1 Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Paper no Selection of a Joint-and-Survivor Pension Karen C. Holden La Follette Institute of Public Affairs University of Wisconsin Madison Sean Nicholson The Wharton School University of Pennsylvania September 1998 Support for this research was provided in part by a grant from the Social Security Administration and a training grant in the Economics of Mental Health from the National Institute of Mental Health. Any opinion expressed are those of the authors alone. IRP publications (discussion papers, special reports, and the newsletter Focus) are now available on the Internet. The IRP Web site can be accessed at the following address:
2 Abstract Past studies have concluded that Social Security retirement benefits and private pension plan survivor benefits are important sources of income for widows. Using data from the New Beneficiary Surveys of the Social Security Administration, we examine the effect of the 1974 Employee Retirement Income Security Act on the choice of a joint-and-survivor pension, which provides pension benefits to the surviving spouse of a pensioner. We find that ERISA has substantially increased the percentage of widows who receive a survivor pension. We then explore some of the factors associated with choice of a joint-and-survivor pension.
3 Selection of a Joint-and-Survivor Pension INTRODUCTION In 1974, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) established minimum fiduciary, coverage, and vesting requirements governing qualified private employer-provided pension plans. In addition, ERISA required that when the primary form of plan payout is an annuity, the default payout form to married workers, at minimum, must be a joint-and-one-half survivor annuity that is actuarially equivalent to the single-life worker pension (ERISA, Sec. 205). Under this provision, the surviving spouse of a pensioner would receive a pension payment no less than one-half of the joint annuity payment received by the retired worker. A joint-and-survivor benefit that is actuarially equivalent to a single-life pension will pay a lower benefit during the retired worker s lifetime. By choosing a joint-andsurvivor rather than a single-life option, therefore, a worker forgoes income when he is alive in return for higher income to his surviving spouse after his death. Under the original 1974 ERISA law, a married worker was allowed to choose an alternate payment form (e.g., a single-life annuity or a lump-sum distribution) instead of the default option without notifying the spouse. The 1984 Retirement Equity Act (REA) amended ERISA to require the spouse s notarized signature if a retired worker wants to reject the joint-and-survivor option. The motivation for requiring a survivor benefit option in employer pensions was the welldocumented economic vulnerability of women as widows (Bound et al., 1991; Holden and Zick, 1997; Burkhauser, Holden, and Feaster, 1988; Hurd and Wise, 1989). These studies find that pension receipt is associated with higher income both as a couple and as a widow, and that widows who receive a pension experience a relatively small drop in their income upon widowhood. By establishing the joint-andsurvivor annuity as the pension payment default option unless a worker explicitly rejects it, ERISA and REA were intended to increase the share of a couple s resources available to a widow after her husband s death.
4 2 Few studies have examined ERISA s effect on pension choices. The law could increase the economic well-being of widows if prior to ERISA workers had been willing but unable, because pensions did not offer this option, to select a joint-and-survivor option. If workers had passively accepted the then more prevalent default single-life option prior to ERISA s enactment, the shift from a default single-life to a default joint-and-survivor option could provide more widows with a survivor pension. On the other hand, ERISA would have had a negligible effect if workers had already given consideration to a spouse s well-being during her probable widowhood when making their savings decisions. A worker who was not offered a joint-and-survivor option but who knew the value of his single-life pension could acquire sufficient nonpension assets for his spouse s expected widowhood. A rational worker might also choose a job based, in part, on how well the pension coverage would insure his wife against the economic consequences of widowhood. In that case ERISA would have little impact, since workers would have sorted themselves according to their pension preferences into jobs with and without a joint-and-survivor pension option. This study examines factors that influence whether married male pensioners select a survivor or single-life pension option. From this analysis one can determine whether ERISA has substantially increased the number of couples who select a joint-and-survivor annuity. DATA AND EMPIRICAL METHOD The New Beneficiary Survey (NBS) of the Social Security Administration contains information on a random sample of individuals who began receiving Social Security benefits between June 1980 and July 1981 (Holden and Iams, 1987). Sampled persons and their spouses, where relevant, were first interviewed in 1982 and, if they were still alive, again in For this paper, we selected from the retired-worker sample those married men who were receiving payments from an employer-provided
