin of rhc Voynich symbols ar other aystemr dwririn~ how ktn manv and br-mnpinp. A diligent study of known dphrpbcric. syllabic. or ideographic Jcripcs has turned up nolhing r m l v similar. thouph various indivldunl svmhis have distant pmlkh in wrat cwnpmdir. Sewral rvmbolr rc~rnblc cmrlv fam~ d Arabic numd; this has been pold out by more than one student of the manuspipt, FW example, bv A. W. Exell (of the bnical Libraru. British Naturd Hisor? Museum). in a her ro Tiha, 30 Auprr 1957, ad by Robtn Brumbaupk ( t Figutr i 6 shows a eomprism of m e Voynich symw and varim form of early Amkc numeral^ mraedcd ham t a k in Hill thrl look similar in mp opinion. [See a h &nion 8.10 for a dissim of dpt histay d Arabic numerals in Europc. J Some form of subrion apk m y br involved. of mum; thus. the fper hot a gim Vovnich s~mbol I d s like an arlr farm of "7" or "4". for hamplt. n d m imply that ir maly Jtondr for that number in tht mrt. Earlv form of Arablc numcral~ wert often emplortd in a wide variety of codn and ciphers. as we will see in Chapter 9. Similarides arc a h clrarly apmc ktvrm m e Vqnich sjmbdr ad certain btin abbmirtions an use at various tima during he Mtddle Agm. Thew relrtianships have bcm indgad ad rxpioitd by m a 1 mkntr, norably Petersen - and kdv. Figure 17 &OW a r e k of b6n &&ations txtramd ftom GppcNi ( 1949) and some Vovnicb symbols that ramble rhtm in my qinion. A penet.1 limilrtlry wu Wenr to me, and was dm md. indcpcndentlv and enrlia. by Tilmn, brmm mrain comrrtonty-mmhg looped rymk ding ibwt the lint and tht dmtive cmnsions of letten with tali rrrms in the cap Line of a m~nusuip illruttad in Cappelti ITabk 1V). Somc artificial wrianp qmms of various kinds bat might throw some liphr on the Vwnich xtipt will k discuucd in Chapter 9. It has been concluded by most rtuhu that the VoyaiEh script inrludcs at kp1~ m e symblr. Various atrcmpts have km made ro wive at a ratide to *lain the lig~currs and rdw hem conrisrtnrly into component elemnu. Some nudenu haw propscd t h thc ~ Wmay s hr*t km built up fmm ehmt~rv coolrts in a manner similar to rhe method u p which they suppod that the Chinese wriufig system was bad. Tiltma suggmtd tha~ misshnarin viiiung ihe'fai' East. w h had =died the Ulincre srnem. mipht haw brought k k a dncrtpaon of it which hen mighr have inspired some fihrh- ar lixtrmch.renturv sddar to deign rhr Vopirh scrip iunpubli8td mtrrl. A. W. Extll. in his letrtr to

30 Tilrmm. 30 Aupun &s 10 a rtrmrv I not further spmfied 1 Wt tarlv Arabic numerals arrt built up hum one. mt3. thm. four a rnm mkn in a similar Or~earal manna; hr urpgcsn a sk~hr and incomplete mrerpondcncc bermeen V- d rlonp thgc liner. No ant hr. rn mr kmkdp. worked wr a '.wdrt'' rhhkl dttlis~im~offideatdrrriltomtiromuablpabtrir. ~&~~~~OL[~~~t~BKOllpcOrjdcd~xomsiwinform3tionconmni~t)#F~ hrpblf M n e :#6aa of rhc + #r d the customs of T#tlpl psopkr. He sates tkr chat he bd qucnioned -1 rnkioiwies and waurlk, r d v mmed from vuiu to hie h-awry -5. His dt~r~prioru oi map kw#n popkr ad curroms orc c M y vnitrbk. n b h m e pre h b a d dutehd.?i miph h expd. A chr of &Iddhiff mankr ronhip. crca iadmdilyr o p& variwr of "Om mam podme hum'.. rr ~ y ~. f & ~ i r b i r ~ o f ~ i n C h i a r : ' ~ ~ i n e c h n ~ t o & e w r r i a a r h t h t minrmrarclurrirhrbi&pli~pi~~moarchuocar~dkrrcn.afhpoup~tiapa~. Br chis mnhod Ehvlcarr m ford with, w y intm mgdwr. when= nuodk md rural charoer#r bvt km camped of kacn. ud have the mclaitq ofmteaen.'' (Bacon 19hb. p fhr c#npooad VqriEk srmbdr ur sor &I oo "ak rpn" in my muiscrm a d unimbiv war; Ehn- art rr*l smo#hhrkdtdmiamr ~kfbwiqamliat.fiplur 18~~omeerrm~af~d~compoundfamr.aad wmr wgpxhs rrfrrdinp heir -ti- Srmc rrmbdr rhieh appr to k hpk ax fint ipbr mot in fact rlw b* omp pard: ior nunplt. "a*. m v k m& up 6" C" and '---". and " 4 " m v k a mknatmn ui -' C ~ n d " 9'. Mv own frclrnp is that we n d na po u far afield a5 the Orient ;a explain rhtx complex outlines: rhc vnmi 111' lain IbbmrPrimu in rommon use thtarpht tk U k ApJ has dw same chpncat. An rbkcrrprsd twm nprdlt prrrarrsonror~llr~lmenofrradrad&ar#ahim~tb~ai~yl~~~~lll~ehar~.. dak. parriallr JimiEu~.fhedirarr#dmd~dlarproCrr#dr~d~colnbised+irbomfieer.sop~cbstrran.laop. trilr. and slant which mark dn form u m & M o m. or sad fot a sm of miwing knm. Each of thew rtrurnual h ~ hrr ~ a anrateqm m in the Vop& Ictipt: r h m d wdce wrmr to ronnm many rvrnh; r cammr. a hook-like ~afaarppwrrbo* iafbrnas~:~trihrwvr~tpa~rhhhatdwmdrdddliacr. ~tbmrfalitlrroburrd~imk~t&~oftdnibbrrvi.rioar.fmdliu~alku,dmoloithchirddit w a r d &uwsmtm chroumt E v. m&ud wirh arb farms of H c numerals a d m e mmm alchem~cal and mkkl vmbdr. to fid he inrpintlon fa the dtripn of he Vwrrich icripr. L'nfarunaed~ for the student. the desipncr hutxbih#daerrj~rrrrurlsoblri~inbkadinfoad~ag~dcmcntr~ufo~ktof~onmtim~rnrarririrym-m~ i-duddie*rour~i~ofrirnilulutsm ~~mbokhr~~or~o~tfn~~06tkesaip.1tuin#rernapoonae~chat~echnc#rsrh~ha~lt lupcrfifcr a i n k rixh orha Ligmd rbrnarn m q Jco oee~r aaa m them in ordiauy qwnce: the cxplicir and nm- My *a Iiwrt muu *. prwidc smudiszinnekmcnr d meaning. (For atunplt. is "m" ahe =me u '- C C "! ~~b"~"dilf~from"~~"?b"&"~oirrkntm"~~ ''a-mcr~"orntithcrr~ klosr apprmolrderllysrwnwdsdsnmdrbr mmr.rriphmvtpt~efhinw*nrl~hqhr vtiprd * e n n r p o n p m ~ a w o ~ ~ p d o a ~ h l ~ ~ t k ~ d ~ d i n. V u i a t r d o p m a ~ h ~ ~ ~ ~ d r k ~ ~ e k m c n r r. P a d c h c i d c a c i C h o f v r r i * a t i o r m s d 8 U* +. Some. & T h d che firrt V w hdv 6 ~ urircd. It mhd*tlq dl alekt 0i hric symbols. qudiap dl cbe rcu u eompoondr. 15r Ehc orher cxmme. Cum-. Krirck. and the StcRnd Srdv Grwp id* a nu* of ob*iorr roraparadr in rbcir war-.lahrber to &we r e dv lin of scmbds. C~s~mdrkorbrnWooit~~rbegrboPt~sfmboi" ~"adiu~~inppnpofonc. w. a h immedirndy ccmia q d d s (''fi... " 7--, a d "fl").~~ an alphabet induda an.t#mp lo allor fw mnc rdmivdj rare l i m eknxrm in dditim to tharr in the commoner mpounds. Fieure 19 shows m1 diftmnt ularniwon rlphrko, ' Whikrllhw*~~tanhd~ad~wrc.~unongeemiPfuailiesdrimiklr.~spm~aukncr biw d a d ettcm dif6crcndy dcpcrdinp on their ehearia nprrdiry: rbt act nuotc of che kinships rrec fmrr 191. *able in- iur mand oa the four looprd s*rnw' ",. w. "that art all found as infix6 br sumortrrhcemm"c1 "as wellask. hinm~brof~idnn&tbrhriqd~'adm'..(ad*.drahnf'~'ad't(~~urrlll.auyh~onldio17r.rhn.a#po~d~qm~ir '

31 -and four rimer around a circular band. It is lo rare to find an! sequence in the Voynich manuscripr repcaring all LW wmr portion of itsdf thrt this example is almost unique. Figure 24 shows the four rcpeaud qments arranged in prrallel; rn m-o inrunm. the symbol '' $.-. rib only a. Imp. =curs in rhr ninth place. whir in the ocher wo. we uc " '' with two clear loops ~n the cmcspondinp ption. Sincc a11 the ha svmbdr appear identid. the conclusion rems inexapblr rhnt the single. and doubk-loopsd forms are fun-lly the same. Counttrvailinp apainst this conclusion is the her hat the ymbals are always made quite clarlv and di~nctly. with either one or rwo hps: there arc rarelr if cwr aar aanrit~onal or rnmfinal forms with vesupiol or cueierrlq-formed lwp. In my case. thae is an obvious family relationship of some ktrd among the four lo& rvmbds. ar shown br their similarin of form. their entering into similar constructiuns. tnd thrrr orrumnp a similar function and piions in the structure of ~txr words. Emkilirhmm& ate mhtivelr few in the Vovnich text. Fipurr 20 shows some variant and dtcorativr forms oisrmh~ls a+ varims s~udmtr have ttnulrvdy identified them: many of the assumed idenaficnuon~ ate mr own opinions. Some oi the d~ar~uvc nremsions and flourish ntt quite a&rc in a bixarrr and idiosmcraric way. Small dm inride loops. prallcl hnuhinp*im~~lincl. dou mn+in tom:tnd.-uion w.proiwpauon ol loops we frequent ornamentat dwiccr. The mkllishmma are. fot he most ppft. hipbl~ restrained. and not at all the emavapant. disordaly ovcrprmth one mipht expm of a deranpcd mind. Ir should bt wed also the oraarn~l extcruians rarely, if tvtr. impinge on w intcrtcrt with writing ar drawings mbv. and h t it is rare in ptncral for writing or draa-inps to crm one anmher anvwhert in thr rm. except in a controlled and orckrtr manner. Thc mriout e?bcllshmmn apprr ro exhibit the ua rhythm.. papmatic. and romparc darner rr IS cvllitnr in srhcr Y ~ ~ Xd S syle rhrouphout the manuscripr. A pamcularlr norablr and omustap decorarivc tourirh is the JppArenr dirconncctiq of the wo bps of he character " W ". w, thrt one stem a d hop is translated horizontallr in~u 4 neighkin? word. Jwnnimcs with weral iatemninp curlicue; figure 20 prwidn a numkr of examples. It 1s possible tht. in mime am. the inrent m y bt ro combine fw~qsarau oceurrcnccr of" '' into one desorative tlourish: rhm mar rlnb k Iomt ehcnt 0fmn:ap in the p&. d m h it k ecdv frequent mouph. qxciailv in lines orher than initial lines of parq~aphr. to suppn ~uch a condorion. 4.2 Other Scripts.gnd Hands On main pager of he manuserip are found imlatd p h a and ~ stnmm in %rip$ and hands judged br most students ti 1 k different from. and pddh hrtr &an. the bulk of the ten ralthouph nom of the murces I have studied present ;lnr definitive miden= supenp a different dart or authorship for thnc saarrad text strrnps t. Petersen repom rhar Miss Sil! (a friend of Mrs. Vovnidr) had made a winotion of all the apparently extrarums prrapcs in the manuscript: "Miss Nill... has listed all words or Ppuapes which to k wrkren rn diffcrmt ink hum that used unilormlt. for the m r md the drawinp throughout the manpxript (She d also chat the original text mrns to show nor a sinele erasure and mectim anyhere.) Me Nitl dcdnrcj thnt the Inu page is wnmn in the same ink as the bulk of the rnanuscrlpt" ( p. 1). Unhnnalv. no copv d Milr NiII's lirt has survived in the rrutcr~al to which I have accms- I offer the follminp summary hwn my own e*nmimauon of the photo~opv available to me. Folio Ir. Thm arc very bint and harely legible maces of alph&m Kqumcer in rhe lefr and ripht marpins. Thne arc nut viime ar a11 in he photwopy 1 haw studied. bur Pctcrsm sham them clrnriy in his hand transcript. The lnrers Kern to be. tho= of rht whnuv "ABC". with tr h~kphdy d u d a J d form. The two squenm appr to be paralki; in thnr frugrnentary mm. it is hard to all whdxr hey are consistmtfy dared with the lim of Voynich mt occuptlnp the nnm dthe ppe. Folio 17r. A lint of wrian4 in a wry smai1. mbkd hand croue~ the top C ~ M of the page. It is very hard to make out: to my tgt. rht ltm memblt Grak synhls. The writing hmcs fainrcr and hadm to r d toward the fight side and finall? fades out complculy. In thc uppcr riphr corner. there is a faint. scrtbblcd symbol like a shield or a dt IVJ. criscrowd with liats. Ir is inwrcniag to nae thatjohn Ikt liked ro use Gmk letters to concnl comments in English in hrr perma1 diary; thr qmbolr on t h pap. however. do not scem ro rpetl anyrhing thnt mipht br an English word. Folio Mr. A smli scatterin8 of obkrtcrs.which wain I d to me like Grcck svmbolr. art to be found in tht lower left corner al h e page near a rmall picture of a man lying on bs back. h e the "Grrrk" Imas is a suinp of words in the Votnich dp. Prof. Richard Solomon of Kenyon Cdltpt hnr ruppmcd a Hiph G-man interpretacim of thr extraneous svmbol. chiming that they mad for "der muw dd". w "the murrteil", r ehnp ra an omipatw)- bequest ef household.. poah born a man to his a r k.

32 Folio 66v. In the lower half of his papc (which &ow$ a plant drawing wcompid bv three texr parapraphr~ there is J mibbk or doodle hat slanu doanward coward the Iefr. A rwph oblonp figure sics to the riphr and a h the scrawl. The marhngs hm mrmbk a simibr scribble in the mm of folio 85-86~34 see klow); some portims of tbc doodle have the a- of Arabic rcript. Folio 85-86~3. In the rram of rhis cownolopal drognm thst ir antrthcr ddk similar to that in tolio Mv. A crude cirdt is by r horuonml lint. and he upprr halfbiwrcsd spin a prpndnrlar; a tine of indecipherable mibbiinp ~Iik+AtPbicZCri~~pwtdthrsciKkand&torheMofir. Fdio 87r. To the kft of the harcr leavca of the plant dmwi y is a uudc rmr-like M e of inrenceein~ lines. Folro 116v. TL m a 1 lints of #xt in o mimve of wmbh on che hu pape of the manuscript have been txtensiveir d e d b* many re~nrchets as a porrrbk "key" m the m. Figm 23 show metal manreripurn ofrhir mamrral made h d i b t dtno ah$ with o reproduetion (admidlp poor1 of he pbwwopy at my disporol. The wmbols are verv rrmll. a~kd. and faint. It is in- to mce tbe difkentes among d i f k rtadmo' inrerpremrioa of these tnipm~tic linn. Tht numerous rmbiguicim a d hrides hive nu p"md,merai dtm from bwng txtc&rr t h m on their own ratk nrbumry rdiw of the tiny. d i d ltrrcrs. Fdio ppd#ringr. In the h mrnas of d n pap arc numbers added in what oppcus to be o different ink and hand. fhnr numk cornspond roughly tu sea of ei~ht pp. T k di~emriblr in the photocopv I haw studred art shown tn firm 22. with the pap nembcr with each.,the numerals am inmdng in themselves. exfiiht~np lemt archa* fmm: they art accompanied bv symbdr for Latin a ~auonr. one of which. " 9 " for ".us". rr~ctlv resembles A common wmhi in the smipt. fda numkring. d~ring the d n l hismy of this manurcrip. swmonc added nurnbcr~ in the upper r~pht had corn= of the pgm. fhcrc numb lgree rich the pmms order of the pap. and shm pap wkr -in pp have appunulp km la# f i ~ thr c nurnkring was h but kfwe the finding of the mnnsuip by Voyntch. Some rrudena have dad chc fdio numben to rht rimmth w -th mmry; they map wdl haw km dtd by somcone at Rudolph's coua The fwms of the numbcn do IW differ sipifiandy from modern kffmr. Mmlh nomn in.nroiogkl dhgtrmr. The nune of a month hu km wam into the central medallion of cach circular diaprn? M a d with a -nhble diac ip. Thae mmh namn m mnridered by most students to h mimn in a hfht ink and hand rhm. that of the main mt. Figure 70 Bows dmilr of these medalhns and month names. A srnplc word in h e Voynich IEfipt is seen next to the two mly firha of the Pism rndaliion Ifolio 70~21; a m p to idcnrlfv this word wirh rhc manth name w rodilc sign have so far km Fruitkxr. No om has made an? proprcrr. or even. appnrrndv. anr cktesarincd ammp. to idratifv the Innguap or prcwmiencc of the mmth anm#. desprtc the fan that rher are monp the few chrlv rcoopnizak and comprehensible hu of artt in dre entk manwipr. Srvcrrl paps of the manuscrip arc p d c d with dutnas a evdn of siqk symbols or rhm.vordr hat mm co br arranged in o war Kqumce rhpr m y k an indcx a key. humhuph h mtd hue qumar exrcnrivclv in his zhmrv of decipherment Im Section 5.4): according to him, the muldpliaty of "h". rlchoub awaiated with a delikrarc attempt at myuifiwion on dk pn of the urik. ill provide some valid and useful idormadon o h t the cipher. Below is a lia of hue. insofar u I can iknfy thna; some of the "kcv" req- am a h mentioned above undm Senm 4.2. Fdio Ir. The two prdel dphrkric ocquutcts in tk left ad right mqru. d d k d a h. haw btcn thoupht to funmion as keys: a r~spinon mtm mp mind. hwrm. that they arc chr tcsuk of lome htu wou1d.k kphmr's urrrkmps. It is surprising. msidcring the numb of ppk who must hawe m red he manuscript ar Ruddph's court and eircrrhwc. Chat thee arc nm far more doodled numk htm, and lines on ia pyn. Folio 4%. A klv dikerniwt dal lisr of rwcav-six Vgnich symbols runs down the lcft wpln of the tat accompanying o porricularly decurative "hrrbml" folio shouing a qrbatm.liltr pipnr. Figure 24 shovr rhr Kqumce, which nrhibiu a pmal rep660n in thm cyclts. Folio 57v. symbolr. some quite mpln or u n d in form. ur repccd fwr tim around cht mend conccnuic circle frwn the oueide in o cormotoghl diagram. Thc bru rrqumrrs arc shown in pdd an fipe 24. This IS a rare inruncc of qumm rrprrdng almost exactlv in the manuscript; in fan. I kiim it is he onlr such imam. Folio 66r. In tk left mugin is r rather mmplr* squcnee of single symblr * meted wirh irolrrcd rhwr words and, the lines of a ttxr prrqraph. au in the Vq~luch script. Brumbough empiwed dmc ~qumcm or "qua-' expressing a cormpondtncr ktwm the Ict~rn and rht wwd~ (see 5.4 below). As is frequmtly he case in ths mpausuipr. however. the

33 hrironc91 aslociatian of the xanacd lcitcrs and singk words is nor vte amrare. and neither n cleaffr and conasrentlr. related m the linn of the MID 69r. Brrwwn the pln of a m ~ai mt arc six Voynich symbdr. Folio 76r. A saiog af nine Voynirh symboh is seen in the u~ irlt marpin. spaced our vertically in muph asrociation with d n limr of a art pryrraph. To my knorvkdge. no one orher than BPumLugh has &rcctrd much rmnrion w cht~ wqutnct~ No coruisttnt alphabmc at numcric order cm be d ftom one ro the am. Thcy may bt mvmrianal ibird~ns standing for sequences of ideas or +KU knm ro dae bk or mibcs. Thar prmencc as a alirnr fcorure of x k rcrr indicam rfirr the wtirinp svsrcm was capable of employiw sin~lc rymu or pnv~ of spmhls ro d for mmc rerr of mncrpa. Srr figure 24 for mamples oi many of thne "key" scqwuc~. 4.4 Ctyptanalyric road Stylistic At&cks on tbe Text Srudmtr who haw appcmehed tkr Voyaich awr from the pot of vim of the profcssid aypnalyst have been led on at first by r rkcepvc surbct appnnna of Jimpliaty. aniy to bog down mom a,later in an exasperating quagrnirr of prrradom ad enigmas thu meal themdm oat by me u analysts peed. Elirebcrh Friedman has provided 3 clear. eonci# -.ummprr of thc frusupciaas awaitinp thc cr~pmlyt in the Vovnich monusrript. I canna irnprwe on [he clrrirv. rompln~nrss. a d succinctmss of htr remarks. and IO rwill'quort them at length in the following parapraphs. "Whr is -all! the initial d o n K lmkr as dwtah Ir Bi~cLd h w euv tv Arc. h u IBe 'm~' ~ mms PD be In wwd k q d ~ ad s w d Itnnd wt clenrlr un prartmllr. rmr ppr. "A kq- mble mald br rmde nr ma d a of -mt'. iua n Par did ia the 'Gdd Bug', Bur to 6, t&c necerlrirts &dial1 )m m&nv diffam rrmw Ehm ue r dw rmaurcript. d rhir tr dt&r simpk wr cur. For whar seem& 41 firm ubm tcr k A ~~k~bp!~apprnrnbtampopamdeupofprr~~orthrrr~~b. -'If a mbk u mde 6pr a pae d m rmovnting w rboor SQO 'wds' Iwhich come m a h t ITW ch-s~. ~t prcvntt rbt chmwik 'qh' 7 af r hrqwmr amr 6a 1 limplr mhimrion etphrr. A fcu nnklls bvc a vmv htuh h u m : P k haw I w kl f q q : chr mt are of miry but dium tcqrmria. kdt tht mar rcputams ni vnplt cruds-. ~wrirormn~~quamudmo.rhm.lamtat~rads. "Tbr h imprr*um. tktke. is thm k e u a rmpk rubrawmu a#m. Howmw. the kclphmr i~ dmed to ctw ti~rum~m when rtn durn hd m uwh a thawr id. Trids In ktin. Gmk. Csmn. Italian ar.. veld rw~hinq at all. 50 mark tr s ntir s~mplt mbn~rnnm. "&n hen rhr p#ribiliru of traqmitiun. uf mb#wd wbuimiun-my. w of rrmlnpk-dp&k wkrtut~rm me h r rrltj our h the thmt the is en?- tm meh rcplitloh Wt fid thaupndr of rrprttirnr d' thm-. itrur-. md hru-lma raud,. rbrcnyhputlhem~, "Fa rrpmplc. in ni- Iran ui w*t. &. m a thmshnnner povp awn rinrix timer. h d in rrpird m rrpatltm d r~rmplnt 'nwdr', tk rhok rrunuxripr ~squia b r w ; dw ' d l - in au d o n s am vrrr much dike. "ldd.-im. a d MU rm ndv. am lindl Ehe nmr 'rad' appnt#rp tfuct nrm im w&m. pudunnv vrmnhrnp s~rnliar ~II Gmtrrk ha's 'A mm is A rwr ir torr...- Ah. n h d s of M in whach ruo '-8' of fwr. rive. w mctrt hracrmr difk hn rrrh m k b* mlv mu rhuamr. u an EapltrB. eht 41 '&kc'.id '~trdrt. 'urn' ad -stmk'"l IW2. I Thm have btrn m l a m p to amlm rhe Voynich mt ulinp computers. Unfortunateiv. for a varittv of realons. hde pmprrrs has resulted from these tffom. rrrth he sole cxceprion (to mv knowlbdgr) of the rcsrrrches of Prtm Currier of a pdnsioasl ciphrr mpt m the rmnuwnp? Ar 6rn r k. (WC Smon 6.8). tryptpnalpc d i m have indudd monoguphic. dipphic. and mpnphic frequcncv counts throuphout rsmplu of Wtim sku, bued m m a t dinemu trandption alphak. Rmrw alphakc lorrs haw bren made to nudv "todimp" of 4, and *wrd udtxn have providd m adqrir of dihnt accurrenm of the 'same' word and a compum of heir can-. The difficulties of rrriviap u an Irphakr. manscribing a ~uffieiinflv krpt sample of tea. and puniag access to rnwph mrnpum time have hpmd denu in heir rffosu over the years. Mort of the propscd rwnpm dies were ncvrr umcd far emu& to rault in any did pain in knowltdpt. More nil be said in Chapter 6 wd~np d n refir -urn Kudies and Jomt r n ~ i mcoluidcndanr l rrlating to the urr of computers In K==d WhQ rtlpsrvely few hare had xfcu 10 mmputers. mav stdm &w mode W v t hand sdia of the tmr. Tiitman first hibed thr appnrmt "prmdence order'* of chuamrs within wod. ad demonurated the preference of certain symbols. in -in eombimrimr. for the kpinninp. middle. or mdinp pons af words Pcterrrn made an elaborate and compdm manual cowatdam of the mt. and audied okurrenm of Iqawrcd a d compound fwms of srmbds... -

34 4.4.1 Pknomcna in!be Text W'bicb.\lust br Accour~ted~or Any Theory. The fo110win~ lin of characrcriics to be explained bv anr p d cnpnalrtic thcwr sumrrwrizer the iidincs tut sever~l mearcherr. rsmably the Friedmans and Tiitman; it inclub also wmr obsmrrionr which I have added from mv uwn ~ udr of the =I. f 11 Ihe basic alp& of frquendr.occurrinp symbols is small ins few us 6hn aawdinp to swat ~rudcnts. and pbablr. no nwpt &an mmty.fiwr. t 2 1 The hasic h s orc compounded w Sprcurrd to cream a isrpe varim of camplex svm~s. (31 The srmbols are proupd into "words" stpara& bv spmm lolthouph ~omc mearchas have cwprnred dtlubt5 about the cauistenm of this sprcinp r. L41 The numkrof&ffcrcnr "wards" -5 rurprijinplr Limioed. (31 Iht "wwdr" are shm. averaging wound four or firt svmbols in mds over wen or eiphr srmbt)ls long ur rare. or we olro words cunsisunp of a angle symbol. E m two.lemr wwds arc nlanvtlv unromm. i It shnuld bt panted out that a d EnpIirh ma also v n m overape.pord.lcnph of about five chums; in Enplish tat. howcvtr. rtrtn are manv ow- and m.lener wdr. and r p t many wmds of m to fifmn clliracrm in lenqrh. provad~ng a %err different pmrn from thar seea in the Vvnich tat. I (6) The same "word" is frqucnrl~ repeated two. thm. CT m m time in immcdiprc succcsrion. ft! Manr ' words" differ from tach orher bv d y one or two ynbols. and such "wwds" o h mcur In irnnluji;lte lucmrion.' t81 Cmia svmbob orcut chanmriicdy ar rhr kgininps. middles. and d s ~i "words". and tn cerrarn preirrred qucnns. (9) Cmin symbdr appr very rarelq. d oalr on -in pap. indicatinp ~lm+ 3-1 hmon or mean in^. ( 101 b arc my few doublar (reptition of the m e krrrr mce in surrmim~, and hue invdve primarilt the Ivmboh " C " ", b ", -dl, & " j ". "d ", "0 " Vnv irr symbols ormr silyly lu oae.lmrr "xord.") in running rm: rhnr arc primnril! '' 3 -' and ' + 9 ". (12) "Prtfix".lilrt elements are tacked in front of amin " d s " that also occur cammodr withour hem: such prefidclemenunrr..%...o...nnd.. 9 ' f he r?mbol"+' Mcun almost invariably foilovrd bv " 9 ". and janed to rr bv an nnmsion of the crorsbar ut the ''4': che radeinp compound symbol is rarttv seen &where than ar the kpinninp of words On mwt herhl folior. h e frst line of the first potapaph kptnr with a very small wr of srmbols. pr~marilr -. ". " fl "* ".,,...*: these we uulll immdiatrlv follad br. '' ". '' CL '+. -. '' ou3 ". or '-69". NO P.CC an te fwd of the dphabenciw hat would k apntd if the khl papapbr began with tfrc plmnn in alphobnicol order or was usual in many early hethls. ( 15 1 Sinpk " d s " o~currln p~ laklr m*r m smrs. "&up conuincrr". phm skmh. or mhcr picroriol thtnts In kpin with the four hpcd rvmbols; inroead. thtv often rrnn aruh " O ". " 8 '-." 9 varims dronnps verv *od~ and otu~ionniiv " *' and " ". ". In rhe Vomich mnnwipt. wt are mhnd by a druation rib man? unkmm. In *re of the dilipmt and tireless effm of many mknred ~ c kam s rhc Mf-ct- inee io diwwrry. we All haw m y h definim fa- to reduce the large area of uncertainty dcfid by these unkmwu~ We rdh arc ignocpnt of the undul+np laapuay: we ha* lirtle or no clue to the MCUR of tfn cipher. code. a wririnp spem; we do na knm when. whm. or bv whom the manudpt was wrimn; we cannot evcn k muin of tbt su&t maw. w rhr prrpo~c for which it war cornpled. In the followinp prrpraphs. I wili ammp to list, ps romplml~ as pouibie, the thu a ~ n d o ucwpcarr~l~ s might entmntn repardinp he rumre of the Vovaich rex~ In somc cucr. information turned up bp marchers cnn ar lart pnlv rule out rornr of thne hypolhtsrr. as Elixtbcth Ftiadmrn has s ~ t in d the passap q u d above. Somc rhmies =rn more caprbk thrn a k s of explaining the ptrmomm obkmd in the tern. A r m t k mnrihtion of all the pasibifiries will --- 'on h rlt roprucd wauds. a rtlikrput hu pad rwr ar mt h t twn w ti~- rep- in qwm uf tht wmr svli~bk 4rC.mN - unummtm tm Ihmnc. m J In whn. umibr E-n Ianruupn f hts 1% due am pm ur ehr lark of the "iunmun vords" such AS drt ~uxal~anti. prrpuam* m~ks. cor.. In thm herum. n d an prt a* rnethwh oiwd bualdany a d ccmpundinu.

35 ~rvc as il pobd foundation for the di~urrion ol soiution atttmpu in Chapters 5 and 6. Such a surw: will aho ~rovidc pirturc the true magnitude of the pblcm which this empmaric monurcripr presents fa rhe m~pnalvsr. The rnprr~lvtic pouibilitits to bc dealt with are related to three prindpl fo~tors. which I will dmipnatt br caplul I-: P, he mrure of rhe ten: E. he corrrspondmcc or subnimtion krwetn elements of pbin tar and dpt tinmap; a d T. atfitr ~mf~marions that mirhr have bctn carried our on the plain text in addition to v d J v~rid suhbon of Vvnich svmbols. In the SoIlorviq pqrapfis, ICVCrPl possibilities will bt listed under each of these barv Encrcrr: ewh surh idividual hrpolhesir will k designated by b e letter (P. E. or T) followed bv an Arabic numeral- I will nsrvme that rht rtadtr is hrniiiar with Ferrain basic tcmrindrrpy and coaccpo of crvplopy. such u the dirtinctim kwttn rodr gnd cipher. rnbstition trtnrpwrrion. fhc~ cwrcepa haw &en drsrlv &fined and explarnrd In many eas11~ obwinablr general works an crvpnalrru. P. The Nature of tbe Plmn Text. P.1 Noml Lsrin mu. P.2 Normal ta in m e arhcr*nrrurdh$wp&.%.... P.3 Code m svathedr hnpw wirh a mixture of ideographic ad natural lanpapt charancrikics 1c.e.. prammmrc~l endinp adkd ro code svmbdr i. P.4 A prdy idcopnphic 5- Like pictographs. with vimallv no feature3 of natural Lwunpe preserved. E. The Nature of rhe Subrtiturion. li. 1 One plan texl symbol is replaced br am Vo?nich symbol. E.2 mr rrmbd is replaced bv two (due) V~njch symms. but always by the ume number ot' svmbols. E.3 f wo (thm). but aiwavs rhe rome numkr of plain mr svmbok are rtplaccd bv olrc Vornich svrnbl. E.4 Two (three) pliin text svmbol arc tepbccd bv two (thteel Vqnich symbols. E.5 Mired lcnprh units (1.r. ow. two. ad three-ktttr strinprl are invdvcd in citha or borh plain tat and Vornich mipt. f.6 LsEh plain mr unit hu a set of varirnr ar rltmnarivr Voynich svmbol cwnmpnm. fram which the scribe could cjtane at will. E.7 Whir words or mnceprs are rrpmcntcdby single Vovnich symbols or bv mixed-leprh Vovnith strings {as tn rhoahand ). Ed Polva$bbtttc suhtution. or d# d i c usc of a reria of suhsutution alphok aawdinp to some rule. T. Transformations Other Than Suhritution. T. 1 No plain w*r kncrr droppad. added. or mod. T.2 Vmk dropped. T.3 Wurds arbittarily. and rvnted only bp rtmn krrcrs. T.4 "Dummy" chpwrtn. at "nullr" i d imo the t ~t.' T.5 w qlhk utarpwed within wds i*i in Pig btin). T.6 kwn aqammcd or a~arpd over loycr mtches af mt. T.7 Plain ttxc manled in a much Ianp "dummy" or "cwcr" mt. most of which is meaninglers. f.8 A Tdemim or BPcoruPn system. inwkiap rue of romc binarv or minary characrcristic tcld or open Imm: milr up w m~b dawn: lipring or hck of it: ac.r u dw rmt ~~e.curyiap ic~orre in a monnrr similar to the "dots" and "duhn" oh M a cwk. applred m a "ewcr" text or "camcr" mt which is mesninelers in itself. As will k shown in C)llpar 9. dl of she rbovt ptmibifitiw wrrt known urd wed bp early prrrnitionm Jtcrel wririnp. wtll within tht fibh and imrmth -rim. I l o Barn ~ mentions a numkr of hem in an ofrcn-eirod psroy in his wffk entitled "lk ~irabili P-te Areis et Name" (Boron 18'59). The mrrhods he lias include mldt-up alphnbecs. pmmic figam mbinsd with h. I)tObfhand ("an 11000Cia" or TvPOniPn Hadl. a d hpptnp vowels from the ph-. in dhmy ua- amihtcd w him. Bacon is rbo &ought by m e to have employed aqamminp. simple ~ubiururion (om plun rexr cham- w one cipher drrmcm). a d mmdment of a short rna~ within a much Ionpes meaningless "cam" ttxt. Urinp rhr xheme of individual hypotbms dnipmted by lms a d aumkrs m n d a h. we mn wt up a larpc numkt of cwnp~urd hvpochnrr cmbad~inp varioru & oh in vnriw~ mmbinatim. I wilt not a m p to list aii of verr ' In m d MI~ Nik CWpnm of Mn- V d h - sit~ Rpaa thw J Jn hianlv hd crw hlr opram~n in a kmr 11, Mr.. V~~rryrh Jdtd Mprrh 10. IYN. that the mr uf the mamrrnpr qmau r simple riphcr dkguutd br pht use of nulls. In amhn kmr m VS'iUlm R. Nrr-blid rr a h rht mmr date. Manlr wlsd racrord~n~ w Yk NiL I that frqmncr cwmr he hd ma&. bad on nphr pprr trfmr. h-d --A cclmpr3tl~etr implr c~phm diyulsd br mmsiwt ure of nulls-'.

36 Idmrntiooakwth8tseemmknrled mtbvt&evideaa.orrukm~rtlnou1r ~.rrda~oqen~1oemmorrccm;n*ar.riphwh#~k1101dtbt~pdddl01m0rt~~dfpftber~~. H w Ra&d UnlElrdy by the Evidtnoe. Simpk Subiktk aa in Ohmk Undm&M#wrI Longwge Tao. Ar Ehekd~ Fridmon md -5 have abrerrrd.rbtmt~dona#rrgr#rm~l#inor~aha~luyorctcenripberrd~simplconr-~~.. ~dvg.ieb~6#i~kmerri~bmsrrnrrofolurchtaw.p.lap3d&l radt.l).tksh~ r#dr,tbr~~rcprridosl.tbtn~oforr-~~lr~kaerrard*tbr~afdopbleoldootjedktmrrr~.1ii milit.ayriarriraple-*oa.sorbobdrr~~~dpnlklcoacrla~difkrrruomurencrrdehr "ume" w d u shk wad A. la rbr mrrdr o f 4 fe#uehar. "tk tm jtw d#m't oer like natt~ralanpuapc". A n ~ a ~ ~ ~. h & r & o e b e r m. r ~ i n v d * i q o r u k ~ P. 4 ( a pdydeog.phicawq~lrm,mao-dndiop.b ~ g D t m k o r ~ d t k t ~ u m d ~ ~ ) i r a q o f n y ~ y. ~ ~ b r o l s d a ~ t & l r l i c o t ~. ~ a d c D d demorand by T i md iwt -.-The m d d w *rirniiuiticr kwem wds rto indime dw there is sme dqre oflraloy-fke m. iadvtag unim #nrllor dun whde rrcrdr or idur. in the Vgaicb#rr. -. ~ H ~ i ~ E ~ I o b r c y d k p r r a l r e * c n l d & e m ~ ~ ~ p m='dmudbremfi*danakrridrlbrrrlhra.dd~mhr-. Polydphaktk sfrumr. lib the weu-bn Vipk &. am Wicidy desigd tu rht nunv patams and in m rrhich pow& hdpfnl --in *no for tk 4-k dmpkw. Tk frrqucnq cwnu of ~dvgaiebchi.eren~a~ofcmrrtrlloow"~4k~ebrrarpcn~tnfrrgucnt. *rbik#hajrrrqwr~qrcrar.rldrh~.rkhio~~pendrmm-flurm on"ehrhq~dirtribforthtoe*rrrrrrhok. f m a Syatmr. SI#cmr iavahng urrgnmtniu~ or uarrrpwiq leaars over ubirnty rrqwnera of mr IT.61 are m. rordru#dulrbrlratlpioar:iad~15#di~~~r~d~.dlad~dorrehmethodrkwlupodumeof a*t t o m with tbe difhiq of- ad daipkb~ what rru probrblv A * work lo k consulted br more dua#wprrwn. ~on#~~po~haawapbldf-~~lrrnarsddw&ld-tb~rslksomtaf& ~u~~.maoronceorrr~catrmra6aaoaoerariaabar~#tmmort~ag.iw#jdlibe.grrr.e ~~~corrtidrrrtioarht.ppartdmmmrhr~ofttrt~~intbevqraishua. Whrtevu mcthodofr##talntentwsswdropjd hvrhd~krrlirinlg~ipampbydmm~.~~~umrofom ~eairmmdu~o.000churam)nriticlln~~drbon#~~poarrrwh~thrpopo#d~ncw~. fhr-rad-.odbewj*rprrrlkld**rbomrrr;.#qlrdioord*rspot#eof ~mdkaiginrl). The~rrrcsrebofPr#oa~ImSsedon&8br~)tdicunqrrirrd#rlgdutthmwrre~I#umdiff#cnt rcribcrar#holsrswbw#kdoa~~~drbt~~tbtsi~tbrrthr~kdmb,~mmpnmir icrpiffluse~~puma-a~imptmmbitof' ' A s b u ~ b e m ~ w i d w s q u ~ brraoori1pde#r.dbtoaiprrr.imo#~~~icctmr~;lhiru~~tbrd#ltrire~aad ~h~.chrpramocddryhar*kfr.~slrarof~rtid~.roodeirdec.d~~td linrrolrrp~.finruy.irrnrmrruonrbleoo~~hrt~mu#hrveka#t#rdocummuwrirpminfbirklip.adnc o a e a m # c o d r M a & h b r r q p b t r m J L ~ ~ d c r k J v t ~ ~ t & ~. M i s ~1~rbuspCharroeri.lrillarn1lp~*rn~l~mt~~011&~rm;hrinr~* ~mdrbub~ibolrcc&kbrriord~iatbrrrra,~b~brkr#rar~~~mwtwtclv mnprv hntm idpeioa. bun T= With V d Dropprd. wag wwdr from Ltia prod- oatr &viq q diffaent chrrraerircia from dro#dnorslllrintm.singlelotiakfanmr? ~ P a i u ; ~ ~ l i ~.. ~ c b d n d m a e e & a o # V o *. k b ~ m l P a d k r ~ n a ~ n ~ b d ~. iachrdrd.uduaollidumm~.~haarrhorm~~dwrdihernrcir*rd tnrer#dkrquhtl~ tfuoqhmt tk -1. Such r c o d a t system my k rrprmmcd in out rhnnc ofh-s rs tp.l ad T.2 and (E:I w E.5) ad pwribl? ako E.6 ud T -41. k d a d opermh CopM dl bt eur#d opt d y. aravrly. ad b? r

37 mibt a h m e practice and familiarity with be wstem. The raultinp text would k vet! difficult to decipher h orrnvone uafunrliar with the mahod. and rtlarivrly CPJy for chr iniriacr. A problem arises in drbppinp rowel4 frwn Latin. in that many impmnt sdl words like "dc" and "ad". "a" ad "ut", "rk" and "crt" kcomt indirunpishabk. and some words misting only of a Jinglt vowel dkppr entirely. This might nor be a serious probkm for redas ad writers who kncawhat tbt tm war k t ad were rlortlp fuailhr with it. Abkvinred L.Lin Wordr. Cmdonrl ktin abbroriatims. r e v r e d bv mixed-length Vovnich character strings ur cde-like mtitia. pwsiblv with Jlc add& complications of wrionu a d nulls. prerenls amhtr likely possibilitr. L P. 1 and T..; and E.5 or E.7 ; opdmllv o h E.6 and f A). This. loo. would h tarv w learn ad to remember. and taw tu read tor rhr tnitiatc within the scmt citck. but hiphly difficult for anvonc wuide it to penetrate. M n Text. Enciphmd bv Simple Submtuwon. Ceakd in a Longer Dummv Message. This hrpothesir I P- 1 and E. 1 ad T.7) woukl erpipin h e many mange repccicions ofhghly sirnilor words in c k succesrion: om d the wwds rrpiesena a pan of fie mud messaee. while the mt arc aansmw ~quentcs made up. like meaninples babblinp. and in~crtcd w concnl the uuc ciphcr string. The wik. fad with the tad of thinking up a brpc numb of surh dummv scqucnrcs. would naturdlp md to repar pnm of ntiphbonn~ arin~s with various smatl changes and addisms to fill out the line until the next messppe.hnp word or phra~. Tbb theory would also wain rhr frcqumr i1lqimliw and Iack of conriscnt squmtial structure in stretches of text which has m frwmd mdmrs. A!,qnlhctic bnpuap or C k tp.3 and E.7; opcipnrllv rho E.5 and E.6 and T.41. The mlnt likelr hrpthests In Inr opnil;m involm P impk rode bad on a sma11 p h u of a few hundred lain words rtlattd to phnts. medront. Prtmmv. weather. and ocher topin of in- to he mik of tht mnwipf. The rmt or bax forms wnuld br qwmcntcd bv om, two. a three Symbdr standin& for a ppe numkr or column numhr on a pap. or im J philosophical suhjm caotpv as wu usui in tuiy universal or anifid1 LPngu~pes. (See SKnon 9.3. r Endinps or pammaticrl fomu could Ehcn br rcpmcaccd by he mi* of symldr in main prrfrsrcd wdas wad br Tiltman and othm at the mds of wordr.thii. wo. was a common feature of early s?ndrnic languages. The addinan of mixed-bnprh variano for b Pad affixes. and the i d o n of nub. all common prdm in early coda d by the Catholic Church. would proride a complex ~hmhent qs#m exmdinplv hard m pmctrarr for the outsik. whik still wrv tasv for the initiate w u ~ With. some pnrrtcr, it d be mwmd almost like a natural knpurpe. cspmrilr if iu hsic vocabularr. was as mll as mmr likely from the tvidmce. A snrem of &IS k d would require om w rnm copits of o code h k or dinionarr to bt consulted br users ot the ~ D W. In Section 9.2. an early Vatican codt (Sihcsm 1526) which exadv fits rhe abwe description will k discussed In wmr detail. Curria's findinps concerning he difhnca in certain character frquencicr a d combinariaus bemen urnpiel of in -0 different " M s " arc highly significaat in this regard. A pauible cxpla~uon is that one scribc u d cmarn varionu in prcfmnc* to &err. or cmploycd the g y m of *'edinps" a Iirrlc diffcrentiv: in -wan to the practln of anocher smik. fhtrc and orher hypwhcsr~ will be di& funk from variws poinrs of vim in Chapen 5.6. and 9.

