Directive initial safety measures for incidents with a two-sided collision risk

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1 Directive initial safety measures for is with a two-sided collision risk for all roads with undivided carriageways Verkeerscentrum Nederland

2 Directive initial safety measures for is with a two-sided collision risk for all roads with undivided carriageways January 2010

3 Initial Safety Measures for Is with a Two-sided Collision Risk was compiled in association with: Verkeerscentrum Nederland (VCNL, The Netherlands Traffic Management Centre) The Province of Zuid-Holland (IPO) National Police Services Agency, Traffic Division (KLPD) Regiopolice Drenthe (Drenthe Regional Police) Regiopolice Noord- en Oost-Gelderland (Noord and Oost Gelderland Regional Police) Veiligheidsregio Haaglanden (Haaglanden fire services) Provectus Academy Ambulancezorg GGD Den Haag (ambulance services, Municipality of The Hague) Regionale Ambulancevoorziening IJsselland (IJsselland regional ambulance service) RWS wegendistrict Twente-Achterhoek (Public Works road network, Twente-Achterhoek) RWS wegendistrict Limburg (Public Works road network, Limburg) RWS Verkeers Centrale Zuid West Nederland (Public Works Traffic Centre, Zuid West Nederland) VBS (Dutch Association of Recovery Specialists) Logicx salvage & recovery ANWB Wegenwacht (Royal Netherlands Touring Association/Breakdown Services) IVV Amsterdam traffic and transport infrastructure services Eeltje Hoekstra Aad van Velden Rob Snelleman Harry Fieten Hans Tornij Meindert Louwsma Jack Kusters Michel Blom Bert Huisjes Rudi de Jong Jean Geurts Thomas Oskam Ingrid Huffener Rob van Amerongen Michel Straathof Jacco Slenters This English translation: ISBN translated from Dutch: Richtlijn eerste veiligheidsmaatregelen bij ien met tweezijdig aanrijdgevaar ISBN First published in January 2010 Extra copies are available at Verkeerscentrum Nederland via An instructive DVD can be supplied on request. This directive has been carefully compiled by Verkeerscentrum Nederland and its associates using the latest knowledge and techniques. No rights can be asserted from this directive. The Dutch Government accepts no liability for any damage arising from the use of this directive both on its own behalf and on behalf of those who have assisted in the creation thereof. Concept and realization Words at Work Bedrijfscommunicatie bv, Amstelveen

4 Contents Preface 5 1 Introduction Terms 7 2 Target groups and the aim of the directive 9 3 Starting points for this directive Existing starting points Priority list Initial safety measures: the Safety Six Additional starting points The risk setting The different maximum speeds The minimum scenario 11 4 Safety principles for is with a two-sided collision risk: The four-step approach The four-step approach to a two-sided collision risk The four-step approach in four basic situations An i in one lane An i across the carriageway An i at a junction An i on a roundabout 22 5 The three-step approach to breakdowns 23 6 Additional measures Extending the measures 27 Appendix Background information 29 Frames Frame 1 Differences in the application of the two directives 6 Frame 2 New regulations for Visual and Auditory Signals / Use of lights 8 Frame 3 Hazardous substances 8 Frame 4 Traffic cones 10 Frame 5 Clearing access and exit routes 10 Frame 6 Direct - and indirect - aid for victims! 12 Frame 7 The METHANE list 12 Frame 8 Halting the traffic 14 Frame 9 Closing one or both directions 14 Frame 10 More measures or fewer measures? 14 Frame 11 Requirements for breakdown services 24 Frame 12 Breakdown service vehicles and lights 24