5 3 pension pension plan at the time of the first interview. 1 Respondents were asked whether the husband s pension payments would continue to the wife if the husband died today. If the husband responded affirmatively to this question, we infer that he has selected a joint-and-survivor option. 2 Respondents were also asked to indicate the year that they began receiving pension payments. This allows one to distinguish pension choices that were made prior to 1974 and those made after the effective date of ERISA. The NBS contains detailed information on household assets and income from Social Security, pensions, employment, stocks, bonds, savings accounts, and various other sources. From the descriptive data presented in Table 1, ERISA appears to have had a strong effect on the number of couples selecting a joint-and-survivor option. Forty-eight percent of the men who began receiving pension benefits prior to 1974 chose a pension that would continue to their widow in the event of his death. By contrast, 64 percent of the men who began receiving pension benefits in 1974 or later chose a joint-and-survivor option. However, economic conditions that affect a couple s pension decisions were also changing over the time period when the households in the sample were retiring. Pension wealth, for example, increased between 1960 and 1980 among both men and women. Failure to control for other factors that affect pension decisions could overstate or understate ERISA s impact. A joint-and-survivor pension is one way to insure a spouse against possible economic hardship during widowhood. A widow could also receive income from her own pension, her own Social Security benefits, her husband s Social Security benefits, and other household assets. Four variables that measure the total amount and composition of a couple s wealth are included in the analysis. We estimate the 1 Because the sample for this paper is restricted to men who were already receiving pensions, this paper does not examine the degree to which widows are affected when men die prior to receiving any pension payments. REA extended survivorship protection to spouses of pre-retirement deceased workers. Tegen (1997), using data from the National Survey of Families and Households, concludes that the REA did increase the percentage of widows receiving a joint-and-survivor pension when their husbands died prior to retirement. 2 Pensioners could also answer this question affirmatively if they had chosen a period-certain pension payment option. Nevertheless, a period-certain option indicates that a pensioner is willing to trade current payments for possible future payments to his widow.
6 4 TABLE 1 Percentage of Retired, Married Men Who Select a Joint-and-Survivor Pension Option N = 2,049 Percentage Husband initiated pension prior to ERISA (1974) 48.1 Husband initiated pension after ERISA (1974 or later) 63.9 Overall 61.7 Source: Authors computations using data from the New Beneficiary Survey.
7 5 amount of household wealth available to a husband during his remaining lifetime as the sum of current assets and the present value of his Social Security wealth, his pension wealth, and his wife s Social Security wealth. 3 Wealth available to the husband could have two potentially offsetting effects on the likelihood that the household selects a survivor option. Higher levels of wealth imply a greater pool of funds available to allocate from a husband s lifetime to his wife s widowhood. This should increase the probability that a couple will select a joint-and-survivor pension. On the other hand, greater wealth also enables a husband to use nonpension assets to insure his wife against the consequences of his death. In an attempt to distinguish these two effects, we include a variable measuring the proportion of a husband s wealth that is accounted for by his pension. We hypothesize that the greater is this share, the more likely it is that a couple will select a joint-and-survivor option. The wife s financial resources should also affect the husband s pension decision. The greater are a wife s assets, the less reliant she will be on her husband s pension for financial security in widowhood. A wife s wealth is defined as the sum of assets held in her name and the present value of her pension and her Social Security benefits if she were to become widowed. The final financial variable is an indicator of whether a woman is eligible for her own employer-provided pension. This variable is included to determine whether the form of a wife s wealth, controlling for the amount of wealth, influences her husband s pension decision. Employer-based pension companies use life expectancies from sex- and race-neutral actuarial tables to calculate the value of the joint-and-survivor annuity that is comparable to a retired worker s single-life plan. If a man s life expectancy based on his own private information is higher than the actuarial table life expectancy that is, he expects to die later than the average pensionable worker of his age the pension reduction will be greater than it should be based on his private information. 3 Pension wealth is estimated as the actuarial value of a single-life option, adjusted for the man s actual pension option. Although we know the year when a survivor pension is chosen, we do not know the specific option chosen. We assume, therefore, that men who select a survivor pension opted for a joint-and-one-half pension (the minimum required by ERISA).