38 Chapter 5 Major Claims of Deciphermenr The sumy 10 k pr#enrcd here will k quirt brief. twept In the cast of the most rmnt durn. bv Robm S. Brumbaueh clt Yale Unirmirv. The soiurionr put forw~rd bv Nmbold. Fctlv. and Srronp haw bcm thorouphlv a t wth br other writers. in trcaanenm publidtd in darivdv rcce#hk-~~will~ide dr a rapd skttch of the main pnu repardine rhmr work. for the sake of ccrrnplctmrss. for dents new ro he problem. ad for mcrhdd~ptcal reasons. Ro:. William R. Ktwbold =as among the first schirlars to whom Wilfrtd Vmntch a h ia dimav. in the hopc of ptrtinp it dtcrphaed and trahsipd. Newbold. a nudenr oi med~eval philm~phr scicna, published his first prcstnution in Hr krwktd on the rnanusaip and on other alch&cnl cupies oi the nununrtpr rrlrl.trd rexts aruibuted Rap Bacon for ~cretai morr yews before his sudden death. Wakshm MCI m of his remrch were did and published bv )UI Ird and Iiterary executor. Prof. Rdand G. Kcnr [Newbold and Kent 1928). Newbold war familiar with rhe srsttm of woteric rnpcot phi-p dcwlopsd bv the medicval Jew in Spin and known as the Cabala (or Knbbnlah 1. He studied the amnnm in a mixture of wipu on folio 116. and war immcdratcl? muck bv a phrase "michi... dabas mulm... m'' (as he red it). which k ~Mf~ltd "Thw wasr fivinp me nunq paen'.. (For 1-1 different dinpr clt folio 116~. ree fipurc 23). The wad "parts" itorin "pwae" a "porw") WRS used in the Cabala. according w Nwbold. I(] mftr to all possibie combinarions of the Imm of the Hebrew alphkt. oh two at a time. &rum~np Cn,m the nutset. following Vwnirh. hat Roger Bncon was thr mnumipr's anrltnr. Newbold brouphr to bear tv~dencc rhar Bacon ua3 famibar with cenrin aspem of Cabalistic he: he cites &nm in Bacon's Gmk Grammar and his iraymmrprv wrrtrncs on Hebrew [BPcon 1702). as wdl as his cmmcm cmccrniap c-kd writing dfw which see StEuon abovel. ~s w i b of this familiarity. Stnrtinp with this clue. Newbold examined some other works on rhe subp~ of akhcmy attributed to Bacon. and cla~mtr! to have d i d a ciphcr ukd by &con lor conding m a p within rnnoernr-apprinp ht~n text I the methcd I haw designated T.7 in Chaw 4). He moinrpined rhu a vrtiant of his mcrhod had been empioved in the Vornich manuscript ds well. Thus. NwboId ascriks tw different. bur drred. cipher syffems to Bacon: First. a "Latin text" cipher tram the alchemy uenrirrr. a d ~romd. a mote complex "shortbud cipher" used in the Vovnich manuscript. In the bun akhemiul manuscrip, a mwqc was hidden, rrcordms to Newbold. within Latin wards so chosen and arranged as to appear to k a maiw on rkhrmy or on a rehd topic. Alchemy mp were olwars expecred w be mysterious d nonvnrictl lo the uniniuottd (ad. one s v. to many would-k iniuarn as wdll; such a work wwld thus provide an deal "cwtr" for a recm message. Each pair of visible hin ltacfs in the cover tm stood. in Newlmld's vim bawd on the Cabpiisti$ "earn", for a lingk undcrlving plaiatm her. In thir syatm. 484 lmer-pairs (twenty-mo Inters taken two at 1 umt) wtrt gmwatd. so that each of thc cwmcy-tm) lcmrs of rhe plniarexr alphabet could Ix rcprenntcd bv any of twcntv- "Mnnntr". or Plter~rivt cipk pairs. A rerrrictim was $ a d by NewMd on this large numkr of alrcmmri\~s. such that pin chojm w ruhutute for r phtwxt Bmtr in a word must ha* the first member of one pair the same as the last member of rhe peccding pit. Fw example. if "uniur" wtrc to bc mciphd. it might k represented as "w-rimit-ru-ur"; tk doubled lcnm would rhea k drop*, pring "~itur". a g d trdn word tse Newkid and Kent p. 53 if and Manly p. 34 ff for a fuller expladon I. Mdrd complcrtitier wmc introduced m provide a cove tm that appeared to k aaepblt Ltin a d would not (at itw in an alchemy am) arouse suspicion. Thne added steps involvad a 'man?-misnirubmcution. ad on rop of that, a rearrangement or anagramminp of lmerr within passapes of fiftv-fivc or on; hundred and rm charmers of ten (our method T.6 1.

39 A Th S M n d Cipk. As ducrikd Nrwbdd ~ N d ad d Kmr p. 106,. there w m six mp to bt followed in dcriphalnp the VopaiEh -: I. Trurlipcrrri#r: ikmiftragfbtjhort&ad~.rad~thrminada. 2. Swfiarion: dollhag.u bnt dw firm d lau d arma$in~ tk dtinp rpinp in prs wth rhe first me& of cwh the pme as the mmkr of the pdm? pit. 3. Commuurian: In mv plir where the lkodd mmkr b om of the "mmmudnp" set "C. 0. N. M. L'. 1". A. 9". chgc tk firrt rrremkr madq w A "mnmrion rtphabef' pmdd br NerrbM: Whm the fira mrmk is J -w h. efuriler thr Keoad a "terrrrioa dpbh" povdsd: whae k h art commtuinp Imtrr. chaw burfl. ewhb?rbtidierosddpbk 4. T m.&pkgpotht~printmrriphrbmrvalw~tbrlaolupinr~bk). 5. Imrrion: Chrngiag '*rlphabrtie.uduts:: d:phanerie.dum''. I rhc nutln of ths rcep is nor clear I. 6. Recmpition: Ampmming ek to prod= mcraiaeful ~ot. T'k "Wad" rehd to in q 1 was s m l v brrrd on an e t C d of r-iauonr. and was to k ~md~ofthtvocsiebrarpui~oadaarerdiag~dkdknupintornrn~unvmmpancnt ~*rrdtiaer.~*rnbla~povikdinttkbrclof~boolmmpmt~ilodtnrtocom-oucdltkn~rtmmi- camtrim. mumhaw. and lo fordr. N~bdd ad Kmr p-dc pood ill- of r numkr of foliar from hfic manuxripr. chwen from wiuus chsscr ut + dnwiqs; -aftkmm~b~eroljoouellso# whichkorctdrw rwntommthcp#nurs. Fur ~pk.rerk~~mraeiem~hdoaapycridbmupdo~dnwulp~~72r~.h~fifipurr b rt red as dtrctibiry porrrrrivt or p- mlrrrrr_ wirh u h ~omc rpprrrw illrdfiertion iwp. Mopan ~k*~~~.)inthldnwtnp.fhirorcnumbrrfraqwarttreeiaaonthcplnofmokramdmcs#rthe~krd fmwk 6- un Sdiw 75 ff. 0th w uken as d i n g the spproaec of a cornet {folio 71~1. an ohtrralion of 8 Ipid arboh (& 68~3). ad an innrllrr dpsr I& 67~21. thrrl.mrrdncrboldrarbrikd+ithpcuaulwriprmbovomichdmutp~wborrae~rr* A (Kd Gdd BgP kcm a v h r. if hid. momtrt in the ma. whik hrwssmddrirhrhturenrionuftbcmupd 1-d Pdneopc. and thtonriciprioo ofmanr fwcmier)lav -fie discmmiu. Cnbolic mi- auld in mumph oa tht one haud over whpr ehw -a- as a vindimtion of medirual ~~bahstic phriapophr. d fd ovcr oae modw oa tbe orhcr had ia their bsre to apolo~ire far. crrwc. ad minimkt cht pnefpcioa ad agh inflic#d u p the -w "6#rrun#r of m&a science" br. his w p h in ebt F m Ord# (Werilk Wdsh E m a numb of praniacrrt crpmr and rpd.lbpi~medie*rtphi~~nrwbdd'r~onqitiepll~.&mrafirll~rportm~mil.ttthc~bk a- iaw tit& k- of W s wwk ud lhougbr 1- f 929. Gilwn 1928). Samr I#r d u h s whoiats wwc din8 a hirdcr lmk at N e ' s him. and e*prrrriq aheir bkr (Smk 1928; fhoradike : spkmon rt the U m r p d Chicap. had At thr umr urn rnadm &. Prof. Jdm M. W y. a pmbea# of E m inmn#d~dfbibrrmauraipdkdbna(~~gmhbmwrdr)"~'wahitt#~~'-rrd Mm. ~~rrafrindofnrrbdd's.dhd#mrpondcd~him; Newbddhoddkud hirmrrldsud findinpr wirhicdral~o*rrmmcume. In Ad.alppobhhcd~crinHrrprrrM~~&~(192lbr rdintheammmun R ~ i of m R&WJ e*prcrriag I mildi? h d u ntud racrion. bt ~ n roict p to m e dwh and w ~. A k ~ ' s d e u h l9x.dtbtppsdr~pu~dhirrakinrhemsdiadbrkent. i n Manh plblishad d. mrch morr *rtidt in I1931). cmpbrri* dirpro*iry ad -n~ Nrrrbddi *. This b h kiraly ex- hh vim in drr uriclr: '% mat I dkd the -re and 1-1 of the cipher rynem rmibutcd to ham. the mmt durly did I wr dut ir wu inuprblc of krnp d u a dium of rommuniation. and iaderd lwrr 13rcan's wf kt JK mnoa d Nrnu'r & mmky. I told P W Ncrbdd r n y ~ d g a w ~ r a ~ la ohair - l kpar...." p. 347). klvpcrmm c*plriaekrr.~trikkrorld~otklvtcholtnmmrlreapointd~hbh#~s~kmtrhtitw~~r mmohertrad~htiavitrqftt#q~~~~rothc~~so~~.~pawninentult~ He sap "*Om of the mar cmiamc phiksophen of Fmm, h o b Gih. dmgh kwildard bv the dad. lpl accepd thr rcrulrr; P r o k fl.wl CPrron. Ik well-knorn hcunirn +in. in rrvo brig udeh..crrprr bmh method

40 oi #i~ntitic~ & with uuiwi-; ad ~meri& &mim ad hrvt km imiiprly imprcjkd. The irurrc~ts plnb tbacfr*e d d d p l atpminrrion of rk daim of she PkMcl eipher" (p I* Cmm Gih Ehrlymr&lrkidbnaph~ardwolltpa: "Inmy+~~~.eheNcrboMd.imumee.~rbPJCltIId UbeUyd~yrrpcped"Ip.H7).fintphiar~~tinyli#rmd~N~rbotd~urni~ Crcdc~r~~d.e~m~ytoardringof~~on~~~~~dthepprrhmcnt,rho~nt I of - Nerrbdd'i nmhod. A mnd telling attack is faou#d by Manly on the rbrth lad final step. invoknp aaopmrninp lmetr in wmchtj of fifry.fivr or om hudd and an ~m chnnlarr. He demanrtrucs!he amseiap number of reasonable m, mn idndi~ cftjmilyl pomt. that an k # from r riyle s h t pssae bv mnapmminp. For instaru-e. hr emdrlm a in OCK ofk rlefrem~ acpoio# m Ekcrm: "impiunt qurcdrm aret qur#donc~ hmdi EllrnfllL " aea.,.*'ftomtbir#mra#.ncrboldkdobcri.#li&~:"dc*irnmadr ~ m h r ; ~ l ~ n ~. h a d r l r m a d e h c ~ d -. i a ~ c r b d d. s * ' ~ n ~ ' ~. ~ h a w a a& of'.loernrrivt.~:31r'b~ ll0mbcrbcrofpormibititin --fa #IcEdon wen bdwc dac mapmmbg war. This is Lhe mm# for which William F. hdmsa. w ork in rwpaoaon rrirh M d v to r*~r NewW's thcwy. &aimed rht uuprrm "Paris is I d with loving Vntab....". simply by choorinp a diffmnc wt uf quivrhu lad r diffmnr mnfmeat among tfie m y pwribiiitin. For a full dircursion of cke problem of anapramminr old the litf~ii~ dncwbdd'r rbeorp. KC MuJy 193 I. pp..35o ff and Friedman a d Fridmra &?'I in w m Eueesrdad in brinf ~o rcrr Elwws err. ond Frk b wluracd again KO his ~ ~ ~. ~ p c d r o ~ d r c p r ~ i n m ~ - m a i o n m P h e p ~ t r o f w m c m o d e r.cliart his rdr m of trradeth-rf rdcadk insmmcna a d of asmmmcal ad -1 rerrrrr 600 in of d#ir.ppoid rime. INat. i pdulaf. b sa+y aiticol a d "dehmhng" *criadt t d h crprrrsod Tb&k I916 ad ) It semss phbk aim that the om N u ' s r*ork 9ht Imounr of u reeciwd. d iu can* dthtwfiom so ciwely following upon irr uneritid m n e c by many promiarnr r*pera rko pr~um~bly rhd b e known b. mud man~scholus to wuhpheirbrlldrofchtdpdmft~~lkd~vcefiqlljidvcwrawirhthc pbkrnirpncna. fa d a r o i N+rbdd'r~vcrrpo~lioad h+gfndhdphibroph~wuld kmodttoapprmd~udedandfdish ~lo~~d~ly& ad pla of mid on rtn prabkm. Elirckh Friedman d-ikr Fdy and hir claim to a solution of thc wnumipt is follows: "In 1943.? RocW hwya. Joocpb Martin FuIY. p~wirhed a b k tatirlcd Row hcoa fr C$b: Tbe Rtghr Kq Fmnd. Fely war the auth# of W-'s #Maw. w n g W t ~ ad pad. items mtabgd in the Mmrn Collacdon u h rhe M n g Fdlia.' " Hormcr -t his mula m y b*r &en. he rtudtd his in I wnribie ~.~~~his~dpbrmlhir~:~tlpmrhc~~thr#yh~~mmiat Kent bool.kdidwopuaooaltgrrbwda'ri*riaiadrorlrr.iw fipmprtiruiarork onopricsa rsdgm--(-dw). F4y mael that the "Wm" Iby whid~ )K lppprmdy meant the hphnt-frqucnq trcmr) in Bawn's Latin mpd " rhc lmsr "E. I. T. A, N, U, S", d he mcmpd m make a pvollel uroipris dkmr frquencie$ in the Voynich mtr. on an usurnpaon dimple substiru~ lour hypheii P.l and E. 1 and T. I ). From h studies he m d quickly on to n.ntmprs u "aibbimg" various wads that miph k Aped m the bring rad dkif aamnpanfinp text in thc m~nusrript, Hc maarks rib ohms cxuper~aon that du h i m in Boroa's mmusmp mu him? Mated; he & ~ C I tht mc ro hwe b#a redd in kqth thy-five prarac rhr- rbir pncriot. He canmmo. olro with 4ku am-. upon ~d~bcnnmmcdmrrl~drrricrl~a~~app~nd~~radhiadcrrdhis~ rrrcuchcnroammta~ m d w a p r k him mthrmuchtuiautd lardcmmdq tpprwh ofpawnpat +bk "uibr" in he pcxr. Fdy's ammp at crib rpprmdy rnm with m t rueecu. On folio 7%. shown in Nmboki and Kmt [ Plnre Vl, Feel? hnd his first break into the mt. This ppe is om of rhok showing nude h a l t figurn bhing in pods or tubs of lqud. FuIy *rrud that mo dd- ar ppc-dusm obw at the top m of Phc prpc tm figure t5 fw a &tail-of oned *) WETC -'ouuin" rod that the chmaelr Wing d m from rhna ud jaininp in the mddk of the pap were "ma-' inso fhe taro "d kh. & the "sack" m kb. the "ma" wrc l)wrwn rr h k fiyrcr standtnpin Ihelicpid. Thatm"M*inthc

41 rrrcam of mysterious ruhtam riom thm. and the pwl into whch her pur. Feclv obraincd his first '-clewsa' I rl~ ht i i k w call the mulu of has cribrip, bv s study ol thuc labels and an attempt to auurnc various Ltin wards thrr might rrprclcnt.fipum 2'5 haws rht mub he obtaind horn thrsc inidal rcrc~rchcr. as initlnl " ch' pmvpdsd Fdy with a nlunbtr of ha subtifuuonr for minmon sr.mbolr In tht Vqnich script. which hrthmem~inpnttsprtmprttleorrtrhc~~&ofthertxtonrhclpmepopr.h~dknandthatkacnotime I d rrrcrr w r compku p &amqy of rhr mpnwipt; he carried our dl his work on the iilusuatioru in Newbokl ad Kent The plunta wheh he obeolncd was a aude. Jbrmrd pseudo-lain. wbich he mandated ro produce EnpEsh nzr ua pmccoio+l qua For foho 78r. On Wo 48v3 (Newbold a d Ktnt Plate XXII), he c h d to haw found Greck wwda a d m hove d#iphered a mysterious r t h e to a smrw of Memoon (Feel! p. 57 I. On other folios. F-iy chimed w have found the pr-i diary of a scientist abmvinp living rtir under mapnification: the iniwnlil. - ~ortinpr" of an earl? mearcher. hiddrn in ciph from the hostile t~ of religiws nudrffirirs. Alcholylh hc a bit u wmunp out U p in fnwr of Ragm ban u au&w of fb1s fcitntific diary. Fdt. maintoid that 4 s ddpkmenr a d to.suppwt a JcarEirm:~~awkotrfrip.,E'i 25.&ws rfir nlphakts he dmelopcd as a rnut of his rrudicr fp.okbly by swcasively cribbing and then at lmcrr rn fib in h e paps. forcinp his assumptions until he produd mmerhinp like bin. m.. in a cutband-tq faduon). Like manv other mrdenu. he saw the Vovnich mipt as coauininp manv compand smbdr buih up from simpler hms. Uafmntnouiy for Fu1r. how-. no ocher nudent has arcepd his ~lolur~m u d d. Tilmm. wmminp up the pwai oplnim. disrnisstr Fulv's efforts as follows: -*His unmnhodkl mt1d pdueed text in unaccepbk rndeva1 hun."in unnu~tir abkv~ad forms"! p Strong Professor hell C. Strong. a highly mpmcd medical scicnri* in the field of c*nm rcsclrch at Yak Unrvwsit~. kcamt i n d in the V ~ich rasnrrrript when he saw O'Ndl's dde ( dauq the mrnwripr akr He took up thr riddle of the eqmatk b k in the crmtm of a Lanp-mdurin~ iarcrert ia Rcnaismnsc lime. OW a five-pr wid. he anrrtmprrd without ru- to o&n c+a of the prrr for d v. He was forced. fidl!. m curl wt hh analper in the same wrv Fctly had, oh the of iuurmriaa~ dindivadm1 aior in published work rrrnrrrninp the manul~ipt. In due course. he published a kpcf rrtidr dpiminp a wluaoa to the m r w ( His dtriphcrmear was bad on what has ince ken termed n "prmlinr hbir mmm of'prichrnttic~l pmons of a mulnpic &hokt. indrcating that the Vurntch wnumipt a u h was hmiliu with ciphers docribcd bv Trithiur. Pma. d Sekni" ( McKolp nd. p Strong's decipherment multcd in what he &mad to be a form of medieval Eapiirh; he ~ttribulcd the manuscript ta one Anrhmv Adam. bmthcr of thc b-korvn Roper &ham or Adthorn. a rum to the children of the Rovol HUUK vi Tudor in the uxtcmrh aaturv. Anthony was n phpician d urnloper: he puhrbrd mwal almannrs. a treati~ on asummnr. ad an herbal (&ktmm 11148P. 15&. 15)O ). As descrikd C McKPip r n-d.. p. 4s): Strong's rffatx produced wxr pmmbup "an adp. coodid dimion of wmm'r ~ilmencr and psrrdcal macms of the cirnjupa1 bed-pu qht d it a ri-th.cenrrrp quivaknt of he K i w Ekpwt". He identified an herhat eonuacqmw amonp in rrripcs. ad ran a hkatory cxprncnt to rm the effmivmers of the prwripcion fa that pupore. The inprdimu comprrrsd pitch from the cnt bark of pine mcs. hoq, and "oil of spindk." Sttow chimed that h oil of spindle was found in hir apcrimcnr m have caused sperm- m lopr rhcir mmiliv, thtrcb!: mihag ia tffkavems as the acciw ingredient of he comaccptir~ (Saonp a d MGuh p. 900). The dernils ot his q a l u l ~ wak c ad hts method of dmpkrnmr. howmr. have ap$wcntly acm km explaid. and mnain pmbkmnrical. %on$$ of which he provtda rcmrl cxampln in his articles IScrmg 194'5. Saonp ad McCauley , has rclrmd bv 0th ~hohrs as rornpletely unnrccp~ame for medieval Enplirh. The rcdm mnv irriw at his awn rondmons h n Lhk following mpk: "Wbm of tua'e-bop rip. sco uopn kum di of s skuknr. fpokired h*lb a;lwknot.-' This min~ of lmm is eronslpted bv Sump &us: "Whm chr conrents of the veins rip Iff au rhe menhams 1. the chikl comes rlfl~. from the mother isruiq with he Itpsunce r k d and k t whik the =nu bent rr the ehw. w lrrrofttd (above the hedl like the lepr of a aawfuh." IStronp p To mr mid. ar 1- this rrrm n hphlv unlikely thinp for rnq wrircr of an? age to haw said. whffhtr in cipher a aot. It m s Ipq me. &. h r lo many hve h o u d v ~ c u p wtth d pmerohpicd or sexual intmpmatioru of tk ttxt. fhe of he scamin# d quire unc*ccption*bi~ m d r lidr ndc fipurcr on asmall ptqmcion of f0li~ seem to mc an cnrinlr insuffiomt jusubuon for this obrruion. Nothing fiuth- har km hard horn Dr. Srronp in ruppm of his *ria. to rnq knowledpc. mm rhough the Vovnich rnonuraipr hu bcm iceerribk to xhdars at Smmp'~ own Uajversitv. Yak. for t nurnkt of vrrrs. According ro Elirebrth Ftiedmon. " exp said rht w h be pduced war nor medieval Erqlish. hs for his cipher 'mnhod'. he wid litrle ahr it. bur what he dd sav made no sense to rrrprodopisa" i 1962). 36 -

42 k t S. Brumbaugh, a professor of medieval pdilmoph~ at Yale University. bemmt ~nrercsrcd in rhc Vuvnlih manuscript during ~ ht 'thirties. and when it wru dm& bv H. P. Kfaus to Yak. hr "was drawn by an irmisrible ~rnpul~ m l d at it" lbrumbaugh p. 348). He was Plro muck bv O'Neili's idtntitica~ion of American plants in the drawings (1944). Brumhugh publistbcd m article in *darn (1974) mnoununp that hr hd solved the rnrsrerr. and hild red some lans on plant pictures in the phonaoeeutical focw u well a5 what he =fen to as "star maps from folio ' 5 on" I 1 g75. p. 348). He aiw mtes that he has dtcjphcccd the name of Ropcr Bmn in rhe "key" scntmcn un the last pcc. He rcprdc tk manuscript as a delbcratt fqcry for the put- of Minp Emperor Rudloph 11 oi Bohcrnra intr~ partiny with the l~ret sum of monv he p d for it. kunp that the romptctc mluuon will take a lot m m study. Brurnbuph nil1 claim that "extensive work with scr-tltrn on aswology. with lomc b v. ad frqumcv studia of sampler throughout the text show that my dcclphamcnt Ir mrrecr~ p. 3481:-He ar~k~dmmrmcof~'&~~likc~~ucnrt~.ofsym~bjn the marpiru folios lr. 1 Yr. i*. b6r. and 76r. and in tfrc ~ ccmd rinp of 77 v. OI well PI the vntrnccr on 116"; these sequm~cs. while ro Jomt mrmr drliberate1~ misleading. still provide aid in pmmarinp the crphm. -ding to Brumbauph. Thr text MI folio 1 16v Brudauph finds k enciphered using what he ca1b. without further explanation. n "~f~ndard thirtcenrhenturv -cipher" r p.!?fll. ht KCI c~~:firmaom fw this in the paid ocqucnm in lrft and ripht mar~~ns of blio lr. in which he finds a mt~noalph~kt~r suhtimnon of ma normal aip)lph. wilh "a" of h e m aeainst "dm' of he other. Yanp th~s cipher. and wmr rerrmngment of spllpbks, Brumbauph "RODGD BACON" from a ~~flon of Mio 116v which he reds JS "MICH1 CON OLADA BA" (m that this is the kplnning of the m e tar rmnp that Newbdd red u '-MICHI. DABAS MULTAS... PORTAYI. He suepcsa that the name was "planted" in such a manner as to be tasiir rccn Rudolph's cxprm and thus to awut and delude them into iccepung thc antibution of rhe manusaipr KI &con. On foiio 66r. Bfumbaugh rrrr a rrr of "fwmelrc" in the words ad b sitttrrd down the right margin; these hmulm. be suppens. rene to equate symbolr to orher srmbds bv a son of "avprarittlmcric." of which he provides smcral exampla l pp I must crmb thot. while h e he cxplnins arc conviknp emph. the mt of the "formuhe" remain wmewlur mystrriws to me in the absence of further chifierim. Using there "qunuons" and rht r m i a of taklr fw phu Iwhich he "aibbcd" br aploltiag word pamrns with rcpcalinp kren such as "p" and "e" In "pcppa." "p" in "ppa." m.1. he sets up n four-bv-nine rabk ofcor~ndmcc~: he savs &at th table a sim~hr tcb "a rundard alchemist's or asrrdoffcr's cipher. wdl known in the erde" ( p and he finds among the text 1 16% the "qudrtx nonix" which he = as referring to chi four.h.nine structure. Figure 16 show the cipher Brumbauph recovcrrd it. AU tk Voynich rvmboir, BtumbPuph ruppestr. stand for hm of the numtmlr~zcro throuph nine ror ant throurh nlnc: the function of zero; if nay. is not made clnr in his prcrenraum). The enriphcrment. as he sees it. is a rwo-acp operation. which first replpd Ictars bv numerals using the four-bv-nine bw. cdlaps~n~ rht lenm of the alphakt onto the nine dipsts. and then subst~nrted holm among wvcrai diffmnt fanciful designs h each numeral in wdcr to conceal their idcntltr designs choscn from " mdan a d archaic numeral forms. GrerE and btin b s. ad sevtral cunlvt compendia" t p h will be nod rhar this p r m invdves mul6plr variants in bwh the Voynich xript and the plaintar. Dmpherrncnt lnvdvcr first recognizing the numrrai underlyinp one of iu variant forms in the Vech scrip. then writlnp under ir rhc, mo. thm. or four pible choices of plain= corr~ndmrrs; when this has ken d m for a wwd. o prol~ounceablt qumm of lmcrs is rclecrcd from among the choices. An example of rbe applicption of tha method to a pion of folio 11Gv will mvc as on ilusuat~on of the proccdurt. Brumbaugh rnpks out a ~cquen~e of cij$r Voy~ch svmbolr h the mixed tm on tha ppe. just preccdinp a phrase that he reads u High G-man: "vrw ubrm wr nim pa nicht 0.". and tr&m as "the abwt is false lo do nor cake n' Idmtify~np the cipht Vovnich symbol5 with numerals according to the correspondences he ha5 sa up (which he docs nor =plain anmhcre in his pprrs anpt in vrrv frapmenury form). )It obtains the di~iu " ". Assigning to hese rhtlt mulriplc plaintext quivaicnts from the nintqr-four box. he produrn the following: e ABAB G C C I j K J K P L L VRVR YWW-US

43 He dem amq rhe f~ pommablt PIo#DPW ( AKABYUUS. ARAKYLLUS. AKARYCCWS. UPUBYLLVS. NMBYCCUS. =..I tk d "MMYCCUS". which hr sar u a * 9o tkr Arabic nu- undcrlvinp rbe riphcr. InbirCirrcrrridr~I d).btprnmrran*mkrdorber~dhb~brrafromplrat~~p-6cri ~ I n r w s t a r n. t k e ~ ~ ~ ~ i r ~ l i r r i o c d a p ' ~ ~ t ~ o r d r a r r *. f b r ~ ~ ~ ~ u ~ ~ ~ i r d a a i k d ~ b i m u ". a ~ ~ ~ b r a d m L * t i aot mf firmly bucd m spclhq u m b impahhie; romt mmpk recm Todporhedtapt#rrr'r~."thr~apherk~~~bplv~ci~tpy#"~1975.p.3~4~.Brumb.~ph, -.plr~p~.rb#~pch~wbilcd~ra~qrocm~bhmiliur).orc.wrrc ~ r r d ~ k 8 4 i a L ~ I d a ~ ~ o f * t i m e i n ( P Y I L i 0 l ~. Tha~(1975)PrlfCJtbeseLnrierlr~~~&rrrabPrirb'r~ "TkidcPthtbrdpis3 -b~~#aipnlmhim. l-itasan-wh tirdiasthudrhcqmblsia t b r # i p m ~ + i n ~ h d t b i c t h e ~ n a. b o a ~ ~ ~ ~ b l c r.ic..d P a r.. of~hu#pdenet,cthtlu~mbvdlvan~~mddi~ngsidc~... Bmmbrupbism ~ i n ~ t t r t r ~ ~ m k n u m k n h v l r i o u r 6 # m r. ~ h u k e a ~ m e r d t i + ~ " M~opaion~n~frJdId~n~'s*10ptblrkdppnirrbuhbtbeoritrutqw~~luikondKf~of rucbc**ddpbmamearinthrmrarticriprd rbeiriraomdia~tkrahd~athtr~.i&rtd~~q~w~~uposriblcd*~dprmrqanrtn#rbbr~iabnrreklrs.iambrrrian~rr~bhirbmfrad ~~~rrkrmm.~:mmrbr6~+=dmmrpondclrocr1h.*e~0bpiasa.1b.*c~emplsd- ~ofoeberphmhklrdwarr~~mifcdlrmlaaiprdrltcma*~~fuu1an ~dromrutrugrrrinodltiaar~t3inrrordr;mrap~.rrlrinrilriurouldknpepedfrofi3kknown nperi~~crrdh~rxr).thmirjltst~plrpri~inrhe~apkdontoa.brrrwtrrrough#~kavtonc ~. F ~ 2 6 h m ~ ~ Q D a j e a v r l 1 m m p m ~ ~ r ~ + i r h t & i a i w - ~ - ~ ~ m d r ~ d h iof- s ~ ' A~udde~h~brr~.pprrrrdhQrl#rwl~&IP~db.rrrrdd~U~d LasdoaI1976).laddraridr.B~b~tbubir~~~uclomLradbimcrcrrm#t~dFht~- -0Tbis-

44 Chapter 6 History of Orher Substantial Analytic Efforts 6.1 Tbe Forms in Wbicb the Ma~rrsrript Has Been Studied Thc Vopuch manuscript was for a long tim held in privm hands. first by ~u di~ovm. Wilfrid Vovnrch. then bv his widow. and finally by H. P. Kraus. B ~ U of K in grew financial value. iu owners wcrr underrtpndablr. relucrant to allow unlrrnittd accm to it or co~perawd with serious schohrs seeking ro unravel rhc rnrscry. In the firsr few yean afm hk d i of the manuscript. ~ Voynich mdc vigorous and reprnted nttempr to Interest studenrs in it. and Nrwbdd war incrdud to the problem rhrou~h hhb efforu. It is posibk that the disastrous outcome ot Newbold's restarcha. and he diroppoinunmt ~Ensioncd by their failure may havt rerutted in an atmo~phtre of caurton and of prcm resuiction on the pan of the owners in providing amrs to chc manusaipt in subsequent vrarr. As qjt haw en in the +our doper, Fuly and Strong wtre ome to studv the rexr odv rhrouph iuurrrattons In the published works of Ntwbold and mhm. The manuscript bar come More the ewr of many other students. howcvet. In rhr form of phmuc copre. The mpm ukd bv Fritdma. Tilnnan. Kriuher. ad Currier. and the copr avaiiable KO me. 111 derive uldmntcly hm a photoropy made by Father Percrm of Gthdic Univtrrirq on April from a set ut pharwcnm frovldcd by Mrs. Vognih. Tiltman (in n report of Pctcrren's work made in conjunction with an invcntwv of his papas a h his death in 1%61. stpm that "virtudip dl copits of the mnuxript in private hands are derrvcd from Fr. h m ' s p-~td." The I have m&cd arc, in faa. copes of -its at four or five removes. Fricdman (in a note arewnpanying thc ropy in rht Friedmn dlection) pv& this intmning account of the phowcopim in private ownership at that time. and how they ~omc inro ewirtenct: -'On 23 hdsv 1944 wlillim 1 Fi.I flnedmml vrm a ku& lo rhr wdou of Dr. Wtlhd M. Vornach who was rhr d~uanwn trt thtr bmow mnurn~pt. qunttnp a phmcnraac q t The rqum was prantd and a cumpica mp was made frnm a muatlvt philtrnra!~~ c.alpr prowdcd h Mrs. Vmnlch. In her her &ttd 31 Mav she luted that w t r c copes urcrc aormelv rate me 15 I" rhr \cu Yak PuMic Ubruv; amkr rr rn rhr Briurh Muuum', anoh was pim to Dr. Pmrrrn olca~hol~r t'nrvaurr: rnrwhrr u,~ ulrrn ttb.r u M r =horn Mrs. Vmch dd na dennfr: finnllv Mrs. Vuvnlch hmtlf bad r cop*. With the copr m the Ftrcdman nrllrullm!here ntlr appnrmkinall~lxmpnin~rald...." In general: the photacopics 1 have sun prwidc n degrcc of definition and clariry which is quite ternarkable. Derails oi pcnsuokts. guidelines on diyrrmr. and other fine details show up m y well, and he ten is dcarlv distinguishable rlmoa everywhere. tcmln deficiencies should. howem, be mmciomd. since thq may havt had a definite limiting or dirtorrinr effect. howcvtr slight. on the remch h c d out by many rrudmrr. Fim. rhe complete lack of color in the black and white copies ~ntviublv results in a low of some meaningful informazion. This may k impwtanr not onlv in identifving plants and in undersunding the mmninp of whet drawings. but even in irolatinp some details against a dark backpround. Whtn everything is m only in shades of grey. writing m small designs within colored fidds arc ~omrtima indisrinpuishablr. The rpme difficulty can arise in cam where rhe phoroetrpy is very dark, so that the grey hackpound obmm many details. A KC^ defect of the phowropin available to me applies primarily ro the large. multiply-folded folios. Because ~ hc cop~cs had to bt made in pieces. their wcr-all rrtotionship m form a whole is ofictcn my diffjcult to reconstruct: the student does nor the cornplcre system of drawings u thty appeared in thr original form. Wwst w. in some case material has cvidcnrlv ken obscured by king out of fmu around the dgcr of a page, w has k n pardy cut off. so that we do not we evervthtng that was an some pgn in the original. This is notably the CPK for he iargt. intriettelv folded folio containing a complex system of iarcr.relnrcd circular dingra~. Anwhtr fmture of the ph-tl I have studied. while not consdcutin~ as much of a hindrance to research as some of rhc problems already ment~oncd. is annoying and at tima confusing to the dent. There art numerous nms. cirdn. undm6ne. afid other jottings and mibblinps of mdnn researchers on many ppca Among thac are copious and obtrusit~ 'I am rnfad br Mr. James Gtlloplr. who hu d r d nude up pr#nuilv of plmr ffliru. this copr. that it u impkc. mnprrwnp mlv rbwt the 6rst th~rd of rht manulrrtpr

45 nmains of ar hit one previou~ computa proceuin,~ project. including circled words and papraphs. lines markinc urf parts rrf rhc mt. and ltpmds such as "start hm". '-omit punch". and "punch lust tha." In some cam. these comments and marks cnrsr che rm and draw~nps in such a =PI' as to obscure or COtIfIJSe rome ftatnres of the oripinal. kratlons af nrptanalrstr have idul~ed char~cmisrir a d app~rentlv irresistible habit of nndcreninp p a m ad rcprions. and have orherwi~ triumphantiy nad heir p~su abut r)k meaning of tht dr~prams I"* Qur apes of man." "the four seasons!." "hgtrtafiur-mmhu"). While wn an cmp~hmc wih tk momimry joys md ort tows af one's phkirmuws as ther mppad with the enigma. morr of t k jotrinps are trivial at &rr. and at h r wws me onlv to funher appravate rhr difhcuh of thc task. I. fa em. wuid pnk tom ndinp more on he ppcs than whor Wilfnd Vornich raw when hc first viewed tkm In A final unavoldabk dlspdrantape of wkinp with copies is the l~billtv d rk srdtnr w verifr. or rwecr hlpn~htscs conecrninp the him. prtiauperad writinp In orhrr urlp and had d i h In SKtton 4.2 above. Without a nrciul examinsrim of rht wid. pcrlnpa aided by -1 ehrmiul or phepaphic wehnrqua,tu -1 the hnl fragmmu of witimp mae fully. rc nnnor make rhe -,of rk a o m g j r k y pideh, a.a& in rhe smoodr ahrll of rht rnrsterr. So l i d "crib i #&h is avrihbtr. he or rash were so oonrirrent ia " taeimv w " dq" mrythinp. lervinp no dues "in tk clcu". thor we n d tvay prcaour bit of added informuon rvr can #kan from hcse cxuancous or anpni KtibbIings. wham thcir ~wm. Such. t h art the phcmmpin wid which mosr of he wdmm hivc wmkd whmc mrcks mill be dcscribed in this chapmr. The fir# problem firing rht a ~ l has p been tk onrmpr to niriw at r firm ~ct of ekmmtarv srmbh cmpriwnp An "alpiwbtt" far tb VwniEh pnrr. We have ~ c in n Secnon 1.1 ad fipurc 19 the wide diffetenrcs berareen wanscrlptlrm alphrktr dopd bs. d i h t ~ttukno. Armed with a list of synhls that sldrfics him at ksrr as a bcpiarung. each student has then set h r rk t& d making mum. idem. comordpm. and other onslym. either br had. or if he Is ru fomrrr~n or to hnve P K ~ m - ~ J rmpums. bv machine. Somc studeao have wpd or mraikd hqc qwntities of lexr br bnd; this is o pod wrv m p the "kl" of the KXL ad lo bmrme fnmilror with t& sgmw and char variant forms. In the midm of this cham. m a 1 maim cfforrr wdl k mlmcd. Tbc smh. wbrk na Wi- to a chim of a dccisiw break-in a decipherment. but in maq added rubruidl! KO our bkdp about the mrausaipt; rhcv are ~afcrmative a h from a mcthddoptcal swndpoin~. and d m the anmaon of my miws sdmt who pefers to learn from tk work of hrr prtdms rather than hndb rcp~ting it. Afm the debunking and ttimion bp. Jctrdars of the rhm major solutions c h d bv Newbdd. Fcelr, and Stronp. WilIiam F. Fricdmm dtcidcd m mwnt a larpe-lcplc effort P ~PLM~ rhe manuhpt with the ad oi a unlqucl~ t if accidmollr I well-&rutcd mrn of mrchur This ptoup. audr up of whohts mgpd in war vwuk in Washiripton. inciudrd [acwding w Eluckrti Friedrrun 1962) "spedrrlisrs in ancimr. ckal. and medieval Ianpuapts: Epyphtg~srr. m ~ ~ c i a nad r. authoritks on other scimcedcpined in dtc manuutipt." Awaiting demobilization at the c l o of ~ thetr service to the Gwaamcat duriq Wwld War 11. Jlrlv o p d to p ropcrhct ofm working hwrs under Frirdmm'r dumion and h s thnr mlmm an rhc mvhus musaipt. The proup was called by Friedman in Maq of Oa the ntalh.nxth of May. sixtmn ~ p la&cd e the firs1 mmine of what was mmed an "mwamridd' umkrding. Friedman provided m ootlint of the mnnuscript*~ hirtwr. a d pws sdution aacmpu. d he amndnr examid the pharocopr. kot to Phan k Dr. Pearsen. Sampk shem of copv rvae dirvibud u, &ow present. and phar m made ro work up a standard Im of the svmhls and a transcription alphakt in Roman tmtrr with lwnr diku a d s-1 rhnr~mrs ipunctuauoh eu.1 lor proecssing on IBM punched-card acrountinp cquipmenf. Fiputr 19 shows the ltst of rvmboir and English quivrlmm hep Prrivcd at. Mminp~ wcn held ar appmmrtly b i d? inomah rhrouph Junc: cramriprim of tm ad ztudv of thr uripr mnunued and various backdrwnd ropra (Athaaaiur Kircher'~ wrk.john Ikt's octiviwtr. d i m of medieval lotin. erc. I wer+ iavhpated a d ducwrad. Meetinps rrem to have k n mewhat krr frqucnt ad rcplar chcr*ih. or at least muiderablr less fullr docummtcd in the minutes I hvr s a Ntvmhelerr. ~ in Scpcemkr 1944 nn "IBM run" hpd k n made (on tabukcinp and smnp machincr. since no proprammed computers were in pcrsl use or that rimel. In rubquent months. more text wns tranriiterad and dined. In h m k r mminp were "resumed." impl+p rhnr a hiatus of some durat~on had elaped during which rhr proup Id nor been wing. A ntw enthusiasm was mmmuniatrd m the amndccs. and a nh imprur prwided to heir effom (amding to tht miauml bv William Friedman's prmnmrion of his findings conccrninp s 40 1

