1 European Water 9/10: 25-33, E.W. Publications Monitoring and Assessing Internal Waters (Lakes) Using Operational Space Born Data and Field Measurements M. Stefouli 1, D. Dimitrakopoulos 2, 3, J. Papadimitrakis 4 and E. Charou 5 1 Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration, Greece, 2 Hydro - Geological and Geo - Mechanical Studies Dep. 3 Public Power Corporation, Greece, 4 School of Civil Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Heroon Polytechneiou 9, Zografos Campus, Attiki, Greece, 5 N.C.S.R. "Demokritos", Inst. of Informatics & Telecommunications Agia Paraskevi, Attiki, Greece Abstract: Key words: The proper management of water resources is an issue of worldwide concern nowadays. Lake Vegoritis is an important water impoundment located in the northern part of Greece, at an altitude of 510m and a northern latitude of 40 o 47, in an area with industrial, mining and agricultural activities which in various ways affect the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the lake. Modern information processing techniques are applied to multispectral satellite data such as LANDSAT-ETM and ASTER satellite data, for extracting useful information regarding spatio-temporal monitoring of the lake s ecosystem. Water clarity assessments are performed and these serve as an indicator of water quality in the lake. Changes of the area extent of the lake are estimated from the multitemporal satellite images. Coastlines are also mapped accurately and useful conclusions concerning land use change are drawn. Surface water temperature patterns of the lake are mapped and anomalies related to karstic springs or sinks are identified. These findings are also interpreted in the light of in-situ observations of several parameters that characterise the fluctuation of the quality of lake s water as a function of space and time using GIS techniques. Remotely sensed data contribute to lake s water quality assessment project through its ability to show spatial patterns of various environmental parameters. The multi-temporal nature of the satellite data gives the opportunity to compare the status of surface water in different dates. The combination of data from different sources linked by the powerful prospects of new Earth Observation techniques will result in the development of new knowledge that can be used for supporting policies like the EU 2000/60 Water Framework Directive. Remote sensing, GIS, spatio-temporal monitoring of lake s ecosystem. 1. INTRODUCTION The environment is put into constant stress through the various human activities and natural processes. In particular land and water systems are put into stresses in order to meet the demand of increased human needs. Monitoring the status of lakes is critical because it is an important life support, recreational, commercial and aesthetic resource to humans. EC Water framework directive requires member states to monitor the environmental state of lakes. Action must be taken to demonstrate and if necessary to restore good ecological status of these water. However, extended field collection programs to many lakes, on a statewide level, are currently still costly and logistically prohibitive in many areas. The same applies to other environmental factors like the monitoring of land use change, industrial / mining activity, waste disposal sites etc, which is expensive and difficult to conduct. Remote sensing technology has been used for several years in oceanography to measure chlorophyll, watercolour and suspended sediments over large areas (Tang et al, 2004), but has only recently been explored in lake studies (Kloiber et al. 2000). Although sensors such as Landsat TM were primarily designed for detecting land features, recent improvements now provide better spatial and spectral resolutions for aquatic studies than previously available (Zilioli, 2001). Recently, remote sensing has been shown to correlate well with lake Secchi Disk Transparency (SDT) values
2 26 M. Stefouli et al. (Lathrop, 1992; Kloiber et al. 2000; Dewider and Khedr, 2001; Hadjimitsis D.G et al 2004). The ASTER satellite system is a relatively new system and its data have not been evaluated as far as monitoring the lake water systems is concerned and this is included in our analysis. SDT values have not been estimated from the remotely sensed data, as data from different types of satellite sensors have been used and results could not be made easily comparable. Much emphasis is given to extract information concerning a variety of parameters, like land cover change, that influences (indirectly) lake water quality. To effectively implement remote sensing into an environmental monitoring program, there still remain many unanswered questions and this is examined in this paper. GIS techniques are also used in processing multiple data that are of concern to a lake water assessment project. Finally, in the framework of development of an integrated methodology for studying the impact of pollution on inland waters, it is also appropriate to use a mathematical model to simulate the quality of water in a lake. The simulation results may provide complementary information on the quality of the water column of a lake, information that is not necessarily provided by remote sensing images of the lake s surface and other field data campaigns. An accounting of these physical and bio-geo-chemical processes considered by a 1-D (in the vertical direction) model and of the pertinent space and time scales has been given by Papadimitrakis and Imberger (1996) and Papadimitrakis et al. (1996a, b). However mathematical models require various data and therefore special emphasis is given in collecting and storing appropriate information in the GIS system so as to be easily available for model simulations. 