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6 Preface In 2004 a directive was published on initial safety measures for is on motorways and dual carriageways. A survey held among the IM emergency services later revealed that this directive has significantly improved i on these types of roads. The findings led to a decision to publish a sister directive for the remaining roads. This is the first edition of Initial Safety Measures for Is with a Two-Sided Collision Risk. It is the product of a collaboration between the emergency and other services that are involved in i, namely: the police, fire and ambulance services, road operators, recovery firms and the ANWB. The vast majority of the roads under provincial and municipal have no physical division between the opposite flows of traffic. On these roads is are quite literally at risk from two sides. This extra directive has been specially compiled to lower this two-sided collision risk for the emergency workers at the scene as well as the people involved in the i. This directive has been published along with a revised version of the directive of Together these two directives cover the entire road network in the Netherlands. Both directives have been drawn up by professionals with practical experience and are intended for the first emergency worker(s) arriving at the i scene. We are deeply indebted to all the organizations that contributed to this project. The aim in both cases is to provide a good and, above all, safe worksite for all IM emergency workers at the i scene. The directive of 2004 has demonstrated its value time and time again, so I am fully confident that this new directive will likewise make a valuable practical contribution to enhancing safety at i scenes. On behalf of the road operators Provinces and the Department of Public Works & Water Management, J. van Arum - Weggemans 5

7 Verkeerscentrum Nederland voor alle wegen met gescheiden rijbanen voor alle wegen met niet-gescheiden rijbanen Verkeerscentrum Nederland Frame 1 Differences in the application of the two directives Initial Safety Measures for Is 0n Motorways (2004) = Initial Safety Measures for Is with a One-Sided Collision Risk (2010) Richtlijn eerste veiligheidsmaatregelen bij ien met eenzijdig aanrijdgevaar Initial Safety Measures for Is with a Two-Sided Collision Risk (2010) Richtlijn eerste veiligheidsmaatregelen bij ien met tweezijdig aanrijdgevaar Applies to Risk Buffer zone Placing the buffer vehicle all roads with divided carriageways, divided by e.g. rails, crash barriers or a broad central reservation, including slip roads and bridges, tunnels and viaducts on these roads comes from one side buffer zone = the maximum speed in metres e.g. the minimum buffer zone is 100 metres for traffic travelling at a maximum of 100 kph in fend-off the direction in which the vehicle is diagonally placed determines the side on which the traffic passes the vehicle all roads with undivided carriageways, including bridges, tunnels and viaducts on these roads comes from two or more sides buffer zone = the maximum speed in metres e.g. the minimum buffer zone is 60 metres for traffic travelling at a maximum of 60 kph straight The traffic may not pass the buffer vehicle 6

8 1 Introduction This directive applies to all roads with carriageways which are not physically divided and thus serves as a supplement to Initial Safety Measures for Is on Motorways (VCNL, September 2004*). Together, these two directives cover the entire road network in the Netherlands. This directive describes the measures that the first IM emergency worker at the scene of an i must take to enhance the safety of: the IM emergency teams and breakdown workers on the scene; those involved in the i; the other traffic participants. No two is are the same. The measures described in this directive are therefore intended as a guideline and should be applied sensibly, keeping in mind that the personal safety of the emergency worker(s) takes top priority at all times. 1.1 Terms Alternating lighting High energy collision Alternating lighting refers to the upper and lower pairs of yellow lights that flash alternately on the rear of an emergency vehicle; An accident with a strong kinetic impact on an object. Fire and ambulance services are always deployed for a high-energy collision. IM emergency services All services involved in IM: police, fire and ambulance services, road operator, recovery firms, the Royal Netherlands Marechaussee and the ANWB. METHANE list Situational report Trapped This list is for the first IM emergency worker at the scene. It is a tool for passing on structured information on the i to the control room (see frame 7, page 12). A situational report is a factual description of the situation at the i scene in the briefest possible terms (see METHANE list). Physically trapped ~: the victim cannot get out of the vehicle without external assistance (e.g. the fire service). Medically trapped ~: the victim is not physically trapped but must remain in the vehicle for medical reasons. Two-sided collision risk A collision risk from traffic coming from at least two sides on a straight road, from three sides at a T junction, and four or more sides at crossroads and roundabouts. To ease readability we have opted for the term two-sided in this directive. Road operator The road operator is responsible for managing a road or a stretch of road. There are four road operators in the Netherlands: - Department of Public Works and Water Management (Rijkswaterstaat), responsible for trunk roads; - The provincial councils, responsible for provincial roads; - The municipal councils, responsible for municipal roads; - Water Boards, responsible for water board roads. * In January 2010 a revised version of Initial Safety Measures for Is on Motorways (VCNL, September 2004) was published under the new title of Initial Safety Measures for Is with a One-Sided Collision Risk - for all roads with divided carriageways. 7