46 svnthecic language developed bv Wi1kins.i ~e 6.6 and 9.3 below for further dnailr~. Studies of thts I~ngu~rr ~ndl~~ttd rh~r ward winnings and dinps. le~cr frtqucncics. number of diknt symblr. and word lengths seemed comprablr 141 rhw found in thc Vovnith text. Durinp Jrnurry and February. the pup continued to arork m IBM runs and fraqurncv ubuhuuns. There 1s. unh~ytely. no r d of their wwk o h this cimc in the materials avaihbh w me. airbou#~ there is evidence that mrl; &ad ~pwadidy inlo 1945 and It is hard to ocu. in the a h of.nv summatv of their rcsulcr. how much text they rurmded in proccrring by muhine and whar anal^ they pfamcd on it. Judpnp by the prinwuu of machrmd text that wm~ pemd in wr recards. they aawikd a d kcvpunchd an imprcivr amount of text-at lenst is.ol)cl charmers. or 1663 thirty-charam lina. The tabulations of mults and any repom of rhc o~lrric rtud~es have diupperrrrf hom the file. if thev ever exid in final form. Sukquent studmtr have had to v r. wcr and over daaln. a11 the wwl; 11t uaaraiption and whine pcparakion. pr if it had never hen dont bv hers. Elitekh Fricdmn pmcntt the foliowinp pcr~pcrrirc on he outcome of the Fint Varnich Manuscript Smdr Group: "Becoux h-mimiwry wwk ofuanrrribtnp~~.texr..inw.moehinetpr~~essable symbols could onh bt done after wnrkinc hours. drmoblitation was pactid1v mmplm before the manuscrip war rcpdv fw final JIU~~. The Krenrists rhereupn dishadd and returned to their uaivenitk m r#earch prolms. Tkr considered opinton a m the ape. aulhorrhlp rnd general wnur of the manuscripts. based on their extracwricular work. are still valid tadnv....'- I Farha Pctcrscn ( 188+!9663 was a -her and print at 5. Paul'r Cdlepc a d Cathbc Liwasitv. the f ~dlw~nc details arc Iar~iy drawn from uapublishcd biographical mcs a d a sue of Pmrwn's wcrk on the rrunwrrlpt cumpitcd bv Tilmrpn a h Petersen's deaih in 1966.) He had oat hundml and mwtv-t~o lfim of phmowu made on April from Mrs. VoyniMs copy at a em of $ Thmoint he ~pmt ronsidcrabk time. esmflv from 1952 until the time of his dcarh. in a ppidng a d thorough nudy of the mnusuipr. His work included a complm hand copv. carefullr c o r d by rdcrmuc to the original. which he -mid in the Ntw Ywk Gwr~ntrr Trust safe dcpostt vaub whm fit was kept until Mn. Vopkh's death. A aoct on the front p~pc of his transrrip attcscr to rhc fm hat he finished it Julv Tikman (I9751 rcpm that the msk of capvtnp c)n approximacrlv &prams of urn occup~cd abour four wars. Permrn was a scholar of wide karninp in ancient Impurges and histon.. a d compiled a qumtiw of valuable d d intacstinp informarim abut religious. orudqicd. and mrrtical manuscrip ad aha wrces of possible relevancr to the Vornich manuscript. He Plro d i d muidcrablc urntion townrd idenribin? rhe plants Micd in the herbal drawnps. The papa of his 'transcript are copiously annoraoed with these pl~nings and commentaricr. In addition to the wanscrtpt. Perm made (ah by hadl a Jhriow and canpkte conmrdanc* of thr entire mnnwipt. showlag -try word with refereace 10 all the ppes whm it omrd and #vml wmds pnmlirq and following c~rh ormrrence. Tiltman suepcsts. in the absence of a complete cmpm index. his coiuordanre cm k o f p e value ~ to studcnu of the manuwripr. In his ~holrrtv and widc.tanginpr b+rd rnruch. Petmen died the wab of Ramon Lull and St. Hikltuard of Binpen. mnpiml manusaiprs such as Pirarix. amolopkd. alchemical. and herbal wntinps. and the wwks oi Atbenus Mapnus and Roper Bacoa. There is, unfonunatdy. nowhere in the maraid available to me anv report of theories Petersen. may haw kid. w condurionr he m y have r &d mmning eht dcapherrrsmt of the m~nuktip. At his death. his paps we= pivcn w William friedman; thrr w m inwntaied ar friedman's iequtrt bv Tilrmnn. and aft now a par1 of rhc Fridman collmion at ohe M&II Library in w. Virenia. 64 Second V omb M#nusm>t Study Group, f In Friedman suc& in intmtinp cmpum rpecklulr at he hdio Corporation of America in an expcrimen~rl effmt to study rhe m6rc manusaipt bv computer. The first mminp of a new rrudy group was held on 25 Dectmkr. I9G2. Accordirq m the minutes. Mrs. Friedman pmmced background dam on the hnwy of prrviwr work a d pencral infcrmtion on rhc mnuuript. Mr. Friedma then gave a pmcntdon on the "Salient External Fcalura and Cryptolopic Charactcrim'u of the Mmwipc." fhc pup worked topether. qain "rxtrrcurrirularl~" and with a minimum of pubbcirv. over the nat several month. A smll m m ot "dedicated wives" (a they wm described by a participant in rhc kudr iroupr -- were hard at work uanxribinp and kevpunchiw a quantitv of text. using faditin provided by RCA after working hours.

47 Ambr~iw phns wmc [aid for an impmriw ret of anpurer rum. inrcndcd to involve. according to the records 1 have studied. at lcmt a00 thirty-rhec charm mds. or upward of hactm of tat. There are flowcharts. propram ad all the her paraphernalia of a full.sca1e computer pccack. which (bad it ken compkted) would mtainlv ~ P w p"idcd sdcats with a #ui #lo1 for march. The compum tuns #and included studies of all charancr qwncn l*'n.p+*) fmm ont w rix kmrr in kngth; qic d and of wds in thnr c-t; the oecllmo~c d 1- at diffmat porihnr within war&: words in dihnr piions within rmrmees; and, finollp, a studv crlled "kmr pamumtiom" whaw -re is ua dear to me fkn thc daumeaepdoa. fhir plan would have mulwd in a ~~mpktc CompmtiorrPl-hpiftic analysis of the Vgnicb rm. 1 anm dearrnim hou mnn~ ehrracters d #xt were *erudlp mchincd. ad wherhn nv p&np was mer completed. The is elcar wide- in the mords char program hd k n miam m pence the mpdm files required m car. out the proauinp. ad &at dnoild spddficatioas hd kcn wr up fa perkmnrng th a d tnbul*tioru. fn Seprrmber plans dl krng pursued ro compkte tnoleriprion lad d n i q of text. Figure 19 shows the uanrctipdm alphakt d by tite BCA group m -t the Voptich mipr Ehoram~ UafatPnnrrly. tk ocrond mdy group mkcd the same fm os the fim; L m maruprams at RCA decided to tcrminatt men he miaid "aracurriculu" invdvtmmt of their rtrcrumr. ad the proup was kced w dirbnnd kfart any definitive ruuh cwld k obcnrd. A spm* in pnmics and bdop who kame one of rhc world's fortmort nvpmioyists. Friedman wv a h a devoted -dent of Iht Vwch manuscript from du ruly oa. He worked wid^ John M. Manly in munp and dirprwiw Nmbold's e k. E k M F r i h ( 1962) prwikr on amusing account of the she. her husband. and Mady had tgcrkcr in demdag "deciphermmts" char mrjd k had frm Newbold's mr usine his m h d but ~ with different arbitrary a d subjcqivc d ~magcmoaaf km#r u arrpia mp of fhe pro~eu Im Sm#m 5.1 abvel. In u we h e ona wk in chis chrprrr. Fnedrmn brought rbe gdtmng of war-w~kinp scholars who ionmd th Firm Voynich Sady Grq. fbcir rvort un6onunatjy cut shm bcfort it cwld reach fruition. has a- kcn dnerikd. Ehkrh Frisdmrn hu h to av co~erning k hurbmd's during inter^ in the probkm. wkh m h~gd up to rhc time of trir death in Novcmkr, 1-9: "Thrmgh tk pn in Fricdman has continued to intemz Kholon aad avpdopic cxpm in Ihe probkm. h d a pivinp it what spare 6mc ht cwlld himrclf. In thc opinion of rhis writer. Enadmm's mdm hrv* prdd a h y which mnstinrrc~ a hpcd bass for an am& hat mv kad to a sdution of thu baffling mmllrripr" I 1 %2). Frirdm publirhtd a -t of his hemy. in he form of tn aqmn in a fomaar man arriclt wl -her acprolopic ropic in dk Januuy 1959 irwr of rtre PhWogtul Q d p I F d m and Friedman 1959). At the ume time. he d m a SWMWIU in dnr Eqbh in dx vchiyez af the Q~or~erly's dim. He did his in ordtr m tsublkh ad date his him w the idea. which he could rta ym work our. in dcoil ud pmvc suffic#nriy to publish. This is thc amgram. as it a p r d in dw hae: "1 P W NO TRUST IN MAGISAMMATIC ACROSTIC CYPHERS. FOR THEY ARE OF LI7lZE REAL VALUE-A WASTE-AND MAY PROVE NOTHING.-FINIS." Bricdm and Fritdman p. 19). In his kde. ht srrrer dart an anagram of rhrs kngoh is ebk. hqh cmenrcly diffiollr. to dvr; in orda to read it. one 4 Lw to knm d i n g of +I it d. In rhir my, F r i h planned oo bve a ayprogtapher's IPS word. and thus uiumph. mn from rhe pve. om my LPfer disc- of rbt same h. The which FribdmPn in the rayrom has iiact h e Itlsoro #I a n& of studem, and there seem w k ao furtbcr real lcaecy conarnirq its mnm. Tiltrmn hrd Lnr iadcpradtady &KI the same codwion ( ~ hiom e 6.6 kk), mamely t)mt rht mt of rhr muroipr was wrim in a qafhcuc Imnpurge builr up on tk hsir of cnwpwies w dpucr of wmdr with dcd dings w ahrr affues. frkdmn's ad Tiltman's twtches into known longuapts of this nrpc have bcm mentimed a h. and m ~te will k rpid oa the topic in 6.6 a d in UupPr 9. Brigadier Tilrman. a profnslonal +gin of Long and di#inpuuhrd menrc. wu induced to the elegant puzzle of tk Vopich manuscript in 190 by Wllirm Friedman. who pmvided him with mpk of r-1 fdrm from the final & of the manudpr, c~nirting of rat nihur drawings. T i q d y ~ i c ~ d t by. hand. a thorough m of mtirrid d m on the an. c~l~~trrring hir cffwo on the mast frquent symbcb and their eomhnocioru. His analwis. denmastraring a "prceedeace" srructure of qmbolr within wwds d the ordtrly khvior of chwacrtrs as "kgtancrs,"

48 "middks." a d "t&" of wards. h i remained ow of the most did and useful findings gleaned b! students of the manuscripr during many pars of study. In Tilwnna prepad an informal repr In the fonn of a p n ~ I cammufiicarion to his fried Wikm Fricdman. in which be summed up his work -(Tiltman 195 1). The nmr fp p9rpgrrph will brdy rmiw zomt of tht splimr pants in that rrpwt. filman & r d his atantian t d thr khouior of tk ~~aoan commmt rymbolr in the manuscript; fi#urc 19 JhblS his ~a1ucfipion aiphak. He l l ~ Zkt ~ wdttjng r ~ of C ~ P C within P ~ wmds in such r way that they srm to reflect mudm like smms a d affixes. Crwia gnu marr oftcn bp wads. d durn rbrrt dh cemin &a symbolr: othtrr exhikt a prefmm for he ends ol wwdr. whm they durm in &n arrangements with other symbols. Thtrt is 4 structure 0f-d "I" and "C" spnms a h "Q" ad "a". a d kfm "3.7.$. f". A cable of these -'Jeadings". as Sound br Tiltman, is shown in figure 27. He matioar ah the frequent ~puenuol fepe~irion of "'a?" In phruer such as '' &? 3 ".''3 a a$'. sr.. np.riu# the sumacim of a htnd of his that t h c and orha simtlrt shm r-d mp might 4. for bnnum&.lfot-pk, "4' might k "ui". ad '3 a 4r might k "xxv*'). Whik mtntioniq rhb dm m m i w n g possihlity. TiltmPn pnrs out thu it dw not wurk our wdi in wmc caws. and it still lravn w with too mmny unsold pbh. In my ae, the otduin~ of symbols within words dearly dcmonrtrnted bv Tilrmnn, ud rim confirmed by &KS. prclmts ws with a ~~n which must k satisfmailv explained bv am valid dcciphrrmem rhrory. k Ile s d in his 19il rcpn to Ftidmn. Tihrn~h had indepmdmdv arrived at the same them* abut the pb~ntexr udrrlyiap the V~nicb &pt that Fridmon hidf had earlia dedopd. He stmm hi t h v thus: "As vou know. I nrlv fwmed dte opinion. which you Md much e~rlicr than I, thar thm was ne cipher invdd u all (in rht mnmmlp x~eptcd ~nrc of rht rrord) d thrt tht buis was mort Iikdv oo k a q primitive form of synthetic uniwul Ipnguape such PI was in chc form of a phitoqhid hifiation ot ideas by Bishop Wilkins in 1667" ( p. t l. Tiltman became ronvid, from his stud7 drhc khvia of syrnbolr within rorb and -& wuhin lina of mt. that the pkomcna could not bt aphid by any simpk mhrituth system. In pursuit of ewfirmation for hs tm. )# undmodr a determined larh ta PM back the cmcq Of " unidm and "synchesic" Languages to a time that might bc mcwumt with the origin' of the Vomirh m d p (1550 w dim). Friedmm. a we haw above. had d up no inreresung synthetic lrnguagc system: one dcvelqd by Bishop john Wikm (164 I b1. and onorher of sum-hat later date kid by Gmrpc Dalpnrno ( Tilmun did rherr mo hnpuqcs mefdlv. looking fm sqlirric ad ~rotistual rimilnriria to the Voynich mt. While borh were prokblv of too late a date lo hme kcn wad by tbe wthcr of the manustript. they might hve arisen in. or k n lad upoh an carlkr -em rhu mdd haw k n rn tmployed. Tiitman d d c d thpr btr Wilkins' and Ddparno~s hngrupcs w m "much tw rfrremwic" to mum for he phenomcaa in he Vgnich #xr. He pwruqrcd. inncod. a lanpwpc that r "highlv i-i lhirmm of d i h Ludr of rubrtituion" ( p. 21. Ldng hack fmhm in h w y fm a Ilill wecr h of "univrr~~t hayagc". Tiltman dlkwmd a system called the "UniHsEnl Chamear':. krlrd by om trw k k (Beck This system Idcd somewhat promising. though ir was suii hardly arly mwgh in date; it was &dy "ilbgid" d "d" ia its mcrllodr, The rvords of n small English dicrionarr Wpd numkn from one to W. in m ~ aiphbcacai h dm. aeating r aude fmrldigir rode PI a foundation fw the Lnpu.gc. A sub= of obmt ane buadrcd ad rmnry-fk common words owm a h k rtp~emlwl by fhrcc.lcrrer " prarpl in Airion oo tht baric four&& cde groupo. connirutiap. in effect. a set of varianu for drne wads; these ~pcciol Grim dl h a with "I" m "I". W pup mnr in Bcdt's s m wert ptladed by tht letter "t". and djkcival pups bv the her "q". w~ym~ (r.5.. "to think" a d "m qir~re") had rhc umc hr-di~it paup wigd ro h. Piurals mrt shown bv an "I". a romcrimcr. an "8". after the digir-gmp. Verbs mqzk have up rn chm kaers piefixed to htu proup for amin hm. The di#t.pups themwives cwld be wiirtm a b in h. 4 dipt hap tcprnentcd by a svllabk ( m w m t. m L wml-~onronrlu. or ronroaonr-vowel-caumautl. Th variation. inmded bv Beck ro produce pronounccabk lwmr for the code wads. conuinrrer from a qprograpiw pant of view a iubscjtutian of digraphs or fm tht di8iu. to mi& a set of Fidy, h u u of the arbitrarily mid her-nurnkr makeup af words. a upnm rcq~ird a, BOW w k r am arord mdtd and tk nur kpn. Tiltman pinm out that he common "tnd~np" lnnp "4 9 '' in rhr Voymh text could sad 6a r plural *'r*' Mowed bv a w ad up.rator as in W. 5 hryuap. filman dimmed marhcr. rdll older "sptheuc bqzuage" pp~porpl by a man named Johnffw. dmioped under the.. of a B i &dell abwt 1M1. No dctrikd dcvripaan of dus syrcem has survivad. unfwtunarely. In Chapter 9. m m will br said hour synrhcnc and uaimml hnpuages in general. 1 will a h Fnt. in Stabn 6.10 blow. mv own

49 findingr in mring the deruc for the mimner of sirnilat svnrhetic hnpuapes at c& back conridcrablr. earlier-perhaps well inm the 6hrh of at kasc inm the carlr wxmnth mtuv. Ia later rcpom I 1867, , Tiltman krcrikr his 0th principal linc of wmrch on the Voudich mnnusrript. He vat some rime in Englmnd in 1957 cmulung ape- on ~ I herbah Q d medial mndptr. and mcmpnp to uack down an ari8in for the plant Uwmtiolrr. He m exallrnt ~ i e of w rkt hisrory of wly herbals ad hnical iutrr~.tionr 11% ). Summing up his om and 0th~' failure w duccnrrr any dm prrllelr to the Voynich mauumipr hr up "To rht kt af my kaowkdp IK~ me ha kca able m fud any poiat of c m 6 n wirh mr whet &I manuscrip w nrlq prinrd book. fhl~ is all the manger bmuv the rave of writifq and i ~ u on rhe ~ subiect t ~ ~ of the plant wmm ram h e early Middle Aps ripht through :nm he wxmnth Pnd m n ~ven& mturki war \err limited indeed.... In gmcral. the illustrp&r in Phe printed herbals arc limid m rwr or Juet collmionr of avlized *roddt~~eopiedomdoma~ninmo~cdmacdcgm~~a#5wm" p. 11). Artde h n the substa~m~ m w i TitCII1Pn.s ~ mearch hu made to our b k i g e of cht mmuxrip. anof)#r impatlar mult of his work rhod k konrd. h the mlay yars of with the problem. hc has served ns a ad 00nuer poiat f# dcnrs i k c d in the monwmp and desiriag inhation mbwrt rht rtxt or about dier cprried WK on it by aha. Hh a d pmamrioas hvt provided many researcher5 with a full introduction to he lubim. and haw rnminrrd a number of dmu to take up an interem in he manuzcript. Ir should bt evidmr to anv rcadcr who has p'mvered &is far in rudinp chis lenprh~ monqrapb Ihnt tk puule of rtrr Voyich manuwripa prcscntj 3 cdmpkx d h ~ e and. CM k t k a p w by ~oopcratiwe ratarch. building on the earlier findings of others as in anr add* Tiltmoa's publrcabionr d communications haw provided ruch a foundation on the baas r$ which ae#er widam ma dvancr. without forced ro -st their mwrcn aeedldv rwtinp all rhr work hat whus have atready aamphhed. Krischa. a nun of m y had inter- and oknn mmprisilyt m r computer ~ me-. mcdiclm. ~ and avplqv. kcme inttrcrrrd in the manuscript and rmdt a mmpm analpis of the mt as a rcscrrch proierr dump his padwrt studr or Ward University. fhu mr~rch was dnaikd in a pow which mid a timifed circulation rt Haward and arn0n.c denn of the nunuscrip fkri~thcr In Part I of his pap. KriKhcT provide a bnef s k h of rhe earlier solurion chms bv Newbold. Mv. d Srrong. ad -3 mm -PI informotion hut the kag ad bpckpmund of the mrucript. In Part 11. "Stetisn'd Adyis." hr 7 an inremuq dircwrioa of tht pabhns involved in wrivinp at a tranraipum alphakt a d r dcraipion of dsr aiphdm nd bp NmW. Currier. ad Tiltman. He S U nad descriks ~ srvcral mlwmtiuiml whniqucs ukfuuq k applied w ck VovnKh tnn. Krkhct's approach to tm eomp~msold~ ofthe m&pr is uniqdv immrting USE k mplwcd a rpecial packapt of proprpms Moped fat mrrhrrte w a g of Chi- charaererr on he Dial Equipment -ration PDP-1 computer. As KriKhcr stmm. this scr of prgnm was gmcrol ~ll~lgh to prrmit ier apphtioa ro dac Vomich xripr svmbir. Thr vmwr Ifollowinp Curricr'r alphakr) nrrt drawn on a arhode ray tuk "KO~C" dispiav amdltd w the PDP-1 computer. The mt "could then k trrnraibwl by pie# with a lipht pm to the comzwnp ct~ar~~oer on rhe uopc for each harmer of ttst seripc" (Krisrher p. 41, T hh mrrhd of tron~rrpnon was mwe dim and convenient than the Lsborious had +np and krrpudung requid bv orhm eompm rrudirc. Tht PDP- 1 Iv#em a h permitred ccwrvtaim~ editing and rorrrnion of the tronxrihd tt~t from the ~opc. The wtpur of coaapm mru could bt proetjscd on the Smrnkrp-Carison 4020 equipmrnr ro praduce r praphic npaodpetion of rhr Vovaich chamam. &us avoiding mrirelv the cumkrmm d -in$ artificial Ramaniurinm tht all txha sdrnrr have had to rcm to. Tbt Vwnich text could be fed M y into rht compum. arhcrt it cwld k rub14 m my desd nunipuhcion a SePtiEtical ad*. A~o*imteh tuo pcrccat, or 5500 our of the charaac~s in rht minurerip. mere machid bv Knvha in his wao. according m hts own statement (p. 53). His ftsqurney cwnu arc shown in fiprc 28: it m y k d that they d d up to h r a discrepancy fot w hi& I can Find In Sccrion 111 of bis mbnbpraph. KriKher d i w m e sutirrial roob for eompuinp dilfmnt ampla of natural lanpuap I ~ K He. drcu thm such technquts as pamriallv d l in comparing risr Voyntch tcm to sample in known.. lanpuapcr. fhrrc statistical mh ue: 1 r streistic u "cbrammmc" "k". dciqjbing the dcprcc of cuinpactneas w mrmr in the sequences of charmers in the axr: 2) a mrinic -nnp the "tmopv" or dcgm of "wdmdnar" in a bod: of ttxr. bvinp a characteristic value for mrh norural hnyuape: md 3) Markmian analysis. a MT of mdwnp the probobilitr that anv patticular lecrtr will be a suceezror to anv olhtr prrcicular lenrr in n smne of tmt. Knrchtr wan dur hue meorurn. which haw proven effective ~n other swl-tiurnl rescarchcs. mav bt ustful in hdpinp us m dcmminc rhe -

50 udnlvinp h~uap d dtc Vwich at. Iln this he assumes ill.. that Be mnhd ~t cc~nccrlmrnt st empbmm has lol obvllnd MV oi tk cbnnsinim of uwd hwwp plum. ad. d. Ibu r m.wnnrblt ~C~.dihn~.r~bahrrma-id*.lsd~~ofdrmdrarr.udb\TiLMn.Elizrhth Fridm&radabar.l Tk "k" f~~ttlicdfhr"caaopr"meuorr~romprdbv~5#~udcordsdthcvormhmrt ~mpk ht &id. He am. hmmr. hu thn. uc of no w witha. prdkl memum fa bun a mher natural hn/w rm for mcnpuim. Hc also &dm his own text mpk much coo mall la thc useful application i ~ the t Wahovhn mdd. which rould. k snte. requke rr lem ti* dmn u much text. or cbracrrrs. At the lime of nidw his p ~. Kr*hs CMsd a arry a t fwtb dies: I fd mr rrmd d rnr subvqvcnt results. ham. This pmmbiq ud iw + rhuh pdmd out a war d laiiw r o impaunt ~ hrprhan.boot&~-~b~h~.kro~pdrbt#barkrorth~&#r.cbkvi~rar~iulmu~rs. Cmpria Currier. n prominmr profcsslonrl arpolopirt and dorc lrsociue d Friedman and T ilunan. prticiparrd In rhe~r ~Ehn a d kame m mthusiutic rrudenr of the puzzle. Tiltman r sums up cur ria ^ mrnr mnrk on the mmuw.ipr rr fdh: "Sitm his miremeat... swcn 9 ap Capin Cunicr has spt r pmt deal of time prtbfm~nr hl* m a dvra d rhc mlrrcrip. He hdb the vicv chat rhm are at krsl no diffmnt handmiti- which he rrllr A md 8- In~~thrrrosldadrkrfrrco~md~mroutinoaeoadrhtumthud....Fu~hispruirsirsIn~*lutlut~r urrtwdift*r*narinthtir-uiatlufrcq~mrpafvrrvbdrorr#irdrichawanothcrinwadr....xthml ~.mempqarcthiriccnm, Isaw u~laonedifimarrktwtatht~aatofrbc AandB papwhichcont-ioccd me- In hu m n r d suflia hlhwing a numk d dx can- rms the suffix 86 lad? i orour right times in mn-rive A paper ad 5% tima in ~ y. f i B n pqm.... Mv mn Minp is that the ~ wo "hapup" expce~~ differmr applicraons ~mohk~fthcumcrothrr bwrrccofruksmlimilu em". Carrim was Ibk. in m lurt rornpmr M wk cornparin# mo cucfpli~-cholm rmtbed mmpk of axr. ant in had A ad rbt 0th in frsad B. k h ldcrad from tht -1 f&. The rdcr of the d r chrlr drmons;ratd ~~#diffatllecjkrwrrnpbrlompla.lnfhtearneofs~braq~baad~~~urrk~amrrdaranumkn fivrha~~~rhtooaa~#~~inh*adsanndb..ndbrks~~~illispdumwl~ invesiprim. He hij a& his m other zeaionr d the man- in diion m tk hehi Mior. His wort 1% dmmmtsd in four unpbbhrd prpm (Cumer D'lmpaw 1 W Some Conmaem ts ~e~=rbin~ Comp~tm rbfetbods Tht s~bjm of ampom u rmh in in the ma& oa the V ~ich rnannurlpt. is om a h u h a l d f r ~ l i ~ ~ m r ~ l a r r l r m ~ c # n p m ~ m c r ~ ~ r d m r w r d r m i t ~ & ~phiblgv.fbae~rrrnlrryr&c#npllar~.n.idintbtdvof&vwnihmmusuip.~inoct#r.amilor. oar-proaoriw d q s. T bcpc rrr: 1 ) r AF&E-. prrmrrdnp & inanrprlrdon ad wpmizarion of rtxr ia ud mae sipdimat am* sim than con be dcolt with bp had: 2) rrr &roq && dm-om fuatflos. dbwinp us oo apply vui- id-. cam. md oehtr #ksrian. dupkr. summarizing and abdouon rcchniqucs. in wder ru cxplorr he dam ad show up my panem w npuhriti~ may contain rs on aid to hhgporhnis scrrrh~np; and 31 a 6yptb.rir-irAirr~ fimctim. fw vuim Wftc t&cories m mav hrvc drvclopcd as a rnulr of "hunrks" or fmm~hddmuhintsmdier. Moadd#~dt~mpl~mbr~lor~dthtnunurripa~inIbeCitaf&rppm#rmap)andd Icxpbramrdau redperion)- WhiLrrhertorr~IrrtfP1rd~in~~,~hrd~~downpllaar.insr~ h w d a p. ~ccmr in my to be rbt mum pmwfd lad the nmsr hlr m prodwe Iotid ad meanraphi1 cmuikmoer tu mu knorledpc of tbr p.oblem. A etmipk of this e f b k use d eompucm is P m Curria-s rerrnt d y of hu& A ad B. dkmd in drt pmious l+aioo. Cmk hd dmbped hir dea &I "hands.' br visual imprmon of he mmurrripr kfm he came to the mpum to seek their rid. He had a definite hvpothesis. which I wilt presume to paraphrase u follows: "If. in focr. t h is a ral a d Ilpnificaat diffcrmce kcwen the text In the trvo XIS of po~cr tht Iwk d- to me. thrn rher will have difftrtat diseribouons ad cllurrriner of charancrs." Accmdindu. ht " mqncrad d y -in arrihur-planned dine rum. oo be mwlr only on mo mtdd wmph of larr ehovn so as to lrcrp arbcr*uuwn~~tkmlu~mr~-tht~tra~~~roahrmdhrsthrorr.dmurartraanpr mtuetr. a d mfid?

51 diffcrenm Ilr had po~tdaml ktwrtn the two rpmplrs: a result chat might arvcr have been obtained through anv amounl of machinr m a p applied idisaimiwly m mssu of urutkclrd text. In mv apinim. thu is the kt wap tht eornpum CM ~cnr us at rhh smpe in our m*uch on the mnuxript. AU the morc ohks a d ask drrp proerrung ad data t d d h v t k n mrde again and span by varims students. with dtsapind~ d. It rvrdmr thu. if ncv is #r k ieund from mmpum rum. m must perfam same tnue arrfully-plolracd Kkraoa of the dam. or romt mm 3-fic a d mpkirrratd rruniphtions roch as would how up d r d p#trtnr in the iaoernnl strwmc of wwdr ud in rqmw to r pmcuh rhrory regarding the er*peolgc~mndthcrc*rm~omcthea~ rboruiupauikcontentor ~~. it isdl~easytoplugawa~at machining mar ud m m dam in w y -em1 wars. with no ding principle hr Acetion and intrrptation. Our abilitin w pro#rr dlei bv mashim miay frequtntly far outrun our pla~inp and imyinadvr aphiirics. We arc Likclv ro cad up roo okn with mnv fcn of pilll~t~ that d UJ bale or d a p. rim m llitl hm no mtraingful qncaionr to ask. One of the namt dcmrndiap upcrr~ of PEientifu w#k is tbr hmiag of 4 qdm, ad the drripn of apcriments that will p-duce d l a m. We aesd ID apply rhir -titic rpprorrh m ow d y of rhc rmnuyr;p. ad e l l y in our u ~ d t rr#lpmwr. In had dia, ohc limimriaw of p*#acc ad timc oa rhe prt of tht ikgator tff#rrwlf pcludc many of the m m wmeful ocrivitia. ar n h pmcm hit asmining VPE#~UI pqmmom. klt the E O ~ ~ permitr ~ C I us so transcend thck hmmrhsand. plp~ #I any out wad11.cdukkona grad mk-

52 Chapter 7 Collateral Research: Roger Bacon ( A.D. 1214?-1292?) The mrily brief and skrtchy kew in rhir chaprr connw approach an appopriate maunmt of the remarkable hirreenrh-mmrp Jehohr whe name has so frequently ktn orrocid 6th the Veaich monumipt. As mar k strn from the dimion of Bacon's p*bk ruthhip of he manuscript in Srmon abt. [hue is no d d evidence t~thcr suppatirip or denyinp hu rautecrion with he chtwak. however idirm. NmrdPtlers. anvonc inrerated in the manurcripr. (ad. i d. mpae who mrcs h t fht bmmy af Wcrr#n chaught) shmld learn iu much as pwiblc about Friar Bacon. if only h w c fie was SO middy a man w h y of c k acquaintam. He is npmrhy appealing m hc modern reader I w w d k; if his wks wcre made more rdblef in-bt he-hu- told us: in a hrrhripht and iqenuous manner. so much ibwr him~lf in his own writings; in fm, almwr all thir is kmwn abwt him d a y aigimui in his own words. sincc hl5 muempwarin d y. if am. d o & him in stwirin~ mds. Bacon's own voluminous writinps. and the manr and varied e I i t C d diu of hb fik and wak mdc by rcholpnof the ninetenth and mmtitch cenruries. afford a wealth ni insight i,uo hose pmbkmatial relatioarhips krwm wivdaan and science. God and Nature. human vaiue and obiert~vr tuhnolcgy. which dl1 confront us day. howw art rna{~tfempc to &guise them bv r~ainp them into mndern jarcon. Boorm's lift worh have kta d&kd d analyzed in a numk of mpr studies. though I khwe tr is still la~r to sap thu. up po the no muly come ad definitive treatment has ken rteemped. Few of his mitinp have ken wadand imo my modcra Lnguye; much remains u d i d and unpublished evm in the original Latin. Bacon himself exlmbartd the prowem by rcwmkiq d re-wing his writings ova and wer again. so char ic is hard to tell which of the maq fiqmmr~ry wrkr chat survive arc copn ar rcviriw of pm of other wwkr. and which an wparare comps~rions. The ewrdemmclon of his dauim iy the Franciscan Order. and the resulting suspicion and feat on the part of later anterr. mnrribud to rhe confusion. since many ~h&n qwcd or wed his wark without darinp to mention his name. As d mnqumce of zbcrt mny 0brnvi~t5 ad Ifficulaea Bacon's m#ks arc not at1 accessible rn the modern reader. w~rh he d e mxpm of P datian into English of rhe Opvr rw I k n 1928b). khdrrly mrdk of h ' s rritinp have bccn artlad out primarily from vtrv rpccialid and narrow points of view At one -me. hirtorirnr ot have been inmeted in BncDa as part of search for ptcursors of mdcrn obfcnive e*prrimmd mrchds: at the & ermme. Carhdic pbiloqhercr and ubhs haw ewnmintd his prormunmmcna on various ncfinieof poino eonmning modid Schalordc phhqhy. Emile C k b dapire the early date of his work. provides a markably dmr. fur. ht syrnpnrheric werp1 pmaentath. ex- in clepnnt ~hodar1y F& and bolsttrtd bv n quality of knine fddabk in in thaougbaerr and dedication. A careful reading of this cajorable. humane book 1s recmnmtndad as a smning pwnt fw myom ilrrcrrrocd in Bacon. bttr writers are indebred to Charles for much of the information prnemrd in dxir wlnmcr d for much of in inttrpretntion as well. A much more recent baok by Stewart C. E m I19521 ir a h to k mmmcded unracwdlp: his approach b remarkable in in imaginative use of historical adpis and it^ atpfiw nm~poapliwl from the fw nmihble fku to ddop a rrrikiq pierum of k n. 5 prrronaliw and a h r pmpceaor am his hught. Jama Blkh Ihe nu-known Science Fiction writer pminmt in mn& with rhe Star Tr& mier) has written a verg fine fieei-1 bojppby ). bod ptimarilp on Earron's audy of Bacon. which 1 also recommend w the intctd dn. I haw ~tternpobd to &tun and rtrd mry scrims work cornrung Roper Bacon which I could find. in an effort to gain a fuller ndcnrpding of hb colrpibutiom a, kmwledgr ad his psiblr mition with the Voynich manuscript. The bibliogrrrphy appended to his mmopph. (while it crnnoc c h m k ahaurriw. and d~ na wm include all the workr I hmve examined. rinn x m appr ~ likely to k of hnle value to the d a primarily intcrmcd in the Voynich manuscript,. should provide access to m t of the major arwb on Bacon in English as well as many in other Wtl#m Ewopcan knpuager.

53 Baron spar mast. if not all, of his adult lift as a scholar ar ce~cher. He stndied and then. havtnp completed n M~ster of Atu tauphr ar the Univtrsitits of Oxfwd and Patis in h e 1230's a d 1240'1. The newlv rediscovered works on nuurpl philwophy by Arbk wcupled r CMPPI focus of idecmal ntciiemenr ar rhr rime. Aridc's work had ken pmrrwd nmonp WhPmmdans along with atm wrwm of Greek ituaiap. fik dwy were faptm bv a Europe immmcd In the hbariwn of tlx Dark A p a d the haluirm of Ihc d v Church; mmkd into Latin and.rrompmird bv r wealth of eommear~ty br Moharnmsdon md Jewish philocophm. tbrw new wtllsprinps of earlv Gruk riem b m ~ hk t in imeumuoi rduwm in thirrecnrh-rmturg Europe. The task of anempang to mive the basic diffmmcs heen the phllwophy of Ari~torIe and bts ppn comrntntam. on Ihe one hand. and the anti-in~llectui~l. da--ldly vicrvpoint of the Church Fathm hminp an intcpl pan of Christian docuine. on the ahcr hand. -pied Ibe anemion ud straid the m u m of &irrccnrh-cmuq thinkers. BPmn mas mat d ~IC ftrt ddm mpnk d lacrurinp on thc newly-mcricd Atinolriian Natural Philwrrphr and Arab mrnmrpurin. Ht wss dmrly ruck. and must haw cnpvsd hu pus ar the Unimsiits. A voluminous monuxripr. appardy repre~ntinp a dmt't'lomp-rum couecwm of nam or uansuip of Bacon's hrrs on various ~0th of Arutatk. covainp -1 m. hu ken edirnd bv Saek IB~con Another rnanumip. a h dtjpibed bv Stuk (1933). re- noas bv a student in ah. much mm demeawv courses on peommr. arithmetic. and similar mpir i piwn bv Bacon., a Ar ~wnc poinr in his Univcriw studies, Bacon suddcnh ~rms to haw chanvd the cause of his thinkmp; rurn~nr mar from the p.omirinp ad rather ~urmsful am he had k n making fw himdf as a uacher. he apparmtlr- twk aft un 4 CW~X of Kff-study. mkiap out &re ~ h o ih n d in ohe "natural science" of rtpt dav: akhemv. aatormmr. and 4 - v. tk became pnrticuhriy pnarmpd with "aprimmm": m ipprwch to nature chat involved the collmion and m#mrtic -prism d analysis of d d s =porn on nncud phmnamcna. abnp with a ~ort of informal rrnktrinp ar trialad-arm inwrtiwon of phcaomrrrp in 0th ro u n d d rhem better. The "scid rxpaimcadis" of Ropn Bacon was rn a dl filrr wr mhn. conaolkd hbwotory expe~im~t~rioa. with its v ~ armament t of C~~U~CIIL. proeadura. and md&; -Ins. it had rhr same hdarnencal orhmfion toward the exlad, objmiw -Id. ad the same mwlvation in opm-rnided mriositp. Bacon atso began to place prcot mphorir on knowltdpt of knpuapes 0th than bun. tn partidat Greek. Hckew. Arabic. md dm oripinal lan?uapes of the Bible and the Gruk a d Arab phihophers. reracdcd bv Bacon as the mms of wisdom mealad bv Gd. Bacon wrote cxanriwip on r variccv of wpics. notably on OPfics ad the transmiion of lifit: pcopraphv: asmmornr and Psrrolopy: laupup. manahon. and Bibbl criticism; he t h m of tfie calendar and of ducation: mdcine; and alchernr. A pmincni fearwe of his vwks was an empphrj en the uriliv of am a d xkmr tar he dvorion of man and the pod gf the Church. He was. firu and forrmorr. a "rnirrion.ori&" Ihiaker. and -nth. rtimaoad the mrur~nplr~mesr of my knowisdpc without a -1 paat and fiame of &nm. For him, the mativation of drmm and Ieatninp wu to k fwd in the mission of t)# Church. He the rncthdo~id unit of h. philosophy, and religion. and war imrreurd. w a dtp unusual fa his time. in inethodolop~ u such. It is in arm in^ m ~ a dm.. thpt Blcon spoke u ofrcn and or insistently of the "Imutv" of phihqhv and scimt as of their ua'liv (h cxunpk. in an appt~tinp and charactwrstir p h q ~ d by Fdowska ( 19'11, p. 36). from h ' s Gmmsi. &-Id*. he urn be wkha to compose a rrrarire on Pmprmvc "quia k ex pulchr~w &is....", hrur it is "mare kautiful" rhon o h Kienrnl. kmr umt in tbr 1240'5 b &ci& ro jan dsr Fruteiscrn Or&. fm ~~PYIM he nertt d i m in his works. Manr rcimrifidy-orid modem wricm hvt qmdued atma tkir come d 6. which appears to mav of us. from our dirunr ( ad o h irrcliph) riqnt. to have km a faul mistake on his put. He awn ~emr to have pomn almp dl with his superiwr. and in& swnr de* of discipline or eonfinemr on at hn mo occasions Ion the nature and smerifv of rhnt pnishcnu. ur Fern 1891). In 1267, he was uktd bv Pope Clement IV ro d copes of his philowrphd writinps m Rum. ad in mpmc. prdud rhc Oplrs,Maw. O p,uiuuj. and Opvr Trrr~mz I hts thrrr bcsrkaorn works). Clrmmt's death in 1268 kd mv hop &cam might haw had of ochwiap remgntuon and support fur his ducrcion*l a d ~ntcllmual rcfarms. dhph he nppumdv mode m a 1 JubKqumt rnrmpcr to wr~tt a krlpinm ha+. or encydopedic work an human kmwkdp. h r was probablp nmr mmpkrcd. Aprin impriloncd or ~vctclr restricted bv bs Or& in he produced link further until his death in 1292 (a. mm claim. 12%). tsn of Bacon-r exmr writings and fulltr trcprmmrj of his boptapbr may be found in Charles ( 1861 ). Eosron ( and L~ttie I ).