2. DATA ANALYSIS METHODS 2.1 Study area Vegoritis basin has been selected as a pilot project area. It is located in the NW part of Greece (Figure 1). The hydrologic basin contains 4 lakes, while agricultural, industrial and mining activities are taking place. The 4 lakes are distributed throughout an area of 1894 sq kms which is bounded between latitude N to N and longitude to E E. The surface area of the lakes ranges from 1.8 to 59.7 sq. kms with a mean depth of 2 m for Secchi lake. Emphasis is given on the environmental aspects of Vegoritis lake which has a mean depth of 20 meters. The annual rainfall is about 600 mm. In Vegoritis hydrologic basin that it is outlined in Figure 1, there are two main aquifers. One of the aquifers is of phreatic type and it is developed in the loose sediments of the basin. of groundwater table varies from about 0 m to more than 40 m. The other aquifer is developed in the karstified limestones and is hydraulically connected directly with the lake. Considerable variation of the level of Vegoritis lake has been observed. 2.2 Analysis of data The aim of the work has been to evaluate the applicability of the use of digital multi-temporal Landsat 5/7, SPOT Panchromatic and ASTER data for the mapping of local scale natural environmental features and monitoring changes of land cover. This is accomplished using an integrated methodology, which includes the application of both image processing and GIS techniques Two Landsat 5/7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) scenes, one SPOT Panchromatic and one ASTER scene have been used in the analysis. The satellite images have different acquisition dates. The Landsat and ASTER images have been mainly analyzed, while the SPOT image has been used in order to extract certain features like the surface extent of lakes. Temporal changes for the last 15 years can be analyzed with the use of satellite imagery.
3 European Water 9/10 (2005) 27 Figure 1. Overview of pilot project study area. Synergistic use of (1) topographic maps at 1:50,000 scale of the Hellenic Geographic Service published at 1970, (2) geologic maps at 1:50,000 scale of the Institute of Geologic Mineral Exploration, (3) Landsat TM, SPOT and ASTER data (Table 1) with variable acquisition dates have been carried out in the analysis. The hydrodynamics of a lake expresses the interplay among four dominant effects: a) the meteorological and other forcing, b) the potential energy of resident stratification, c) the lake s bathymetry, and d) the earth s rotation. To this end, a variety of hydrologic, meteorologic and land use data, as well as field measurements concerning water quality characteristics, have been selected and stored in the GIS system so as to facilitate any water quality model simulations. Lake bathymetry data (NCMR 2001) have been also input into the system and a digital bathymetry model has been created for the area with 5 m pixel size, (as shown in Figure 4-D). Existing field observations of SDT and water temperature were obtained for the lakes, from sampling Programs of the Florina County and Water Quality Assessment Monitoring program of the Ministry of Agriculture. All these data can be used as input to the mathematical model described in Papadimitrakis et al. (1996a, b) for simulating the quality of water in Lake Vegoritis. Table 1. Acquisition dates of different types of satellite images. LANDSAT 4 & 5 26/10/1986 LANDSAT 7 10/11/1999 SPOT 10/10/1996 ASTER SYSTEM 5/10/2001 Processing techniques that have been applied include integrated image processing / GIS vector data techniques. TNTmips software package has been used for the integrated application of image processing / GIS techniques. Combination of different resolution data using data fusion techniques proved to be effective as far as the land cover and the interpretation of geologic features are concerned because complementary information for the same target is combined. Neural network algorithms are quite effective for the satellite data classification (Vassilas N. and Charou E., 1999) and of the data fusion results. The Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM) (Kohonen, 1989) has been used for clustering and vector quantization. SOM was used for the classification of the satellite images. The areal extent of the lake has been mapped accurately in all cases.