9 Frame 2 New regulations for Visual and Auditory Signals and Use of Lights In 2009 new regulations were introduced for visual and auditory signals and blue lights. Existing vehicles must meet the new regulations by 1 January The rule is now: blue lights for moving vehicles and amber lights for stationary vehicles. This means that the buffer vehicle at the scene of an i must have an amber rotating light. The first or only vehicle at the scene may use the blue rotating light if this is necessary to shield the i from traffic. The front flashers must be turned off if the vehicle is used as a buffer. If the emergency vehicle does not have alternating lights, the warning lights must be used. Frame 3 Hazardous substances If there is a risk of hazardous substances at the scene of an i, the following four safety precautions must be applied: Keep your distance Keep a distance of at least 100 metres in a tailwind and at least 500 metres in a headwind; Cordon off the area Cordon off the area by a distance of at least 100 metres in a tailwind and 500 metres in a headwind; Wait Wait, with the wind behind you, until the fire services arrive. They have the necessary personal safety equipment and measuring devices to assess the situation; Do not touch For your own safety do not touch anything if you suspect the presence of hazardous substances. Use binoculars to try to read labels or orange signs and then pass on the information to your own control centre (see Appendix, page 29). WARNING: REMEMBER IN EVERY TRAFFIC INCIDENT THAT THE VEHICLE MAY BE CARRYING HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES Lorries carrying bulk cargo such as paint thinner are not required to display hazard identification signs but they can still present a huge risk during traffic is. Passenger cars may also be carrying hazardous substances that are not safely packed. A practical example: a lorry and trailer have capsized in the central reservation during the morning rush hour and need to be hoisted. The fire service has already left because the cargo reportedly consists of kitchen furniture. While the crash barrier on the central reservation is being sawn through at a distance of 5 metres, the workmen notice a strange smell around the lorry. It turns out that, besides kitchen cupboards, the lorry was carrying large quantities of leaking, flammable liquids such as solvents, thinner and turpentine. Such situations are not exceptional. The Traffic Inspectorate (Inspectie Verkeer en Waterstaat, IVW) must be informed of all traffic is involving hazardous substances. 8

10 2 Target groups and the aim of the directive This directive is intended for the police, fire and ambulance services, road operators, recovery firms, the Royal Netherlands Marechaussee, the ANWB Breakdown Service and other breakdown firms. The aim is to optimize safety during road traffic is where there is no physical division between the carriageways. This applies not only to the safety of those involved in the i and the rest of the traffic, but also to the safety of IM emergency workers. All are exposed to risks from traffic coming from different directions. 3 Starting points for this directive 3.1 Existing starting points The starting points in this directive correspond closely with those of Initial Safety Measures for Is with a One-Sided Collision Risk in terms of the priority list and the Safety Six Priority list Safety always comes first in IM. This is why we have drawn up the following priority list: 1 Personal safety of the emergency worker(s); 2 Traffic safety; 3 Assistance to the victims; 4 Evidence collection (see frame 6, page 12); 5 Restored traffic flow; 6 Recovery of the cargo/vehicle. Given the high risk of secondary accidents, it is essential to protect the scene of an i as soon as possible. Once the initial safety measures are in place, attention can focus on assisting the casualties. The next priority (no. 4) is to collect evidence (if required), followed by restoring the flow of traffic and, only then, recovery of cargo and vehicles. The carriageway must be cleared as soon as possible; if necessary, by postponed or accelerated recovery. Only in extreme circumstances will a cargo be too costly (e.g. medical equipment) to move rapidly. Cargoes consisting of livestock also take priority over restoring the traffic flow. If hazardous substances are involved, everyone must maintain a distance of at least 100 metres in tailwinds and at least 500 metres in headwinds until the scene is declared safe by the fire service. Your personal safety always takes first priority in all is and on all roads!!! Initial safety measures: the Safety Six The Safety Six for roads with a one-sided collision risk also applies to roads with a two-sided collision risk. Measures 1 and 2 have been adapted to the respective circumstances. First, as this directive is for roads with differing maximum speeds, the safety zone is variable. Secondly, the buffer vehicle is parked in a straight line as road users must not be allowed to pass it. The other measures - 3 to 6 - are summarized below. For the full text see Initial Safety Measures for Is with a One-Sided Collision Risk, January S1 Safety zone of [max. speed > metres] The safety zone in metres is equal to at least the maximum permitted speed in kilometres. Park the vehicle straight at a minimum distance of [max. speed > metres] before the i. For example, on a road with a maximum speed of 50 kph the buffer vehicle is parked at a distance of 50 metres before the i. Always take account of the local situation. Exceptional circumstances (e.g. bad weather conditions or if the buffer vehicle has to be placed just before a sharp bend) will require a greater distance. 9