55 .lidgicc J A Expal~s~I ~ Scilrl~e r he djfmissa Bacon PS 1 ~upersti~irn meditval monk. d btliivtr In magic. rompktelr. d e d of anr tract oi thr madm xrentik outloolr, and rhvs nor wwhr nf the anmtion of mdnn thtnktrs. OVfrik 1# krls hozt as &hlv oll the dhd rrrms he d- in his rork. Tbdike's debunklap d ktm ~cmr oo k a wm vvrp Pnd -*rig. uldollbdly in m --ern m he Pdulhon ofkmbf~eulirrmitar* ~(1921lporikrrhu#mrwmcmkr~f.irtniavooeofB.coo'spl*rciabisoon:keirw~~ll pluli~aruseprbocoa'$u~ap prrrperiw. kssd on heaa'r #reed phas fa hir unfiaidd Srripr*m kw: "In crdnuury W r +rim.mow the men of hs own tim i~ il important rn nmcmkr. ern of all. rht eomplrrr oripinalirp of his sheme. His p t work. mfinuhd ir mwr pobablr wu... wu PI distinct in kind u in form h n rhr +ah of hrs p x ~...Bscoll's~bnartir~*nraar+unpu.llrled~thrrrrianofk~;itwm U d y #r.plothqplilrcu&dbna~~rhtrimrd~...fhewbdcsy#rmofh~thwpht~~ rran.... I tmr~bt~ebrfdolkis~d~matfirrbi'~&~,ama.ieen~.kinio v*d-irrwbmraisca" (pp. MI A ra* imwuriy ram mud? h a M$I a h. M.Ipgnm Frdomb ( prnmo o h b k. m fullr d ~ c u m ad d mppd ursrmmr af Rqcr M s kbutioar to kl#pwlrdpe ud hu influmn on thr -eat of modern thmlrfit. %c provider -01 &led exam+ of Bm's apch lo empirical hence: his w n q r of thr cause of rrrnboars in rtt ruu+. tor nrmpk. &MI!. ~lpporrr a midusion that he fuliy shard rmnv of the stmmuic and Pnrimic mend habirr of & &II Ki#lrirr (Fnnkwsh pp : cf. b192sb. pp i. Thmgh thr ~i~ebrdrtr.d~~ollron~rbire#nrmadmtworhj~~dca~hrlocd~rrpor~afabrndfiiswn ~r-~~inrck#llrd.&~aunnermcr;m;ll.u~~~n~~dmbuil ~ c o ~ ~ ~ k a n C ~ 4 ~ o f ~ ~ r a d ~ n i n b a v p h m o a # o p. I t u i ~ ~ m ~ ~ t e C h l L j B S P i f f O f ~ k D e r a r p k i t ~ d d r t ~ M ~. B w a r ~ ~ medic iab,rulier kctllres I" "1 an Ariwork. and he wu &dy a rkilkd mrnrr of hi hiphlr* kd+ fmm ofanaiydcdlputuim looc%33). At tbthrvtoftheichdasic Mnhad ru an amnpmtofdaa Lcoarisanp. flpally, of qua8cionr h a Bikl ud Pamisic rrthotlties and h n G d d Arab philowphml ro that ru W1ourar6~~ad~opposi~api#npoiuabwrrr#tddinmaorkrt~m~.ddbrrd~r"dlrtion"a "rerolmioa"larmpdsp m tcrrh 8 ' ' ~1tk~.fhirmnbokh~fullp.pplirdrn~rkddam.w~1 ddbapowcrfirldofrajprir.ddiaaed~~bmodtrnrrimrifirhfitarh.iirrtaw~~tr I~h"auoboriri#"ruhab~nvl~lmnan~dicr~(thtdriond~rdrerbP1. htbrnmradtmpiridquda~. Sddwmc Mcdd as applied oo the ad k# &to be could obclrin. h#cr h ' r pnnaprl ~~ncrikrtiocl lo klw~vledp, d i n g to Frank&. indd the nature d melhoddogr uf scicicnce. Wenin$ oht prewatati&u of aber -1. wbieh she rerrprrds as one.& (mn in the ~ ut of b n. wholc viw.. d&taarhr=rrortrrmphovuae the ~lir:iau ad mpi4 d e of ha m). siu W s.mmrpiirhmenu in P&Sdlawi~ronrid#odmbuor:"Bocr#rrurbrfmmcoaridamll~h~~~tbe+ " 1 prabkmr mancud*idoad~~ocrdmoc,bwdgl~onkyd&ud ~.... ~. b t w o r t h r h W ~ ~ ~ R p a o e r a i ~ r k r n # l r r t o f wits i r o a ~ d aiau;rrfleaionrdkh 6d amwe- mkh hm. tntbttimeaf~mdr~rd..." rp. f34~.sbtd~tbu'~~td~bocffl~~~~mdb#hthomrpiririrmoth~bandt mprhcmracpl mutd of DacPm" Ip. 136). ad manrnmdr, AS haw cthcr Khdrn kfat hct. a rprrmradc hisotical uudy tu demonrtrace ad prow rhe iafiwncr d Ilop h'i mitiqs on the kna-known har rhinkrn. Until bu worb bvr b#n edited. mdatd. ad spmwiallr auditd u a wbdr. w rhrit wn mmr and rppinn rht bprltgoond~fhrrkaompow~dconormporlrv~rodeti~vr~ll~af~r~ontri~uonrnhlunrn W ~ ~ - f i ~ h a r ~ # A ~ h t r k ~ r m ~ l a ~.rho&.up rrfir# m br fibd m y in aq opa*cpimt m&.hde. Coming am w he quaeiop of Boeon's paurk rultwmhip of. or ronmetion with. tk Vopich mpawipr what. if andinp. epn we ~~ 1 fed. altbqh I wnoc mppm my rim wid^ any &fiiu cvikner. cbat bir authorship u ~ ~ ~ ~ m ~ ~. a a d y k c r u r e o f L b t ~ ~ o d d r a J k r r v a n ~ s l i B m c h e ~ r r r b c m r l r r y u ~ a i ~ o f p b t ~ p t h r b r f i f t c c a r h a ~ ~. I h ~ ~ r l s o o a e b t ~ l h r v

56 puncd horn a careful study of what IS known abut hir Iift and his writings. ~ncludinp an attempt I nrcemr~lr rapd ~ nd idquare) to srnple his own published works in the original bnn. I feel. in sum. rhat k e n was nor a man who ww1a have praduad a work such as the Vovnich manuscript. cven durinp his perid af impsonmeat or psccurion. Far Emm kin^ n rebel or iconoclast in any modan sense. Bocm was dearly a deeply. even psionady relipiour man whu ocnpced chc kiiefs of h s Church. He cha to b e a member of thr Franciscan Order. a d cfkne to rcmatn within a for the rrw of his life. in spite of ttpd hrwmmls ad duappolntmentr. Hc c h d rrpcuedlv thnt the onlv purporc of human kmwlad~ was w serve Gal. uphold the Cachdic Faith, convert unklimrr. and defea~ rhc mil power land technology!) of htichst. He was abo fasctlipml. iu we hart Ken. bv mathtmatia. methodolop. and inductive reawn. howmr inadequate the h a and lechniquer available to him may haw ken. Bacon. in shwr dots nw seem to me ro be the wrt of man to haw created a magical manuscnpr. ul ptovlnc~al in strle. slm' ambiguous and &s as the puzzle btk us. Almost all af his ruthmdc writings that have come down to us arc clear. whohly mum in dirwl k6n. quite uncompromising in their forthright and rational qunlitr. He war skilled In dtafumanrhip, md trained etrisranrr in-the mm~mmd~drawing up ohbles and diagrams. In none of h13 extanr works is tbae any indication of a rul pmml inarnt in biolo~y w hny. nithouph he praised, in paainp. the usefulness ot apriculmre ad hhadry. His medical work was n faid~ful and complm compilation of infarnation abut medicinal plants drawn from arhrr authoritia. and nat wigid with him. His approach to astrmmy. asuolgv, and alchcmv was abstract and mlnnrioaal. osimted toward mhodoloey and mtyinolog~; it provide no frame of reference wtthin which we rnlphr u&~nd tk Vgvnich manuscript's idiosyncratrc ~odhc diagrams and other drawinps decwattd wrth hale figures and srmhlic pipa. "cans." and tuh. Ir sums w me much morr Likely that rhr Voymch manuscrip a product of the sixteenth ctnrurv. prohblv related to akhcmv. ad perhaps, as s u m bv BrumbPugh. b k d to Bacon kcaurc of his rcpurarion for occult learnings, r Anr dctariu unidentified. mpariwr manuraipt war apt. in the p~rr. to k aztributed w Bacon. tspcclpuv if it conmned &pc w Plchrmy rad was pr& with bizam diagrams. I Rather than Mbing such o wak as this to a fastidious, ts~cnuallr con#mnvc,~and kvnad man wch as Roper &cam. I an hr man easily irnapine a small heretical so~icrv of Hcrmctlc dpo and iuuminni. ptrhap in Gumany or Easrcrn Ewopc. conceding t&r mange ad probibly dan-s donrincs in a s~tct b k of the kind we see in the Voynrch manuscript. I urf tfic intrmmd reader m txphe some of the works on Roptr Bacon l i d in the bbliographv at the end of this moaopph. 4, erpccidly. to rend some of Bacon's own works 4 ii onlv, the Opvr MgrJ. the d e vark aaasiblt in Ea~lishl. and thus reach his own ronciusionr.

57 Chapter 8 Collateral Research: Medieval and Renaissance Cosmology and Iconography The rrmainiry: chapters in this munograph are intended ro provide a vrrr btuad-bush rurvcv of w l o bdirrrvun~i ~ I~F~Lthat may k relevant to the problem oi the Vornich manuwipr. As m have seen in Chapter 1. ~t ~ t m prcrb~blc s In thr rvt- of manv students that the manwipt can k dared to late medieval or arlr Rmairroncc nmcs. and is of European pvcnirncr. It srrms. rhtrtfw. that mv d-dmr-shoum-.pain some undrrsrandinp uf the xlences. philrrulphvs. methods of rtprc~entation. and otk fr~nrres of rhme periods that con put into proper context the phcnrrmcn~ In rhr manujcrtpt itulf. and pcthapr piw us swne "leads" toward an inrcrp~etation of the dramnps and the purpose ~ n rnorl\jtlllrl d of the work as a whde. I urge the reader to consider the present ~ketchr tttatmmr as a mcrt apperirer, s wmpler tli,rrult verr bc:lutiful and CU~~OUJ pruducts of human an ~nd~widom chat brr surv~rrd the ~ctlnwlrsm rnd nr.glrct oi rrl~clar~.r rearnun on he one hand. and scientific ptivism un the other. 8.1 Ars Alemorrltiuu: The Art of i\femory Probably the k t and must ~entrai aitmcnt oi the Arr of Mrmorr is that of Yarer I l%(r). Much of the ppcscnsarllmn klow is mkm from thor exctlknt mdv. and I recommend he book manr reader who wishes to I~rn mure. In the Imp arcs k f pcil ~ ad ~ ppcr kame the truq and abundant comp~nkms of every scholar and bumuuat. ather means had tr) be found to orppniec a d rcmemkr the dctulr of complex presentations such as Itpl caw and pumlc speeches. Oracun. philojophcrs. la-. and untamcn of ancient Greece and Rome prided themrelvcs on rheir h~ghtv developed visual mmia. which WC~C IO cu1fivated and cmpkrd as to bc virruallv eidetic in character. An rmpwrdnr Lnrin ~trur~t In th!* rrdition fbr the Middle A p was the Ad Hewnnrrrm, anribu~td by writerr to C~rern I "Tullius" ; thl- wlrrk d e k d a m d r s-m suppdlv devised br. Simonldcr of Ccw r 55&O8 3C I. and re-carded as a \ 1ta1 part &ti thr "An of Rhetoric." itself an awntul lenturc of ancimr and medrvai tducaaon. In the memorv rvltcm ascribed m Simonida. the wator went to a qulrr. well-liphred phcc such ~s r 1~rr.e bulutnc..i fururn. w rn ofk srrucnve prwlded with a mler of distinct niches. cglumna. stairs: or other ordcrlr dtrhttectur~l Ant: -nu elements. He walked h t rhm, svsmnaucall~ rehearsinp the ideas oi his presenw~ion, and iocussinc hir attentlivn upon he suc~c~sivr wnic uniu so u to USOCLP~C with each a kev word w Sentence of hi speech, in cunjunctrt~n math somt weird. saikinp. and mlorhl visual image that wouid scrw to remind him of the ideas Iacr in their proper wqucncr Thc "mmrr imapn" wrc to k chwm from such wrrcts as Gmk and Roman mrrholopr and leped. This svsrem of "place-memwv" pavc us wr d r r n ward "rapic." from the "toplt" w "places" conrrrtunnp 1t5 nutn feature. LTht medical StPdans of the Crass which have survid into current Catholic usage tdrr pruvtde an cxamplt ni A "pl~c-mcmmv-' rymm assmad with vivid vmal imaprv). Greek and R m n orators bad oi rht capacirr oi thetr -- "artificial mmmn". and romped to pet who mum rrmcmkr the lonpar ~eries of words or ideas- well intv the hundreds Pnd chou~ods-k mesnr of such mnemonic methods. In dditian KO the Ad Hrrenaiun~. ilnorher work. ~lul bv Cimo. De Olurm. dcxrikd a similar memorr srsrem. A wwk br Qu~ntilian. dat~ng from the first century AD. prtwtdw clear dirtrzim for choo~inp Memorr "plam" and conuructing map to be atwed in rhm and orw~ia~ed with tht tdt~, one w i M to memorize. with the dvenr of Chriainniv. the Memorr Arr kame n major resource for preachers and rciipiuus educators In their spreading of the Christian Fatth. Of the w great mend~cant Orders of the Middle Apes-the Dorninlc~ns and Fnncucrns-each had 16 own Elwrcd Memosr Arr for preachcr~. The Dominicans cmplw-ed the clrrsitral 3rt as described a h. with colorful imapn drawn ttom papan mrthotopr and other brbaric iwelpn murcer rln J manner wh~ch rrirrn ~cm w w smrtlinplr ad amusinply inappropriate1 as mncmmc up for Chrirriiln teachings. The Franciscans followed a diffncnt tradir~on irutitutrd bv Ramon Lull i A.D. I235- I J flamborant and Innuvauvr.. pcr~mplirv w k life md works ur mtil worth studring fw their own tnainsic interest I sct Peer Yatcs 19% LW). and 196G pp : Rws~ r. Insotad of' usinp imager. Lull's "art" ernplored a set oi revolving circles ttr other

58 rimpie peomctric lrputn marked with lerttn of the tiphabet. which mere rnarupuialtd In a comb~natun~l filsh~un. Thc rlnn w her eicmcnts war rotatd aparnst tach other to produce all pnsime cumbn~!~onr oi the Imcrs. u-hwh ciw Id be m~dt rib u~nd for ideas such PI "God", "Evil". "Man". "rhe hl"; fat lists of aru and vlrrun; ur ior anr set tri conctpts nr ekmea~ one wtshcd m remember and meditate upon in ~qucnrr. Ldl. a'nruvc of Mqwca. was probably influenced bv the m v d Jewish adman of rhr Cabala i*cr 8.7 belaw) ad also bv rht Mohammedan m~ical philwqhr oi Sufism. Ir rr i n - ~ oo rwrc chat Lutl's combi~torist method d sy~dcalb listing and cons~derin~ all possible combinat~ons oi J fcu h elemeats is r vtrq -fui and vaidle mental d. Shorn of its dim1 and rclipious p u r it ~ suruiwr rnru modern huic and xknrr. and is d u l to mpuw ptopmmcrs. far cxampk. m armiszing wrntr in data or dmmrs ~ bj i pblm 1 I made u~ of tt fw the K- of crs-panalrtic hvpthncs in Mion 4.4.2). It a h undoubtedlr ~nsp~red r numkr ofrrvpaoptophic kvlcrr involving rmtiap dtsrr. The p m Dkkw Cmm& Dam. a d he konopraphy of medr4 cathedrals with rbcir "sermons in uune" dre tutb saikinp +midimme of thr v w c Mrmorr & rriu valud bv and famifar to cducd pcopic todar In rht Rrmirvna that rru P e t emm-.of nchly.&borofod ml~m~illc.s~sttm~. Giulio Carnillo r A.D ~ built r wdm rr~cmav "ham" mkllirhd wil &ful im~pes a d provldcd with drawers in which wriptr of spcecher ad ah ppn could k fim. urinp a "w" qrrm of mcmorr; the inwpm repramred wch things ar the planets. rhr tnbplistit "Scphiroch." mmcr of Pnplr. and orhn rnr~ical and mvrhdg~cal elements. Giordnno Bruno t A.D ) ha' enrered h Dminicon Order and studied their Mrmorv Art; kavinp the Order later a d trnhrkinc upm a C ~ as W a Hcirncrir Magus 4 which kd ultimtctiv to h~r dru)l",at the stnkt~. he continued ro k derplr inmrrrcd tn mnrmon~c~ and tauph~ his own clbor~t mnernmlc s5rm to wealth! patrons as a war of earning a living. His svstem. ro~onmud bv Yare ( pp M1 from hno's work De L'mh~ ihmm (Bruno invulvrd 4 rrmr mrmca). wheel which kd thinv min scpmenu. e~ch ~Mividcd into five smaller OM. the whole arranped un the plan clt LuUf fipum IO rhat rinps within it r m d indgndently.. fk main scpmcars of Bruno's whnl w m labelled wi& -tf.thm Roman. fwr Grrrk. and thrn Hcbrta. lmen tar d of thirty. Each of hue d k -bid with, or lubdivwkd among. qmmu for the fiw vowels w prduce combikons h. Ae. Ai. Ao. Au. Ba. Be. nc. Imps shown d i n the vpmcmr ad d a d with them on vanour rlus of the wheel repmend elemcnrs wc)l as the thirrv-six dmsns (srr 8.3 klow~. the mm pianas. mntv-eight usansions ot tk moon. plantr. birds. animals. stma. mmb. nc.. in a vast and rllmkpcinp svncf#jlr. This conecpr~on was nor ~ncendcd to mdy a mmrory h c e : r was bagwllv a srsm m pmit the oprram to amn phlosrrphrcal knmldpe toupled with the mapien1 powers of a Hermcric Drminrpc. Bruno founded a mwacal srcr in Gcrmnnr called thr "Giadanirti": that Mieh were probpblp akin to hose of the lam Rosiauclans ad Fttemwns. John Dcc was im adm~rcr of kpno.~ philmophy. which wu in mav ways similar WJ his own. Thc mnmroruc art had a Inn mapnifircnr crfit) In the wmk of Lribnr~. in his &sign of a ret of "me" t urr in a "univcrsnl calculus.'* The dicval and Rcanirrance Mcmwv Am undwbtedle hmed- rhe conaptual foundacim and prmdcnt' for rk swnr)mie ad Prtifrcaalhpwp+s which kcamt fprhio~me in Renmsancc and lam times Im An iamcniap detail concerning a lort Art of Memw attributed to Roper Bacan 15 mtlltiond k Yam I 1%- p. 2bl fnl. a d bt. Hadu pp Yam says. "'Ihat is r rumwr that Roper Bmn m an n s memoruttrrr trcarlse. but this hu not so hr brm rraerd:' Hadu rrk to r work C. 0. Reventlow t p. 41 ). which. win. quotm a still oldtr wart by Von Artrin f 1806). whkh Inrcer I haw. unhlrpnly. bctn unable KO pack d m. Rtwnrlaw s comments may br ~~mm~rirrd aa fdlm: Bacon hod written a Tnc~tu dc Am ~H~mwan'w. m k bud in a msaurmpt at Ox fad : this mmubpc. neva primed. hu not so far km d i d. Whik Bacon was nor known rr a mckr of mntmonics. he was + br Amin to have emplod a m d d bued on that of "rhc clnrricp1 ruthas" 4pmumaMr Cicao and Qwnuliin,. Wetacm ( p. g21 provides another vm tndrinp r c h ro &is lost motmoaic an of Bacon. and J "mw-1" method rmplowd bv him to teach the dements of Gmk a d Hcbrm pnmmu. Baa chimed on revaal mm&s he could t& the errmfiris of Gtnk and H e h wr rhe fim romer within &p. sufficient ro permu rhr ~tudent to rtpd and undcnrrnd fortipn wwds tn rcxipmt tam. ChPrP~feriRicallv. Bamn hacked up his claim wth he *i~ht and combative xatemmt. "Dabo crpt mcum si dcficimm" ("1 wiu fwkit mv h d if I fail"). I haw. alas. ken un*mc so far to d i m the rwm to which Wmrm refen: a wark. ulpparcdlv in prepration in 1953 bv Bcrvl SmaHet and Erelvn Jaffe. to h plblirhrd in oht Mcdiml a d Renaimnm Wan of the Warburp Institurc. whlch would exph~n the magical an of lurpuape reaching cmplowd k the MmirsWc Donor. Encvcloprdic mncmanic rvstems such as thow kribed nbwe cwutirud. in tffm. a rwr of vni-1 rodt or svnrfictir lanpu~pt. ouaiatrd with sinpk hers and clurmr of hers from n mixture of dpkkrr. and used more or I- arbitrariir to

59 represent a vnticrr oi ~ubjm camptin. ca hi^ is tk primarr source oi their relevance to our prclent task. the ~cudr ot thr Vovnich manuscript. Some such system might well underlie [fit code-like structure of words demonstrated br T iltmrn in the Vovn~rh tm. Manr of the circular diaprams in thc manuraipt. with their rows of cells in concentric circles conralnmg pcrum or lakls or bits of text. are a h IOni~ent of the diagram of Lull. QmiUo. Bruno. and others. 8.2 The Heraretic Tradition A ~t of philosophical and m~rical doctrines d p t mnnpnral richness and beautv. rhe Hermetic u-r~tinpr were t ~ i primq impnanec durinp the late Middle Ages and rhr RenaiwPnre. The kst single pmtral trrarmenr ~i rhr roptc 15. vain. bv Franm Yam 11%41. hother eoqd cl-t OWTYICW. from a lrrr s p m ~ bur r sill fair point ot'\+im. 15 that ui Shumaker ( 1972). The Hermetic writings. compwrd h wmut snonvmws Hcllcaircic authors around A.D. i rcpre#ntcd an tclmtc~amaiparn of PIPtdm StOiFism.Jearish and Wsian philosophv. and a mcain admixrurc of anoent Epypun rdigious dements. The doctrines kmmt known to the Middle Ages when a monk named Leonard0 da Pirrorta brought to Florence a Grrek monusrrip of what came w k rrlkd the 6- Hcrnr#ic~m. It war translated o the urgent mmrnand of Cwimo dr' Me&& durinp the!mr~ I46243 bv Marsilio Ficino r who was himself to brrc~mr a firure rd conridcrabie prominence throuph his mpplm-medicpl rvsrem of asdopiral images and doctrincs~. The newlr.arndaml Cow Hrmrrit~m. published in was expiorrw & its populmrin. and influence. and founded an ~nrclltrrual mrwcrnenr which was to k of ctnual impostonce in Europn thought. The Hmmca (as tht entire c o l of ~ Hermetic wriunp is calledl were amibuoed to "Hrrrnn Tr~srnqiaur:~ J lcpcndsry mneimt E~yxirn Kcr w p l [idmcical wirh the Emm pod of widom. Thoth). rtparded a recipient and chanocl of Diviiw illmination. and a conlempapry a prrdmsm of b. Fcrcufi&e ) ~ W ~ a-hat C S is mmidercd tht mau Kfiolarl~ edition and commentary oa thr Hmerita; Srott ( p~vcs an English translation. dthqh Yarcr apparently doer not consider it accurate (1964. p. 22 fa). The Hermetic Tradition provided a motivation and frame af r~frrmce for orwlogv. mapic. Plchmy, mnd dl the occuh wimrrs which held a predorninanr in8umce in Wacrrn thou~hr for mny cmwiu; ths as ic was imrrpmrd br Rcwtissu~.r thinkers. probblv nr rhc srarc fm mdern science and nehnolopv as well. The Hermetic him fnquentl? cmphsized the almost lirnidsr power oi the human mid. as prrakin~ of fht Divine Mind cr Nous. It ~ m s that the preknr all-cncompassrnp hrbr~s of modcrn xitnce m y k Poccd in prr ro an mipin in the Promcrhun dmim af Hctmaieism. reprdiap man ar ;I potent crtatlvr Dcrniurpe. capable of nandiny bdr God as co-repmr of the aaorural uniwrte. Jahn Dee. Cwneliu~ Apnppa. Cv~rdanti Bruno. Marsilio Ficino. Gimrmi Pico Dclh Mmadda. Giwpnni Baniru Pm. Tri~hmius-thcsc and manr orher figurn of hat Medieval and Renais~nct philosophy d m their inrpimtion fm the sprinps of the Hetmct~c revdarions. Whar was rhc nnturt d thee philwopfrical and mpml dortriaes. char ~aw thcm tkir porn ova the mind 01 man durine mmc of the most crcauvt cenmrin of Western hismy? Mdan ~lendfinlly.orirnrd writers like Shumaker I I972 I find ir bard m undnsmd their qpl. Ir ir amurirq w non rhu Shumakcr. in his Preface. ha&! s ~ aof h h15 shock and bmikkrment at the mthuriasm of his young srudenrs. who rush up to m question him capcrlv after il lecture un Hermctiarrn. In a highly imcjzinp per~onal canhion. he dimukr his own ndwrse reaction to the Hermetic doctrines. h~s diffirul? in cornptchcndinp the "irrluonnl'* pint of vim on rcolitv embodied in rkm. and his inab11itv to rtconcik them with the positivistic orrjtudn of modrrn 4mcc with duch he is so much m m cmformhle. So that the reader unfamiliar with thnn m y pain an idca of he impact a d hut? of thee wriunpl. I will quote two paragraphs of an cxmpc transland bv Yam ( pp ), drawn from an amount of rht crdon of the universe and of man in the Pimath (om of the books of the Cwplw H~rrakt8~11. [Tht will dgod firw hqk iwth a & mavt 7. a Nous-bmiur*. wtw, in ann lvhlomd the Sewn Gumnurr I planlrr 1 ral cavclop PhL wblt wald +I& their m.1 "Nuu rhr Nws. Frtk ofall kiw k~ne lih a d light. ktrghr hvth ;l Man ~tm~irr ub hmwlf. vhm ht lmrd as his om &Id. Fm tht Man wpl btadful. repduring tht irnmpr of his Fatha: tk it r-rs lndrml wah hlr amn Fam that Gd kll ra Iwt d pve wrr to him dl hb d r. Nm. wbm hr mu thr crwm which the Dcrnavrpr had tarh~mrd in rhe fire. Ihr Man w&d alro IV pdlm a rork. 4 ~ mhuoa to& thr rp g m him br the Fsttm. I-Iav~ap thus enrered mrar rhr drtnturu~r Iphm. tn which k tud full prm. tk Mm u w the wakr of hu kahrr. d the Gmrrmws - irll tfi bvr wrh hm. ~ nd r~ch unvt I~I h~m a prt In thnr own nrk. Thm. hvnn~ ltprncd thclr ummcr and having meid parunpum In rkr nature. hr ul~hcd MI htrul; thmuch the pmpherr drk CIK~ and to know thr pwr of Him who Aplu a b r the fire. "Thm Man. who had full pmr wcr the wink &'-I brinp and of mmals. kanr the armamre ti the ~phem. h~rlnp hnh -- thruuph thrtr end~. ad shtrd ur dw heat~ klm rht kautlful k m of Grd. Whcn Bt lp* thdt ht hid ra h~m tk ~ntxh~urr~hk kaurv and au tk mmr of ~ hc Gumnrxr. runrd to rhe twm ad God. Nuurn mild wnh 1tr.e. hw she ha urn tht ttarurts.,i that


61 A mmprrhcnrive mmpmdium of astral and sympathcdc magic. Picutrix was influential from the rifmnth renturr on In European thpht. ProbPblv of Hellcnisric and Arabic wipin. it was vanslated from Arabic inm Spanash at the urder ot' Alfonso rhe Wia. in bur did not kcome availabk in a Lttin &on until rht fifrcmrh cmturr. Ir is a rich. eclectic conplaneration of images. seals. charamrr, and innntations bad on astral and planmar). demons and thtir pcnvers. Tht name Picahjx. amding w Riner a d Philtr ( 1962). is a medial prbk of an Arabic name Buigratir. which mar In turn be derivd h t)pr Gmk "Hippomrcs." Thr work indudes hcnr. prapcra and inantattons m the planets and ~nhtt mlcuinl bwlics; charms fcr all mnnn of purpwcs [to chase owar mice and flier. prevent a swmhearf i~lm 6wtln.g pawor. find lort objm. drscover hrdden treasure. cause pople to quaml or to make up. crc.1. hlanv oi the names. charms. "rhwacms" arc r&ed to as "ldhn" ar "E~yptian"; in fatt. hicratic or himplrphic r\mbolr rho[ seem cierrlv Ecrpaan arc rccopnilrbic in same cpw. u am Egyptian ekmme in spch ~hown in R a n lmcn 4 ~e fipurc I have km unable m find. in r careful ~tudy of Rim and Plc~~r's rrarulation. ant~hinp that is di~crlrrm~lar tu Jnr diaprpm or 5~rnkl in chc Vovnrch manuhp. with one inmminp exctprion. The "asmat" w "plnnetorv" talismans in the form of ptomctric fipures made up of line scgmmrs inrmpcrsed with circles w dm rcprmtinp constellativnr are str*~ncl\ reminimnr of the odd pc~neuical fipum adorned with faces on folio 67~2. As wt will set beiow. similar ilpurrs wat common In akhernical works 3s we11 (and rnav have had a common oripin in astral mapick Solomoniea blagical Tradition. The Jewish k~srmm Jwtphur in the first centurr AD. mentioned a boak of incanradons for summoning spirits. JH-rikc: to Kinp Sdcmm. A book called ~ht "Tacammt of Solwnon" rrfas ro a ma~ic rinp gim tu Solomon bv +npcb. ~ hlcfi confewad urn him power over w h r demons (whose names and functions art listad). Mcdi~*,al writas speak of mrp~c~i M of Sdomon. a d a -rim& &fomoai~ and Si~iIIarn Sabmtoais ( KC? and Seal of Sobmwr~ are mentioned in J pamphlet mitaen in The msim tranrhd bg Mathm (1974) is rpid to dare from the fifteenth century. Thr SolomoniPn mapid udition wu he bat known of dl mcditval myical ~ y t m s S.. L. Mrepw Matherr. the uanslatrr of this and the Abramelinian mitirips as we1 ( war ma inreresting fipurc in hk own ripht: il practicinp ccrcrnun~al. - magician and htpd of the Rasiaucian Order of r k W e n Dawn at he end of the ninmcnrh entun.. The Soltmlonun srrrrm depended heavilg on Jcarlsh Cabalistic mums; it features Htbrtw characms and whet s~mbr>ls th~t ltmk much IILC WIW of t h In P~UIMX, a d uranped In similar c~rcular "KPIJ" or mapin1 diagrams. Lkc mort hrph riru~l or --wh~rr mapic. i~ involvd purifth. a devout relipiwr frnm of rehence *kine pwcr and guidance from God and frrltu onhi an&. and ebbat+ cer~rnmals WI& incense. rabn. a ~ p~ial mom w "oratory" and specul furnishings. ere. There sernlb cu k halt in this oppararus &or even rupeuu my diapram or spmhl in the Vwnlch manusmpt. The mapical books of Abrarnelin wm wandared br Mathers from r Frmch manuscript in the B~Miothcqut dt I'AwnaI datinp from the sncnrrrnth or ciphtnnrh ccrmnrrr. This. in turn. claims to have k n translnmd from an tw1pn~1 Hcbrew manuscript dated One Akabm thr Jew. hrn is supposed ro have obtained tk maptc lure trum an Egvptlnn mnpiriiln named Aka.rnelin; ttrt mapica1 svsnm prncntrd is said to bt b a d on. but no( identical n~rh. rht -- Cabala. Abraham wrotr he drrcriprion of this phi+~ for bs wnpet son. haxirip presented his elder son wtth ;i compendium of cht lofua and mare hiph1y-repardcd ~balist~c udtion. Tk Abramelinian svsttm is s~m~lnr In lrs mmonialr. ptrifimuonr. incensn. draperla. a.. as well as in ia paera1 chamff. to eht srm of Solurnon discussd briefly a h. The sen13 and charms. h-. m coruider~blv more vcrhl and ahan. and more explicirlr "Cahkstic" rn ' appcupnc+; inad of c i h and pearatla. the! consist entidy in "map~c quare" containing Roman kmrs repraentlnc Hch-sounding wads. h p lisu of demons and their hmions arc provided. ahg with detailed imtrumons br ur~np and wwkinp with t)mt dtmonic 7 s. The ptaprim of mme of the advice is remarkable. mn mrtlinp w the unsuspkana mwltrn reader coming upn thest wtitinps for the fint time. I mnm rcrin quotinp some exarnpler: "It is not nccersar~ w obmve nnv mrmonln in order 10 send PUP! the Spirits. because they thmuelw art only tw glad to k far arav from vw:' r Marhas 1975, p. 9' I. "Communicam unto rhcm Ithe evil rplrirsj also the Farm in the which?w wish them to apxppear.. -.You ought, the eym?nv kfmc ta hnvr dcmoaded his from mur Guardian Angel. who knoweth h e r than rou rrrur nature and nwtstitut~oo. ani" who understandcth the farms which can Pmie you. and those of which rau can 1uppt the stpht." tp '*Let me htrt

62 m e awn imin MI the absolute necewtv in llccult &king of knp murtcour &en 10 the Erif Spirirr: for the Oprr~tav u ht* werhrinp will spdily iay tumwlf opn to obion b! a Sparit of lik nocurt. the whwh will br~nr rhur hirtkimwdormfrll." ~p 1021 Fmr kmilbr SpitffS wac to ekh opno# ia conr~dr d a p six-how shifrr. hc eollld lend them ro aut~rr. dudr#dm~~~d~d~.hccla.bowc*n.~purlhrm"6meoif'.rhmhthsnorcnpi1w ebcm~&'~~liurpitrum~~dthcvutrbkwexcruninmorrminu~edcrsildl~ot~ M* with tkr which it to mpv zhcm: as h i.. d Wnp;. in making mrurs: clerks: -:..." (p The is an imriwibk r c ~ d h pnrhdopicll lophut#.aon obwt dl of this. which rlmrar f o r a r v l p o a ~ & t k t k k f ~ ~ ~ " ~ a t ~ ~ * ~ ~ ~ ~ Y i ~ a n d f ~ d ~ o m e L i d h a hu ora mid. la h Pht #Eepaai& rhaorr. ofmrgiceic on which prrrrat-da! mapiam hx thnr thnww ~rcioas.l.rprr.~pa*lenkiq~krhtmppd.nin~drphrof~~nmkowci~. In rpi# of rht gmt inmimic j a m by Pbis nupl wdiuoa. it m mm. unhaarrlv. to k mirum~il\- dad to t t drawtap ~ a d pwa1 ehtamm of dtc V--,manwrip: job* Dn's sfstam Qj 5pritn1I,Magic. John he. wih his "KM~" Umund Krlkr, dmvlopdd m elabaptt ma~iul opppflmr invd~i~ mvtwatium c)t. and ~ommunicadon with. or pood rptitr. Sum. as we have snn. maw wdum k l hat Dee may have hd lomc with Ihc or*a of tk mammip IS nuplej phiboophp bdd k of prumhr rekancc n, our d. Ik r r p P d e d h h ~ c m a a c * o u t ~ ~ r h u r o u l d h ~ k i m ~ ~ ~ r i t b C o d ; ~ w ~ r a m u mar* q w d m. mcllpll? umdk of a dent a d rvlririaus, ad! mdr m mplor on\. m#ar~~tnw#lthmdpmrr.hism&a~~mbubcmm.khcar~.dinaiik.~eadn~~epmpra~a, rht of d r y r ph, To what enmr Kdkp victimized and dhwd L)tc m~oc k erucd. but it bvt k n cwudcnbk.rirrad~fthr"~~war&dh,d~bf~.dethimrcifhd.orht om~.norbi~rturncrmreed~virionrbba*scrlabard~uyl*oirrs.drurpprend?~l*~~ m w. On~orhtrtund.lomt+riarrhr*t~durIkcr~SOkf9c* oolaolsd his acrcfrrv and his l. r r ~ od p b fa this r-. It is hard to irmcj-. in am ruc. how tiha of the k-tl mm -Id b.rt i u d w Ahace and nmulcrbk n system without thr kllolpin~: cwpk of* oh-. Dcr's onpl mmu arc minismat of C.bPIP. d have a moap Hdww flaw: his mrpical s m or r whok. kw. tr k8cm (1%8) to k +u dlpim ~ II my ahcr 4-knma t*klirde a Hermcdc dieioa. Ir rncludd r ~~c~d~~~,inrt6ehirr~rolrr~drcnwat~~mdpedkrlk~brra ~d~rmpbrrdan~nnnd~:phirb-drlpkpbct~~kof~mracuchonthc Vomich ma-ip. fhy wilt bt daaibrd a h p with the pnrtic# ad rircumrerae*j rcromppirq tlmr rtvclmon to OU and Kclkv. in Smon 9.4 belw. Drt'r cmnmiai~ with the Rwiauriln mo*rmtn~ his philwopfiv in vd. and the aur#c of tbt "luqlwmmlrrerip in hir rill br d i d in 8.9. For mae ~ P O Crcpardine I Dre's ~tclic =PC. #e -boa (16591.& t1%8). Ikc (I%% 1%8). kil.srmirb ( Frracb ( and Jasm 1 IWS). C.Im. M y to TWLr rrroat a dumiam medial (mtv boobofobouf 1OOO pap ~ l h ~ LB.Tba.robrr.arllWrn&&~~~Thprdiku"r.l..dr D. ~-w~.thchum#h~ofa#dieiac.rwibbd~~pohipe#noes.rrsctrboraadkgjtad~mrdnvll Ankc ruch u Halg kn Rod- R b. W y Abk ad A- Tk mdicion rvrr pfcdaminant in Europe WW a h p period of Lime, and stwived an rome krn up until quilr d g ; it matirum ra shrive. in mar a krs c o n a r k d f o r m r. i a m u E h ~ " ~ " d ~. M ~ ~ d d ~ m e d i d ~ r m y k f w d i n S ad Uokrrood (1%2). Siafer l d fa* lnrbrg~~6dodrrrpromsedbrthe~om*nbodl~~~~or"~onr*'.tochofwbkh prodorrdanorvlrtrinpprodunrmbe~~nmt&~~.ada~&uaa,kd.the"hpmorr"-bw. r e h la ruddy l bik. bik, d #depm-were dw exmro of muin wpn of dip-. The words "melancholic." "chdtric." "phlrpric." a d "ulrpuinr" whiett still &w in ow hop- a, daujbe empewneat or pudirv. arc dofrhrarmrrofttatfourhumon.