4 28 M. Stefouli et al. 3. CHANGE ANALYSIS Changes of lake s surface may influence water quality parameters of the lake ecosystem. Remotely sensed data have been used in mapping the coastlines in different dates. Mapped coastlines from satellite data are displayed in relation to the coastline of the 1:50,000 topographic maps. The coastline of the 1999 bathymetry map (red line in ) (NCMR, 2001), has been proved to be inaccurate after the comparison with the one mapped on the Landsat TM image that has been acquired during the same year (Figure 2). Figure 2. Change of coastline, using multitemporal satellite images. The areas with the blue colour show the lake that has been converted into land. In A, the ASTER raster data set has been extracted according to: 1. the coastline of the topographic map dated 1970, and 2. the land / water boundary of the image dated This part of the image has been classified into different categories (i.e. Irrigated land, agricultural land and bare land). Significant changes of the surface extent of the Vegoritis lake has taken place in the last 30 years, as shown in Figure 2 and this refers to the reduction of the areal extent of the lake by 21.4 km 2 (Table 2). Change of land use has also taken place as lake area has been converted to agricultural land (Figure 2A). 90% of the lake s area has been given for agricultural use (green / brown areas of figure 2A). Table 2. Change of areal extent of Lake Surface as this is estimated from the temporal satellite images and the one shown on the topographic map with publication date MAP 1970 MAP 1970 MAP 1970 MAP 1970 LANDSAT 1986 SPOT 1996 LANDSAT 1999 ASTER km km km km 2 The observed decrease of the areal extent of the lake is in accordance with the lake level measurements. There is a fluctuation of the level of Vegoritis Lake, and of the karstic aquifer, that ranges between 507 to 542 m for the last 108 years, while there is a continuous lowering trend of
5 European Water 9/10 (2005) 29 the level. As seen from Figure 3 the drop of the water level shown for the period may be attributed to the outflow of water through the Arnissa tunnel for hydropower generation. After 1975 the continuing drop may be attributed to the increasing use of water of the lake and of the karstic aquifer, for industrial and mainly for agricultural use (Lykoudi et al., 2003, Dimitrakopoulos, 2003). An effort was also made to correlate rainfall to the fluctuation of water level. Rainfall data show a fluctuation but the average precipitation over the last 30 years period is more or less constant. Linear regression analysis shows a strong decline of the lake level in contrary to the average precipitation. Therefore it is concluded that natural factors determining the lake s surface elevation play a minor role in relation to human activities that are taking place in the area Water level fluctuation (masl) Date Vegoritis L. level Arnissa outflow Soulou inflow Flow/year (x10 6 m 3 ) Figure 3. Time series plot of changes of level of the Vegoritis Lake measured from 1886 till SURFACE WATER QUALITY AND TEMPERATURE The flow of sediments can be related to the transport of pollutants and water clarity and this can be interpreted on the satellite imagery. The Landsat and ASTER data have been analyzed for estimating differences of suspended sediment content. The data of band 2 of Landsat images (A, B in Figure 4) and band 1 of the ASTER image (C in Figure 4) have been used in the analysis as they correspond to the same spectral region of μm. The same colour palette has been used for displaying the multi-temporal images. Blue-green colours show relatively low sediment content while red - yellow colours high content. The Vegoritis lake bathymetry map is also displayed in (Figure 4, D) for facilitating interpretations. The deepest lake areas are those that are displayed with the red / yellow colours and these are located in the upper central - western part of the lake. Lake bathymetry does not relate to the surface distribution of sediments that is shown on the satellite imagery. Instead inflow patterns of sediments can be interpreted on the satellite imagery in the different acquisition dates. Numbers 1 to 3 show the location of the streams / canals that discharge into the lake. Soulou river has been the main river with surface water inflow (1 in Figure 4) to the Vegoritis lake. Streams that inflow in locations 3 and 4 (Figure 4, B & C) are of perennial nature without permanent flow. Location number 3 in Figure 4B shows the artificial canal that connects Petron to Vegoritis lake. Due to change of the lake surface this is now located to southern part of Vegoritis lake. This is a major source of pollution, as the nearby Petron lake is considered to be highly polluted. High volumes of sediments imported by the Soulou river (1 in Figure 4) can be seen on the Landsat TM 1986 image and this is shown with the yellow colors (Figure 4A). Landsat 1986 image shows a clear inflow pattern that is attributed to Soulou river, but also inflows from other locations can also be interpreted, while the rest of the lake has a relatively uniform status. These sources have contributed to the change of lake coast-line and to incoming pollution that it is transported along
