In-Situ Remediation Strategies as Sustainable Alternatives to Traditional Options. Ryan Bernesky, B.Sc., P.Ag. February 26, 2013

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1 In-Situ Remediation Strategies as Sustainable Alternatives to Traditional Options Ryan Bernesky, B.Sc., P.Ag. February 26, 2013

2 Outline Introduction to Contaminated Sites and Remediation Strategies In-Situ Remediation Mechanisms In-Situ Physical Removal Bioremediation Combined Strategies Increase success rates Case Studies

3 Contaminated Sites in Western Canada Oilfield Leases and Batteries Upstream Spills - Midstream Retail and Bulk Fuel Facilities - Downstream Railway Operations

4 Site Remediation Options Traditional Remediation Soil Excavation and Disposal (Dig and Dump) Quick and Easy Experience Controlled Outcome Subsurface Conditions Less Irrelevant

5

6 Traditional Remediation Options Energy Intensive Significant Carbon Footprint Tervita, 2013

7 Site Remediation Options

8 In-Situ Mechanical Remediation Multi Phase Extraction High vacuum systems are used to physically remove various combinations of contaminated groundwater, phase separated hydrocarbons, and hydrocarbon vapor from the subsurface. Air Sparge Injection of atmospheric air into the subsurface saturated zone, enabling a phase transfer of hydrocarbons from a dissolved state to a vapor phase. Also typically enhances aerobic biodegradation.

9 MPVE System Overview ATMOSPHERIC AIR HYDROCARBON VAPOUR Formation Air Flow Vapour Phase Recovery SOIL RESIDUAL HYDROCARBON SOIL HYDROCARBON VAPOUR WATER TABLE LIQUID PHASE DISSOLVED HYDROCARBON HYDROCARBON GROUNDWATER (Ground Effects Environmental, 2012)

10

11

12 In-Situ Mechanical Remediation - Advantages MPVE Systems can lower the groundwater table, increasing the vadose zone and significantly increasing PHC recovery Simultaneous remediation of soil and groundwater Air Sparge and MPVE systems can introduce oxygen into the groundwater, stimulating biodegradation reactions

13 In-Situ Mechanical Remediation - Disadvantages In lower permeability and/or heterogeneous formations there exists potential to leave isolated lenses/pockets of contamination in the formation Groundwater treatment and vapour treatment commonly required Noise concerns in certain areas Typically not sufficient to bring PHC concentrations to levels below criteria

14

15 In-Situ Biological Remediation Strategies Bioremediation When remediating PHC in groundwater, microorganisms break down individual contaminants by using them as a food source Typically bioremediation consists of optimizing growing conditions for indigenous PHC consuming bacteria that already exist in the soil Bioremediation often occurs naturally but we can accelerate these processes with the addition of electron acceptors and nutrients

16 In-Situ Biological Remediation Strategies Principles of Bioremediation Electron acceptors and macronutrients are used to stimulate PHC reductions Electron acceptor and macronutrients can include oxygen, nitrogen, sulfate, phosphorus Organic compounds, such as benzene, are degraded and the end result is carbon dioxide

17 In-Situ Biological Remediation Strategies The role of Oxygen (O 2 ) in Bioremediation Oxygen is one of the most essential elements of microbial degradation of hydrocarbons. Complete degradation of PHC takes place in the presence of oxygen through Aerobic Degradation. However, if high concentrations of PHC are present, the oxygen in the soil will be depleted very fast causing Anaerobic Conditions.

18 In-Situ Bioremediation Lovely, D.R.; Chapelle, F.H., and Woodward, J.C Environmental Science and Technology, Vol.28, No.7, pp

19 In-Situ Biological Remediation Strategies Advantages - Can be relatively inexpensive - Logistically easy to employ Disadvantages - Requires extensive knowledge of subsurface conditions - Often requires initial physical mass removal activities

20 In-Situ Biological Remediation Strategies

21 Combined In-Situ Remedial Strategies Combined In-Situ Remedial Strategies can significantly shorten remedial timelines and increase remedial success

22

23 Study Site - Background Active Service Station and Former Bulk Fuel Facility in SW Saskatchewan The service station is located adjacent to a residential property Site characterization activities completed in 2009 identified significant PHC impacts beneath the residential property

24 Site Plan Showing PHC Impacts

25 Remediation Concept Stage 1 - Mechanical In-Situ Remediation The initial remedial activities focused on attempting to reduce PHC impacts surrounding the residence Stage 2 - Bioremediation Engineered to take advantage of the naturally elevated sulfate concentrations at the Site (average groundwater concentration of 18,500 mg/l) A combination of mechanical and bioremediation remedies were implemented in an attempt to reduce the PHC to below criteria

26 Remediation Concept

27 Stage 1 Mechanical In-Situ Remediation The MPVE system operated for approximately 45 days and recovered approximately 10,000 L of hydrocarbons, primarily in the vapour phase Recovery rates declined from approximately 65 L/hr to 3 L/hr, at which time the physical recovery methods were discontinued

28 Explanation of Results MPVE System Combustible Vapour Measurements in Exhaust Effluent

29 Stage 2 Bioremediation Phase The following amendments were injected once the mechanical recovery methods were discontinued: 1,150 kg of Potassium Nitrate (KNO 3 ) 205 kg of Triethyl Phosphate ((C 2 H 5 ) 3 PO 4 ) 1,000 L of Ivey-sol 103

30 Bioremediation An Effective Finisher Significant evidence that bioremediation processes were successful at the Site The addition of the nutrient ammendments (potassium nitrate (KNO 3 ) and triethyl phosphate ((C 2 H 5 ) 3 PO 4 ), evidently stimulated reducing reactions The bioremediation enhancements resulted in optimizing sulfate reducing conditions and ultimately significant declines in benzene concentrations

31 Results - Groundwater Removal Efficiencies Benzene 83% to 96% BTEX 72% to 85%

32 Results - Groundwater Sampling Date Benzene (mg/l) Toluene (mg/l) Ethylbenzene (mg/l) Xylenes (mg/l) BTEX (mg/l) S09-04 June 30, April 30, July 30, June 12, S09-10 June 30, April 30, July 30, June 12, Removal Efficiencies Benzene 83% to 96% BTEX 72% to 85%

33 Results - Soil Removal Efficiences B 97% T 99% E 97% X 94% F1 94% F2 81%

34 Summary Key Points The selection of remediation technologies in Western Canada is still largely driven by: - Human and environmental health criteria - Subsurface conditions - Cost - Technical practicality - Regulatory acceptance Remediation will have a carbon footprint; however, innovative in-situ remediation strategies are proving that carbon footprints can be reduced

35 Acknowledgments Dr. Wenhui Xiong, P.Eng. Chris Mathies, P.Eng. Kris Bradshaw, P.Eng. Kimberley Tang, P.Eng. Trevor Carlson, P.Eng. Jay Grosskleg, B.Sc, GIT

36 Thank You

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