63 tht human bodv. arnprruamt. and mud. fhme were combinations of cdd. warm. wn. a d drr. Depending upn the baiaar* a- the hi hpmorr in rhr coarcieuum of r particular iddual. at war said to haw a plrticuh complexion^'. DLrur uw. oa#idinp m rhr C.Lcaic e. from a d Imb.linrr amq rbr humors md rbcir aaturd qualib-. SimikrI~.druyermrhir~~hrbrdik~~droplrh.m*atriq.radddrp.~rkhnrc dipferrdabowith d# m. lad intkcowdastianrdthr~cm;difkmt fook kh.d ahcr su-sld unpomnr di#o aa tbr brl*nec of the h u m ad heir q d b. ad WTC ronridaed lo have ehpi-c qualitiu of drei m. Tbr mwl Win ach Id r erudd influma on the arms of rhr human bods. tfk dipstiom. and all the orha them of the h a y. fhe "microcorm" w "small world" of the human body was held m reflm in miniature JII rhr rekm ad idu- at WQT~ wihn the " m w " ar uaivmr u r whde. fhr medid trwmmu mpkd bv the Gaknic phrician d curhl cgniuarc of the p6mr of the bm\enlr Ma. ad "mtad &yj" wat qbd OUL ar wkh &n -a EorJd aot somr k applied. Gthurrc kton~wcrrepppwcdwdnwdp~rsc~dntcr;rhubrrbdonrhokr~~~k~:and~nnnpr mchnehdp (black bile). R I d,war bp dw obviolu ramhod of opniq a vein d bktdiilp cht pmr ("phkbotomy"). Thus. the Gddc phgsicirn was a &Ued pnedtioncr of "rubueic ad phlebowm~", Hut and moisture were hiphlq impma in h e Gabair therapin. Heat war the principle of life: prertcsl at birth and trrlp quth. it war hw#hr m keomr prrdudl! cxhrd a d cwkd wi& odv~neinp ape. 01d ~ p indvcd e an excess dmr md d m wr rhu wum bodn ud #rdcns ot wptm nib and unpllmrr wtrt rerommedd jru the tldcrlr. Andm IoveFeipl *fa ohtbodefferrrofohlsgcwurhrmwdamofa?~uappcnonaaaimal,mbliru: krratobriauly.todptuim~ingakaie~;&ph~d.aahbdmkapraciap~~~ d. fht "medial &' nrmiasd of rrmrry-dght dip Ia numkr rbieh ralm in he diopm of the Vornich manumip), ad r)n influrace of rht mooa rm of cmriknbk imporernte &rouph ia cffm on mcllmm and the rides. Roger b, in his madieifill rrrk lboeon 19Tsr1, provldrr m mtmcly rompkc. dear. ud dcuikd twplnwrion of utrdgv u it d m d LD d w # (ad Withi-. in his prrf*cr m tht wmk. pi*n m e r pen-l summan. of Galerrir &an id h ' s dktrirm ad ~olvm M wdll. Figure 34 rhar* mlimr fcrmrrr of Gdenic medicine. in "fm~c: wmcadrhtfamrma?dj lladakthrlakfrradoatlpiapinamin~ mdu~anomiddn.r<nci in tbr rmaurrripr. ad pd~h in tbr wdi# diagram b. Tbcr mq h indd ia obt "human &re" dnm-iap as -dl: du omniprepcar pfi of orp# or b m eoold wdt rcpn#nr thc hornor a rtn diee#ioas. nc. Tmms reking rrl deprrn of dnm ward w- ad d v may c*cn k eonctlkd in rhr w of hehi folk. as ther acc frcquentl~ m & d in ancient rod medieval hcrklr u propcrria of medicinal piam. 8.6 Ars Noimma* Dcartmic r d Angelic Ndgic ~~wqpdrclrdwlyliml+rmperirl~a*lcaai~~odpic~hitb mntbd in pusln~ in manr of the wmbcid in* 8.1 h. Y- (1%6)Mbnuuamyiolrrofmrmorp.~"rkorthrad m" asvmh. adrrl[*idrduarerpmndrlcindofmyicw.t&r11w8)~oeminjijlernrab"rpirinuimp~'indble. dcuil. Thorndike f ) chmcmks An Notair u m rt knoakdp of d to rommunirrtt with God by he i d o n of snplr. tlrinp mpial durrrem a d paw: he dm dismisses all rht moltrial as "meoningiesr jumbles of diapramr and magic rvordi' dmur telling us much mow abut it. T7b, trrmtc of the Ars Noooria sent3 rn have kea etk urr of amgeli and dewmr' arm#. ud m a-p m qhit h idimiu u chamtls of illumination and porn C;od. Triehtmnu (- 1m1. Pkak. tk 0 ' a d hkurrlimian qial r~rmnr. ad J&nDcr's~proedanrllmdrhcrv).r~tdin~~mdrmonrd~Fi~33~~l w~fmmvvioluqarmr.d~32poridnwrmccxrmpl#dehr~~.rad~cm~min*okc d ~ o l t b e K b ~ ~ ~ r a r i ~ c o n n e e e e d r i t h t b e f o w ~ t b t ~ t h e r r l ~ l s p d ah cormwl tnriria. ad so mar have been ard on same of rht Vomieh nun* folior. The mpicpl Jmirh philwophp b n rs C h h lor KabbPlnh~ in Spin duriry the Mi& Apcr. A durmrhbddh~.~nuiqinspun.-mimp#~lar-d~clatforh~m. ThcCaW

64 dtpmkd hmilr m~ mnipjulon ot the lmtn of the ' br rlphak ~nd lists a d d aurds. ~td was an r-ji hrrhlr "-* and rbsrrpn in cbamrfcr. in conwa~ ao thr I&. visual quolmw of manv orhcr mlpiml nmr. Tht nimtl t*t Gad ad af am and the Heh h m s amu emplod in wan ~ronpi? uwcrting to us. day. crvplopic rechn~qum I ~nd. In fact. thr rmaipulmiwrs of he Cabala my haw inspited ar k u t mne early mpto~aphic dtvicerl. "Mapic cquares" rrrr a pwnkut fmure of the system. Ten &c e h u rolkd the "Slphitmh" were to tbt domint; thcst m m ulpposrd~o~rhtpowrswrarikuftofcmd.dwm~wnhorha~~len~mofehrum~rrrr. =..I ina r?lplerl dimlrpbkdcwrrrpaadcnm coct figure 351. The Hekr*. ktta were dl ilsocird with unrqut aumaicll rnl~cr d r Cbhsac &od clllrd "w* pcrrmaed ahmarib* 4 h.rk thr mmt nummicai t~lurs at k rubratud far ~a c f swh as rk "5cphirorh". -A& Cabalistir m did "ttmurah" in\*clhrrf *n;lrrmlmlnl: r a d wwds. MOM of fht rmpicll srsmnr uf Irm tima mode or Imst rume use of Cubah. Hcbrca. lure a d the Heken- Ianpwrt POd dpbh wm mad. W of tkir Bikal uaociation. or rrpreiplly hdy. amckn~ and mgiallr pmm- mile thr ad "hl" of the V& d p t doer nor ~ t mr ck#i? &in ro dre dm. ahact. and rmac lemocphrrrd~himpwcr#rdlht~sriadab~mrkrww&ori~~npinirromtdirnl mpirine~~~itl ~~t~whkborrnwlmofthe~~robtat~~l~bmihvidru.wt hp~c1rrnh~~r5.1 I iar Ntvbold rtgmpwd muse a CabaIirric principk iavdvinp dl mmbinaziaar of the lcmn of he Hch. rlphakr talren rwt J; J time as n prt of his duiciphammt method. This. in iuelf. q s ttr hawe bcm an inpmiws ~nd rarhtr rc;lcbbn~hlt htpthcrrr. howher mistaken it has turd 4wt UP haw km. Gem1 arveragt of Cahh mr k found in Bbu I lil.r-r.. Marhers I d Wrm I Tht mpu Of rkhrmv tur b dt& wicb br nun? wrim in mrar diffmac my. Shumnlta I ad Graubvrd I pent pood pmril nrttmcalr. md Thandike r dircurrcr &emv in pinp as he desrrikz the writings of garbs laeimr and d i d pr- Siw provida 8 awaprhvt caolq~c of akhemiml mausaip~.and racqdr romprficaavekiqdrkhrrmal lcrmradspnrbdrmry kfwad in &bm& (16321 p a trfldvjlpbk cdlbofdd mrauxriplr.praumn#tkreodcr topa oar*ceb klilyrfwtkaorprrad#*kofbrearmdi~ T h t m ~ o f J c h c m unma ~ ~ r kmrrdbork mrnr-oat~.piobmrctrmntr. It waspmikrwdrc~rhr k*ptunr. BPbvlonh Jrwr. and prtups ern m the Hindus a d Chi-. Mdimal wrirm ascrikd io origin m Hcrrner Trismcgiuur. and much of the alehemial lorr that cunc h n to he Middk Apn probably had its murcc amunr rhr Alexandrian Gmlu in the tarlr Chnrtian m. Ic was mmmiucd w Ellrope-- du Anb rorld through a tramhaon In 114 of a rvrrk etbd "BRk of Ibr Cocnporidaa of Mthy." 1- in olckmr m~ hap-lid. ooarununp mw.h ELLS hhmdr 4A.D Sounder in 1683 d Atbmdern M m in Oxfad thr h plbli mujcurn in the &rtishisler.wupcthapsd#ksrprominrmrachllrirrr6#ilrhcmr. The kine5 of &hem!: md r hd range of mchd p&~ts and nuurol phmwneno; it is &fficult id4 tu d~stauaplr iu intimate iruerm- of Gaku~~ d reti- m?#ieirm (Christian ad wprmr. m~-ddqv. -. bprmr. ooolopr.. minarlgv ad pimitivt cbemislry. b wu on rllanbmop~ mpal a reliplwr Irrrm*mrhrrnnuvwbit~a,dcdi#:ebr~~-h~mrhrddi~dinfl~. pbibrophv~~duamarraieoropcr*rionrlwrd~lrtrtbertmcm~forarrdpkbpm~:prmdakhcmr ruo&.eaulammpoo~m~ar~hchrmiql~..ndpramintml~.ofoatnc.tbe ~ p t o p d m o r m v It-. ~. indpobobihty.franarly mcrrl.v~ckiqdildettiopl#epuseddown duauph tk apcs ftom catlv m u in ch Nur E.n. -1 rlcixme. rn &c at# hd. was s ~ ~ i cdoctrine a l about he wun of rhe uaivnrt ad of msncr: an deedc rmlp of Gnarcirbm Neo-Phtwrirm. Chtisuon mvrpcri ducaim. a d pqm mrcbolgv. There wu ao bud-rad-fpst lim drawn * b mo bra& of the arc; trplcalhrpch~ileihob*jdb~pc6rrrrd~bc~lrrrnpbr& IiWqoirtoF~ILdymtk~Oft&~ I~wucunomu*hm.kpimrlrhrm~.~~oatwho~medrohDrtropiaed#meprredul~~~te~.m~a -'urn" a htir m whom k rwld pss on his wdom u hir dtuh. ElLr Arhmdt was "doppd" in his war br an dda ak-r named William Barkhou~; Arhrnok himself apprtndr mm rtonnpd du hhatmv oprracronr of practical dchmrv but mtcnted himif with rtadinp d cdhnp manurerip d rrudyinp tf# s?mbab and ~onapr of theoretical - alrhrmr. Aimat iu aldmucal writings rctt rwtiarlr coded in a hi* m e w. ddikatelv middinp and mphnrid Impuap; d m ad eiphcn wlcrc e#nmonlr em- in the muhueripa. aad exmnrr m am rhc rult.

65 In enre. [as far r5 modern rrircrs haw been able rn ~uess from the convolutd secret wrlanus rh~r haw iumt.duwn tu w) alchemy atas based on a thrwr* involving a fundamental consnruenr ot' dl nature called the "iirsr msrer'' ur 'hvic." Individual oblms e n d their characrcrisric identities bar made them whn her wat ~ m t oi d wmcthing else. through the sdditicm of "qwliues" such ns the cdd. muismre. dr- and heat of Gnlenic medicine. in order to transmucr an ob~ect into amha ohm. one mlur rtmwt the "qualities" ofom nature. prt back to the neutral "fust matter". then add ru "car on" the "qwlitics" of the desired nature (usually hm of pold). This process involved elahrate Kqucnccs oi manipulations in ohr alehemin's '*lrhatwr" rhar mipht ormpv monrhs w Fn. cmplov thc h c m of manr fttlprrr. and cansume incredible amount1 of monrr and effort. Pnctical akhernr was a feasible hobbr for onlv the richest oi men. The hbwatorr operarim included a h p list of nctjvitin which art variwslv I ad. ncedles~ to ~ v nivner~truslt.~. dthnni in the many akhcmical treatises. Ther are 'described bv arm such as cakinauon. solution. putreixuon. c+onpci~rhtmkmmarion. txaltption. and projection. The products of t h promrc~ ~ and ;heir appcaram and bchnv~orn the kbrtrrmri "glassware" w wscls wm drxnkl rn wildly metaphorical waps!a black midut was "thc raven" w --the crow-s head- : J cortorive d d was "the lim';: -ah* suhaecr were, cailcd..+'che snowv swan'.. "the rood thr tau his 611.'. "thc dmpn". ctc.). Submnm wm referred ro nl "medicine." "menrrrual fluid.'. "M." etc.. w lnklld with he ndmts ut parts of the human Mo. Maphm wm taken from hummn Icrcral life i "rnnrrinpe" or " wrddinp." "copuiatiun." "death' and "burial+'). and rciipion ("the passion of Christ." "mumction." "purification." "redernprh"~. In bct. alrnrat Any name o'aay narurai or artificial hen or promr rwld,appear as a "cwcr-word" for same Jchemiwl procrsr ur product- It is mr own opinion that the Vornich manus~ri~~~could d l be, at kast in part. an alchemical rrtaag. I ice1 th~t thrhrpthcws r~plains the Jcmcr and mi-miouk of itr fmm; the dificultr of dcciphcrtnp it or rccognrzanp its dmwnci In anr mvcntionnl herbal or asrrolopicai illumnrims of he am. a d the apptent eiurclopedtc charantr tli its rtmrenr. In ian. the only rwo drawings I have found that hvc my dose kinship in ~ v lw t mtmmt to thore in the manuscript arc tui, illusmations in Arhmok's Tbe~twm Ckitifm 8r1&na~nm f k we: a drawing of a plant. -'lunaria". on p. a d a svmbolic fcpmmtarion of an aklltmiral vation on p Both of thtse art in a proup of manuxr~pts of Ashmulr'i collection which ate idmtihcd. ah. wly as "anon-i." T hc tm. in pired Cncs of Old English verse. diicuucs herbs. Christian mystical plwirudn. amolopial mom. mc. in the a d wildlv hcrcklprncws conplomcrat~m. It is apprrenrl~ much farther rowatd the "rhnwetitpi" or philmophiml d of tk Iprrrrurn han he pracrid. The plant fipurc har manv of the odd srrbtic featurn of rht Voynich manurcript's herbal fulror: the ripidll- svrnrnrtric~l arranpemmtr of leaves a d flowers: the "molded plastic". bl~kv. or ~ulprumquc iorrns: the platiurm =ith abrupt tdca havinp a "cut out" look on which rhr plant IS sininp. v m slmihr in m.1~ to =me root forms on r k C'orn~~h manusrripr phnr folios. The aher figure has ekmmts membiifip wrme of rbwc in rh+ hliw shine nude human lipm in tubs of Irquld. A cloud-like form at,thr top. from whuh mnvenuataiized ravs cmanm. repreknts God; imrncdiac+ below. the fipure u!.i man or anpel breathes inm the mouth of a bulbous alhemid -1: hi5 brrpth IS ckarlv tndicatcd in exactlv the ajr th~r ik vaps or liquids arc shown purine hmph the elahrare "ptumbinp" on the Vovnich manuvripr fol~os. On ~ht wssrl art a sun {with a face] above and within a CFCSCMK m00n: f m mch of time. vnpm ar rrnanauons arc shown drscendlnc through the wsret. The round bottum of the -1 is provided wirh ~ v spu. m spmd mud io curved urcumicrence. sfid the vapor rmerpcj h a11 of thn* ad wickicr d m wer two nude, plump human fipurfi Iackrnp arms and holdinc hands: rhcrr fipum. while hmr drawn than the Voyich manumiv nudes. arc short-legged and "hipp~". a-ith tar rummies. in a vtry similar stvlt. Two dram ~undinp on thmr heads ad a rood cmpicfc the cornm~tion. The strlc of rhc -- men ~puts on the vcwcl is so dose to that of similar spa and vrm on the ptpr-like fwms In the manuscript as to lx almt idilrinpuizhable. and the smbolu use of convcncionmkcd forms ro mu a new ~rnthaic whole wth a nrmplex mcaninp alsa Kcrns cloreh aktn to the methods ot the Vovrvch manuscript's rcribc or scriks. While thew draa-inps art identified onlr as "anonrmou" in Ashmole's cotleaion. 1 kw drscwmd wwm hiphlr nmilar figurer In whtr works a-htrc their am d a d with the wririnpr of-flc Ilrpkv, a fifrcmth-cenrurv akhcmcrt who produced numerous treatises with J monp Cltrinian flavor (Philalethes Ripkv 1' ). Dr Rda ( fipure 64 i shows a fipurc similar ro tht J C C h~ b e d abwc. cirinp its source as Oe Emmibrrr. k John Dastin! Bririrh Museum. Eprrton 843. folio 17v I. In car- it mms likdv that a m p h examirwirrn of alrhcal manuscripts and their illusuatronr m~phr rmplr rcpar the cffom ofanr nudmr who could pain access to thcm. 8.9 Tbe Rosicrucian AIovementandjobn Dee Whiic Dr. John Dee has nlttadr. k n mentioned quite fttqucndy in this monopraph.!r remains to provide r iulltr discussion of hir rhouyht. his writinp. a d his connection wirh the Rwicrucian mowmenr. a tradit~on which

66 mar. iwlf. hve ~omt h n p on tk Vovrucfi manrucripr. k c arc a numkr of + annnmtr of John h ' s lift md thwgk aarbb Ikreon (1W). Fell-Smrrh (1904). ad Frcd~ 11972). Yam (1972) cwtn rht udr hicrudan mmemnu~~ly.padderer.p#bkin~-d#'sprivr~t~tdct t842)dabtod~km~nurrripr T k U ' ' ~ l a c l # n. ~ i a t k W r q k d ~ y h t b i l y r i d t - n a C i a e ~ i n hellropurcmmkwamf ra~loliknli#~dphiksopbidhnlrinp:iteombidtherirh herity of H d rndidan with C- m w m ad a rdmixaut of *Lchrmr. Gbrl.. ~ p c d. medicine. tkr Ibshcilnr m e finrtidly wmtivt. The o u d af ~ phe ~ onpal ~ "maniknots" (rht Fam a d rhtgafe~.b#hrrpraduadinwnsh#miayam 1972) a n w ~ ~ ~ r. ' l? l t v ~ r n k v c f o u o d r d a "braha~'dappual~inviorpmdhercrw,d~mpoon~pwofrwld-krrcroirrmpcrin&~i~h~ SDPoden~aoh*eh~damialrt#eivrd.o~~~.irhwphetmrmrlrhp~bCIll~vrllrmmtAcl0lpcpdrairida~ tbrm). ftre~dpeoian.klhope.d.ickmy.m.ww.rly~clwdt~~a c o m d o t s d p # d ~ r a d ~ y. T o o b e, ~ o ~ ~ ~ i a ~ e h c m ~. t f K ~ n r d d p d m c r rpmbotisindmd torbepraniarru&bcrrecn~~d~~w~niwduopadfrtdcriekvreknor Phuw of eht Rhne. and murid to Prinrrrr Eluakth. &ughler of Jam# I of Enpld) and che rcrcrio~r!. Catholic hauc of H8khrq. fkcot q&-potitid s~mw rids rejim a d m*#d ovcr#lm id- the bbhrp ~ l t the. Palatine li. tk md raw, imp dad m the " Oh d tbt Grtttr." ad ST& oh from a aha w dmc III John buweurhh&&mfdrt 15M IW1. j a h a ~ c t. w a a d i ~ ~ ~ - " ~ ~ ~. ~ t b r t d n a h & t up to h vlth ~dc*d0pmcacr.drt6rhkrhvrlrer#b~di~dir#rroar"i1972p.icii1.~-~rht~ w- lhr dcspikr Dct's u 6pikrr: "la du kra &mend world k sdkd wtdxr u nehndgy rad rpplied -... ~net~ddrorld.birrtlld~dnumkrrtrrdrosdm~d~~.dinhir lldoaar HicroglrpUce he klimd fk hd duewend a hula fa r cumbid mbaltn. Jehcmiml d mt)lem.rimi scimcc whlch woumrmbkiu~mmovrilpad~~lokobbeiqfrom~low~roehrhiphrn~.andinjk, ~p~rcricjtiilsphm:dnbdkvsd~khd~tht#attd~~~byaom~ranporr~in&t~~bpth1 &rim" Dce'sinflucaaw8sarrkdlot&Ellrope*n~wkekwdtrrmnirt*iricrh 1583m.Hewu.accordiryc ~Y~~reeirtiardrriappprwrmacmglrrLCcaenlElucpc.~hirdtbrrrbubemmUkrJPborqhlr rh=hlifrtnenldmd. Itd#cmt&t h r u ~ h u o f. n i n a t k a u r l ~ i n naoalr ~ a. in&hv. but~~~pro~srrs#mmwcrr#nr.rtaer#~dwhi~huwr~bemin~drxpbliaedmlv.monofthrmnrs dikuokd in Yam' mament ef af a d rhe M a w pb&r tmk ploct a h ehe Vgnich mnuwtipr was dread? In exhncc. It smm ro mr Likely; howlever. that chat ir sme lciarhip bcrwrm dae phihaphv undrrljinp the manuscrip rlld eht Iloribn mdiwa. Bsrr~y of rhe L#lra d t h of thr mna~rrri~ with ilddph's oowr ad psaiblv a h ~~~Drr.drheabriollr~ofiO~~r~m~dt)wIbueru~a~rsdcn &r affd rn i v mr of tbis h*hh erl. Ahidwadrharldknidc~th"bin%trpbiE --wbicbdcerrr~mhrehdinhir ~.dwtriehwmeyianh.rtikmiw.rkbdnvqniehd~f&brrirpeaia 16f'SkSirftromar Braarncto~uAttrmde.*ad~~wordrofArrhorDa.J&Dcr's~.eoaasaiy~mrrrcriouJmnurcrrptrS vd br Fa-Smirh (1904) U C d k "fhe plrrrm- (m#dd] *nr d b8 powder drq hd. whr~h wa found in romc dd pim. *ad a k k lyinp by it eonuimg aorking hit hiuoglvpkh: wtrieh W his I~rthur'l) fuhcr bcslpmd much dmc up. but I mukl m h ttror bt awld mrk, u m ~" (p 311). Arthur Dc*. born was Amrbcr~~~MSmkhpmbrbly~rht~dtkt~radt&pordtr:"Kclkpirtcpudra " ' I~dtwo~aphiPfrconcrioinp &m~dradrvtri#pmder."('s~pvporcia#ckrn~oler out lunda m urumed rlpm ar fint) was rn pin ins e n =, a d probtbly his nmewy kcking. m ra atternpc lo puzzle our he meaninp of rhe murpreripr and m w the p k r s m moke pm. Dre-s diy. u did Hdimll (Dee 1842) pidn no ftvthcr ik60n glnarairq the mnuscnp ar dw powder. ~~framthrttmpinda;d~iscrmpdocr.~,rmaiu


68 Still, he new system made mr headwar from 1275 on. It ir interesunp to nort thnt the common folk of Sgwrhern Eumpan nations like Gummv rarek 4 Arabic numerals &re the sixteenth centur!. The invention of chap ppcr. lead peacik. and mod- me- of mulriplif~rion and &virion did mr come abut until quirt rectndr: these m e the dmhpcatr that. armding to a d kpinrki. redly made cht arw "alporism" amactive a d practical for ~ rvdav an. &kt k time. the Arabic numerats wwe primarily on Eoiru. for numkring the papa of manuxrrpn. and fw drrw. T)#r ohaa found inmminpkd in hawre ways wirh Roman numerals: c.p.. " IVOjj".for " 1501": "~ccc~5om' fa "1450"; and "M.CCCC.8iim' for " IP the early and troolitiwi ph- of their adwon. the ~~~mmd.s "riphers" arcrr rtpotdtd pr inmmprehmrible, mpttrious. strange, and well-suiwd for use as crrpt~c svmbalr tn ~mct writ in^ rrmns. Thr dothinp of mmc of &c human figures on dx pap of the Voynich manuscript hid afbd us $om clut as ro thr dmtt Pod vnicim of the wwk. Uaforrurutel j. the drawinp is w skcrchy. and the fipm are m small and Lacking tn dctpii. that there is dkp~nriaply Jidc tc on. A wide vmet? d hats and be-r arc in evidence. mvn on figures &mire mritclv audc: thee include a rrrw of d~rdcms. tiaras and mnr as well as widt.brimmed ha. tloppr urn-nha-. and hats provided wtrh ribbons. veil;. or plumes faulng o w the weam'sshouldtr w back. Dm% of wnmen and prrh~ps also mm incldn a mrr of rok wirh wide s h (see Virpo and one of the Gemini twins. figure It).. Vm mmon is a kind of knee-length. #cad runic kid at the wak r ~ Sagihus. e figure 101. Caumts of this npc mnmn during the frmmenrh. fifmmh, rixteu~d~ mturicr hrwphwt Europe. There seem to bt no exampk ut' cmcmc stvlm: the dl conical hprs or m o - h d headgear for women; ttk tra~radtpuffed pnsbns and hu,~r ruffhd cokr for men in ~ l ofm c abut 1550; or the curly-eord S ~ very A short tunics over skin-riphr pants w~th d p i m chat ~ wen the height of fashion somewhat earlier. The garmenu rhowa h-r sketchlv. on the Vovnrch wept folios Kern quia simple and mcrpind oo the whole, ad vide rrlariv*lv little decisive infwrmtion. Thw m to me. from an dmittedly supafilial d y, to bt mipant with a dm knctn 1450 a d 15'10 Isrt Von Bochn 1964 Iw a dl-illusmd mrunmt of axtecnrh-antutr amurnel. bmc tvplcal hat and drnr fwms from the Vovnich manuscrtpr art ~ Win fiprcs I 10 and 37.

69 Chapter 9 Collareral Research: Artificial and Secret Languages Ltt medievat and Renais~ncc philosophr rncludtd vi~orws intererr in srn?hct~c lilnpups of mdnr kinds: t k t wrrr uariwrlr inded for concealment oi scrrcts. txprmion of mysrical relipious idear. abkviad ~nd cr1rnpt-t rrlnwrlptlnn or mt. interliapurrl communiuuon. and an rncvclopedic mnemonic reprcrenration of human knowledp. As has bnn the ids throuphout cht~ chqcrr on colbtcral research. I can pmcnr hat only he barest suppertion ofthe material available to tht ~ntemtcd dcr. 9.1 Bracbygrapby: The History of Sbortbund The dncicnr Grctb tmploved a srsrcm at' abhtviationr called Tironian Hand w St~tanon. mibed to bl~rcus TuHlu. Tirn in the first ~rntutr More Christ rue R m I874.cAllm Bogc t95ir. Seu-bold dtten~ptcd (11 use tarlr Grcrl, ~bbrru~~rionr in his drriphmmr rncrhod, rr rue mw in Chapter 5. Manv lam svstems of abbm.t;ltlr,ns in R~> ~flri meditvnl time Wac inspired h. or bad on. this early Gmk %%.stern. Figure 38 shows an intcrcstinp examplt 4 i mcdn\~i ~ hhand s!rrrm &rid from the Greek rnechob: irr mkcs are made up of prrs of rht ltrurs "a" rhtuugh "k" ~nd e;lrlt forms of the Hindu-Ar&c numb. This svrtcm, colkd "Noraria Arirtwtlis" b~ its author. an English monk cli the thlrtmth ctnturv. is of inrrrcst &cause ef the rmblnncc of some of iu symhls to the Vornich characters ~probiiblr. In rnr opinion. due to che daivion dbwh from mrlr numtrni fkmrj. T h symbols aaed as bases. ro which du~. lines. ctc.. were ddrd to form words. Rop*r ken wru repred h Jdmn ( 1%0. p. 311 to have btcn familrat with the f :ranian Nmrim. which hr called "arr nmtorin". Cappclli (1949) provides a {ummarr- of the histurr of Loua abbrtviatim svxems and heir develupmenr itum C ~ S S ~ L J ~ into mcd~rval times. The b n mhem made use of m a 1 devices: single lmtrs could stand tor entire words or s~lli~bltl. words cnuld also h truncated or cunrrad. usuallr beinp provided with a mark ur srmbol showing thtr Jornethlnp h ~d been clmitred r a mi1 or CW~ICU~ extmdinp upward w downward. o line or curve a h certain Imrrs. J shnr lint. etc.r. Ficurt 1 ' shuwr some Lorin abbreviations used in the Middlc Apcs tho1 memble chncrcrs of the Vovnich scrlpr. Ammy renerd1 ~xks dcalinp with he hinorr of shmhnnd and coverin$ the carlies1 srrternr are Giulimi 1 1 W8 1 rnd J~hnen I 1 i)411. AIston ( 1866 provider a bibilopphr of warb on the subject. Morr earfr Europcln or Enplish horrhand $Ferns I have erarn~nd arc hpned around simple lines and curves. rt1 rhtrh dots. dashes. circles. hooks. etc.. are attachd at various pitions tu fwm compound svmbo15 standing ior whdc words. Xlurr uf [hue earl* srstems were nor "phonetic." i.e.. rher mode little w no ammpt m show the loud oaf wwd~ idepdentlr sklline convenrionr as modern svstems do. in fact. the early srs- rended more mward an idcopaphlr or wrnbolrc, repmcntation of idear. although alphabetar ekmrna were also involrd. All of tht srrrem were cxmmeiv elaborate. rcquirinp the memorization of vast arravs of arbiuan. s~rnbds ehar w m d~tficulto write accuratelv and quicklv: the mdern.- rcadrr ran onlr wonder how anpmu eve~ manad ro htn or m t m k their t a r numks ~ of ruk ad forms. or ro recurd the tins don and h d 5 with suff~cicnt prmion to permit dis~inpuishinp them Inm In ammpring to reild back what rhev hi! winen. Thm mcthcds mrninlr seem to have rquired far morc ehr than ordinarr writine. Dutfiic ( pmvids an inmestin# cornpariron of chm major snttnu In autenrt durinr: Elizabethan tlmn. Ar least one of them mar haw been cmpioved to r ~ wwme d of the tao dsfiakespre's phvs duriw amal pcriormanccr. so chcr muu have h n uslble to somt extent. 1 *rill rumrnatitr bclow, in hiphlv abbeviad form. Duthic'r pmmtatton; the thret svncms seem rvpical af the merhodr avaiiable in tk sincmth and earl! wmtnnth centuner. Their authors lnttndcd them. awartntlr. not strnpiv for rranscrlptton ofspccch u m&n symmr m emplod. but also for rapid and rondcn~d writroc. ;IS a con~e~lmmr method. and as a son of elegant. philwphieal dcdrcprmnrtnp "ideas". Figure 38 shows the basic nroke~ and tfie subsidiarr demmrs to k &td to each in Bright's srsrem. Each cjirhe el~hreto base s~rnbols consisted of a vertical line with a d~rt~npui~h~np hook, curiicue. err.. on its top: these srmboi, could be -rrtrm

70 in four different pwirimr ivtrt~cai. horizontal. slanted left. slanted r~phtr. In addit~on, rn rhc twtt ot' N S base ~ ~rrnbrtl one t*t rwrlve addiuonal squipple~ could bt added. making 8b.T comb~ncd ~vrnhls fa use to represent cornmttn wtxd~: these utrt called "charoctcfa11 wordr". Orb words not in thir brc Iin were expccucd br "aw~ar~np" rhm AS smnonrms iw anrmyms to a "chnromrai1 word". and prcfixinp ro it the firw.kacr basc s~rnhl of the muill wad. ru urve as A wrt ut determinant twc the exarnpb in Cpurc 381. Ai Duthie mwb. thts sqlrrrn was primitive d cumkrsomc. placing A great burden on tht memr of its user. and producinp Forms whrch were wrr. casu m parbk and confuse. &lo' r m em$m.d dinnrr Roman lmrrr in combinarion rirh dm. rummas. and rccrntr irullrmvelr c~1l.j ht Balm '*ct&'). which M-tci k *rrr cartfuli~ and accuratcl~ placed around the 1-5 to avoid uonluargn. Tht combimrio~ of and "titrles" produd rqmbds for a k c list of common wads a5 in Briphr'~ srm. and s~mikrlr. smonvms and antmvrns werr shown bv luinp the kc-wrd syrnbot with an rxaa stroke on the right or kft. f his shrwthand athod rquid t k mmw~rinp of over 500 dikm scrnbds: pmt -hion in the pl~rrmmt of tht "tinles" WAS mandamrv in order to avmd parmcr. It dms not ~ r to m have been any mwe practical dun Brrphr-s srrtcm. Durhit finds 5 cnopraphic the k r of he three. and considers ir tu krhe fcrua&tion oi modern shurrhvnd rvstem, Freurt 38 shows rhr rwtnw-six hic srrokez. called "uncfungcabk pretclcr*': thew amr v l r phoner~c. and "iknt" aert Iarpdy rupprd in mirinp words. A ci~k added m the fam of a smoke pfwidcd an "h" sound. a d dou rrrrnptd In fire clockm~r poririons mund the k c d r sad for vowels. Abkiad form of wards wcrc built up br. cornknin!: I ~ K rlenrmn In r manner mmmhat like rnodcrn muhods. Willis' rvrtcm is. in fm. wr! much hkc the lam Pinman srmm I which mav we11 haw bmr k i d from it). Dudie judger Stmopraphie could haw ken cmployd tu rtcord sloa. C~W~UI speech in condensed form. but nor fw rapd verktim rcporr~np. It is incwdn~ ro mtc that Willis cd1d his srrrcm "kpnoptophie" as well as SampphPt. and cumded it appropriate for condmenr of scum. In summrv. I! vcms unlikdy chat my of 1- svnems or others rtlamd m them arc clwclr alun to the Vynich smrpr. The oniv element amp the Voynich svrnbh thpt btus anv -~MPI& ro tht h, dashes. b k ~ and, t~nles- ot' the earh shrrnhand mnhds is rhr hoak or mtiicue that frcqumtlv over the '-double-c" charmer '--- a) torm "&"- Thm stmu to k no visible rcrucrurc of auxiliary marks added to a murrmr set of buk svrnbt~ls. It Kern3 crlnudtrablv m m reour~fflt. in mv opinion. co Id fw mlati.rionrhtps ktwecn the Voxnich characras mnd mcdietal Lrrn abbrtyiatiunr. w~rh some e~flr numeral form ( ~t Srction and fipurer Steganopzphy- Tbt Early Histmy of Cryptology Thm art records of ciphm in rncik Egyp rod Rome: subu~cuuun ciphers of various kids. some emploving invcnted alphaktr or promemcat symbds. mt known froen thr arly Middlr Apa. Roger Bacon was peadv inmesad In Kcm witinp. and much hps k made (h would-k hphcrsr of the Vmeh mnnumipci of Bacon's statemmu an this topic in hn Eplsh de S~CIC~~J Opmbw A& ar Nu&me. He mcmmcnds. fw rhc cormplmtnt of peat and pwmt smw. and tn prevent t h from kin^ abuud bv the common htrd of mankid. dac use of fhc iollowq 1 1 cfrprncrcr~ and vcrw tor "incanmiam"): 21 fabks ad mipmas: 3) king out Imas. trpeclallr vow& (as the Hebrews. Chrldnnr, and Arab do w make lhcir rn hard- to red! k; 4 1 mixin8 k s of diffmmt kids I as. for wmple. the Pwronomer Ehrur hid his knowlsdpc bv a rninlsrr of Hebrew. Grlr. and bun ktrcrsr; 5) ernplo!~ h s "swanpe to OM'S own crtlnvr": 6, maanp characters frmn one's own uaspinarh (this k t king. according to Bacon. on epeciallt p d method. u d bv Amphius in hrr i3d uf tbc Srmrs ofkmn); 7) uriap m i c fipura comkned with dots and sipnr l d of alphrbctrc churclm: arui finally 8) the "nomy an." whuh -a lfioupht was the k t method of all: the art of rvraiap "as heflr and t~pdlv as or# dmra." Bpcon claimed to bvr lrwd wmt. at least. of these methods in his own mino ps. This high1v ~nmnrinp and ratha compktc rompdim of mriv aypcopraphic &vim from che potent pen of the Docrw Mirabil~s has undcrltldably inrpifcd many uudrnts of the Vqnich maurcripr to seek m e or a11 of rhm techniques in la paps. and w ~e in it a ~ lof b t ' 5 practice of his own mwnmmdnriom A esnridrrab4e litcramrc cxisu. hliryt wth cipks amibured m Barn in akhrmim1 waks (Him : S d e 19a. 192Sb: Manlv An. annpm. in whim Bacon is suppod ro have hdm a formula for pwrpouda, u aplicated variouslr br -me. bur

71 debunked br otks twho dismiu it as a+superrdwus mk abwt a rpiit willow branch rhat rna,~icallr tpi~ rwli. or a5 J adus m~rr#dinp k an tuly sdrm of a w- in a rmnusmipt~. A~of~rr?poopnphirmrrbobucaffaibod~ochere~rl~rrirm;Roman~rY~~~~I%O.~ 1%11- Ttkhrmiru P ~ t u 1'163) d Arbrauiur Kirrkrr (Kir Wrektn I9481 am rllendirsd.rirh~rkich#t~~6#mrofcipbardeoderadbtd.rrrwh.~dccwuinmrr#dim ~. d d e l u r o f n m b i s a D i r r i c n r ~ h n m r l ~. E ~ o f E ~. ~ t o D c P c m ~ 1 % 8 ) Man! crrlv rr~rcmr invdd sub& ciphers. ltliq i n d or d i d chumm. pemmnc fipum. numerals. rlhcmierl and rumlapiul wmbdr. h n ahbmiatim. ctc.. in hybrid mn~lomerations. There we. in rddition. umr mmt sophhimtcd acbnqm. b of appucnrlv in- wads all mrtiap with r pvca lmcr could h wed ar altctmrr fm LhPr kam. ~o rhir an inmxwwappnq d y of fivr h n wads rmphr conceal a her-lrtm ~ d e h # n n # d ~ m ~ ~. ~ r o c b k r ~ r c a p y d ~ " c a d c ~ ' ~ r o n u ~ q r C P ropdr~firde-pprordr.~duydsuddcldoar.~rdi~~&ac.~durr~orurtif~~ mnnr fw coaajiaf rimplt in lccmr I=: br w. T-ru pp. 48ff.l. Ranmi Lulls ruuaq Ab. Ac..... Az. Ba. Bb. =.I which 6pm h o d wkh Wcwld beem- ropmd~crdiprapb (A. mld k mrde w rtlad 6#.v#& or eaacepl. A number of d y m a p h c symm rmploytd Elm =huh with ant fixed and onc mating alphakt (e.p.. Alkni, in che lace hftnnrh eenturq. and Silvrrter and Pwta in the sinccnth; wr Silrmcr p- 7; Pwtn pp ; and MWr iw2. 1%). Anrldm d r -Id a mesa# aidin a much bnfcr "dummr" mrt k wrme rule rad upmn b r ~ ~ ~ o i r o. - r h * b r s c ~ m ' m ~ D i C r r m i r a ~ k. m e d n l r r k ~ c l s f a h ~ d i n c bncfnwsmpinh war. Atdrredconoellmtnrs~cmpb&~a#~raorchrrr kmrsinvrriousmbinaetms.~~ ' Ihr~a~of~rppvcadtderartirraraidedb t d and -5. inr h. unkr~.atcmbnddcdm~krarrd~mahar.rbdily.crr.).tt#t~pocouldkmdeomndhiemr~ of a bp a uuiq of#rnnncioar; fw empk. in a ditml q~#m ) descrikd btr Tmhmriur (AD. rbwt 1500, a rct of pups MA, MB. M C. ABA. ABB. ABC...., CCA CCB. CCC could prwde m enn-m values for rhr kntrr of the rlphrbn and a Irw additional chvytm. T k rwmtpmnn d i s t i h cuald be ~ t c mare d M v by mv the mm of dame rhinltr. amqed in dl uluqw c o m b i h I rhrcc d i h fonrr. lmlr of dtrkntu an pianq. crc.1. Tb bmolu dpba of frpnrir Bmam r abw~ is ofhis w. diffmnp fmn Tdwmins' srscem udr rn rht itorrdpouproffi*cdemm. ehoim.aadempco*ad mmemphmrucd means t i wfhtdkimimsinacwmm An impmaw of mcrhok exhibidnp a smpisimg depn of campkrirr ad Winicoum. were In ruc at an nrlv d.# in the lmia d h Prprl mtm and chr mum of Iulun Rims. A numb of there srwcms art dcsaibsd in Meism ( ). Pnsini [ i873). SKeo ( 1947). and hlkrri i 1568). Mcistcr I provides r detail&- history of mrly Idin ciphn. rhe dies dnriryt to 1226 h rhe Vmctian Repubtic and others from manr Italian cit~ts ' durinp dx m t h ad the 6lamrh ea-. Meism r 1906) mas w rhe rrnr 1326 or I327 the r~rlirrt example of A *~dr"a#nmelrorw."~lydadtiscofrode~aspllrbksdingfor~ond~rmmmlr ia UlPKh Q h e I"Pap". "W."B. hadfit phrucr. p k m. km.).meiroerdnerikss~mmkrof~eompla.adhaad~in~i#p.pol~dur~nc tk folvmnrh and fifo#mb ctnatrin. Thnr an+d mrht ddmoa ckmracr (mon~ rltrrmivc cipk elmtern d a p fa the mmr piohucxr ehcml. oftea dnwn ftan f&l. mn.w i d dphrkrr. Many such snrcms dm made use of "nullr" (a li% of dtrrnrtivt dummy rymbob having no mtlning in thtmrtks but thrown in to pad out the mct. cor~cd ms. d furrher a~nftisr + would-h dcciphml. All rbclc dmim could be miplod in conccrr: 3 " ~ o o t. " a prrmitirt d l dc. P)w an &barnu s- of monoprwphk. digraphic. Pnd uipraphic vnriantr. with a wicd stt of null PI wcd. F i i 39 s h i sampling 06- d v fdaa -phic svsmu. Df prninju ia- k o f of ~ h rrbri- svlp &a u a qfftm dezaikd by Jllrob Sil ). This rvrrrrn was buedmatrind~:rrodtcdadni~d~noawnlswulprirdmrhtdumarofnrdron~plpcd~r dirrioauv. Arma~.m~&Qdmphmr.amd~innndomordcr~M.DC. BN.rtr.l d b ud i d of. a M a d wirh. rbc Bormn altmarlr rhe rol~lcna. Widin ndr column. thr individual *rordr. arranged in rouphl? alphrkrierl order. were indicated bv Atrbk numernlr. Latin endines w m shown br sinpie kr;m ar djprpphj. The alphakt trnployd ir made up of i n r d and foreign spmkb of p a t varim. Nulls drown from a hp sm of ciwlec~ conld k ~~luered duwph the rtn. Fiiure 40 shows a sketch of the mrin feature of Siivt#*r's swum. - a d c#a ham =mpk of trxt cariphmd in it. UnCrmudg. S b ' s W don mr pron& cnouph hi1 rrp~rdinp the