6 30 M. Stefouli et al. with the sediments. The northern part of the lake is considered of low sediment content and therefore less polluted. Landsat 1999 (B in Figure 4) and Aster 2001 (C in figure 4) images show a change of situation as the inflow from the Soulou river has minimized. Due to land use changes, this river is not out flowing in the lake during the observed time (November 1999, October 2001) as its water is used for irrigation of the new land, which has been created after the withdrawal of the lake (Figure 4). This is easily interpreted on the Landsat 1999 image of Figure 4 B. Locations 1, 2 and 3 are still the ones with relatively high sediment content but colors are also attributed to shallow waters. The Northern part of the lake is the one with the relatively good surface water status. However, surface clear waters are restricted to the north / eastern part of the lake. Western part of the lake seems to be the one that has been mostly affected and it seems to deteriorate. This is partly due to the inflow of water of low quality from lake Petron (2 in Figure 4). On the other hand clear waters (black/blue colors) of the Northern part of the lake are attributed to inflows from karstic springs or sinks. Table 3. Secchi measurements in locations a,b,c,d of Figure 4 with variable depth and in various dates of the year Dates (a) 0,5m (b) 0,5m (b) 5m (c ) 0,5m (c) 5m (d) 0,5m (d) 5m Mean value ,0 2,1 2,6 2,6 2, ,20 2,80 2,60 2, ,40 2,60 2,60 2, ,50 1,00 2,20 2,40 1, ,7 1,60 1,70 1,50 1, ,5 1,80 2,80 2,40 1, ,8 2,20 2,60 2,40 2, ,5 2,10 2,30 2,20 1, ,6 1,6 1,8 2 1,5 Field measurements of water clarity (Koutsoubidis, 1999) relate well with the results of the interpretation process of the satellite images. Maximum measured water clarity with Secchi disk was 5.5 meters and the minimum one was that of 1.0 meter for years Minimum values have been observed in stations a and b marked on images of Figure 4D, while in stations c and d higher values of water clarity have been measured. This is also attributed to the inflow of pollutants-due to Soulou river. No seasonal differences have been observed to exist in relation to water clarity measurements. Measurements for the year 2000 also confirm that a similar spatial pattern of water clarity measurements exist. In Table 3 selected values of Secchi measurements are shown and it is clear that measurements with higher values are those that are located in the Northern part of the lake. This is also confirmed by the measurements of the Ministry of Agriculture for the period of Secchi disk water clarity measurements. Measured values in location 2 are of the order of 1.9±0.5 meters, while in c is 2.1±0.7 meters Remotely sensed data can contribute to a lake water quality assessment project through its ability to show spatial patterns of inflow sediments that are transported by rivers. Also the multi-temporal nature of the data gives the opportunity to compare the status of surface water in different dates. Lake surface temperature ASTER data due to their improved spectral spatial and radiometric resolution are more effective for an interpretation of surface water temperature than Landsat TM images. The temperature pattern of the surface water of lake Vegoritis is shown in Figure 5. Dark black / blue colored areas (D, E) are colder than those that are displayed with orange-red colors (A,B,C). It is generally expected that warmer water can be measured in the shallow areas of the lake, as the water is not circulating so much and it is influenced by the temperature of the coast and the lake
7 European Water 9/10 (2005) 31 bottom. Areas along the lake coastline should be warmer and in particular in those areas that are of shallow depth and are shown in red color in the bathymetry map of Figure 4. However in areas D and E of Figure 5, thermal anomalies of cold water can be interpreted. This is possibly due to the existence of underwater karstic springs or sinkholes which permit the rapid inflow or outflow of the ground water depending on the prevailing hydrogeological conditions. Although inflow or outflow sources of water were assumed (Dimitrakopoulos, 2003), this is the first time that using the satellite data the identification of their location was made possible. A decrease of temperature from the southern to the northern part of the lake has been also confirmed by field