1 programa de formação interdisciplinar superior universidade estadual de campinas Student quality, selection and support ProFIS, a Novel Approach for Access and Success in Brazilian Higher Education Symposium on Excellence in Higher Education FAPESP 23-24/02/2014 Marcelo Knobel UNICAMP - Brazil
2 Programa de Formação Interdisciplinar Superior (ProFIS) Interdisciplinary Higher Education Program Marcelo Knobel IFGW, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp) Cibele Y. Andrade, Francisco A. M. Gomes, Renato H. L. Pedrosa, Ana Maria A. C. Silva, Lício A. Velloso, Elisabete A. Pereira, Gabriela Celani
3 Outline Higher education in Brazil and at Unicamp. AA at Unicamp The PAAIS (affirmative Action and Social Inclusion Program). The ProFIS (Interdisciplinary Higher Education Program). Challenges and perspectives
5 Organized according to the European (French, Italian) tradition of professional schools; first universities are from the 1930s Limited coverage: in spite of recent expansion, only about 14% of the age cohort is enrolled; Public higher education is free, but enrolls only 25% of the students Quality is very uneven both in public and private institutions
6 1960: less than 200,000 students enrolled in HE : enrollment grew to 1.4 million (600%) longest period of economic stagnation in Brazil s history there was little development in HE, public or private Undergraduate Enrollment (Presential Programs) Political stability and economic growth Increasing demand for qualification Expansion of private sector New National Law of Education (1996) New paths for diversification of system Deregulation Universalization of basic education (1st-8th grades) Expansion of secondary education ---> Increasing demand for Higher Ed Enrollment in HE - Brazil Total Public Private
7 Where are the young people (18-24) in Brazil POLÍTICAS DE INCLUSÃO SOCIAL NO ENSINO SUPERIOR NO BRASIL: POLÍTICAS DE REDISTRIBUIÇÃO DE OPORTUNIDADES;Clarissa E. Baeta Neves (UFRGS), Bruno Morche(UFRGS)
9 22% of the Brazilian population: 41 million 33% of Brazilian GDP = U$ 700 billion (U$17,000 GDP/capita) Almost 50% of Brazilian Science Higher Education 26% of all enrollment = 1.63 million students (1.47 million in presential programs) 32% of graduating class (2010): 260,000 of 830,000 total Net enrollment ratio: 18% (34% gross enrollment ratio) 85% in private HEIs (3/4 of those in for-profit system) Small federal participation, only 1.5% of enrollments State Public HE system Best university system in Brazil 3 universities, 28 campuses, 120,000 undergrad students, 50,000 grad students 50 Technical Colleges (FATECs), 50,000 students But still, only 14% of all enrollment is in public institutions
10 1% 4% 5% 90% Public - Federal Public - State Public - Municipal Private Federais Estaduais Municipais Privadas
12 City ~1 million people GNP R$ 30 billion (2008) Metropolitan area 19 municipalities 2.8 million people (2009) HDI = São Paulo State: Brazil: GNP = R$ 80 billion (2008) 7.8% of São Paulo State 2.7% of Brazil
14 Founded in campuses 3.5 million m 2 22 Academic Units 3 Hospitals 778 beds Faculty 1800 professors 98% PhD 90% of PhDs full time Staff 7916 employees 3370 in hospitals
15 UNICAMP One of the three public universities maintained by the São Paulo State Government. Situated in Campinas, the 14 th largest city in Brazil, with 1.08 million inhabitants. 66 undergraduate programs with about 17,000 students. 66 graduate MSc and PhD programs with about 19,000 students. Admits only 5% of the applicants to the undergraduate courses.
16 35777 Students Other 8812 Undergrad PhD 5630 Master 5276 Student/Faculty rate 16,059/1,800 = 8,9
18 Applicants Places Vestibular
19 Self-Exclusion? High School Graduates Public Schools Private Schools Vestibular Applications Public Schools Private Schools Unicamp Public Schools Private Schools 15% 30% 34% 85% 70% 66% 460,000 only in the state of SP
20 PAAIS: Social inclusion at UNICAMP. Affirmative action program that gives additional points as to increase the vestibular score of Low income students from public high schools. Black, mulatto and native Brazilian applicants. Benefits around 30% of the university students.
21 Public high schools and UNICAMP 55% 57% % 18% 7% 9% 12% 13% 4% 2% 3% 1% Zero One Two Three Four Five or more Public high schools by enrollments at UNICAMP per year, in percentage. Even with the PAAIS, few UNICAMP students come from Campinas public high schools (total of 96 high schools).
22 The ProFIS Interdisciplinary Higher Education Program
23 General education program. The ProFIS Restricted to graduate students from public high schools of Campinas. 2 year program. Aimed to Increase the access of low-income and minority students to UNICAMP. Give the students a broader education. Established in 2011, after 2 years of discussions. An initial working group studied several cases from USA, Europe and Asia, and they presented a conceptual project that was discussed within each school and department of the University. Each school presented ideas and criticisms, as well as possible courses to be given for ProFIS. Final document discussed in several central commissions prior to the final approval of the senate of the University.