72 diuimwr w ah upcm of he srrrrcm ta suppon a can+ in&- oi itr &timuhip to the phtrwlmcru oi ttw Vmaich axc. na don it provde anr loap rompla of cncipbtrrd pera that k studied seui#lmlh. fbt rr*der aho rbt ~mofks off ihia erracnnifi~ cht "bq-middk-cnd-cnd-cnd rormm of yotds fin tk V-kh ten. ad the romrncda of Tihn ad Friedmnn rrpudiq univrnrl *ad s- Ira~uppts. will recopue the plibihuts of du eulv code system in acmuruinp for the pkamcm dwy Cud in mind 4src a h SKdons and 6.6 lbwe.udu9.3rdrht~x~~.fidrma.edtihmra~~~mprtorrorrtkhrrrorvui s ~ ~ h r k m a d l e t ~ r e u l * t o b r with tbr Vwukh -msaip I i.t.. bdat k ism~opioim1hu1brerriion~darh~~cloadbalk~k~~~mrrar:6m.~rsrlt mpopophic 16 d d. in ck mcdimi ad Renriurm Am Memwwiva. Yam 11%. p mmur tht wark of Ftonds Bicoc. -us. BiserM. Dtlpmo. md Wilkinr d i d #rwrrd thr mpmmt of a -'real chrmtr ' li-t.. a r m of rips Iike Chinee &ormen. sup+ to k "&mlvm' ehwd ta heir refem rr are ideographs ru hirroplrphr. urdiakpcndtatofihtrpllinpor#wnddd).shr~hlradcrtririnp bck ~ ofopdawn a m m tvk endid#l d-..rr..-.the d.of w w 01- u h or oljplrab Silvtr~aEollld~LOtmIbrbrJirdrheVorniebmt1tiri~rneoa~~~of~'srralrin~~orh M--.d.rad 161&h~phedbv.d&d~~bstnm&~~dJohaI)be(Shh 1v6. p Pusigrapby: U~iwtsd r ad Symtbtric Lag~ages,? At rk urn durrnp he lut Middle hper and arir kaahnct when brin was w hap funa~lninp ar a Liqu~ Ftaw ior kuaad her1101 c~mmwim60a a d rbr v a d hquppc~ wac kfl~iap to be cmpkwd nm# ad me. rrum ~ b m k ~ ~ ~ a ~ m f i l l O & d j w ~ ~ d h l c l u e p. & d r r ~ m e n m r p.&whrchamercb.ntrm~#lor#.r#rrhrapncnrrnfiomtbckhd.rridops+rrmudur~rmdr rmpb?.edideqprpiudefunatn~cooldsuadcwideuurhd#i.phtrhn~~~~~lundrddr chrollph m alphakt Thur cbe uwe a numkr of &mu d i d mwud the dmhpment of a "unid character" w "red chprlem" which w d in m rmnaer bvporr drt multiplicit~ of v d u tonpucr m d rcpezent &as dirccrlv In ~umtw8~hrlln8tionr. ~lradrmkiapwu~~~a* dsrkiiddlt+y-i19661 dntr~wakoffd&roadbinrkts~nmnrhrrntrurcn~~ntht ~flch fm a hnpp. Ukutr. as Y- &oms. was a Ir# pmt cxponmt of thr Paehnr crodilian. nrs-inp tht.4rt ut Mcmwr into the mark of & infinid #Wus (Yam 1%. w. 378 ff. r. TL rod! srntkct~ hryuw kd much in cummon with mpcopraphic dn. As a fwndatian. r cbrrificatrm scheme was up for WW& w dtu ro h n a hework of what war callad "syncr-" The rord-d- mtc &men h each m hb own philwopherl bear. ad -; whik:inmylrd gl k inkpedmt of anr knilupr. Pberrhemc&inwt*cdnumbrnwcodtr~pwdmr&dda~~.~omrof&u~murmmclr ~ ~ ~ ~ * r k ~ t ~ ~ o e h m w a a ~ r a ~ r a d ~ w r b e m o d a n r r p d e r. ~ n a z * &road h an momau Spa& JcrPit ia t653 c*ucd an '-uickamhs aontmlrcor." r dprr w~ rn up for dl words rrlaanp to "the t l m " : drir d m was assipnrd Roman nuawral I. Arabic n umd wwc used m 111m idvidwl words wirhin the dus. tap.. 1. Fire. 2. Fhm. 3. Sm& Wid. 7. Bmre Wua. rrc.. r* Crwrr p. 55 ~.~.~rsvrrrm~dvcdr~~~~~~'~d~wideu.rt~#dhnpi~rlh:~.forexunpk.iddodlott clur "h W: H h U h "Hmum'* ac. I John W I imptrm of a of '-d durauw amd the wu m np idudinp such things as: 1 'T-d. Ma; 2. "trmwdmd. Mid": "God. ducr##rrm*; 6. "The Wald. Geatton**; '. "Tbc Eicmeatr"; a. Thee #dawphd chsm cmbobed tht &at tht auwt d rhc vnivmt current in thort umu. a d der~vtnp from mrdirval fwadctlms. U& each rurh drrr, -gone were wt up for "differences" and "VCJ". "Dikcacm" vm rhovn b *cnrcrl Pad omqw lim.arctwd m tbr kfr of the h svmbol fw the class... '-specirr" m djum s-bol uuchtd oa the ripb. G ' (-a) wasshovnhdasorlinn pppehodtork~&.ww~*#tlllhsdr~rrd*c~~h G m d Ktrrba povpdr#rmwkofalllrmbad#rtr~v~hnpa~~. hurrni [I9701 em a m v camplm uaumar ofr*rrrbnic d dl r*p#. iaddly: Fckpioor. mapkic. and mmal hnpurper as -1. Dllprrm's svmm is dercrikd in Dal~amo I. Comtaius' in Gursstr (1959,. Other s\.rrtm art prncntcd in Wi1)um , 1 U8b I and Top ( T h inwnted bnpum we of inter= to studmu of the Vomiih manuxnp for mtrd mxw. fk. mo ddud md c*pm rrpprobpiru wtto bed m t 5 of Hlldr to the


74 nimr mchm of Vornich rext. The ddcrr surviving Anplo-Saxon medical mnnu~ripu cxhib~t numerous cwjmples ui the% pr~ericcr [set Gratmn and Sinecr &ms Some of the spells arc dlrtoruons uf Old Irish provers brou.uhr rn by Irish misionarier kg.. "Goaomil wpnd marburnil mprbsai ramun...." a spell against "bhck blains." Gramn ~ n d Sinpcr p. 1. Som are pbkd birs of Gmlc Ewpv ic.p.. "Stomen mlcor. Srornen mega fofu." and "Eulogcmen PtCm as vow *gwn puma...." Gr~tton ad Slnge pp ). f b are ~ wmr inmmiap survivals in dk murcnpf of pipnn Roman pravrrs. for example a kautiful hvmn zo cht Earth Motha. "lkp Saw Tellus. Rrrum Naturnc Parens...." lgrartan and Sinpcs pp NW~WOU~ dies of pre.chridm Anplo.Saxon relipiws rims urd kc& am diucmibk. Names of mints and aprrlrs md sn- of Biblid tau mre mplopwl a ctwms. sprlls combined parhied Cheek. Hebrew. and kt~n wards in Jn tmpwm-rwndttq ~lomc~sriaat chat m w have had a ruonp prvcholapcai impncl on thr patient c"ranmi.z~n ~duru~ dthsar mur 0 iacffabile Ornipinan... -her corher mirtme me1 dew mini dcw mi Amm Alleluiah." a spell fur -'lmw wm. Gmmn ad Slqer 1W2. p Evm the word "Abrdka." which has come down to modern timcs rr 4 *?.mu for mumkjumbo,,w. a p h in AqCSamn mediciat (the word "ABRACADABRA" was "to k W r i m trpdlr on a prchrrmn and appiied w the pnrrmt". Gr~ff~n and Singer p. 10). 5. Hilde~ade $ Binpen ( A.D I7 9). who^ visions have rlreadv been examined brirflv for pssrble paratlelr 10 the Vqnich manwcfip~ im Smon was ah Jopifted with the mvstiral abiliv of " sprpkinp in tonpws.'. hianuscrlpls have kta found premviw a Jcrin af "carmh'* l s q or hymns) by Hildcpudc in an "ipnotn lingua". he rpparentlr aau recited spch rompmiti- whir under the swy of htr mystir virioas. An inwnred alphakr a h formed a part of fi&prdt*s knpuap; tbe Ietmr ue obvioruly di#afiarrs of U n letters for d# mow part. Bawn~ I 1970 l pwide5 a nu& of wmph of 4 s Hildcprde's bapuagc. psuvd in a wt of fllaasary wrimn down bv her -potaria. In m y m, drionr wirh German and bin M appwnr. as is the we of innmiom similar w htan endings. Fipre 43 shows the dpbrbcr ud ~ome vmpb of wrfirtmpred 4. hwni I19701 mk 0th. rimihr hnpurpr ern* air& wn ScWmu (a ronrcmporarv oi Hildqdt. dsu in rekigks Iifc. and a frequent catapondmt with h~. ~nd Chrisiana voa Trond. The Jattcr was in the bkt of urnsing ddiour and inromprrhtnsime w& from " h e n htr chtsr and her rhrmt'. when in a state of feligiow m y. thr mystical Sufi ~cn within Mohornmtdrnim a h dm- a bipblv mplex rynrhew fnnpuapc callad "BPhibOl~fi." prdw with an mcnsivt ur of pnmmrtient ad s~nunirrl ruln rod r lupc lexicon. Bausafii ( prm mme rxrmptrs of this hguam. The ebility clnnrrr h ruicd wr chu a &.up lanpuap of this wpe uildcrlies hc Vognicfi hpt. devwd by an exccpoart mdividd uakr thc porrcr ofreli~iour in+-on Tk Enocbirrr bmguoge OfJobw Dee. Dtacon 11%81 pwcna a clru and detailed dudpion of Phe reem knpafe which Drr and Kdiy d a i d to have mid as a fmlation fram the mplr rhiou* the '"saying#lass." He also prwidn a highly iatercrdng discussion of the "anffrlic convcruuaw" cnrtmd out by Drr a d Ktlley during the wig 1380's (DCPeon 1%B. pp ). C~s~ubon ( 1659) dextiks rha ~onwsatians in p t dad. in a work bad on Dn's diaries and manwrripu. ptmiourly rranxrikd by E h hrhmole. The follorinp.rcounr is dnwn from chac two mrar. I strwqly urp any interested reader to okin ~~~C~ubon'swwkudrcoditin~{rhae~o~inthtF~Colkedm.Likyof~~).I~i~a fascinating and remarkable oaoun~ ad rhe prcrcnt hrfr~mrarrg era by no mt~ar do it jdm. k m have seen h (horn d 83). john h e ua~ aever Obk to -ye the virions ia hu crystal or hear the 6. Far o h k aikd mrirely on KeUy. who was d e d y r highly unstable and urrrcrupulour prsonoltry. How muth af wbt rcnc m in dte lmuiq "rtmotl" in rfn dioriu was invend by KtNey in wdcr to make hidindirpcaribk to Dce a a pins dcdvc inflvcaa wet lum. is a maan opcn to question. Damn's view Is that k wrs usiq Kcllrg rather than tht aha wry uouad. and dut bah wac eagrprd in erymaphc and aplonar rn~uians for the Endish Gown under ~arcr of Ikt's uadagid ad drm~nolqeiul xriik. In any cue. rhc mtnner In wl~ich the?tit comrnunicatim vere t#eived and d d wmr ro complex a d d d n e u w k aimm[ unklievabk. Kelkv middy odrm kame impatient nich the efh inmlvrd, and Dce hd to p i 4 with him ad impwtune him to pcr him to caoriauc; onc prim the imwon that Kdky mr ntrtr nearly as intcruted in the ooffelic commuaicpaons as was Dee. and., waru much haw pnhd to h hs an rhemnkiq ofpold.

75 During rhc JC~~KCS 1 manv of'wh~;h tmk place durrn~ J vtrlt tu the ctlurr ui the Polrsh Count k k r In Cracou ~ n ~t d Rudolph's court In Praaucr. Kellev sat before the ctvstal and reported what he saw and hard to Det. ahu u rvte 11 duan. occarronallv puttinp quesrionr ;a the spirirs throuph Kellev. Kcller often saw the anpels themsclva. and otha perwns and brings as well. ohm movrnp throuph tlalmr~te K~m5 and actions as on a srng (walking nloq a road, c~trnbanp mountains. crosinp: arcam. ctc. 1. Hr dnuik~ their faces. pesturn. manner. chhinp. a d mvitia in rrmarkablr vivid detail. Cawubm's account provides exrrnsive tnhmation conmninp the Htfinp. pparations. apparatus. and mbod of opcratlon during these wionr. as wll or a vcrbarirn accounr olrht visim themselves. From p. 75 on. hc reports the communic~t~on of a set of cipher matnm or "tabks" m Dee and KeUev bv h e nnpcls. Kdkr mw tfrc mavw in rhe crrstal wrrh an angel standing n'karbv. polnr~np ro its quarts with a wind: Keilm then read hem off to Dcc. who made r cup ofthe matrix tor their own Iam use. Manv such "tables" were wnsm~ttcd bv the anpds: the sm called the "hii d Enoch." ior example. compr~d fortv-mne tables. tach hwng forrv-nine rows and fortv-nine columns. Lrltimattlr.. ;lr leasr twcntr-ax cu~nplerr books of tables and tuct wmc dicund ro Dce and Kellw bv the quits. Almp with the ~Mcs. the onpels dimtcd lo* lists of vocnbubrv words. each list followed bv a passape I I running ~ text thar used the ww&, much likt an tmv-dav elrmmrnrv lanpuapc h n. Durinp this proms. Dec otten asked mme pcnctratlnp quat~m conccrninp afixcs. scrurture. simibririer k nod kwcm wards rw pm af words. ctc-: he a1nj asked for and obtained ttpctiuons of thnps he Id nor heard right w queaimcd for mne reason. Ca~aubbn pim pap alter page recounnng th~s amnrlne lin~uaric fewarch. for all rht world like o series of mwrrlls kta.m a field lingu~st rnd h13 n ~tivt intwminrs. Deacon I 1968 r provides the tbtlowiap dewip~on of the war* runntnp text was dictated: -'Each oi the tables whrch Krllrthad In hont of him conrrsad of a large square subdivided into hm-nine br forty-nine small squares. each contilrntng a letter oi tk Enothian alphabet. Thcsr lcatrr arcre in opparentlr random or&. Kelkv wouid lobk tnto the crrrtill and we the angel polnurig to arse rhcsc r d l quam in a rcpllca of the table in the m~al and =wid call our-sor. 4D ias in map rdinp). Dce would find the square in his ubie and wrlrr down the rtkwnt lam.... The mult wzs a wnuncr in Enochirn wrikn backwards. It is olmm impossible to klim rbt rhb could br faked. cspeciallv when one remembers thar there were ninnv.cight tables to chow fknn fw menwritiq, if one w~r frkinp it." (pp In Comuh's account. individual words are clearly shown wtimn backwards iwirb rhc last I ~ C T fitst). and the ardrr of words in each sentence or paragraph mt u n untr is also backwards. m thar rhr k t word Mnt is the first word olrhe pssa~f as it ro bt read. Figures and 45 show the nlphkt and mme a mpla of Ehinn mcr: lit mv k notd that ccrrpin kacsr rbar appear In rhc rcxr arc not rrprcsmted in rhe ol~hakr. a facr which is nowhm trpla~ncd in the Iwrces 1. Enoch~an. accardinp to Deacon. is umqut and diflermr from anr ocher Cnbaliulc hnpuape or map~cal svstern. m it rs hard to m how ~t could have bnn piapiai5ztd from anr other watt writinpz. Robert Hookc. a promlnenr ~c~ntccnth-ccnturr mentist and a mmkr af he Ro-1 Socltrs. held the view chat Enochian war ti ti ally a mpptopaph~c and esphonagt device. like a code. Deacon claims that Enahian is a h a fidc Ia~uapt. ad can be learned with m e difficultv from Dee's unpublished manuktipts (e.p.. Ljbn rm,v~c~immm, Slonne mr British Museum 1. and from hubon-s book I l 6SLl I. Thr Rosicrucian Order of tht Golden Dawn IEnpland. 187'1) Pdopted Eno~hian and m p l d ic in their rim. The reader mav vaifv for himself in the samples shown in f?purer 44 and 45 hat wards having i constant mcnninp are repeated =ah or w~chout additionr: "OD". '*andw:"chis". "arc"; and "ICHISGE*'. "are not"; "CALTSGI A)". "rht earth"; "CHRISTGOS"."In thm k" nc. Whrtmf its rckvancc to rbt Voynich manusmpt. this arnuinp account of rcrcarrh Ln held Iineuirucs amonp the dmlzms of the qrit world deserves a careful study by modern psvcholia~uins and bixorronr.

76 Chapter 10 Collateral Research: Early Herbals and Materia Medica f kc hum! of fierbd~. kany. and meria rncdica is a major area of stud! which no snrdmr of tht Vovn~ch manuxript can afhd to Ipnm. Ar we have ytn in Smions and a h. many rr~tirchtrs haw made viporuus artempa to link thc herbal and pharmmtial drawings to tbe in ahcr medieval and RrnPIsmnre medical works. with lirrlt success. A numbrr of pood penera1 wwks on early herbah art available ro rhr ~rudent : Arkr I. Rohdr I! and Sinrrr ( cwcr rhr hirrorr of earl! k h l in pmcral, with a mmg emphasis on Old Enpluh herbals: Biedermann 1 lll'? provides o larpe colcccion of beautiful illusaarions uf mrlr branid. magical. and medical drawln~s as well iu a crner.11 trcpmrenr of these topics, Cockaqne ad Graaan t cwer the Anpb-Saxon kkls rcrr complcrelu. ~ nd alr) trace heir hsmv and mrm. Exdent rratrncnfs of the hismv of mdicine mav be found in Sinprr I r. TarIor I 1922). and Tharndikt. t.1963). wble.thr~&~lis)23-58).prowdm exrensive detail on the wwk of ~lad~ridual phvs~cianr amonp whet xla*. Tihn pp piw a hef but v ~ useful ' &mh of the earlr h~stav t,f hcrhls and botanical illustrarian in rehion ta the srudv of the Vech manuscript. The following survev. drawn from rhne wrurres. whik hiphlv abbrcviartd. mar rmc to induce the rdcr to the s u b and in lircramrc. The euiicst kginniaps d botanical drawinp and description are to be found in Greece. as is rruc ui HI much oi W'rstrrr~ learning and phii~phr. Aristotle was said to have writ& a trratirt on planm; this wt~k war apparmtlr ltut at a relattvrlj mrly date. and was not among ;he works of Gruk learning pwrd br. the Moharnmcdans and transmitted tn mtrlrtv~l scholars thrwph them. Aristwlr's pupil Thcaphranus of Eresus. however. produced a work whlch served as r source ior thc Grak "rhizwwnw I"madiggmV. fraqucndp ignoran~ ad supcncruau eat- d d c i d plants who were the pharmpcirrr. physicians. d m d d suppliers of their day). In the fint EenKury B.C.. a hirhly taimd and unusuallv krraed mmkr of this class of rhizaomisrs namd Cmmw ewnpilcd aa hdd oontaining the firw known xt of plant drawinp. Crrauu f B.C.) was phyidan m Midaridam VI Eupator. kng of Pontus in h a Minor. His htrhl was illustrnnd with picturn apparmtly drawn wich peat care and artiurq from lift. tach accompahicd bv a brlti dcxrtpr~un ut the medicinal cffclu and u ~ of s lt plant. While no manuscripts of Cnrmas' work have survived. a revision or exmm of it has hen prc~mcd. with somt oi the wipinal draw:ngl. in the,ilurcnk tmedicrr Libn Quinqme of Dioscorida Anazarks. a pht-sic~an attached to the Ruman Armv in Asia durinp tht first centurr A.D. (Thoscotides Diwcwidcs' tm and mnv ul the draa-~nes war reprodud in r beauuful manumipr hcrhl presented in A.D. 512 toluliana Anraa. dauphrrr ofa Roman Empcror: thr, manuscript. called the Juliana Anicia Codex. is prtkmd in Vim-. and a pan of a facsimile mar. be seen. arrordinc to Tiltman r 1968 I. in the Garden Library of Pumhmn Oaks. Bidemnn I and Sinpcr prov~de A numb of illustntions of [hest exquisite drawings. whose lifelike and artistic quality are judged bv txpem to far exceed char of man!. if not most. sub~umt herbah &I into the Middle Apcr In spite of itr mlv dam. the Juliana Aniciil Cudex thus conxirum a mior hiph pnt in th* him? of COTIF hwhh. mched by ftar othm for manv centurlcs therealter. The first known herbal in which phnu wtrr described in dphakrieal order was that of Pamphiliu. compiled around A.D Manv cprh herhlr olro emplod an d m ~ amnnpcmmt w dcaiinp with phnu In an Lrrarcd br. the bod\ prt to which their medicinal cffm pruid. urdv ~tnrtiap at the head and ftntrhin~ at the kcr. Plinv the Elder. In bs Nsrurah Hima (AD. 77) earnpiled o massive mcvclopedia compririnp thinv-seven bkr mriap all the natural sciences of rhe dav. This collmion of mapical and superjririour bctiefs. 01d Wives' mltr. mvrhr. and,ohauolu cancerninp bads. btasts. plants. medicines. rnmis. minerals. and a h a of other q c r was preadv influmtial in tht Middle Apes. An herbai bad on Dhor~dn' long-lid wwk rm compiled bv Aptletus lor "Pseudo-Apuiclur". ar he is frquentlv called to distinguish him from rht aurhor of The U r n Ass) abwt A.D This work. Tbe Herhmm of Apuietu~ P&~ORICYJ. kame one d the most widely known and copied of the tarlv hcrbdr: it sunid in some fwm inw the late Middle Aws and Renaissance. and was among the first illtutrard printed htrhlr. Aside from he abwe.mmtiamcd "hi~h-spm" and a few bther influenaal works. there war hale miri~l CMCB~C~ on pkaao. and almost no a m p to mdr a draw phnr life from nnmrc. or to make anv mrpirical wial of medicinal cffms after the fashion of the modern henust. The G d hcrhls urd hit Lmtin aanrlaaons were copied over and over again. their drawinp kominp more and more &bored and dutd in the prm. The names of the plants. and rhr spats oripi~llr- illunraml. were of course those of the Mediterranean reeion a of Asia Minor: ancient and mcditw1 hsbatius -- Ktm never w haw redired or undmtd that wv different plan~ prcw in different places, The names. often drawn from

77 drd I# -ibund an~tnt knguapts. and muched in ancicnr forms that were no lonper understood. were careiutir iuplcd along with the - drawings. Thr nwnkr in fnpiish Concimd mmonawrler dtd the bm rbev could ta mauh the parbled plcrurrs of foreign planrr nnd rhrrr -E aomn ogpiart the flora of their own mastery pardms and cm~nuvridc. A a ornult of thnt effom. Ionp lists of s w - Fa ptpw n- in VWWW hnp- were mpikd a d attached to the h&b to m e as ~LoIsP~~~s. One crnm help wdtriap how mny padem lm heir Iivrs rhrouph the inwitable miri&ntifrcakn of poisonous plants u drid Sidm ( 19&, p. 185) rum up Che state of affairs in his discussion of rt# H*rm of Apukius: *rth implimt fi&fit ob & dern -6s he pma to it as tn insrancc of wa a kmnd years of slavish mpr.knp applied rn "a fuilr -k with irs unrccop~lz~blt fipurcs and itr incompheruiblc ~ocpbularv". The bun and vrrnambr h&b of drt Wes w m &us. for the mast pnrt. simply umdarioar w compilations ui the Gmk works. A trttn ttalulnaoa of Diw~orldts' herbal k m e the baas fa mane lam medieval herbals. T k Oid English hcrbrls haw km inrmr6~iy adid br ddnrj. ad arc of pnrtintlu inmew burr of the aunv pnmitivr ppan survivib the* m e. in mwe ar Inr supaficidy.cbriramid form. T& Lmb E d of Bdd ( Ropl 12D. British Mum m j. IS wn d the rttlirzr mad mar ~IIRWA d he Ow Euplirh herbals. datiw fnrm the tenth ccacurr; it prtrcnrr manv exampla of prpn ma#iepi +h ad pctim. tnriv khi r#ercrving man survivoir is T6c ~ CWII~R#. a h dating from r)tt pmch m c u ltfnrkian ~ 585. Bra& Murewp). A Sum translarim of the H&#m of Apleius mmt in manv copla. and another Sax* tr~tulaljon of a wwk of the bktnron medical tradition in Icalv. dtd Pr*i Dhon. h h dating from rfir rhrh mt?;rv, were alro hiphlr iaflmud i m q early Enelirh hcrhls; m Grattm and Sinper ( 1852). Cockrvnt ). and Srmmr ( 1948). ad m a h Ihc brd discussion in -on of ppnn charms from the earliew hermr. Sinper aaar the history of borpnicnl illur~ason in some derail. Durinp chc Mddlc Aws. a rtlau~-clr smll numkr of d d s a apdmelrcr of phnz ipusmtion ume imo existence. Mast of rhe drawinps were hiphlr. srylhed and diapmmrtic. produced with link a no ehouphr of observing nature at first hand or ewn of revising dmil from pcrw~l kllowkdv which must often hawe ronrradid what the compiler saw in cht sourm he was copcillp. A fcw noubie exctpiom prwidc ~omc nlief from the rip~diq of most plant drawinp in medieval hahis. A tarin manuscript from Bun 9. Edrnudr in the rnlfrh antur?. ladudtd romt mcnraluur drawinpl amow a mrjoricv of udirionnl copies. The mpik app.dv did his k t rn idmtiiy the ancient and prrbkl fipm of hip phnu in tus Iourccs with The plpm in his pdm: wfrm he sucmdrd. he atached thr locpl plant name to r coped &awing. Where he could find no mah fw an Ewluh planr among the drawinps. ht mdt a new one rn fill the pp. The rtrh~on ot phnt drawings reached on amcmc in the thimcarh centuru. d i n g w Siapcr. when rbw deteriorated iaro pewncrrica1 forms riridlr enclod within a #old frame. A l h Mapnus I A.D ? 1 iduded in hrr mcvclopedic works a semion called "On Plnna". mmpikd from a hido-ari~lorriirn wlc. ad Alhs is did with wnm first-hpnd ob#rvation of the natural oblcctr with whkh he dealt. In prcp~rinp herbal as well ar other rmnwcripa it was the prrnicc of rhe medieval scrik or copvirr to leave a space In rhc mt of each pua~foph fm a hawinp. urdlr of a and sin mhiq tht correrpondinp picture in h e source he was ropnnp. The illuminator tbm suppiid the picturn if the patron w owner of he manuscript had the moncr to afford them. Sinprr kkr a mior "dvmtap" lfm our m h pint of view) to the illurnimwr ovrr rhc scribe. in that he former mhti~thr ~dcuned. ud rhu fncr from thr rtifliap ripdirits of tradition kndinprht mibt to the pt. For this ream. Sinw iudm Iht figures in lomc mrdrcvd herbah m k in idvance dthe tern in nnturdism a d armracv, and ~ e in s them d frerhtr and livdin qnrit. tke iilumirucorr mndt mrne mempc w &ow ratk than q r i the ~ mtminplcss aotic wipids in tht aacieat rwrm. In mmc rola. the hdm left by he Icribt wcrr never filled (prclumabir. k a u the ~ omm mn out of monev kfm he d hire tbe Knim of m ihuminsmrl: ram* tfkv were filled much hur wirh pimm of P different ure w shape that dd not fir imo dw spocrr well. It is interesting to contrau this common prha. whmbv a Pcrik kh spmm ro k filled later and sepatclr bt an iuumimm. with rhc integral compnltion or dmwinp~ ad an in rk V w h mnumpr. A h the low pnt re& durlnp the ttric~ecnh cmwp. b l ill~~trerirn increased in ~turalism and bcaurtthroufiwt rhe fiknrh mturitr (at k t as pdpcd by the modtrn a h a ). Some he metiiffa1 herbals afe matklcbk for the lik-like and misic qualie d their dln~ons: reproduced bv Sin- ( 1928) are m a l examples zn which ilucns (a drapmflv. bmlcr. c.terpillpn. nc.) arc shown lirriap an the plans. al1 represented In a srvk almost indifinpuirhabk ar the cprual cre from a + modern drawinp. Among rhr kacr iuustrati~ are the kautifui woodcuts (mk bv Ham Weidin) in Otto BrunfeIs' H&mm Vilw Li~~lle~. compilcd in 1530, The omr. unfmuna~eiv. is far the h d stt bv the pctum; copled from the durable bcrbpi of Diwmridcs. it dariks meditcrrarmn plants - compkalv incoruismt with the k 1 phnu in rht drawings. from tht Rhine region in Gamanv. A width ropicd work


79 Chapter 11 Concluding Remarks: Some Suggestions for Further Research In dorinp this monograph on the Veih manuscript. 1 would -iikt to suggest some line alonp which tuture wwk cm the problem might pfitablv h dimttd. These supptions include efforts aimed at pathering mm dara CII molvr ume oirhr mnnv unknowns In the problem: and efhs dmpnrd a, achieve n mwt rjpaous. complete. and scimrii~c ~nalrsis ut rhe JJ~J we now haw. I I.1 PaleograpbiE sad Otbcr Scientific Studies of the iltnusc+ipt In rnv opinion. it ir of pmav imptam that the inks. pipmius. snd vellum of the manuscript bt ttmd and examined ~itntifiallv and compared!a thwc of ocher musirips bv pdcqraphm ad an hisrorions: and rhat the ppe of the mnuxript be studied u& spar1 liphung and otherwise t r d to king up tram of erad. faded. or ilkpible wratinp. As far ar 1 haw bccn abic to discover. no such mearch has mr km carried out. Funher. there arc no current phns on the pdrr of the at own- ot ~hr manuscrip lthe &intcke Fibrarv at YaLel to make anr such mdies In the near futurr Nmmkleu, only studies such as the can ofkr mr hope of ~nurfactoy anmcfs ro wnr. ui our qutstlons. Thcv cuuld turn up cruaal new inlormanon that rnipht eompldv ata the complexion of the problem. I hope that some pmmt or tuturc d e m will be amt to arouse inltrtlt in a e f i r phrrid itudv of the manu~~ipt. obmin fundinp far it. d set thr e y wheels in motion to mplish the ruearch and make its rtrulu known to whtr mdmrr. If mr reader ot this mono~raph knows of rnv wctr scientific dwdicrolrtody carrid out on the manuscrip I hopc he will intorm me of them Uncovm'ng More oj ;hc Munu sm'pt 's History As we ww jn Chapters 1 and 2, Wilfrii M. Vopnich r u d d in ftmdng our a considerable quanun. oi ukiul and interming information about the histmy ad previous owwhip of the manuscript. In his historical sketch l Vovntch r- hc indid mmny promisinp leads for whtrr w pursue. Ewv known or suspnwd u m ot' the manuscript should be te~atchtd in depth; renewed anmpu should be rnodr to lmte cmpdcntc. libtarla. and other collrct~ons ot papers pertaining w or brlonpinp ro these propie, and tod down an\* referem to the manurnapt and atremps to dccapher it. Sorncon* should &nly p to hrt the Villa Mondrrpone or aher placer what papers ad manuserip once srored thae might now k p r d. in the hopc of finding-ddirioaal rcrords dating to the manuscript (for example. naes made br Arhanruius Kirchcr or by the unknownapreviour owner who wrote to ICIrchtr about thc mpfiumiprl. The arch~vcr of Rudolph's Gurt at Prague shad alw k a promirinp mm of mnpondencc or mrcs roncerninp the manuwnpr. Bockptound slcuthiap of this nature is -in to provide us with at leaa a few nw nuppca of iniwmat~un that cuuld mawform the problem or. tt least. duct the dkrapinp numkr of unknowns that now confront us Collaterol Researcb While all the molt obvious sourns have appuendy been examined. as well er some more okure ones. In search at' Wblt praklr to tbt Voynich #xt ad dmwim. it r611 worthwhile m keep np the hunt monp lul well-known and k s adble swrces. I Meve that alchcmr wriunps. in parliorlu. dtravr c k amtion. since rhcv may not have been m rhoroughly studied bv Voynich maiusmip mwrctmr as have khl. medical. and arttolopicnl sources. More attentton 119 miv qpographic writings of he f-ch rhrouph rhe ~lmecnth ccnturim mipht dm richlv ttpav our efforts. In tact. J dmrrn~ncd. thorough. and pinscaking nmmpt to search manuscript callmions and tarlp pr~ntcd bmks on almosr anv of rhr wpln skcwkd in Chquers 8 aid 9 of this monograph could 5611 rutn up a new and illuminat~ng bit of evrdencr for a studcnt specifidv =chine for a pallel rn he Vovnich manuaip. It seems to me hiphlv unliktlv rhar the Vornich monumipr scribtls) and illumi~misl nmr w m or drew anv other work in heir lives: rhcrc is always a hopc of findln~ wmcwhere a drawinp d similar style rht mipht Rive us a cluc to their identity w piace oi oripin. w another xrap ot tcxr In the Vovnich script among someone'r paprrr.

80 11.4 A ~ompwhwsiva lrfdcbine File of tba Text In Chap 6. we saw thrt -1 obomvt rmmp rrrtr d e w cam wr ampuar audis oi the cetirc curpur ui vomih mt. Om ob rhc rpproridp 250- cfunaar of oan in tk m~alucrip mwr nudcnrc have d c d oalt d l wmpkr n&q from MOD tn chtrrerm in I-. Clrricr &I ddt with the Jar* rmehinc sompicr of m* dent. and hi^ aramiption alphakt appur lo k the mwr: &ice 6a mrchiae ~#prroin~. (1 ~ P w discarded m v m trramipioa in fworofcutrin's. in Ipirrofthefmrhmt Ifirdaldy piadsmat chanctenofltwtoa ~ ~ ~ ~ o r l l ~ k f o n 1 c r m t u ~ d c u i k d ~ o b b r r ~ ) F u h e r P m r o m conwrduaofcbrtlrrirrmra~pd~hrsd.irprcpcnodiafhe~cdkeaonucbcmv~hll~m~n bia#ma Vhm. wilere i is n# cprilv Icr#sibk #r mou &a. It would k of p t v.lur. in my opinion. ro hve r compkrr machine file of the carp. in Currier's mrucripclm. a d ia~ipdinp ~dcnrifia& ob "had."hpqs." ad the.ppttmr murrr f hab.l. phawlicd. -id. erc. o ~ r i l u r m a h a ~ w b i E h ~ h m ~ l o b r ~ ~ ~ f i a a t. T h i s b i k e o o i d k d p s a k f a a +idr~ofrrpdia.w~informrnpd~b~eoaarai~tbrlea.dntpbn~~thrimpmn? "haad" ad "hnruyc ' phmomell. d W. b Clutia ar dl or ather arpam. Smalla. carchllv # I d sampicr mu1d kamntdfom~nuirecwpurfaan~epacifcplrpo6c Sci*ntific HypmtbaJis Fotlaotioa mr) Testing ~~hcwrhtrhrornrrtof~#m~kbusdonpll&rbn~hnrmrlu. donacwcfmlmdvdtheenrart eorpur of tar tnor bsr onr mom w a fm paps k r ad thee,. The h o m should Plso rake iruo account ad rtternpr to crplun all Iht ckuh ah mmrchm ttilrmm's arumre; Curria's ad "W: tht pmrpaainfl of "&. ca.1. Fiull?. tkt h W Jbald be cmskenf wich.dkrr~m~~a~whrirlclrmadpbe~.~d~of~msnlucripriedcff. laddicim.1 hnlr n hid mmmia nor jmmh-kr set d a k ~ v lbroncj e dur ~cmcapbleoie*pbiainpallorr lwpe put of thc dam. Having m up such a M y of rcorolubk hm- we lhoold dnipn "expmmtno" bed on ~lmpdej~y~imm~ewirr~~rlllrrdtreenriklo~poar~~ioar~~radu~plr ~~obovt~:ruapkrslrchrhrtrt~u#mp~~adbcoo6rmcwfid~rhcarrain~wdulvmoamf. fhir march rill. dnemriro. dm imok pdd din of mr is tran. in amin ah mmrd I.-. w in smkrc ~VP ofwh m in CfK 8bKnaafulvaik purlle1tms.a ahcrbmlsimihroext via nmcrdordhteddora.our arlr hopcut ~linia.nadrrt~dewpcrrmr~k~wtbr~bodrofrwpnd~rbt~darpntuvt.inrhrs ~r.prrhoprmeraromrdr~*dumrwkrriunrhort~fnry~d*ppropruamcuwill&frjl jurcictmrhc 3rpmr mipa ofthe Vmwh muserip.