8 6 Conversely, if a man expects to die relatively soon, the reduced pension will be of greater value to him than the pension company has calculated. Therefore, an indicator variable is included that takes on the value of one if the husband has a potentially life-threatening health condition. 4 Although a husband s and wife s ages are taken into account when calculating the single-life reduction, and we use these ages in estimating pension wealth, age differences may have an independent effect on a retired worker s pension decision. For example, if a man is married to a much younger wife, the annual payments from a jointand-survivor pension he will be offered will be substantially lower than the annual payments from a single-life option. Because his wife is relatively young, he may take account of her ability to seek work or to continue working after his death, qualifying in the future for her own pension coverage if her husband were to die. Thus, very large actuarial reductions due to husband-wife age differences may be offset by other considerations. Three indicator variables are included to measure the possible age differences between a husband and wife: husband is eleven years or more older, husband is four to ten years older, and husband is four or more years younger than his wife. The coefficients on these variables indicate the likelihood that a couple with a particular age difference will select a joint-and-survivor option relative to a couple in which the husband and wife are of ages within three years of one another. 5 Several demographic variables are included in the analysis. Total years of schooling and years of schooling beyond high school are incorporated, because highly educated husbands may seek more information when deciding on their pension payment form. An indicator variable of whether the couple has children is included. Children may provide support to a widowed parent who has insufficient financial resources. An indicator variable for whether the husband has been married before is also 4 The following health conditions are considered to be potentially life-threatening: heart attack, stroke, cancer or a malignant tumor, multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, epilepsy or another nervous disorder, or a respiratory condition, such as asthma or emphysema. 5 Wives who are relatively young may become eligible for pensions at some point in the future, a fact which we cannot observe. One of the age indicator variables may be picking up this effect rather than a pure age-difference effect.
9 7 included, because a former wife may have a prior claim on a man s pension. Finally, we include a variable to indicate whether the husband s pension began after the enactment of ERISA. Table 2 presents the sample means and standard deviations for the 2,049 households. The pension option decision is estimated using a probit equation. The dependent variable takes on the value of one if a retired male pensioner selects the joint-and-survivor option and zero if he selects a single-life payout. In 1979, the calendar year before men in the sample first began receiving Social Security benefits, 56 percent of all full-time working men 60 and older in the United States were covered by a pension (Wood, 1989). For some men, the choice of a pension-covered job may not have been independent of their decision to take a joint-and-survivor option. For example, men who were married or expected to marry might place greater value on a pension-covered job precisely because they place a high value on providing financial security to the wife during her eventual widowhood. In this event, probit coefficient estimates would be biased, since the pension option choice is only observed among men who value the joint-and-survivor option highly. Therefore, we also estimated a bivariate probit model to correct for a potential selection effect. In the first equation of the bivariate model, which is based on the sample of all married men, the probability that a male respondent in the New Beneficiary Survey is currently receiving a pension is a function of demographic characteristics, earnings, and the employer s industry. The second equation models whether men who are currently receiving a pension chose the joint-and-survivor option. This procedure adjusts for the unobservable valuing by pension-covered men of the joint-and-survivor option. Because the coefficients from the bivariate model are not substantially different from the probit coefficients, we only report the latter estimates here. 6 6 Results of the bivariate probit model are available from the authors by request.
10 8 TABLE 2 Variable Means and Standard Deviations N = 2,049 Variable Mean Standard Deviation Household wealth available to husband ($10,000) Pension wealth as a proportion of total wealth Wife s wealth, if she becomes widowed, as a proportion of household wealth Wife is eligible for her own pension Indicator of a life-threatening health condition Husband s age relative to his wife s age - 11 or more years older years older within 3 years of age or more years younger White (husband) Total years of schooling (husband) Years of schooling beyond high school (husband) Couple has children (adult or minor) Husband was married before current marriage Pension initiated after ERISA (1974)
11 9 RESULTS Coefficient estimates from the probit model are presented in Table 3. The wealth variables have the expected signs. Controlling for the composition of wealth, the amount of total household wealth available to the husband appears to have no effect on the likelihood of selecting a joint-and-survivor option. Men with a relatively high proportion of wealth in a pension plan are more likely to select a survivor option. The negative coefficient on the variable measuring the wife s wealth implies that men are less likely to select a joint-and-survivor annuity when their wife is relatively independent financially. The marginal effects of the independent variables on the likelihood that a retired male pensioner will choose a survivor option are estimated for a representative couple. The representative husband is white, in good health, began receiving his pension after 1974, has at least one child (minor or adult, though for most men it is an adult child), and has only been married once. The representative wife is within three years of her husband s age and is not eligible for her own pension. The representative couple s financial variables and education levels are assumed to be at the mean sample values. A fivepercentage-point increase in the proportion of household wealth that is accounted for by a man s pension (from 0.21 to 0.26) is associated with an estimated 3.8 percentage-point increase in the probability of choosing a joint-and-survivor pension. A five-percentage-point increase in the proportion of household wealth that is available to the wife in widowhood is associated with an estimated 1.8 percentage-point reduction in the probability of choosing a survivor pension option. The positive coefficient on the health variable implies that men do use private information to adjust the value of their joint-and-survivor option. A man with a potentially life-threatening health condition has a probability of selecting a survivor annuity that is 4.8 percentage points higher than an otherwise equivalent healthy man. Couples who have a relatively young wife or a relatively young husband are more likely to choose a survivor option relative to couples similar in age. Relative to couples whose ages are similar, the probability of choosing the survivor option is an estimated 10.5 percentage
12 10 TABLE 3 Coefficient Estimates of Factors Affecting the Joint-and-Survivor Pension Decision Variable Coefficient Standard Error Household wealth available to husband ($10,000) Pension wealth as a proportion of total wealth 2.261*** Wife s wealth, if she becomes widowed, as a proportion of household wealth *** Wife is eligible for her own pension Indicator of a life-threatening health condition 0.118* Husband s age relative to his wife s age - 11 or more years older ** years older or more years younger ** White (husband) 0.238** Total years of schooling (husband) Years of schooling beyond high school (husband) Couple has children (adult or minor) Husband was married before current marriage Pension initiated after ERISA (1974) 0.701*** Intercept *** Log-likelihood N = 2049 *Significant at the 10 percent level. **Significant at 5 percent level. ***Significant at the 1 percent level.