24 ProFIS goals. The ProFIS is aimed at developing student s skills, including Critical analysis Abstract reasoning. Written and oral communication. Knowledge of the natural world. Teamwork and problem solving. Quantitative and qualitative research. Multiculturalism.
25 Curriculum The ProFIS curriculum includes courses on Language (reading and writing, English, literature) Mathematics and statistics. Humanities and arts (planet Earth, art and culture, history, economics, psychology). Natural sciences (IT, environment, physics, chemistry). Biological and health sciences (the human body, evolution, health promotion and quality of life, first aid, ethics and bioethics). Academic research.
26 Migration to other traditional professional degree After concluding the ProFIS, the student may enroll in another university undergraduate course, without taking the vestibular. Most UNICAMP programs reserved some vacancies exclusively for ProFIS students. The admission for these vacancies is based on merit, taking into account the students performance in the compulsory disciplines of the program. Important observation: this adds two more years of study to the degree program
27 The ProFIS admission system
28 Admission and social inclusion. The admission to ProFIS is based on the performance of the applicants on the Nationwide High School Exam (ENEM) To check the impact of the new program on the profile of the university undergraduate population, we analyze The performance of the students on the ENEM test The self-declared race of the students. The household income of the students. The instruction level of the parents.
30 Score of applicants and students enrolled on ProFIS, per school Average ENEM score, per school Applicants for ProFIS Enrolled students Average ENEM score of the school
31 Self declared race, in percentage Indian Asian Mulatto Black White Did not answer Enrolled - ProFIS Applicants - ProFIS Enrolled - Other courses Applicants - Other courses year old population. White+Asian: 64% Black+Mulatto+Indian: 36% Pop. with access to higher education: White+Asian: 82% Black+Mulatto+Native Brazilian: 18%
32 Household income 14.6% 15.5% 14.2% 2.2% 5.3% 25.4% 24.4% 28.8% 26.0% 15.9% 15.4% 33.3% 28.0% 45.8% 46.6% more than 20 m.w to 20 m.w to 10.m.w to 5 m.w to 3 m.w. 1 m.w. or less Did not answer 9.2% 11.9% 3.3% 3.4% Enrolled - Other courses Applicants - Other courses Enrolled - ProFIS Applicants - ProFIS
34 Instruction level of the father, in %. 6.7% 9.7% 35.0% 35.3% 49.0% 48.4% Incomplete or complete education tertiary Secondary education 18.3% 14.6% Primary education 29.1% 28.3% Incomplete primary education 35.8% 37.3% 6.5% 6.9% 10.5% 11.7% Did not answer 4.2% 3.0% 5.0% 4.7% Enrolled - ProFIS Applicants - ProFIS Enrolled - Other courses Applicants - Other courses First generation to enroll a higher education program: 86%.
35 Student Success Special scholarships of R$ 625,00 per month were created. 60% have this fellowship, chosen by socioeconomic criteria. Other students with lower value scholarships. Food and Transport support for all ProFIS students. Social Assistants with continuous support. Full medical support, including psychological counselling. Several TAs helping on daily basis to support studying. Second year allows participation in research activities (with fellowships from federal government)
37 Challenges The final shape of the program is a kind of hybrid between a college model (new in Brazil) and a traditional professional degree. This adds two years to any traditional degree! The program is new, and nobody knows or understand it (family, potential employers, students). It competes with other social inclusion initiatives from the federal government (Prouni). It does not fit in any practical procedure (census, accreditation, assessment, tests, etc...) New profile of students at Unicamp. Public schools (fundamental level) deliver a disastrous education! PISA 2009 data in Math show that Brazil has 89% below level 2 and 8% on level 3, 3% in 5, 0.7 in 5 and 0.1% in 6. In levels 5 and 6: 0,8% of , students all over Brazil. Competition with the work market (even with scholarships).
38 Challenges New culture of general education. Faculty members and other University students don t fully get the idea. Difficulty to introduce a multidisciplinary approach. Faculty workload. Proper infrastructure. Inter-institutional approach. Future unknown. Recognition from the market? Lack of culture of General Education in Brazil. Rigidity of Curricula and entrance exams (public jobs). Strength of professional careers, councils and associations (CREA, OAB, CRM, etc..)
39 Motivation for enrolling on ProFIS. It gives me access to UNICAMP It is a liberal education course It contributes to my intellectual development It will prepare me for university level courses It contributes to my personal development It contributes to my professional qualification It will help me to choose a career It is a good opportunity for public schools students It will give me access to a specific career It will improve my critical vision and civic engagement 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%
40 Perspectives ProFIS is an ingoing project, which is being continuously evaluated. It represents a new model and a paradigm in Brazilian Higher Education, that in principle could be adapted in other universities. It is a further step towards diversification of HE in Brazil, and it promotes Social Inclusion keeping the merit. Thank you!
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