11 Frame 4 Traffic cones The placement of cones immediately conveys to the other road users that the i scene is off-limits. Though 75-cm cones are more conspicuous and therefore better from a safety perspective, 50-cm cones are allowed for practical reasons. Smaller cones that have been placed temporarily on the scene by an IM emergency service are replaced by larger cones as soon as an emergency service arrives with some. The police, fire service, road operators, recovery firms and the ANWB Breakdown Services all carry cones. The cones must have horizontal red and white retroreflective stripes of at least category 2. NB Flashing/rotating light units should not be used. They are poorly visible during the day and can obscure the i scene during the night. Because they distract the road users, they are more of a danger to emergency workers than a means of protection. Frame 5 Keeping access and exit routes clear Emergency vehicles must not block access and exit routes by standing in one another s way. The following agreements have been reached to prevent such situations: 1 All emergency vehicles arriving at the scene are parked on the left of the road against the verge. Only fire service vehicles and ambulances can approach the i up to the 10-metre area of operations. 2 When the vehicles are being parked sufficient workspace and parking space should be left for the fire service and ambulances. P P So, regardless of which side you arrive from, you always park your vehicle on the left-hand side of the road, in line. Emergency vehicles are never parked perpendicular alongside one another. 10

12 S2 A buffer vehicle Park the vehicle in a straight line on the affected lane: the traffic must stop; apply the hand brake; place the gear in neutral; turn the front wheels away from the traffic; switch on the rotating light and the alternating lights (see frame 2, page 8). As the car is parked straight, the alternating lights are in full view of following traffic. S3 Safety clothing Always wear clean and fastened safety clothing. The retro-reflective strips will then ensure that you are optimally visible to traffic. S4 Traffic cones Keep five cones of a minimum height of 50 cm (preferably 75 cm) in the emergency vehicle at all times (see frame 4, page 10). The placement of five cones visibly cordons off the i for the other road users. S5 Traffic signalling Overhead traffic signalling - if available - will help to further protect an i scene: speed limits can be imposed, traffic can be guided to another lane and lanes can be closed. S6 Keeping access and exit routes clear Park the emergency vehicles in line against the verge on the left-hand side of the road to allow the fire services and ambulances to pass through (see frame 5, page 10). 3.2 Additional starting points Three additional starting points have been added to those in 3.1: the risk setting, the different maximum speeds and the minimum scenario The risk setting On roads without a physical division between the carriageways, the IM emergency worker is at risk from traffic coming from two sides - or even more sides in the case of T junctions and crossroads The different maximum speeds The maximum speed for traffic in built-up areas is usually 50 kph. Outside built-up areas maximum speeds may be 60, 70, 80 or 100 kph. On all these roads a safe distance must be maintained between the buffer vehicle of the IM emergency worker and the i The minimum scenario More and more frequently the road inspector is the first to arrive at the scene of an i. The road inspector is always alone, so he must organize the safety measures on his own with traffic coming from at least two sides. Breakdown mechanics and salvage workers are also usually alone when they arrive at an i and they also have to set up the initial safety measures unaided. Besides the Priority List and the Safety Six, these three factors - the risk setting, the different maximum speeds and the minimum scenario are the starting points for the measures in this directive. 11