81 'THE MOST MYSTERIOUS MANUSCRIPT IN THE WORLDu THE ROGER BACON Cf PHER MANUSCRIPT (BACON, ROGER 3,) Cipher muacript on dm Text wxitten in a secret hp\ app-tly based on Roman &us& chancteq irregularly disposed on the paga. 102 leaves (of 1 16; lacks 14 leaves), including 7 double-folio folding leaves; 5 triple fc-lio foldingleaves; and one quadtuple folio folding leaf. With added signature marks (OF* XVtb or XVIth century), and foliation (of the XVIth or XVIIth cmturv) 1-11,i~58,65-75,75-90,95-96,99-108,lil-116. With about 400 drawings of bo- tonid,mbjq including many of full-page s h ; 53 drawings of mtrologid or astronomical subjects, plus abut 550 single w*; - and 42 (biological 2) drawine most of which indude human fi-. The drawings colomd in aevemi shades of gmn, bronn, light yellow, blue, and dark red. Luge BVQ (e 230 x e. 160 mm.). Old limp vdlnm cow (now detached). Fnom the libraries of John Dee (?), the Empemr Rudolph I1 (reiped ); Jacobua.. Honicky (Sinapius) de Tepenea; Joannn M- Marci of Gonland (1666); Ahuius Kircher, S. J.; and Wiikd M. Val-nich. Accompanied by an Autograph Lttta signed by Joanna hw,p-ting the book to Athanasius Kkhm. No place or date, (XVth centu y, or earlier?). An enigmatic mdad m m e p WW ~ far w fwty ~sllr has baffled tht dohn and crypt+ grrph~~whoh.++~~~~went~~it,it~bbmttrmedbypmf M.Mdy,Wbgrmdemd~~dit,%t~~muraPOiptiathe*rwld." Fig. 1.-Eag fnr tbc Vqaicb Manuscript from H. P. b u s Cadg -fmrr-lw~

82 Fig. 2.-Lena F d wipb fbt Manuscrip r f a 1%~)

83 REVEREND AND DISTlNGLrfSHED SIR: FATHER IN CHRIST: This W. bequeathed lo me bv an inurnace friend. I destined for vcu. rnv vrh dm Athnsius. as swn as it cam inro mr poserston. fw I was convinced it could bt read br no om rrccpt vounclf. The form ownrr of this book once asked vwr opinion br h r. mpvinp and d i q mu-a pwnmof rhc h k horn which he klieved vou would k abk lo read the remainder. but he at thar dme refused toki&ix book id f. To ia decipherinp he devoted u n b i np toi t ar is appmcnr from arrcrnpuof his which I rmd YOU herewith. and he rtlinquhhcd hopc onlv with his life. But his toil In vain. fur such Sph~nrcs as thew o h no one bit their mamr. Kirchcr- Accept mw rhil token. such as it is and lonp overdue though ~r be. oi mv afftccrtln far vou. and burst though in ban. if rherc art on!. wirh vour wonred success. Dr. Raphael. tutor in the Bohemian ianpuape w Ferdinand 111. then Kinp of Bohemia. cold me the aid Lmk had klonpd to the Empar Rudolph and that he prcrcnrcd he bearer who brwphr him tht book 600 ducar~ He bciirved dw rudm war ~&cr Bacon. the EnpErhmsn. On this point I surpmd iudprment: ir is vour place to define for us whar'vicw I ~ should C mke rhmon. to whwt favor and kindness I unmtfvcdh mmmlr mywtf a d remain PRAGUE. 19th Aupust. 1665! 6c JOANNE5 MARCUS MARCI. of Crdand Fig. 3-T ramsladm d Lcrrer ITtLmun 1%81

84 FolioNa Ir 1v-I I\- 112) I jr-ttr 17r 4% 57r 5 8r.v 5 b5r.v btw 6b- 6frl.vl 67rL bfu2 68rI.v I b8r2.vl -3 bhv3 W.C. tdt 1 Ithi?Or2 'It *lv 'Ir 1 'hl 72rl 7lvl?lr3 t2v3 73r3 73v3 lhcripioa text only: I1 1 (2) kbr 1 renpl hcrhl r2) rl) rmmdopd: (1, larmlr l miuinp t h&l mm~r: 11)~21 htr bal uraonomira1 onronumid comdqlol astrmmmial a#rmmiwl ucroa~micoi * -rial. CWIAOW b C O S ~ ~ ~ U P ~ ad.: Arm rdark 1 d.: Puerr a d. : Arm (light! a d.: Tawus 4 liphr I ml.: Taurus tduk r, uaol.: Lko -1.: Grmini aml.: Virgo rstrol.: Cancer ml.: LC0 arrrd: Srorplo am].: Sqmariur Fob Na (74) 75r.v 76~ 76v-84~ 15/86r I 85/&2 85/& /86v 1 85/s6vl ary~6v3 85/lbv-5 CI1/86vS.v6 87r.v Ur-v Wrl.vl Wr2.v2 90r 1.v 1 Wrkr , 93r-96v Wr-101~1 lofl L6r 116%. -. I 11 Km-like ~ qumrcl IkKriptiaa imiuinpl human figures mxrdr 111 human fipura text onlv mrmolgiml mofmm~e nnofra~trrs net of rams mof ro~tles c~rm~~opi~il~ cormoktp~ral mrt unlv hetbol phor-d phrrmprmticnl pharmaceutical fmhl hcrbol r mirunp) herbal ~maccurlral axr onlr. wrs ( I 2, Tar in cxuancour m:pu Fig. 4.-Lin of folio Nmh lad Apporcat hbim Marter ( Fobtion of Pamm Ph-py

85 Fig. 5.-Sornc hlls from Herkl rad Phum.autie~1 F oliol tlla~aca.-)-




89 I 'a. 4L1, ' \ Fig. 9.-Details from Herbal rod PbPrmrewrical Folios (hhmftoa.;.'tdl


91 F -7 - Folio?lr 70h1 'Iv r 1 72r2 7Zr3 72q3 7Ivl 72vI t3r 7 3~ Sip Aricsilightl Aria idarkr Taurus 4 liphr J Taurus 1ddrk1 Gemtnt Cancer Lto Virgo bbra &;lo Sa~llfar~u~ Monrh April + April Mar hiat Junt July August September Ocrubtr Nuuemkr December., Rinpr of Fi~urrr (From First I Stcand 'I (11 I0 111 all c n and c 5 llr n and c all r all n 7 (31 n. hats all n I2 131 dl n n. hats 10 r31 ali n all n all c nrndc tt) t 1) nadr 10 $.%I n. hats I c. rest n n. bar1 IS all n 18 (31 a11 n 13) n. hats I6 131 all n 16 0) all n 74! Capricwn -4! Aquarius januarv Ftbruarr miuinp missing n = naked c = clorhtd 7oVl P~s~J March n. hats n. hats - 1 l r \mica1 "cans" r 21 horironral "cans" 1 3 I nu "cans" Center) Third s 131 n. hilt$ 12 i31 n. hilu all n i 131 all n Sum 15 1 I 5 I 5.Zi) o sr I,;I) 41) 2~ Fig Groupiagr of Humaa Figures in Artrologid h wings 89

92 7 Foiio k b?r-i b7u l h'r? btv3 bar 1 6nv 1?or l rnw -. sun 8-polnd scar sun in squaw ILO~K rnmn ran), 34 ( I7 double rays) 8 wurds 4 mplpe. tat spun au fdd 29 words I6 (8 double rays) 12 phro~s 12 muons <, and phrnm i ccnrrifu- $d m u sun at top moon blow 16 two sets of81. bllr2 nunc JU~ field 14 words mo~l ar top run brim- 68~2 wn 8 (4 douk 4 radial PI'S) phto~s 8 phrases ~~lr.4 mam ~r 44 phr- 4 star KUI 4 radial wad pin 6% 6 - p d 6 hers 4 5 pip star 21 phr01~6 by, I U-panred Xar 6-pnd scar 28 piper and wads 6 ~ ~ r d s 58 cells 'Url sun(? I 8 xpmu 8 rubdivi. I s k s Hl/Wrl sun 4 qdrantr 4 $puts ~5/86vj i male from cornerr 4 parapaphr 5 m m 5 frorhv rinpr 4 human fipurcs 7 words 9 arpvcs 1 2 paraeraph, I I phrases '1 radial words I Fig. 12.4mpings of E m u in htmnomicpl and Cwmobgieol Folios 90

93 - AU Folio F i p F-k 7% 7k 76v nv r v r 7 7 7% t 16 IS I? 80v I2 I2 81t iv r 15 IS 82v r 5 5 e3~ r v 15 IS % 227 3? - I? I? Su bgroupingr 2mbr:wp,8kwm6 2mh: top 10. bwom 19 s a d s&tmed ~~mrrd 2pls:tap7.bottom8 oae big mb with 7 "windows" samd Kpased; 5 0nhah a h 3 rowr: ramcml 2tubr:eop7.h6 oae big mb 4 -; ll in luge pwl d Kuerrtd smterd 3 tubs; I1 2 tub: tup 7, boaom 8

94 Idwml LUCIFER BEEMOTH WFICI World IEVIATHAN -AT& lnfldeles Fig. 14.-hmt Mdirnl Taka d mpadtnar: 0- TWM. Thre# t L L * r l d 4 k ~ I W A ~ 161m

95 Fig. 15-Dttrib from ~ bkanudc~1 a d "Human Figure" Foiios 93 F-4r0 tar -.

96 Fig. l&-camp.riw~ of V+eh INdhlaCmirol HiB LOlll Spb~b rad Euly Arabic Numetab

97 'prr Vgnicb ~ b o l C m rn m - Similar Lana Abbmiatioo F cum. con n. ci, ai co. quo cp m CUf 7J ~9 cuius J - cot d rj -urn cua,mn.cum.quon t Cft.m.POr.ctn, w3 -Nm.-mum.-nmrn L cn 3P + 9. f -is nt- y 4f -rum. - m h - r/ rl 4sv-mal -,, Vgnicb symbol 2 - v' Similnr Latin Abbreviation -"r.-.* 9 rc 4 -a J m, in-. im- I I aw d d.v fi fon~ C arm. +at fiat -nt-. -nd- w F7 9 9 mrmmm I' If -mbrus 9 7 -Ins. -* -Isv * proper fr fdio Fig Comparison of Vgnieh Symbols wf L laria Abbrmiauons (b-u*prd Lrm Clrplh IIWW

98 Two Ekments IoilirI F i d Added mbl wb1 bmvad a=bl TkttUtlncnta compouod r C r'e C m h, I w a,*, #,& %& 4 m 7 h a& rn -. n, w ;#a,& ff Zx g dp # a P e 7 ct 9 '9 7,XV +,g,a a + Fig. 11-ht b m p d rod tigarorrd Forms 98

99 Fig. 19.-T w m Alpbbm dhd R-b rn

100 Fig. m.0- EmkUiW ad V h Fwu d V W Spbob gs

101 Folio 66r Folio 66v fig. 21.-hi& Shaming Fngmunr of Writing ia Enrrncow Scrip 94

102 t 1 8v Folio 16v 24v 3n 40v 48* 5 6 *. 67rl 70vl 72v1 83r 8 4 v. 85/86v3 90vl i 96v? IOhl m Put x fi7 8 '7 97 IQ"~ 14 "9 3 13~ I.' f? 103r 29 C -- -m.- hmpremtioo fsrs(prhm) #aond cbld f d fifth rixth rmmtr P* &' cmttl *! ;r bmmsh fifoamth limmrh xwamfdl asbonath tvcillinh...* - * Fig. 22Folio Coebtrinp 100

103 "Key" Sentences. Folio 1 16v (Pbn~opv) mulk h +ccr cerc port*; Ndld's S d Wing [Newbold p Fig. 23.-Same Different Llcodine d FoPo L 16v 101

104 2d--- +nn,-*- '^pz 7 )mq*! f n.vs9--- A w,-* owcog&. -*. 9 +*vw 7 # s f-+. 4 crax *-- 0 G&.A... F dio 6% Ac P.*- 9 4 * ~ 9 - &dl 0.~dm, ?? Q A h o rt.3", rt* 7''' 9*- X X X %&st -0- c 46 Hc*-* "P,p a*- q tf If +lfm2r,s.* $ d*- # f fl 8 &ary=*m > qn.susm- ' 4 9 * Q P V Y P P Q p v 6 F8 * r c c r rr,1(~ cydid Scqoma. Fdb 57* guacv,.- ; "* 3 ~nmk,t~** Cplb) ;, ZL?- 't&i%* ,$ v*ua CY 6 &.tr4.-- 3t W X4P 7% P t* 2 q.v! m-** *?m?* ZAcSj-- 7 m*k;*.=- *'ltt fi 3&3**. +tea?=-- a dm., -.. 7,,,z=-- trrr 7 -. CI.42 **- 3a.b -- *\f4~--* F a % o O&L-= 4 ;,C3-9 +K~~A-.- g m~.a~*- 4.b $ S.MS. 7 c +wcecg-**, jf -ex--- p'fa.e~--- P.a" Pdioh *,A=-* I wmce- * a *lgt- X ~9.-? Id.- sm~7m- fdio 66 Fig. #.---lkf"-- lm SepPcaar

105 "Ovrry" LAMS IFdio 78r) OHCC g% spa F E MM I N I*N o Weegg F E MMI N Uppr Tubt hkl ~r?alpo & 9 1 S f S N F UNDU NTR Lowtrfukbkl $ c ce lap p 1 M M C I SN NTR "sd* lpkk oh a?* g % b g a F E ST 0 N.S?N UT U T NTR ota?qjl F E S T S N "Ftrrivi sunr" b o I C P lt A C D E F IBVO) m G. H P H. G I % d "E % L C M ~9.tNrurvrr 6 or~ve)?f' 4- P R 7 Q S * T 6 U # ND DER y w A ERREE PER RUM HUM d ME r,3 -M 1st UM 1 i TWC d m, won % PERM & EM-ME & MER 13 -N Fil. 2%-Fdja ImtiaI ''clews" and Cipher Alphakt ( m k F * t00,pp II.*311


107 Fig. 27.-Tiltma's Diviriolr mf Common Wads into " h s " and "SufCixes" ITdmW l9 1 1

108 . Voynich Currier Currier Symbol,L LanguageA Language B Krischer D'Imperio (Herbal) (Herbal) (fo.l03-116) (Herbal,, I Astronom.) Af , " (all) 1005 < I 201 (all) 971 c:t' 1315 i "tf ', 154 tf : I 865..p' i 53 ctti !, 266 M I #-c I 29.6, (, I 1094 t 16 I 8 2 I L, 216 or "" 1 0 0,167 I ij tJ.R I Sf 23 I,) II? I u. j"-c 12 i!if? ,} /-: 0 'v I 7 /I,) /,) It If ' 1 13 'If 6 5 I ",., /lit! c Jf I lip; 2 -"' "" t Totals !!, I - ~ Fig. 28.-Monographic Frequency Counts of Some Students 106

109 Hermetic (Festugiere ) Agrippa (1970) Hermetic (Festugiere ) Aldebaran Caput Algol Acharnahar Alchoraya Pleiades Aldebaran Caput Algol Aldeboram Hayok Alhaiot Hircus' Ascherhe Aljemaniya Alhabor Canis Major Jed Algeuze Algomeisa Canis Minor Rigel Algeuze Cor Leonis Cor Leonis Sobel Ala Corvi Cauda Ursae Ascherhe Asschemalija Alchimech Alaazel Ala Corvi Cor Leonis Alchimech Abrameth Spica Lion's Tail Benenays Alchameth Alramech Alfeca Elpheya Alahzel Cor ScorplOnis Cor Scorpiofi1s Centaur Vultur Cadens Vultur Cadens Vultur Cadens Cauda Capricorni Cauda Capricorni Mouth of Southern Fish Fig. 29.-N ames of Fifteen Fixed Stars 107

110 Fig. 30.-Sutioar of tbc Mow 108

111 I Zodiac bw, 'Hemeuc Gptic Sign (ILoauo Taw) (20Ct3m&). WQ&). I I 2 Xoat*Xrc 3 Si-Ket WL F&T 1 n u Taurus 2 Arpt 3 IkmtD-am? 1 ' W k Gemiiu 2 Uurt 3 Phu-Ha Can= " 2 3 Knum I Xu-Knum Lm 2 Ha-Tet 3 Phu-Tet 1 T m Um-Bh 3 Apwot 1 Sob*os -9.u r.3 "'X,t I rnn(*l7 ljbrp 2 Tra.Xant I--- 4 a0 x OW~P 6 t W-Xne 44r cr~~;qd 1, h-u& W h w 2 3 Xm-nu 4. Scarpi0 2 S#mc. o'lvr7x.s, CCC-6, 3 Si-Snmt -Ye aqoou rc r.4 3 -me K~ML 1 Smrt ~drf Cspricwn 2 Srrr 3 ESPrt & n 1 fro-xu 9 Aqunriur 2 xu qofoplu 3 Tn-Biu )lov8bpss 4 T L ~ V S ~ 7% r e p c-u ' & I 1 Biu Ttf 4ry p:ou, piras 2 X#~.HW cotr#r X O V T ~ ~ cup& mclal -


113 b - Sent dja& Ikc's Names (- 1968) krbf G.rm I - I 1. Lil OeoPdcn SIkheI PrroDmbv* 2. Ain 3. a m I d (30 ia 4) D0rgnir P- DLlivr. wphn Vidi Aad#pi k=) (W h d l brmhl lard I SpiritrotrkHourr IAyiw IWO) D*r Yqn I.e#r - Nd& sdca sddd Oluer w* &ron Bud hi ~rhir M u h aam N m I- T81aic T k,f the "wree&omn" Ncron Sofhr a- dtdn af h= A* -1 Ah W#ro Nurioa Slh d I " Saturn 1- b Sw Vtm ~ ~ C U C Y Mooa PJ- d Spirirr (Mmhm 195) - M ) 1%2) Spirirs Princm & ~ m l, MI LPeik h d aufipl Muha b Soera Oeb Bo'il w v Birr'd Belial Orienr Opbirl Huqil Paimm Phd Sd jr 'il him i Pig. 3 3*-a - 8d Amgd N8ma

114 T-panmsa - U r n mod Air Ha-Main Liquid Arits Smn~uiw Red spiry Childhood Taw us Gtmini cancer Yellow Wit Fire Mol.Rr Gasccru~ Choltric Ydbw Summa Ywth Lso Virp Libr Black Bib Earth Cdd-01~ Dmw Mtlanrhnlic BhKk Avaumn Matrritl N b* iu 5 a Cmpirarn Phk~m Wawr Cnld.Mdu Mid Phltumrtic Whic Winm Old Afit Aqorriws f'iwrr

115 s+iro& Kcrhcr Hdrhmah Binah Hcwd u khhin Nmth nd Y d Malknrh AdbutesdGd The S qeme Widofi lntelttgencr Lm, Mucy Pwu,Wr8th CumpolJion Etmnirg urn Blrir Kiqdom.Giwy w- Primurn Mobile Ogdd (Fid Sun) &nun 1- Mur Sot Vmos h - Y h Elemcrrrs Fig. 3 5 i h E h n u of Cahk 1u

116 r& Hab M (- L6W. & )(0)


118 -. ='. - ctllcv-l~ 7 r n \ Z 3 3 ~ C / / frvfi2 11- IWU p MI N-ria hmlis. England. 'Chimmth Cmrurv 4 j 5 r t l I \ q r P r ~ P T T ' P a b c d e f p h i k m n o p r z r u k i z V 9 I w BwChvaum. I Twdve Auriliarv Marks Mdcd to she F m J1 -I 1 J L db J.b PIC, ofk Srmbd "A" - 2 a- Irfaonfm) "Cbrtpcrmll wds" wads fhanru Eltight's Chanearit J ~~ 1 &p(-rmbn+f) (-p) d L+ e= 12 hndo.(a+h&t) h u d mpm 4 A n t L t ~ r a t r ~ a b d t f p h i.e k.c.q I m n ( - 1 C C ) $ 2 0 p qlu) r 5 f u V' v x y z ch.n n h nw ix bt bi bo +I 1 e = abbwiad words John Wilb' Srmopaphic IWK 1970) I... x I 3 i a :!

119 A B C D E f G H I K L M N O P Q R S T X Y fir&oi-fi-;-&p+r.g.. 3 i6yq++-0l=9~ 2 Namcadarw: PAPA CAROINAUS 7 3f VENETI v ;C MOIVAQIUS Qh REXFRANUE eb ANfONfUS PONTS MQNS PESULANUS FLORENTINf AtiptrrrofP~m 1379 {&kml=p. 173) P- pc e+c* A B C D E F G H I L M N O P Q R S T U 1?7'/2 Q # Y v -9- f ti t,, T r SuDpltof K" Pq'" F- jig1 33+~+~f?+f.1+~9~90~8+90< (3... pro v idc a t u r p r r d o m p r pamdep a tri... A Vmh Cipher I- LW~. p. 3) I t IQ It C.r N*: *a33 44TV wt j b3 43 *3 7 Pf BB CC DD FF GG LL NN RR SS IT Sphbin: Fr qo 60 QUA QUE qur QUO QUU

120 k BONUM ad0 DIUGO EXPELLO FAIL0 BWJM COWER0 OORMIO EXPUCO PALSUM BENEFIC10 CONaUD DON0 EXTUUX) F U I O *i AMOR uij APPETO BACULUS COMMOI)(: DOLOR EQWS FORAMINA, -- - mt a. ede. Clf. CDE. ctt- a'. I I hdnpmkr Gdcr E100Pf: Pld A G MpKuEtu BB B H frmi- CC r c I w D K E L F M - Verbr: i! ~~ood pcnw i t S 1 Y. p.rrir* T' ' 7%. Y I w-fj*c/- v 3 ~. 8, 7 Cbiweriw - X l PI. 2pl. hhiuu z 3& IY i Slmplaobw 'fa: F a. C. 0 ~ ~ 4. 8, ~ r e m p r ~ AF.~. PL. u's ej*u DA-x~ws-~J~ C&**q. AF. xu. F- bb- Bonr mu& f.cillc# enar b#wr I, 1 i Fig. lo.--&& Sdhcr~or's 6de f 9 ~

121 I 3%"9arrt? "Indian" c h a m s to make Sturn pat P wish. ~ Y F ~ % ~ ~ ~ ) ~ F T J ~ YT'IC8l.V P T P L F J 1 I vlvlvl~lv~l~~~~ "Egypuon" mukicfi " am". w podcet one from P hnp.?i' +A+.. Arh.rmwdrueawayrnk. a&mx,=&\j/yy r bvm. a m m ~ $= t * >c ".~~p-*p~.ven.. d (.qvhf++j~ff~x~ OUImmhUI my w~=. SomcChums6romPiamix -rd-1%21 k ~ ~ * ' l / l ~ ~ ~ *. d d ~ ~NRRHETA DlNoT&R SAM0 ~ M W ALMRH!. * DHWS* SCIES ic-~wi,p.~nnl 7 A Th A M od 5UR mubmi J& G W I ~,AU LdU 3U CLLLCfTUN VRHtfElllW h u STAPH44 hllc) StlBEJAT1 AW KAHIR C~MI from 8 -th Cmcury "Grimoire de la Cable" in rhe Bibliothiquc Fig. 41.-Some bgical Spells a d Invoe~uow 119

122 9 I k 4 4 JW; Tifl MAAk: w r v ; Vitriol B To Oinill L). Birmwh 2 A h. -4 WhhAnenie: - 4 ALXx4.Y OIcm 40 T d SeMad uri# wbm-. 8 Coppr-= v Poruh.+ Quklrlk w w 7 e 6 1 &Imtd Coppr s, 89 slot Month w To Pnpu+ Pig <- 1W) Alebrmy Symblr

123 Fig. 43.-Tlo Yfial &ligh Lsn#or#es 1U


125 ) t YARRY ID OIGO OD TORZULP I AOD AF GOHOL CAUSGA T ABAQRD S AANIR OD CHRISTGOS YRPOIL TI OBL BUSDIRTXLB NO- PAID ORSBA OD a d OODRMNf ZTWA EL U P TILE PARM GI PIMP SAX OD TA QrnIST BOOAPIS To rht providence of him that sinerh onrhchdythront d -Up in tk bcgianin~ rryiap thr ah, let ha k governed k hct pwm: and " In rhm k dtvision in her that tht %my of kt may k dwrpr drunben u*xed in irrlf. Wrr course kt it tun with the Heam, and PI pn handmid Inkmrhrm. - LNIBM OUCH0 SYMP OD CHEUSTGQS AGTOLTORN MIRC Q TI 001 LEL TON PAOMBD DIUMO ASP1 AN OD awsfgos AGLTOLTORN PABACH A SYMP CORDZIZ DODPAL OD FIFAU LS MNAD One =son Itt it confound another and kt there k no creature upon. m within ha the same. A11 her rnrmkn kc them differ in their qualities ad krtherek no one mature ~qud with mother., Thc reasonable ma. turc of rhc emh; oc man. let thm vex and w d out. ant anwhtr. Fig Aaotbtr Sample offwebian Text I G u h p. 203) [ThelbmorefY dj lrolp*jpluktds. 43naotapl.lsall

126 Biblio~raphy I It has be:ensucj:e:ue:dto me:b\.t (ll1it'ii.&:ul: chilei should.idd.t notl: to this blbho&:r.1ph\. tdhna.: \\ht'rl: tht' b"d., :11,1\i't ti'und, Must of the: bcklksmol\'be:obtai ne:dt'irhe:r from the: Libriln of Con~ress Iindudin,&:rhe: Rart' Hook Room j, \X'.Jt'lIl:r Libran at Harvard l' nlvcrsm'. or the: Main Libran ilt Cathu/it l 'niversin', Some are recenr reprints whkh I saw In thl: YI:~ Hookstore in Washin/[tUn. D,C The: purpose of this biblio,..,.aph,' is to make the: /iterilture ils a(.'ct'ssibleas possible: ti>am serious student of the Vo\'nich milnuscript; hence I ha\'e provided intilf'matiun on currenth. available reprints and t.t(. simile editicms uf some older WClf'ks,Personal communications and other unpublished materials arl: prc:ser\'ed III.1(ll1I1:(tIOIl of VCI\'nlchiana. and ma\' be:examined b,' arran~emenr with me:.) A,l:rlppa. Henn' C"rnehus. I1)"'0. Op~rtl. Lond"n: ~I ')31. IReprinteu II}"O. I. Aa:rlppa. Henn' Cornelius. I()') I. Tbr~~ B(IO!ti(If Ouilil Phil(IJoph\'. Trilnsliue:d b,' J. Frenth. Lonuon. A,l:ulrre:,. Respaldila. Andres, 1')3'5. R(lxn-I(lr &icon. Baree:luna-Buenos Aires: Editorial Ltbc,r S..1. Alberti. Leon BattiStil. I '56~. O/'lIScoli.\lorali. Edited b\' C. Bc:rtoni, Venella. Alessio. F. IlJ')7..\lilfJ ~ Sci,nZil In RuxxnfJ BrlcfJne,Milan: Ceschina. AlessiC/,F. IlJ')9. "Un Seculu di Studi su Ru~~e:roBacone, I~4~-llJn)." Rer'ls/~ CriliCil'"~StfJrlil Jellil Filo.lfJ(iu14. Allen. Dun Cameron Tb~ Sl6r.CmsseJ R,nllisSilnclI: Thll QlHlrrlll AhfJIlt AnrolfJ/o' tlnj It.; II,tl"~I1"" III E"::/uI'J. Durham. North Carolina: Duke Fnivc:rsin' Press, Allen. Thumas \'('illiam. 1MH').,-':(lllIi (III Ahhr~r'iali(IIIS II' Grllll!t.\ltlRllScrlp/J. ()xfurd: Clarendon. AlstUn, R. <.. It) )(). Trl!tltlSI!Jfill SbfJrthtlnJ. Leeds: Printed fur the author b,' E..J. Arnold. Altick. Richard D. 19')0. Th~ SeI}(I"'rA"r',nturerJ. ;\;ew Y"rk: Macmillan. Arber. AJ:nes,It)').;. Hl!rhaJs.Their OriXlnIInJf"fJJUllfJll./ 47lJ-J 670, Cilmbrid~e:The: rni,,'ersin' Press. AshbrClok.Joseph "Ro.~er Bileon and the VCI\'nichManuscript." Slit IInJ Tl!lescape (April!. pp. 211'i-21 'J. Ashmole. Elias. 16')2, Theillrunt Chelllicum Brilllnnicum. London: Nath. Brooke. creprinted Hildesheim: 1<)b'J I Askham. Anthon,.. I ')4Ha. An AI"""",clt,a Pro~noslicacyon. London: W, Powell. Askham. Anthon\'. I ')4Hb. A Prnnoslicacion.\llUie forlhe Yn,.,\lDXLVIlI, Londrm: W, PClwell. Askham. AnrhoO\', I OJ ')0. A Liltl, Hno,,/I of Ih, Pm/,nlles of H,rb,s. London: W, Powell. Askham. AnthoO\'.\1 ')<;2. A LYlel Treatys,. nf Astronomy. London: W, Powell. Askham. Anthon,', I '5,).~.A PJ'fJ.I!"OSIICillioll f"r tbl! Yn,..\lCCCCLIl/. London: W, Powell. Arwood. Man' Anne. IIJ<>O.Hftrllletl,' Philos(lphy IIn" Akht!ntv, :\iew York: Julian Press. BanlO. R,,~er. 16')9. De.\llrllhili PfJllISllIl1!Artis III Natllrall. or FrIar &i,;on HIJ" Discm'l!rI' nl tl1ft.\lirtldl!.; 0'-.irt, -'.liili',',m",\iiixic".london. Bawn. RoJ[er ~nlnris.\Ie"iciRlle,\III]!lstriRfJ.I:n-1D. &zcunisan~1i"e Arte Chyml"e Scrl/,III.Frankfurt. Bawn. RoJfc:r. 16M" Tbl! Cure of Old AXil, tin" PreSn'lWIIORof "(flulh. Translated b\. Richard Browne. LnnJun: Prlntl:d fur Thu, Flesher and Edward Evers.. Hawn. RoJfer. 11:1')9.Fr. Roxeri Bacon O/,erll QuileJalll HacI,nus In,dilil. Edired b\. John S. Brewer. London. Grc:c:n, Lun~man and Robem. Bamn. RoJfer. I ~lj3. Lellre sur lei /,radixes "e '" ",,'ure et de'tart. Chamuel. Translated and commented b,' A. Poisson. Pam: Bawn. RuJ:er. ( 11:!97-1lJ()()). The 'O/,us,\Ia;us' of RoJ!er Bacon. Edired by John H. BridJi!es. Oxford: Clarendon Press. (Reprlnred Frankfurt/Main: Minc:rva.VerlaJ! Bawn. Ro~er. 1'X)2. The Greek Grammar of Ro~n &zcon ana II Fra~Tllenlof His Hebreu' Grammar. Edited b,' Edmond Nolan and S. A. Hirsch. CambridJ:e: The llniversiry Press, Hawn. RuJ:er. 1l)()lJ. L'1lfraxment Inedit tit! I'O/'IISImlUTl' ", Ro~n &icon. With preface b,' Pierre Duhem. Quaracchl: St. Bonilventure ColleJ:e Press:. Hawn. Ro/[tr. I90l) O/'"rl Haclenus In,tiilll. Edited by Robert B. Steele. Oxford: Clarendon Press, Bilwn. RoJfer. IlJll. Com/,en"illm SllIaii Th,olo/(I"'. Edited b\' A. G. Little. Aberdeen: Universit" Press. (Reprinted 1%6. J Bawn. Ru/[er Pllrt of the OpllS Terliu1l/ of Ro/(n &tcon, Edited by A. G. Little. Aberdeen: V niversin' Press. Bawn. RuJ:tr Roxn &icon'j Lenn C"ncerni,,~ Ihl!.\IIlrI'eJolIsPo"'n of Art "M of Nalilre. Translated b,' Tenne,' L Davis. EasUln. Pol: The Chemical PublishinJ! Co.. Bawn. RoJ:er. 192~a. Frillris R(J~eri &tcon 'De RftlllrJrJ,io"l!AccI",nllllm S",eclulil', Edited b,' A. G. Little. with preface b\' E. Withinj:wn, Oxford: Clarendon Press. Hawn. Ro"er. 11}2~b. The O/'IIS.\la;Ul of RfJ~n &icon, Translated by Robert B. Burke. Philadelphia: l~niversit\. of Pennnivania Press. ( Reprinred New York: Russell" Russell

127 I:tlC:umktr. eltmtos. I') 10. RIJ.!!t'rBa(I)/1JSul//rpbillJ.;opbit!. Miinsttr: J. \X'. Halts, Pttt"r. I~9'"'. Tbt' Arlt' 'l BrodJy!:.rapbit!. London: Imprinttd b\ G. Sh.twt.In.! It. HI..wc:r.tor T (1I.Irdt" R... printed :\iew York: DaCapo Press, 19'72. J Bardon, Franz Inirlaliol1i11l0HermellCJ. Translated b\. A. RadspieJer Keui,c iiber Kuble:nz: OsirIS' Vc:rhu:. Bardon, Franz The Pracriceof,\la/:.ic4/E,:ocarion. Wuppertal: Vietor RuJ(~eber,c. Bauer, H. 1963, Die u:undtrnre.\ianch: Leben und Kampf Ro/ &'cons. Leipzil!: Koehler & Amelan.c. Bausani, Alessandro Geheim und UnivtrSllJsprachen. Stuu/[arr. Beck, Cave The Uni 'ersa/c/ Printed bv Tho. Maxe\', for William Weekle\'. Benoni. Efrem. 1962a. ooruj(/zerobacone in Alcune Recenti Pubblicaziune haliane'" Rt!I'isra Ji Fi/IJ.mliil-'""".;("/,1.'11( p. ~. Benoni, Efrem. 1962b. "San Bonaventura e RuJ(/[ero Bacone'" SruJi Fra"el!St:imi~9, p. 12. Benoru, Etrem L' Aris[Otelismodi Ru~~ero Bacone'" Re 'isladi Fi/Qso/iuSt!luco/asli,'a '5H.p. 'i Benoni. Etrem "La Dottrina della Conscienza di Ru~J(ero Bacone'" Revisra di Fi/oso(r4."\t!QSCf)/asrlcu 'i'). p. =.. Biedermann, Hans ,\lediciM,\Ia/:.icll, iwelilph"!sisehe Hel/melhoJen in spill4nriken una mirle/a/rt'r/idjt'1l H'IIIJ. schrifren. Graz: Akadem. Druck.Verla/[anst. Bi/Zalli, Davide. 197 \. I Tarlilri e /'APOC4/issi.Rlctrce sui/' Esc4r%/:.ill in Ad4mn,\14rsh t' RuKxerlJ &Cf)lll!. Fire:nl'C::Lt Nuova lealia. Bird. Malcolm "The RoJ!er Bacon Manuscript: 1R\'esti,cation inti! its Hiswr\"..1nd tht Effllrts w Dc:nphc:r It Sele,'rifie Ameri,an.\Ionlhh 3 tjune:i, pp ' Bishop. William Warner. 19'5(). A Cbeck/isl of America" ~QPiesof "Shorl. Tillt! GIla/O.!!III!,. B'mk.\. 2nJ t"d. Ann :\rh..r l~ni\'ersit\. of Michi~an Press. Blau, Joseph Leon The Christian InrerprelilriQn n( rhe GIha/a in rbe Rl!naisstlllcl!.:'IOe:wYork: Columbia I' nl\t'r. sitv Press. Blish, Jamt:s. 19i I. Do.:ror,\Iirabi/u: A No 'e/. New York: Dodd. Mead. Bober, H. 1948, "The Zodiacal Miniature of the Tres Riches Heures of the Duke of Bern.,. }Qurnll/ 0{ Ihl! Wd,..hllr.t.'all.l Courlilu/d lnsrirum 11. pp, Bo~e, Herbert Griechische Tllchy/(raphie und Tironische Noren. Berlin: Akademie. Verla,c. Boll. Franz and Bezold. Carl Sttrnl!lllube una Srerndellrllnl!: Die Geschichre Il11ddIl.. Wesl!l1der A..-rro/"gi".1[11 ed. Leipzi,c: B. G. Teubner. Bolton. Henr\' C Thl! FfJ//ies o( Science tit the CQUrlQf Rudolph II /612. Milwauktt: Ph.1rmal'c:u!Il;t! Review Publishin/[ Co. Buu\'/[es, M Ro,.rer Bacon a,t.illu les livres Arabes!" Archil'es J'hisrQire douri1lo/t' I!l /irierllirl!.iu f1/fj}1!1l ;'.t.'" ). pp ,). BreJ(ola. G. 193"'. "11 Valort delle Lin,.rue e delle Scit:Rlt ReiI' Apolo/[etica di RuJ(J!ew Bacont'" Lo 5a~old Culloli'd b". pp Brid/[es, John Henr\' Life and W fjrkof Ro/'con. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Broph\'. Liam The.\14n'e/olls DQcIOr.Frillr Ro/:.t!r&'con. Chica/[o: Franciscan Press. Brumbau,.rh, Roben S "Botan\' and the Vo\'nich 'Ro/[er Bacon' MS. Once More'" Speculum 49. pp. '546-'i..b!. Brumbau,.rh, Robert S. 197'). '"The Solution of the Vo\'nich 'Ro,Rer Bacon' Cipher'" Yale Uni,'ersil}' Lihraq. GIl::elll! ~l) capril). pp. 34~-3')'). Brumbau,Rh, Robert S "The Vovnich 'RoJ!er Bacon' Cipher Manuscript: Deciphered Maps of Stars'" journal IJf rhe Wllrburx. ami Courrllil/d Inslirutes XXXIX / 1976), pp Bruno. Giordano De Umbris laellrum. Paris. Brusadelli, M. 19'54. "Ru/[/[ero Bacone nella Storia." Re 'isllldi Fi/osofill Neosco/aslicll 6. Burland. Conie A. 196i. The ArIS of the AlchemiSts. London: Weidenfeld and ~icholson. Butler, Eliza M The.\IYlh oflhe /\la/:.lis.cambrid/[e: UniversitY Press. Butler. Eliza M Rirual.\fa/:.ic. / Reprinted by Newcastle Publishin/[ Co., Inc., 1971.) Candler. Howard "Rolter Bacon and Francis Bacon: A Comparison'" In RO.,,!4/Sociel"l of Lirtrllrure of Ihe C"iled Kinl!drJ111,Esu"!s hy Dh'ers Hanas. Bein/( rhe TranSilclions. 2nd Series 27, pp '). Cappelli. Adriano Lexico" Abhrer'ialurarum. Milan: Vlrico Hoepli. Carter. Albert H "Some Impressions ofthe Vo\'nich Manuscript'" unpublished notes. 10 September Carton. Raoul. I 924a. "L'experienct phnique chez Ro/[er Bacon," Eludes ae phi/osophie m'eater'a/e 2. Paris: J. Vrin. Carton. Raoul. IlJ24b. ool'experienct mmique de I'illumination inteneure chez RoJ!er Bacon'" Erudes ae phi/osophil! medtel'o/e 3. Paris:). Vnn. 125

128 Canon. Raoul. 1924c. "La srnth~e doetrinale de Roger Bacon:' Ellllil!s de philosophie medi; J. Vrin. Canon. Raoul. 1929, "Le chitt're de Ro~er Ba<:on'" Revue d'histoire de la philosophic 3. pp, '5-1""1} Casaubon. Meric, 16'5'), A TrMI!IInd FilithfMJ R,,14lion of Wh4t PIISSI" Betlnln Dr. John Dee tlnd SnRle Sp,riu, London Printed bv D. Maxwell. Cecchcrti. Bartolomeo. 1868/69. "u Scritture Occulte nella Diplomazia Veneziana," In AlIi del Re161ISlitMIOVI/nero di S,il"%I. Lenerud A,ti. Series III 14. p Charles. Emile RoKer &' 11: SiI vii!. SIS OIl"""J(IS.lIS Joarinn dilpns des tules ;,,'ediu. Bordeaux: G. Gounouil. hog. Clement. Adolf. 1926, "Sur I'indication de Ia composition de Ia poudre a feu chez Rop:er Bacon." Archi,'io de Storitl deu. Scie"u 7. pp. 34-3"). Cockavne. T. O Ll!echdoms. WorlCtl1lninx lllid SlII1'cr4' o.f ur1~ EIIX14",i. London: Chronicles ;AndMemurials 5. Cuurtne\'. William L RojCerBacon." In Sludies III LeisMre. London: Chapman and Hall, Ltd.. Crowlev. Theodore. 19")0. Roxer &'co". the Problem of the Soul ill His Philosophiul Commen""ies. louvain: Editions de l"insritut superieur de philosophie. Crowlev. Theodore. 19'51-")2. "RoJ(Ct Bacon: The Problem of Universals in His Philosophical Commentaries'" BuJ/tlin of the John R.'v/muisLibrny 34.. Currier. Prescott "Voynich MS. Transcriprion Alphabet; Plans for Computer studies; Transcribed Text of Herbal A and B Material; Notes and Observations." linpublished communications to John H. Tiltrnan and M. D'lmpcrio. D:!mariscotta. Maine. Daile,'. William. 197"). The 1\1""" o.f AI,lJi"l'l. Composed b.~ihe Fllmous Fritn". Roxer &z'nn. 1/".. u-ilb the Smllrll~dinr: Tllbll! of Hermes. Trisml!xistll.S.of AJchemv. Los Anlteles (facsimile!. DaljCarno. Geor~e A,s SiX"tmlm. Vulxo em'ii"er Uni"erllliis er LinxUll Philosophill. London: f. Hnes. Dal~arno. Geor"e. facsimile ) DiiWsulo,ophMS. Oxford: Primed at the Sheldonian Theater (Menston: Scholar Press. 19~ I. Deacon. Richard )ohn D". London: Frederic Muller. Dee.John I\lOUS HieroX~f/Ibic". Anrwerp. Dee. John The PriNte Dill,.., of Dr. John Dee. Edited by James Richard Halliwell. London: Printed for the (arndtn Societv by J. B. Nicholsand Son. (Reprinted New York: AMS Press ) Dee. John Du.,.., of John Dee. Franklin. New Hampshire: Hillside Press. Dee. John "Monas Hieroltlyphica." Translated by C. H.Josten. Ambix 12. pp, ~4-2l1. De Givn'. Grillot WitCher";..\lI6Xi, I6ndAkhem~. Translated bv J. Courtenay Locke.!'ew York: DU\.~r, Delorme. F. M "Un opuscule inedit de Ro~ Bacon O.F.M:' Ar,hil/llm Frilncis'IInMm Historicu", 4. DeRola. Stanislas Klossowski: The Secret Art of AJchem~. New York: Avon Publishers. D'lmpcrio. M. E "New ~esearch on the Vovnich Manuscript: ProcecdinjCs of it SemlRar." Washin~ton. 30 November Privately circulated.. D.c.. Dioscorides. 19'59. The Greek Herbal o.f Dioscorides. II/llslrll"'; h~ II B~ulltille. A.D Enxlished by Jolm GQQJwr, A.D. 16'.5. New York: Hafner,,. Duhcm. Pierre M. M '59. Le sysieme Ju nlontie: hinoire des doarines eos",%1(iquls de PillIon ii Coperni.-. Paris: A. Hermann. Duthie. Georlte Ian EJiuberh4n Short""nd IlIIdthe First QMl6rtOof KillX Lu,. Folcroft. Pa.: Folcroft Press, Easton. Stewart C. 19")2. Rox,r &'con IIIId His Su"h lo, II Unit'IFIIIIScience. Oxford. (Reprinted New York: Russ~1I& Russell ) Evans. Robert John Weston RMdolph 11 IInd His WorlJ: A Study in InteJJ'ClIIIIIHistory /6 J2. Ox ford: Clarendon Press.. Feelv.Joseph M Roxer &'cons Cipher: The RiXhl KI'Y Follnti. Rochester. New York: n.p. Fell.Smith. Charlotte John Dee. London: Constable and Co.. Ltd. Feret. P Les imprisonnemenrs de Ro~er Bacon." Riot'Medes tplestions historiqul!s 50. pp. l19-142, Fesru~ere. Andre Marie Jean ~4. L4,.n-'eJ.tion d'he",ies Trimll!xiste. Paris: Lccoffre. Festup:iere. Andre Marie Jean H".."iaisme II mysti'1l1efnlim",. Paris: Aubier-Montaigne. folkinltham. William Brl6chiJ(rilph'l:or the Art of Short Writinx. Amsrcrdam: Theauum Orbis Terrarurn. Frankowska. Mal~orzata Sci,nrillils Interpreted by Roxer &'con. Translated b,. Ziemislaw Zienklewlcl, \X'arsJ\\ U.S. Department of Commerce. ~ational Technical Information Service. SprinJlfield. Va.. IOri,lnnal public.ltlun Warsaw: 1969.) 126