13 11 points lower for couples in which the husband is substantially older than the wife, and 12.8 percentage points lower for couples in which the wife is substantially older. The probability that a white male chooses a survivor option is 8.9 percentage points higher than for a nonwhite male. While white males have a longer life expectancy than do nonwhite males, thus having a lower probability of leaving a widow, white women, once widowed, have a substantially higher life expectancy than nonwhite women. The higher probability of white males (even after controlling for age differences and economic resources) choosing a survivor pension implies the effect of a longer widowhood on how individual s value a survivor pension. The coefficients on the two education variables are not statistically different from zero. Nor do having any children or prior marriage of the husband have a statistically significant effect. Finally, the 1974 ERISA legislation appears to have had a strong effect on pension choices. A couple making their pension decision after 1973 has a probability of choosing a joint-and-survivor option that is 27.1 percentage points higher than a similar couple making their pension decision prior to This is an enormous difference, given that this estimate is net of age and wealth differences across couples. CONCLUSION Existing studies of widowhood have concluded that Social Security widows benefits and private pension plan survivor benefits are important sources of income for widows (Holden, Burkhauser, and Feaster, 1988). Holden and Zick (1997) find that pensions are associated with both higher prewidowhood income and a smaller decline in income upon a husband s death. However, the longer work histories and increased pension coverage experienced by women has reduced but not eliminated the economic risk of widowhood. Using data from the New Beneficiary Survey, we find that the joint-andsurvivor pension decision is economically rational in the sense that it is affected by constraints a man faces when trying to allocate assets and income to his wife s widowhood, and that men take account of their wives dependence as widows on the husbands resources, particularly the husbands pensions.
14 12 Nevertheless, our results indicate that ERISA legislation, mandating the offer of a default joint-andsurvivor pension, substantially increased the percentage of widows who received a survivor pension. Even when husbands can freely choose against this default option and those choices on average are economically rational, regulation appears to make a difference.
15 13 References Bound, John, Greg J. Duncan, Deborah S. Laren, and Lewis Oleinick Poverty Dynamics in Widowhood. Journal of Gerontology 46 (3): S115 S124. Burkhauser, Richard V., Karen C. Holden, and Daniel Feaster Incidence, Timing, and Events Associated with Poverty: A Dynamic View of Poverty in Retirement. Journal of Gerontology 43 (2): Holden, Karen C., Richard V. Burkhauser, and Daniel J. Feaster The Timing of Falls into Poverty after Retirement and Widowhood. Demography 25 (3): Holden, Karen C., and Howard Iams New Data Bases in Human Resources: The 1982 New Beneficiary Survey. Journal of Human Resources 22 (4, Fall): Holden, Karen C., and Cathleen Zick The Economic Impact of Widowhood in the 1990s: Evidence from the Survey of Income and Program Participation. In Consumer Interests Annual, Vol. 43, ed. Irene E. Leech. Colombia, MO: American Council on Consumer Interests. Hurd, Michael, and David Wise The Wealth and Poverty of Widows: Assets Before and After the Husband s Death. In The Economics of Aging, ed. David A. Wise. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Tegen, Karen Influence of Survivor Pensions on the Income of Widows: Role of Legislation, Rules, and Consumer Information. M.S. Thesis: University of Wisconsin, Department of Consumer Science. Woods, John R Pension Coverage among Private Wage and Salary Workers: Preliminary Findings from the 1988 Survey of Employee Benefits. Social Security Bulletin 52 (10): 2 19.
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7.1.2014.SummaryPlanDescription.001018 Christian Brothers Employee Retirement Plan July 1, 2014 Christian Brothers Retirement Planning Services 1205 Windham Parkway, Romeoville, IL 60446-1679 800.807.0700