13 Frame 6 Direct - and indirect - aid for victims! It is of course essential where casualties are involved to attend to the physical needs of the victims straightaway. But victims have other needs as well. It is also important to the victims that the circumstances of the i be established. So tyre tracks must be traced and vehicles need to undergo technical inspections. All emergency workers on the scene are therefore required to: assist in and refrain from hampering investigative activities that could help to determine the cause(s) of the accident; pass on any changes in the accident situation to the head of the investigation. For example: The head of the investigation must be informed of any necessary steps that have been taken such as moving vehicles, unbuckling/cutting safety belts, unscrewing battery cables (never cut them!) and deflating tyres; Glass shards, skid marks or oil tracks and any strewn parts of vehicles should be left untouched. If this proves impossible, the original position must be outlined in chalk on the road surface; Keep skid marks intact by driving as little as possible over them. Do not add evidence by unnecessary by braking at the last moment or by puncturing tyres to stabilize vehicles. Obviously, the overriding priority is to save lives, but victims can also be helped by ensuring that the circumstances of the accident can be established. Frame 7 The METHANE card The METHANE list is a tool for the first emergency worker at the scene. It enables him to pass on brief factual information about the i to the control centre. The reverse shows a list of examples for identifying a high-energy collision. This information enables the control centre to mobilize the required back-up. METHANE is an international, multidisciplinary system for reporting all sorts of is. Here it is applied specifically to traffic is. Traffic i Material damage only? Casualties Exact location Type of i What happened? High energy collision? 1 Hazard Hazardous substances: licence number, substance number, hazard number Fire? Explosion? Drowning? Exceptional weather conditions? (ice, mist, snow, heat,...) Access route Best access route: hazard zone, wind direction, accessibility? M E T H A Number, types of casualties Number of casualties, ABC compromised - life-threatening? A Airways free? Pale, blue skin? (Tongue, teeth) B Breathing audible? (Snoring) C Circulation. External bleeding? Pallor, perspiration? D Responsive? E Cold/heat injuries? (fire, freezing,...) Casualties thrown from the vehicle? Casualties in the vehicle? Number of vehicles? Passenger cars? Lorries? Rollable/unrollable? Extra services Above information leads to the deployment of IM emergency services. Is extra back-up needed? N E 2 12

14 4 Safety at is with a two-sided collision risk: The four step approach 4.1 The four-step approach to a two-sided collision risk The basic safety principles for is with a two-sided collision risk are: 1 Stop Place your emergency vehicle straight at a safe distance from the i to create a safety zone. The vehicle must be placed in a straight line, to indicate to road users that they must stop before the buffer vehicle. This procedure is different from the procedure for roads with divided carriageways, where the buffer vehicle is parked diagonally in the fend-off position to guide traffic around the i; 2 Halt Halt the traffic on all sides; 3 Survey Survey the situation with the aid of the METHANE list (see frame 7, page 12); 4 Close Decide whether or not to close the road. These four steps are explained in detail below. If you are the first emergency vehicle at the i scene: Create a safety zone by parking your vehicle in a straight line at a safe distance from the i. A safe distance between the buffer vehicle of the IM emergency worker and the i is essential on all roads. This is why the safe distance is related to the maximum speed. The rule is that the safe distance in metres at least equals the speed limit in kilometres: Maximum speed 50 kph 60 kph 70 kph 80 kph 100 kph Safety zone minimum 50 metres minimum 60 metres minimum 70 metres minimum 80 metres minimum 100 metres Halt the traffic from both directions For the personal safety of the IM emergency worker, the traffic must first of all be halted on all sides. Then the IM emergency worker can assess the i on the spot without exposure to traffic risks (see frame 8, page 14). Halting the traffic must not be confused with closing the road (see frame 9, page 14). Survey the i scene The first IM emergency worker at the i scene collects the information that is needed by all parties, i.e. information on the location, nature and extent of the i. In addition, each party needs its own specific information. After the IM emergency worker has surveyed the i scene he passes on a situational report to his own control centre which, in turn, passes on the information to the other control centres (see frame 7, page 12). Provincial Authority vehicle, equipped for I Management. 13