129 French. P~tcr J. I'r 2..Iohl/ Dee. Lond!1: RoutlNl:e and Ke~an P;aul. "Friar Bacon." The."lItiol/ I:'I:ewYork I 123 ID~c~mber I. p. o"i(). Friedman. Elizebtth "The Most Mmerious MS.-Still an Eni~ma." lr/llsbingtol/ D.c. Post. 5 Au~us[. E1. E~- Friedman. William F. and Elizebeth S ooacrostics. Ana~rams. and Chaucer'" Phiiolof(icill QlJllrtnl,,! ;.~ IJ;anuan". pp Garland. Herbert ooth~ MyStery of th~ Rolter Bacon Cipher MS'" Book"",n's Journal IInti Prim CoUe..tor (London) 5. New Series (OCtober I. pp Geissler. H. 19~9. Com",ills."tI ml! S",."ch,. Heidelberlt. Gemelli. AIt05tino. 191 Scritti Vllri Puhhlicllti in O""sio"e Jel Vll Clfnt,n"rio JelLz."lIsciLJ Ji Ru.v.:&'F"OBu'-"'IL'- Florenct: Libraria Editrice Florentina. Gerard. John. lob. The Hl!rbllll. London: Adam IslipJoice Norton ;and Rich;&rdWhitakers I Reprinted b\. Dmc:r. 1"-". Gessma~. Gustav W Die G,hl!imn",bol, der A/chymie. Arznl!ikunJI! unj Astrolof(11!JI!S.\litt&'kllrt!rJ- Hc:r1m: Verla~ von Karl Siellismund.. Gilson. Etienne lReview of the N""bold~KentBook) Rml critilflll d'histoire It d, littnaturl! (Paris) 9'; :"e" Series (Aultust I. pp Giulimi. Francesco Storilldl!/Je Scrinllre V,/oci. Firenze: Giunti. G. Barb4:ra. Goldsmith. Edmund. ed Sibliotheu Cu,.;ouz. The F"mous History off,..,er &COI/. Edinbur~h. Grana,. John H. Goo ;and Sin~. Charles J A1IXlo.Saxol/,\JIIgie III/J,\JeJicil/l!. /IIUJ-trlll&,J5Pc"-'dl" ".,,11; the Semi-PIII(III/T,xt 'L4C1lU1lXII'. London: Oxford Fnversity Press. Graubard. Mark Aaron AstroloX";""d Alch"",,;: Tu'o Fossil Scie1lces.New York: Philosophical Libran-. Greene. Robert The Ho1lotlrllbie Historie of FriIIr &COI/ li"ti Frillr Bul/lllI"!. London: Printed for Ed "JrJ \,\"1It1: ( Reprinted New York: AMS Press. 1970). Groves. Edward PIlSiIo,f!i4:A1I,,; TOUIartisth, FortnIJIiO1lof II S,,;stem of l';"niverul L411I(IUIJ{I!. hoth Wrltt&'tl."d Vis_I. Dublin: James McGlashan. Gundel. Wilhelm D,ita"und D,itanst"",biltJer. Studien der Bibliothek Warburj[ 19. Hajdu. HelJta. 19;6. DlIs mnnnotl!chnischl! Schrifttum d,s tw.ittllllltns. Vienna. Hall. Maoly Palmer The JMystiul,,"d,\leme.1 Philosoph."! of Par.c,lsus. Los Anlleles: Philosophical RcsC:Jrch Societv. Hall. Manly Palmer Codex Ros., Crllcis. Los Anlteles: Philosophical Research Soclen. Heck. Erich. 19~7. Rol(er &eo1l: I!il/ mittl!lillterlicher Vnstlch,inn histo,.;schen u1ld s,,;ste11llltlschreli,r(ioi/j-uus&'ll_,.-buti. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bonn. Held. GuStav Roxer &'eollsprdtische Philosophie. Jena. Hilde~ardis..l 91;. Die Kompositio"l!1Ider Heil. Published bv Joseph Gmelch. Dusseldorf; L. Schwann Itacsimile I Hill. Sir Geor~ Francis Thl! D,f/,/o""""t of Arabic Numerals i1leurope. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Hime, Henrv W. L "Friar Bacon'"In Th, Or;X;" ofgii"powder. London: LonJ1;mans.Green and Co. p Hime. Henry W. L "R lter Bacon and Gunpowder:' In Rolfer &eo1l CJkl";s. Edited bv A. G. Little. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp ;5. Hime. Henrv W. L "Friar Bacon:' In The Orif(in of ArtiOI!r"l.London: LonJ1;mans.Green and Co.. pp Hoffmans, Hadelin "Une themie intuitioniste de la connaissance du XlII siecle." Rel'ue neos,'olllstlquc d&' philosophie 13. pp Hoffmans. Hadelin ula synthesc doctrinale de Ro~ Bacon." Archil' fm Geschiehte der Philosophie 14. pp. Hoffmans. Hadelin "La Jtenese des sensations d'apres RoJter Bacon." Revue 1Ieoseoillstiqllftde philosophic 15. pp Hoffmans. Hadelin. 19O9a. ula sensibilite et les modes de Ia connaissance d'apm RoJ1;erBacon'" Ref/tie neoscolllstiqu&' d, philosophi, 16, pp Hoffmans. Hadelin. 1909b. ool'intuition mystique et Ia science:' RMI! 1Ieoscoillstiqtl, dl! philosophie 16. pp <r. Hoffmans. Hadelin 'Texpmence chez Ro~ Bacon." RMI! neoscolilstiqu, ti, philosophie 27. pp HuJto. Herman D, P,.;1IUIScrib,ndi OriKin' It U";,,nuz Rei Litermlle A1Iriqui",Ie. Auvers. James. MontaJtue Rhodes A"cie1lt Libraries of c.1iterbllry IInd DOrtl!r.CambridJte: The {jniversit\" Press. James. Montaltue Rhodes ,\f55 Former~,,;OUlned b,,; Dr. John DIe. London: BiblioJtraphical Socien' Transac(llIns" (Supplement). Johnen. Chr Gesehichte tier 5te1l0,f!F""phie. Berlin: H. Apia. 127

130 Josten. C. H. An l"nknown Ch..pu:r In rht" Lltt" "i Juhn Oct" -"lllrii.t!,,( the' IF./r/'IIIT.",./ <:,,/1,., I'!"om", ~... pp. 22~-1'5- Jourdain. c... IMX~. "DI~cumon~ dt quelque:~ pulnr'~de: I.. philosophlt Je: Ructr Haum, In Ex""".'IfJI/.' /./.otll"/';/i.',: philo~ophi,.es, Paris: Firmin.Didur tr Cit.. pp i'5 IReprinted Frankt'urrjM.: Mlne:na.Ve:rlaa:..l9hh. Kahn, David Th~ Cod~hreiliters:The Sto,,' II/ Secret WritlllX. ~cw York: Macmillan, pp. Xo.~-X-2, Kcicher, 0, 1913, "Dcr Intelleetus A,l.tensbei RtI,l.terHacu." In St.ti,ell Jffr Gl!sehiebte Jer Pbtlo.mpblc, 5upple:rne:nr I Munster: I. W,. pp, 19i-30H, KiplinJf. Rudvard, "The E,'e of Allah," In Dehirs tlnd Credits, London: Macmillan, Kircher. Athanasius. 1663, Po/y!!rllphitl N"' I I!t L'nll'f!rsillisI!.'I:Con/hintltllrw Arll! DI!II!t!fI.Rume:, Kocher. Paul. 19'53. Sci~nee IInJ Re/i.finn ill E.1i:.hetI:NlnEII.ldllnJ. San Marinu, Laliti"n,;!: The: Huntlna:Jun Llhr.ln Kraus. Hans P. n.d, Thirty.Flr'e,\lllnlls,'rlpu, Caraloa:ue Krischer.jcffrct p, 1969, Th~ Voynieh.\llInllseript. Harvard l:niversit\'. Liebtschutt. H. 1930, DIISillexorisehe We/thi/J Jer hei/ixe HildexlmJ t'oiibinxell. Ltip"i,l: and Hedin: H, G. Te:ubne:r. Little. Andrcw G. 1H92, The Gre'YFriars in Oxford. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Little. Andrew G Roger &eon Esuys, Oxford: Clarendon Presi. (Reprinted New York: Russell.:I.:Rum'll. Little, Andrew G, Roxer &eon: Leeillre I)n II ',\llister.\ii"d'. London: H. Milford, LunJfprc, E. IlJ.'-t!. "La summa dialtctll'il de Ru!,er Hilc:'m.".ir.hir'lInt FrtlllL"iSi:tlnllntHistorlOilll.;,1. pp, 2U-I-211'i. LonJfWcll. H. C 190M. Thl! Thenq' of,\linj III Roger &1I:fJI1,Ph.D, DlsscrtarlCln, Ernpe:rllr \X'ilh.1I1I! 01\tr,m. Strasbour". Lu~. Edward, Ro.!!n Ba.o"'sC",,trihlllirlR III KnolJ:/eJxe. :\ew York: J. F, Wa~ne:r. Ine Macca/tnolo. Emo. 19'5'5,..Ru~~ero Haconc e la Merafisic:a Classic:a..' Studi Frlln.ffse."i '52. Maffre. Camille, IM63, Ro!!er &eo". Pari~, Mandonnet. p, IlJlO, "Roger Bacon et Ie 'Speculum Asuonomiae':' Rme neosowtitple de philosophie, Mandonncr. p, 1913,..RoJttr Bacon er la composition des trois' Opus'.., Relflle,,';oseo"6Iti,lIe Je phi/(j~'ophie, Manly.John M. 1921a, "ROJltr Bacon's Cipher Manuscript:' Amen",n Rn.;eu: ofrnieu:s 64 cjuh'l. pp. 1O~-1O6. Manly. john M. IlJ21b. "The Most MYSterious Mansucript in the World: Did Ro~er Hacon W'rire It.and Hils rhe: Kn Heen Found~" H.rper's.'otonth/y.\ltlXllzi"e 143 tjuh'l. pp, IH Manlt.John M ,. Ro/ter Bacon and the Vuyni,h MS'-' Spew/11m 6 cjuly I. pp. 3...' Massa. Eu~enio. 19'53... Ru~~cro Bacone e la 'Poetica' di Aristorele... GiorR/lle Crili.1I de/lj Filom{ill lllilitlnll.12. Massa. Eugcnio RlI,l!xn'O &eo"e-cti.1l e Poe/iell neli41srorill de'" Op,s.\llliUJ', Rumc:: Edi"lIlnl Ji SWrJ.1e:- Lmeratura, Massa, EuJfcnio, IlJ'5';b. "Vita Civile t Crisi Larina in Ru,ltJreroBacone," RtlSSe,flnlldi Po/irictl e Ji Storill I. Massie. Mitford C..1934, The Ro!!er Blleon or R. R. Dee Chess Code. n,p.: Press of Fremont Pa"ne. Inl'. Mathers: S, L. MacGreJfOf. IlJ'5 I, The Kllbb.lllh U"veileti. London, 1Reprinted New York: S, W tlser. 1961),I Mathus. S. L. MacGrc/tor. 1974, The Key of Solomo" the Ki"K fc/llf/ieuiii SoIomo"is),.\lou First Trtlns/lluJ al/d Edited fl'om Ancie"t 1\ the British I'olusellm, New York: Samuel Weiser. Inc. Mathers. S, L. MacGreJfor, IlJ7';, The B()()1zof the SII.reti,\tllxie of Abrllme/in Ihe."IIKe, As De/ir'neJ h\" Ahrc/bant thejeu'li"to His Son LIImech, A.D New York: Dover. Matroel. H. 1927, "Sur Ro~er Bacon " Etudes frll"eisellines 2lJ. May.). IlJ29. Die hei/i!!e Hildexnti. Munchcn. McCracken. Geor,lte E. 194H. "Athanasius Kircher's Universal Poh'~aph,':' Isis 39 (November', pp,21';-121:i. McKai~, Ben", n.d, "Thc Vovnich Manuscript-Cipher of the Secrer Book:' Reprinted courtes\' Independent ;";c:w~. papers Inc.. San DieJfo. California. McKeon, Richard, 192H, "Ro,lter Bacon." The Nillion 127 (Au~usr 291. pp. 20';-206, Meister. Aloys, I HlJ6, "Zur Kenntnis dcs vcnetianischcn Chiffrcnwesens:' Historisehesjllhrbllch 17 pp , MeiSter. Aloys Die Anli/n!!e der modnnen Jip/omlltisehe" Geheimsehnft. Paderborn: F, Schonin,ch. Meister. Aloys. 1906, Die Geheimsehrift im Dinute tier pitpstliehen K,me. Paderborn: F. Schonin~h, Miano, V incc""u, "Tradiziona1ismo e Umanesimo in Rultltero Bacone:' In L 'homme et son tiesli" d'liprru /f!!i pe"sellrstillmoyen ;',fl~,iic1esti. premier eo"llrerintnrllrior/lletiephilosophie metii'et'il/e, Moorse!. Gerard van, 1"'5~. The i\lynnieso(hennes Trisme!!istllJ, UtreCht. Muses, Montrose J. 1"21. "A Cinderella on Parchment: The Romance "fthe New 600.Year.Old Bacon Manuscript." Hellrst's InrenJllliontl/, pp '5, 128

131 :\twbold. \"'illiam Romalnt-, 1')21 'Tht Ciphtr IIi Ro.:tr Baron," T",III,',I.til1II,'"~lIb,' (~"II,'~'""f p/'\,".1./i"., Pi,::'.,. JeJphuJ...3 I 1')21 I. pp, , Rtad April , :\twbold. William Romaine. 191H, Tbe Cipber or Ro!!er Bacon, Edited with foreword.ind nou:s b\' Prof RobnJ (Jru~i' Kent. Philadelphia: t:niversm' of PennS\'lvania Press. r-iock, A.D., and FeStugiere, A. M. J Hermes Trisme}?iste. Paris. <YNeill. Hulth "Botanical Observations on the Vovnich MS," Speculum 19 IJanuary). p, 126, Panofsh, Erwin. 1954,.. Answers to Questions for Prof. E. Panofsh'" Personal cummunication [0 \X"ilh.llll F FritJ. man. March Pasini. luilli, UP 3, Delle Scritture in Cirra CidU JalJa RepllhblictJ Venet", Ventzia: RtCII' Archi, (;c:ntr.dl:.!i Venelia, p Peers. Edcar Allison, 1929, Ri/nuJI/Lull. i/ Bio!!rapln. :\ew York: Macmillan, Peller. A. 1919, "L:ne source inconnue de Roller Bacon. Alfred de Saraschel." Archiz'I"" FrtJnflHtJl"III/ HI.<!or""iI" I~, p,45.. Petersen, Theodore C. 194)3. "Notes to Mr, Tiltman's [194)I J Observations on the Vo\'nich Ciphtr MS" l'npubli\htd, April )3. Petersen. Theodore C Hand Transcript and Concordance of the Voynich Manusnipt :lnt.!othtr \X'orkinc Pap!:r' In the Friedman ColleCtion. Geor,lte Marshall library. lexinp:ton. Vir,cinia, Philai(lhes. Aenenaeus. 16'7t:i,RipJn Rez'iz"J. London: Printed b\' T, Ratcliff :lnu :\, Thompson. tor \X', <'t~tptr Poisson. Alben, 1890, Cinq trait;'s J'llkhimie. IPar:u:elsus. Albertus Ma,l.!nus. Ro.ctr Bawn. R.lIn"" Lull. :\rn.,i".:\ Villanm'a.) Paris: Bibliotheque Chacornal'.. Pollard. A. W.. and Redp:rave. C. R. 1969, A Sbort. Tit/e CiiItJ/o,~ue0( B()oJu Print~.I ill Eng/tJl1.1,11/.1Irt'/,I1I./,/I,,; ',f En!!'ish Books Printed Ahmad 14"'<; London: The Biblioltraphical Society, Porta. Giovannie Battista. I~63, De Furti"is Litnarum Notis Vul!!o de Ziferis. Naples. Porta. Giovanni Battista. 1644,,\taKia N"tllr"lis, Levden. Powvs, John Cowper The Brazen Head.. London: MacDonald. Pratt. Fletcher Secret and Ur!!ent. Garden Cit\,. N.J.: Blue Ribbon Books (see especially pp, 3()- 31:11, Redltrove. Herbert Stanley, Ro,~er Bacon. the Father of Expnimf!nta/ Science and,\leji~z,tj/ Q,w/ti..m, Londo!'. W. Rider & Son. Ltd. Reiuenstein. RIChard. I Y04, P"imandres. Leipli~: B, G, Teubner, Re\'endow. Carl Otto fcarl Chri)tian Ot[Oi L~brbucb des. \Inemotechnik, Stutt~art: rubin.ctn, Review of "The Cipher of Ro,lZerBacon I:\ewbold I." Quarter/" Rez'ieu' n{ Binion' (Baltimure:, ~tt.!.i ;,Dt;\tmhtr (92HJ. pp. ";95-596, Reville. John C.. S.J "Friar Ro,l:er Bacon and Modern Science." Amerlc,,: A Ciitholi, R~z'i~u 'J{tb~ U?'c't'i ~<; IMay 21), pp, Riple\'. Georlte. I 59!. The Compound of A/chVnlv. London: T. Orwin. Ripley. George. I7~6. Georgii Riplaei.,. Chymiscbe Schriften. etc, Translated by Benjamin Roth-Scholtzen. Wienn: Zu finden be\' J. p, Krauss. Ritter. H, <lndplessner. M Picatrix, Studies of tht \'C'arbur,lt Institutt 27. "The Rucer Bacon Manuscript: What It Looks Like. and a Discussion of the Possibilities of Dtl'lphermtnc" S,un. tifie American. Ma\' 1~ p. 411.' Rohde. Eleanour S, 19'" 1. The Old En!!lish Herbals, f 1922) Reprinted New York: Dover Publications. Rose. Valentin, 19'74. "Tironische N(jten in Steno,ltraphie im 11tenJahrhundert'" Hnmes t:i.p Rossi. Paolo C/az'is Uniz'erulis. Milan-~aples. Russi, Paolo, I96!. "The Le,ltac\' of RAmon Lull in Sixteenth-Century Thou,ltht." W"rbur!! Institute..\I~dieztJ! an.l Re1UlissanceStudies 4).pp. IH2-213, Rossi. Paolo. 19'74. Francesco Bacone: 041/4,\laKia alia ScienZll, Torino: G. Einaudi, Sacco. Luilti, 'Tn Primato Italiano: La Criuoltratia nei Secoli XV e XVI." Bnl/etino de/i' ijtitutr> Ji C"flur" Je/!' Ar11lade/ Genio 26 (December I. S<luset. Emile Edmond, IH62. Precurseurs et Jisciples de Descartes, Paris: Didier tt Cie. Saisset. M "Rucer Bawn," Rer'uedes Jellx-mnndes 314. p. 369, Salomon. Richard. 1934, Rt\'iew of Manly's Critique of :-.iewbold's Deciphermtnt. Bibliothek lt7arbllr,i.', Ku/wru,-,- ienchaftjicbe Bih/io1!raph,e ;um Stich/then Jer Antike I. p, 96. Saillmon. Richard, 19't6. Opicinis Je Ctt"istris. W e/thild und Bekenntnisse tines af'l.r:nn"ijcben Kleriker.IllS XIV.IH. London: \X'arbur): Instltutt. 129

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133 Von Ar~tin.). (hr. Frc:ih~rr 11:100.The-ari/!Je-r.\III/!numik. 5ah:bach. Von Bo~hn. Max. 1%4. Dii.\Iodi..\li;'JC/)il1l1nd.\lad/!n im I6..fahrJJlilld/!rr. Munich: F. Bruckmann K. G Vm'nich. Wilfrid M.; Vovnich. Eth~L and ~ill. A. M. 1917!-196!. ='Jot~sconc~rnin~ the hlstor\' ofth~ npher manu. script. Vo,'nich Archiv~s. Libran' of the Groli~r Club of N~w York. Vovnich. Wilfrid M "A Preliminary Sk~tch of th~ Historv of th~ Ro.2~r Bacon Ciph~r Manuscrip[." Transac. lions of th~ Co/J~f(eof Ph'Ysiciansof Phi""d~/phill4 3. pp. 41~-430. R~adApril Waite. Arthur Edward The Ho/'Y Kllbba/4h. London: Williams and Norltat~ Limit~d (R~print~d :-.1e\\ Hvdc: Park. N. Y.: Univ~rsity Books, \X'aite. Arthur Edward The Brotherhood ofthi Rosy Cross. N~w York: l:niv~rsitv Books. Walk~r. Daniel Pick~rin~. 19~t). Spirit_I and Dimonlc.\faf(ic from Ficina ta CtmplJnellJ. London: The- \\'.Irhut!,: Institute. Walsh. James J "Vindication of M~dieval Science." America: a Catholic R"t'ieu a/the We-ek 2'; ISc:ptelllbtT 10). pp. 48t)-490. Walz. Rudolf OilS V~rl:Nz/tlli.f't'OnG/aube..nti.Wiss~n beirof(er &'co. Fr~ibur,l( ISchwelll: St. Paulusdruckerel. Warbur,l( Institute. Univ~rsi[\' of London Wllrhurf( Institute Library Call1/of(tie. 2nd ~d. BostOn G. K HaiL ( And Suppl.. London: W~del. Th~ore Otto The.\I~diet'lll Attitude- Tou'ard Astr%f(Y. New Haven: Yal~ liniversit\' Press. \X'~lbor 1. M. C "Th~ Errors of the Doctors Accordin,l(to,fr. Ro,l(~rBacon." Isis I~. pp \X'ern~1. Alfred "The Most M\'Sterious Manuscript." Horizol1 '; (january I. pp Wern~r. Karl. It)79a. Die Psych%f(ie. Erkenntnis. and Wiss~nHhafts/l!hre de~' ROf(er Saen. \X'ien. IReprtntc:d Fr.mkfurt/Main: Min~rva.Verla,l( Wern~r. Karl. U!79b. "Di~ Kosmoh),I(ieund allt~m~ine Naturlehr~ d~s Rolt~r Bacu." In Wiener.-fkadenlle-. SIt=/IIlg... bmcht~ 94. pp Westacott. Evalyn. 19~3. Rof(~ Bacon in Life alld Lex~na. London: Rockliff. (R~print~d Fulcroft. Pol.: Fo1crutt Librarv Editions ). Wilkins. John ,\fercurv, or the S"r~t Ilnd Su:ift,\f~ssenf(~r. London: Printed by I. Norton. for John Mamard. and Timothy Wilkins. etc. Wilkins. John. 1668a. An Essa'Y Tou'ard Real Charllct~r. or a Philosophi'lll Lanf(ua.r~e.London: Primed tor Sa. (ie;!. librand. and for John Martvn. printer to thc Roval Society. Wilkins. John. 1668b. An A/phab~ticlli Dicti01l/Jrv. ~tc. London: Pranted bv J. M. for Samuel Gellibrand and.john Martin. Willis. John The Art of St~nof(rllphie. London. Wilson. Grov~ "Ro~er Bacon." In Grellt.ll~n of Science: Their Lit'ei and Discot'eries. :\~\\ York: The :'\c:~ Hom~ Librarv. pp Woodruff. Francis Winthrop Rof(er &'con, II Biof(rllphv. London:.J. Clark~ & Co.. Ltd. Yat~s. Franccs. 19~ "Th~ Art of Ramon Lull." JourNll of the Warburf( ana Courlllu/d Institut/!~ I-. pp 11';. 23. p. 1. Yates. Franc~s Bruno and the Hemlltic Tradition. London: Roud~d~~ and Ke~an Paul. Yates. Frances Th~ Art of M~mory. Chicajto: University of Chica,l(oPress. Yates. Frances "Th~ Herm~tic Tradition in Renaissance Scienc~." In Arl. Sci~"" and Histor;' in the R "'fllil.i. SIl"ce. Edited bv C. H. Sinltl~ton. Baltimorc. Yat~s. Frances Th~atre ofth~ World. Chicalt : University of Chica,l(uPress. Yatcs. Frances The Rosicrucilln EII/if(htellm~nt. London: Roudedlt~ and Ke~an Paul. Zimanskv. Curt A "William F. Friedman and the Vovnich MS." Phi/%f(iclli Qlulr/n/v.f9. pp

134 ~nd ~hu rn tht rlxth, Tht ttrermt I rtttra I,, rnt rlr*r ptr~prqh u h lubhudiq '5.l.l.I". i.r. rhr prmaph rht i*~. thrt pnmd m the m. PI'k drmpdb dur nmhrt I&.* plrm ~mw A n d krden la he &. rt ra dopwd IS r mmm of ~shwldh. spdtq publw~~tn ut -qh. It IS mu inmr hup thrt thr anmnrmr ~~wlarrui kpbe~rrferraarwiukmwladwllaujerrmmn~ duadpbtldn Wdh. P.u14* Bocon.Fmmr.?.3~ li~t.e.~1?! h w k. 5441a b,51;,. -al*--d.-j-. *1t1-21; -v tmhd m. 3?.llQ~ *f l.lill. 7.3i3l t: awduv. mwks m, ; & on hel cmmmpancr. '.jrl~. *uctww t i V*uch nunumap t I '13(5r; m m l c d #Idw. 4.i2r81. 5.IlI I: mnm- m m. 1IiZl ? il 'P. d bir y 5.l.Zi" : "upmmmnl ulmr-' of ) on Gtrrk and Hcbav pammar ,; I- ad - mm. L.It (' (41; i.prrat d W in k wwtr Lltb91. LZ.It3). 7,3131; of p w ; i- of trkwdpr lad mr !3) r;*. 1.3t41: k t an. B.I(%lOI: lw ow Sntpavrn. 7lt ): mcdipt ddanaa Z2.lrl r.?rzl. 7.4f3l. &1I'I1: m of V m slaowrip r #%). 7.4t141; d pwcn &lcd m h~m ) : nrtdr of Jchrmr '.At?l: psdr of m k6l. 5-lfl). 9.2tI-21: d r d 5.wr ). 8.1(iob: ~tfmarrr to. b V m u m e LLIf (2) ). 7r l h; w k s rn ophrr. 2.ItXl : mksconmmnp. 7.lrl-31.:.314. ' Sndm h. h w. d d , ) ' 3*jl. ElrPlwlntlr : & Pmp~md Dc R d l i w r Acrdnr- Srmm : Epmh Jr.lIhk& Pme- Amt rz.x&uut ; y.111~ Rqrr, ml of.-..-


136 m. 6d4). 9117),9.~3.1) dr~lcolurb.8.2fi1 j P l P p r V ~ ~ 6. 9 f 1-3 l h ~ ~ ~ 6 d l - 3 ) Drr d V m > f r $ mf. Z ). LLlcl. 51. Mllr, 2Atl): m- 2.4fl): Prr*rr IZ) t: Rm? l31. 2L2[3]. 2.3t ), 5.3(21. td ); 6Viri.-U(SI by. 3-3.N to) & 8.1[71.1.3(31.6g.,31 Der. Arrhu. Z.l(S1.8.9t6) h.t)r*ld.+umdbgaw2.1i9) Dse. JoLa. C1(3) ) ). 1.9I1-3). 9-X3L , 6); M 4 U ); rpim : sprier. 8.Pll. Bl (1-61: * M r. 0A.dt21. P.4.4(14). h4r. 4-5; "hqtvpht v" in Irs ). 8.9(6101: d 2.it8-9) tJ); %-# ; M- &H3k -a V e ). -9) l9l (4), I.4.4(11; lpmul d ). W11. &PI4 I); vkimopt-, 2.1(91,8.W9) m). IQIIO) - Dr w ' M dr'w.-&2111 w -I, a.4.111); d. g3tz). a42t11. a.a S.6(11.9.2(31.&. 33:-.8.4.H1) -. h.?.3(91 D-hrrip*eqr*la Dbp.nrwhlarlm.- lx-0.apd.itrlrair- 3-3J(31.8.Stll I)ivrr WNrnmb -Aarurbna&rbdd, li# LdPbc ) i4) Dir.*. &l(s). 9-20) %-dm B.1161 DodDcPr R.lobm.bab.lot DolRinanarkr.~mtd "Dopdkr" m Vqaich mtua;pdnriag.43(%7) 0orblalqab~kc4.1(111.~.~1n) lar~an m.l.i.lli..l+lw6.9) Dnri.p r v a tll2b. 3-at , 3.4(1-3). fip h1r 13; d- h m 3.213L ~ 3.3.lI24 18). ix#b. &#8): :-I. =%I. 7): 1- w alm a 33(1. 3). 3310N w IS; - xzm: e ); kerht L23( k ); pbr ' I, 3.3.LlZl: "pw#arl" a. 331(3l. 35W3); d m. 3.2I lW. 3.3.XIl M9). U.k51; d krar WB1; 4 b w ol * -. 3.a 1-51, 3.ZlILI -.)dm (Dtlbaf N-l. 2.1t8) Dwaho1Ls.Gvrdeu Lhyd. 10l3I clutrrrn.4.42fs). 9.Zt'JI. krdm Hub

137 61. 3,3 1491; % : lit. >,J.l+5, 91: lit : 13r. 3.3,1[3*: 13~ ; I*. 3,3ltQt: 14~ ; t5r lh ; l7t t21: 2h t91; 22v. 3.3-tf4 9#: 23r. 3.3.tt31: 2% ); Z7v ; ZBt, ELIlIJ; a t; 3*. 33.lnl: 33~ I3): 3% t91: 37v. 3.3.f(3): Mr U); Mr. 3.3.lf9i; 41r ; 4tv. 3a3k 3.3-U3k & t31; 4k. 3.3.IIJ. 41: 6v. 3.3.It ): &. 3.3.lltk e. 3.~ liar; e, 4-30). 5.4ft); 3% i4); w., ; 55v ; %. 3.3-l#l: 3% J. 4.1,4f 1 43t f21: 65r, 3.3.lf41: & I) ). 4.M51; 6h &a-1; 67tl. 3.3.lt3) ; b7rl 3.3.lf3. 6): 67~ HV; ). 8.Cll2) i21: rtl; detl 3.3.3tlJ; *3, 3.3JlP-10); el ; 3.337): a& lO) lW1: m3. k3.4t6). S.2(4): 6k l6); 69r ; fg ff); ml E3.Ulb 4I11; 70~ f3); 71t ): l3k Jbl. 3.3-W3): Tk. 3.3-It l341: 7% ); 7b ; 7Br. F m tol &Cn h o Yieaar1.7.3t7-91 FredaK V. W 1.9I 31 F-. n.1~1 Ftarrh~intbeVmuchmtnureripl.lW3) F ). UM1. Fm-.kfmqr*lwm Frisdmra Uinkch , t3). 3.Llll ( tIi. 3.41): an m bml dw apbp. 4.4ti-W & tlb. 9.34L Ui ). 6.5t ) Fmaau W- F ( (2). 4Clil). I-t.2l6). &I &3(3I. &4Il). bw Ml : 6-5IH):.D Lupya. &5(24l. &&MI. 92#1.9*3i5# halpw 6.3W FrppkSn-* FrPm 3.3.1t'J (2-31 FI*br w. M ldodolm OL 1oi 10) H.kbprb md.cw3) Hdr Abhr. 8.5( 1) Hb: t9v. 3.3.W. 4): Ih I*. ~drka ~adn~ s.3r I 1!.?.H2,: 85-3 m 4 a d vl p v2 I* d*-bobled Haad.rulvurdVovaiFhpm6.1~81.6~ l-?~.a:~rr~ -1. Lkbl. I & (31: 854&3. Ha&m - b V d LV- ijri~.4.i.l#li. lnl. h.m rl+h; %kl# f91; %fr. 4.2ffk %%. -'6.9(Z Il3~ Wtl tt?1: ml ; lZl: Chr*ud m. 2.Yfl #k2. 3J.tI9t: Qovl f91; 9k ): 9rk. ~rtl. ~4c jc21.~.11r11. k. lu i t2); W, 3.3.1t7~ 1W tZ-31: holr. m#krm &5i (3!: Inlw- L ti2) (21: 101~2. : b aalb. ~ 3 { i i n.?tl-2).. Y.A.I~II. lib. i-irz~ L~UJ.B~.T(I).C~~BL II~II. b4l9k 9.a 31 ~. ~ I I ~ U. I ( I ~ ). ~ A ~ ~ ). ~. U I Hdhh~. ~ ) "Fan" lleodh ) flekrilrir~~.#2~ ii Prua. uwmror dvo?.irl I ) Mdrvar Fnari*umb. L13I3~.1.1i~1.7..jl.jl S.lI91 M 32W1-2k t 1-9). U81. la 1-1 I I viwrw dc)ao W r. LDI 101 w w ~~a.3tz-3.51 IW 1-1 I 71 ~ T ~ P ~. L I. ~ ( Z ~. ~. U C ~ ~. Y. ~. ~ ~ ~ I -dm &4.Jilr. m.ull. 41. 1. M-4 U.2i J i. d oh^ ~oe. Lirs. I~I. %%8.%+101 H (71 hkp~& d ~rr. ~41). 3.l3il b fiic 8 -~..~it~).artr, m-dvorrth11~arr~lp.2.2.lrmi hvg.aiohmulrvnplur.l2.1114) Hob 4-) I - 1 W &ba HmrropcL 3-3.3t2) Hor6rultrrcM~dVqvhi~~ 33.3(31 h g b R m M w. Hurud Umn. 2.4lt I w r-rl aw2, W beer: bw-88(91.+. Sir ; m 3.3.ll7-81. fif 9: 00 lu d m 3.3.3(%7. PI 3.3.4l Hmmw -: i m. 8.8(91. &g. S; in kyb.* bhl ); i 32.3(7): d & ci.iak 3.U3I; d W Hildrprlc. 3l31'lbl; m Vqrcb I ).1( , ~ fl4j. ~ f4). 8,3(3). hp, 10, w n i ~ 247 ~ r. Hrprr (1 to blaic a i tHl. 8.w 11 bktcoacrp ia-1. IBIS) t :

138 M.H~~~~~rry~or'J~*lnUw~.~)~ 48<r. L~chturn In Vurwh wlp : 4,; ;-I llj 1. il$ 18 Lan-alms. 3.3 '11'1 1 b. fiprrd. 3.3.[17i.U.U(bl. LL.ur31 Lquid.3.3.5t (31.8.8lYt boped~.4.1.)12r.4.l.-ii1.3r Lull. km~.6.3(3).0.i('l1.~~.zr31 "kkh m V4snuh mnuwrlp druwry r i ,3{7), 4.4.1~ Ib I I. 5.2~ b - h m p bsqwp. Edha ( figs Lqwp &hap Vqruch mt L-5) ) W24I (4). 66f (3) Lw: mi [2). 4.42[3. tl). 5.4(6). 62I3). 6.3(4). 6.6(+7). 8.1(8. 10) W 1)-94.1(6); is- PCW-L 6.5l4) , 9.3(1-'11, 9-48); 9.411) : m e I-). 9.3[5). 9.4l Ar141. fyls. 4-5; d (%4); spknr l~nr ww. -1: lloimvl. 6.1( l l-S1.9.4(t) w v. corn, hnn h ( ( i41. 62(21, 6.714). 3.2tbl. 9.3I I l1); &lfing Vgnicb m. 2,3ti. 3) ) i ). 5.1.ltl.). 5.4& 8): as d by B.r#r. S.H1-2). 7.4[3) -'hm"cip)mofncrbdd. S.ll2) I II bmidplurrr).3.3.1f1.3.9).3.3.hl) k b B d of W. 1017) khnurrll-ha- HrUmut (21 Leibiz. B.II81.9.3[2) Leo. Zodiac lipn of. fig. 10 *Abrri4ofLrorurdo Fibolurri). 8.lM31 Lih. Zodrw wn of. fu. 10 M I M~K t31. sub!. n.41 1 I. s-i 111-2, *.-I 2 I ~.4, n.w I J. *,&)I 2. ~-IIJ.:~,,I.u I-(-. W ~ rqtwm. K , I I. tip. 52 #arnihng plua I i Mqpr. of Vwnuh manwrtpt Mandrake. 3.3.li8, h n i h. himxian. B.91?I Nodg.JahnM.,2.1~ l.!t4.u-'~, Eduvvouddtrm#m.8.11?).8.3r2).fip. iu MPnvurrtpa dkl: nkbmtcpl l r.!.: 7llr 1..I +.2rr*,. Ill-2 3 I I. 4, 8.1. I. 1 t nsadoprcal. Il 34 1 r Map [ tb. I! 1. $.?.6121, i.2tt11 Maru. Jo~mu5 Marcus. l.ltl ; I! fyr. 2-3 Marbi~ a+ru I Mmu medim. 10L i-2) ~ ~ ts. tl m M~G I I UL ti* Mmaiq of Ihe mawrip nl (1. 5) i2t. 3.4il t41. 5, ' i7) Mtrnin*. Vovmch mmamip cmdmd a I 1-51 "Medical mollh". B.J(41 Mdkk. "Arabic'. aditinn of I Modieinr. Gahc , 101. j.3.4( ; 3.315;. z.+<2' t. s I. tip. w M~a8.111-It1.8.Ir1lI.9.3lI.:I.wimyn. PdrmF~~pbcm".8.1t2-3l MirrorPm ) w (31. '1.1.2I3) Midirwk~ i1 Mimw rrirt~ 6 Viuci r M' ~. ~ 1 ~ 1 5 ~ Mi~p.rrbat.4.1.3(1~.&10{ MidillD*fk*.Dt. hphlrl. l.l(tl rprmr.b.llt-l!l.8.611l.9.3( Sn hkr id- #I dmrl -r W (73, 3.3.>(31.8.J(41,U- IdJohn Decl. 8.%4-5 I Mdnmw Villa. I-IiIOb. 1.33). 2.lf 151

139 Nrwbdd. Willim R ). 2.4flh th l121, Stlt t-I~Il t ( (1).6.7(11.~.314) Niw 3.3.3(10l MU, A, M., 2.4t4) ) Nomarh-, 9.2HI) AriDlorda 4-d ml.9.h 1). Fy. 38 m 443(6). &6[1) Mulls, i61s. 17). 9.2(54 of ) Namb of drmmrr. Ssr Gtollpag of drmmtr Mum1 hm, d v. 2.4( ( ,? ,9.Ll1I.9.1.)l2~.9.2~31 Nltmarb: in abhmum qncmr, : in euly dm. 95f61, 9.3(31; Hiiiadu-k.hE ( ) ) ): of Anbir lad A ) ): unda- Ifiq VqaPb qmboh 4.1.2f1),4.1.3(3). 5.4(4%1 "errs." lplcdoramalialrkwar) (51 Old IlylPh rr of Vgmth rmaprpipt. 2.3l2) ) Old Hi* taaun. kr Ganun tmpp OM lrirh ) D'Nall. tbprr l~rtl ' ) oprr~d~3uw.ssrbnm.~.rorkrof Ordsddw Gupn ) mp "dm. 4.1(10), 4.4.1(8), Orkr d prmbdr im V&h 4.4.2( M 1-2). 8.1{ (7), 27 &a ). 5.2f3) -1.2f31 &fwd. Umvob. 712) hslphiliur bcrhl d. 1 O(4) W r. Enia. 2.2.lf2) f3. 3). 2.3t %. 3.Zlf I I ). 3.4t 1 ) - PlpJ romrpondcna. rru d tip- b I lig 39 P b. M kmmd ) I Puis. Umer). of I I ~2.1f141 h* ).66( i71.9.3lS-3). 9.4fIL Pl~ocrrr (of- in dl f 10). 5.43) PDP-I 6.7(2) Peppa pdaac f21 M (MI. lot?) P*#nm. fheddm C (41. 24(1) , 3.3.1( ( t il-21, ). 6.1(2) (3) P u Mr. Swjur, p h r m P m y P- of Va?d nun ). 3.3( ) llI, 3.3M , Pi H ( ). 8.1f1). 8.4.tll). B.C2[1 I PiFodtUa Minnddn. Giovlnw. 8.2( [ ll) P i e. 8.2f4-5 1 PwWt k f (2) I c2-3. 6). 3.3.U i31 PI- Zdiu ufin d. 4.2(11 I, iig. 10 PmmrnI)#nbmdrmem k I ) ~iunan i 2-65 I Ptclrrr. 8. I(?) Phtidclllikunmt. 3, 'I-4(

140 c- 221t5l. = ?.*ql ' ) ). 6-71]) hk d Vqnwh dtmys. 2.1l2) ?I Elf61. fig : 33t34). 3.3.tt2-3. 6c ); St;,*. 3+a4). 323tSl Ill. 3.4(3). 86(91. B.WW WdV-orrip. 3.Z14).3A Ct.4l2-3l J j U W - V q a *rtr.44( ' ''4-d7il-3) *+a a ) -nwctrpddnr*bddb.l{ii Cubmllaia 4.1.l(t) ); It). 1 1 t h ~.~~~4~.5-4t2~.~3.6~.9.2lt.3~ lcdfimbs(ll.snrh~pn-%d w-arlr~ ) kre 3.3.3~5.74. IO~.J.~ ~21.8.8rel kmlk.*r. 2.4C2) wr (7). CM91 4.l.Jt Snsbdr: akkmkl (? r o.w:l. 0.23,. -, ) : Iwpsd, : mcdlral. 9.4[ I b of ~lt.~ 3.2.3(4) dkipii#l in V- man-. I.l.l~ua. fa.*. 5A(S3.?-8t. 9.4.UM1 T.ib. mkaar ) Tmiianur. Sn f v. qiml T-~odiclipd. t.2.2{'~1.j.3.3r31.fir. 10 T (3t 7.314) Tr#nbdmLIICLb.lli.8.7(lI T v. J h HmcKLty k I. 171 Th+amsdEmur ~bpadi~e. knn ~~2131.?.315) Thb. &ZIZ) Ti- fdba H.. t(?t r ?( [ t , l. fi U1.3) ). 6Jlll. 7.3(4); m bluf-auddlrd d V m lat "-M. 4.4f t r &l(lll (11. %. 27; r d v d V m v* L2.ltb) M1-7). 6.7(1. 31: d Lerbh LUSJI. 2.3(3) llZ t6). U81. 1WI); mdf d L.lyyr as(s?1.9.z17) TknAILlMTrlliu.9.111) firoauam ~1~ T~m~C43i61.9.ltll 'f-kp" 4- aup d & 4 1. j.3.dt4. 6. I1 I. 3.3.&11.4.2(6# Tod. rr akhv ~.ymboi. 8.8l6.91 T- d V h 5 Cl.314l (2-51. *&#l. 31.&HZ).&?il-2) T m 4.46). 4.4A Tmbmiu 3.31 t) &1).9.2ijl Tmh3.3.1t4) ) 3.3.~~) ~ ~ T& 3.3- li4l 3.3.9t2-3L 8-8t9) T~ak8.11(1). fip krhl of ) Tw.

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