measurements carried out by the Ministry of Agriculture. A difference of mean ± standard deviations of temperatures in locations 1, 2, 3 of Figure 5, in the water of lake Vegoritis during the period have been measured and these are the following: Location 1: Surface 20.0±2.9 o C Bottom 11.7±5.1 o C Location 2: Surface 17.8±3.5 o C Bottom 9.6±3.4 o C and Location 3: Surface 17.6±3.1 o C Bottom 8.9±3.0 o C. Figure 4. Band 2 of the Landsat (A: October 1986, B: November 1999) and band 1 of ASTER image (C: October 2001). The data sets are displayed with a selected color palette that it is the same in the three cases. The right image D shows the bathymetry map of the area. Even though Lake Vegoritis is the final receiving body of the water of the hydrological basin its quality is relatively good in relation to that of the other three lakes that are shown in Figure 1. The main reason for that is the inflow / outflow of ground water that has been interpreted as thermal anomalies of cold water on the satellite image. 5. DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS - CONCLUSIONS Remote sensing provides valuable information concerning different hydrological parameters of interest to a lake assessment project. Monitoring is supported due to the multi-temporal character of the data. Data for large areas can be collected quickly, relatively inexpensively and can be repeated through selected time intervals The locations of water inflows or outflows, which are related to karstic springs or sinks, are mapped on the satellite images. These locations drain the lake as they are used as conduits for the subsurface water flow. Water clarity assessments can also be performed. Remotely sensed data can be effectively used for map updating procedures. Satellite data can be analyzed to generate GIS database information required for hydrological studies and the application of models.
8 32 M. Stefouli et al. Changes of the lake and its surrounding environment can be reliably assessed. The added advantage of the proposed approach is that it makes available to end-users a variety of data and that it helps in efficient analysis and prediction. Once a lake has been well studied the results can be extrapolated to make assessments to other lakes in a regional scale. The combination of data from different sources linked by the powerful prospects of new Earth Observation techniques will result in the development of new knowledge that can be used for supporting policies like the EU 2000/60 Water Framework Directive. It is indicated that satellite data is a viable alternative for spatio-temporal monitoring purposes of lake ecosystems. Figure 5. Temperature differences of lake surface water. Dark blue color show cold thermal anomalies REFERENCES Bukata, R. P., Jerome J. H., & Burton J. E. (1988). Relationships among Secchi disk depth, beam attenuation coefficient, and irradiance attenuation coefficient for Great Lakes waters. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 14(3), Dewider, Kh. & Khedr, A. (2001). Water quality assessment with simultaneous Landsat-5 TM at Manzala Lagoon, Egypt. Hydrobiologia, 457, Dimitrakopolulos, D. (2001). Hydrogeological conditions of Amyndeon lignite field. Problems during the exploitation. PhD Thesis, National Technical University of Athens (in greek) Dimitrakopoulos D., Grigorakou E., Koumantakis J., (2003) Aquatic balance in Vegoritis lake, West Macedonia, Greece, relating to lignite mining works in the area EGS-AGU-EUG Joint Assembly, Nice, France 6-11 April Hadjimitsis D.G, Toulios L., Clayton C.R.L., and Spanos K., Dam Trophic state evaluation using satellite remote sensing techniquesq A case study of Asprokeramos dam in Paphos, Cyprus. Conference??? Key J., Maslanic A., and Schweiger A. J., Classification of merged AVHRR and SMMR arctic data with neural network, Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, vol. 55, no.9, pp Khorram, S. & Cheshire H. M. (1991). Water quality mapping of Augusta Bay, Italy from Landsat-TM data. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 12(4), Kloiber, S.M., Anderle, T.H., Brezonik, P.L., Olmanson, L., Bauer, M.E. & Brown, D.A. (2000). Trophic state assessment of lakes in the Twin Cities (Minnesota, USA) region by satellite imagery. Archive Hydrobiologie Special Issues Advances in Limnology, 55, Kloiber, S. M., Brezonik, P. L., Olmanson, L. G., & Bauer, M. E. (2002). A procedure for regional lake water clarity assessment using Landsat mutispectral data. Remote Sensing of Environment (in press). Kohonen T, Self-Organization and Associative Memory, Springer, 1989 Koutsoubidis E Ecologic research on the lakes and rivers of Florina County: Research Programme Internal report of Florina County Division of Chemical Services.
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