15 Frame 8 Halting the traffic Every IM emergency worker is authorized to halt traffic after an i. At that moment he is not regulating the traffic but enhancing safety to prevent secondary accidents. Halting the traffic should not be confused with closing the road (see frame 9). Frame 9 Closing one or both directions The decision to either close a road and divert the traffic at a junction or leave it open should be taken as soon as possible. Responsibility for this decision therefore rests with the first IM emergency worker to arrive at the scene. The closure is arranged by the police and/or the road operator. The action requires extra deployment of people and materials and is not part of the initial safety measures. There are three options: a close the road to traffic from one direction; b close the road to traffic from two directions; c do not close the road; halting the traffic is enough. Options a and b: closing the road to traffic from one or two direction(s) The decision is taken at the scene by the first IM emergency worker. The circumstances and layout of the road can be so specific that it is impossible to formulate rules, but the decision can be assisted by asking a few questions: Is it necessary to collect evidence? How broad is the road? Is there enough workspace for the services that are still to arrive? How heavy is the traffic? Which direction has the highest intensity and therefore takes priority? Are there contaminants on the road surface, the verge or the ditch? Are there many onlookers? Option b: closing the road to traffic from two directions There are three situations in which the road is always closed to traffic from two directions: 1 if an ambulance and/or fire-fighting vehicle is needed: to ensure safety and enough space to work; 2 to preserve evidence if an investigation is necessary; 3 if hazardous substances are involved: a safety precaution until the fire service arrives at the scene. Option c: no closure; halting the traffic is enough Halting the traffic may suffice in is where there is only material damage and no casualties. Frame 10 More measures or fewer measures? Do not be afraid to implement measures as soon as possible but - at the same time - do not be afraid to downscale them again. It is better to take measures that turn out later to be unnecessary than the other way around. It is easier to downscale than upscale. In general: insufficient measures lead to unsafe situations; so make sure you do enough; too many measures lead to unnecessary blockage, so downscale them when they are no longer required. 14

16 Close one or both carriageways Decide in the early stages whether to close carriageways. Closure entails the placement of barriers at crossroads and diverting traffic (see 6 Additional measures, page 27). If you take too long to decide, the traffic will organize itself. When you take this decision, remember that the IM emergency workers need a safe worksite with room to manoeuvre. Decide whether to close the road to traffic from one or both directions and pass on your decision to your own control centre so that they can take the necessary steps (see frame 9, page 14). Standard nationwide road lay-out in the Netherlands for sustainable safety. 4.2 The four-step approach in four basic situations As no two situations are the same, it is impossible to describe them all. We have therefore selected four situations to demonstrate the agreed four-step approach. These situations are: 1 an i in one lane; 2 an i across the carriageway; 3 an i at a junction; 4 an i on a roundabout An i in one lane The first emergency vehicle stops at the i scene. The IM emergency worker who arrives first at the scene implements the initial safety measures: Place the vehicle in a straight line at a distance of [max. speed > metres] before the i; Turn the front wheels away from the traffic; Turn on the alternating lights; Leave the rotating light on; Turn off the front flashers. [max. speed > metres] 15

17 OR, if the emergency worker arrives from the other direction: Park the vehicle in a straight line at a distance of [max. speed > metres] beyond the i; Turn the front wheels away from the traffic; Switch on the alternating lights; Leave the rotating light on; Turn off the front flashers. [max. speed > metres] Halting traffic in both directions Halting traffic in direction 1 Step out of the car carefully, wearing safety clothing; Signal to the first vehicle to stop and tell the driver from the passenger s side to wait there and switch on his warning lights; Collect the five traffic cones; Watch out for oncoming traffic; Place two cones between the emergency vehicle and the i, keeping an eye on the traffic. 16

18 Halting traffic in direction 2 Walk to a distance of [max. speed > metres] beyond the i; (As you pass you will get a general impression of the situation. But do not let the accident distract you from first halting the traffic from the other direction.) Signal to the first vehicle to stop and tell the driver from the passenger s side to stand still and switch on his warning lights; Place the other three cones squarely across the carriageway; Request automatic traffic measures (if available) via your own control centre. [max. speed > metres] Survey the i scene Survey the i scene from a multidisciplinary perspective to pass on a situational report for all parties (see frame 7, page 12): Traffic i: is the damage only material or are there also casualties? Exact location: is the location correct? Nature of the i: what has happened? Are there signs of a high-energy collision? Risks: hazardous substances, fire, water, leaks? Are there exceptional weather conditions: low-lying sun, heavy rain, snow, ice, mist? Access route: what is the best access route: risk zone, wind direction, accessibility? Extent: - Number of casualties? Inside or outside the car(s)? Any life-threatening injuries? - Number of vehicles? How many passenger cars/lorries are involved in the i? Can they be rolled away? Extra back-up: is extra back-up required from the IM emergency services? - Is evidence collection needed? - Damage to the environment, road surface, crash barrier, street furniture or artworks? How long is the i expected to last? Closing the road in one or both directions Decide in the early stages whether or not to close the road. And if so, in only one direction or both? Pass on your decision to your own control centre. 17

19 4.2.2 An i across the carriageway The first emergency vehicle stops at the i scene. The IM emergency worker who arrives first at the scene implements the initial safety measures: Place the vehicle in a straight line at a distance of [max. speed > metres] before the i; Turn the front wheels away from the traffic; Switch on the alternating lights; Leave the rotating light on; Turn off the front flashers. [max. speed > metres] Halting traffic from both directions Halting traffic in direction 1 Step out of the car on the safe side and wear safety clothing; Signal to the first vehicle to stop (step 1) and tell the driver from the passenger s side to wait there and switch on his warning lights; Place two cones squarely across the road next to the emergency vehicle (step 2)

20 Halting traffic in direction 2 Collect three traffic cones Walk to a distance of [max. speed > metres] beyond the i; (As you pass you will get a general impression of the situation. But do not let the accident distract you from first halting the traffic from the other direction.) Signal to the first vehicle to stop and tell the driver from the passenger s side to stand still and switch on his warning lights; Place the other three cones squarely across the carriageway; Request automatic traffic measures (if available) via your own control centre. [max. speed > metres] Survey the i scene Survey the i from a multidisciplinary perspective to pass on a situational report for all parties (see frame 7, page 12): Traffic i: is the damage only material or are there also casualties? Exact location: is the location correct? Nature of the i: what has happened? Are there signs of a high-energy collision? Risks: hazardous substances, fire, water, leaks? Are there exceptional weather conditions: low-lying sun, heavy rain, snow, ice, mist? Access route: what is the best access route: risk zone, wind direction, accessibility? Extent: - Number of casualties? Inside or outside the car? Any life-threatening injuries? - Number of vehicles? How many passenger cars/lorries are involved in the i? Can they be rolled away? Extra back-up: is extra back-up required from the IM emergency services? - Is evidence collection needed? - Damage to the environment, road surface, crash barrier, street furniture or artworks? How long is the i expected to last? Closing the road in one or both directions Decide in the early stages whether or not to close the road. And if so, only in one direction or both? Pass on your decision to your own control centre. 19

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