Microbiological and Geochemical Dynamics of the Subsurface: chemical oxidation and bioremediation of organic contaminants. Nora Barbour Sutton

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1 Microbiological and Geochemical Dynamics of the Subsurface: chemical oxidation and bioremediation of organic contaminants Nora Barbour Sutton

2 Soil Contamination Sources of Contamination Gas Stations Dry Cleaners Industrial Factories Transport Infrastructure Types of Contamination Benzene, diesel, gas Solvents: PCE Heavy Metals Pure Pollutant Pure Pollutant Groundwater Groundwater

3 Soil Remediation Transfer of contaminant to second location Conversion of contaminant into harmless products PHYSICAL Remediation Physically remove contaminant from the subsurface CHEMICAL Remediation (chemical oxidation) Contaminants are chemically degraded BIOLOGICAL Remediation (Bioremediation) Microorganisms degrade contaminants through biological processes

4 Conversion: In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) In situ bioremediation (ISB) CHEMICAL Remediation Benzene + oxidant CO 2 + H 2 O BIOLOGICAL Remediation (Bioremediation) Benzene + bacteria + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + biomass

5 Conversion: In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) In situ bioremediation (ISB) Groundwater

6 Chemical Conversion: oxidation followed by bioremediation In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) In situ bioremediation (ISB) Oxidants Fenton s Reagent H 2 O 2 + Fe 2+ Persulfate: S 2 O 8 2- Ozone O 3 Permanganate MnO - 4 Amendments Nutrients Oxygen Carbon Source Bacteria Groundwater

7 Chemical oxidation + bioremediation Technological Motivation Parameter Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) Bioremediation (ISB) Time Rapid Slow Cost High Low Pure Pollutant Yes No Thorough No Yes Sustainable No Yes

8 Chemical oxidation + bioremediation Scientific Reasoning Reduces toxicity Improves biodegradability Improves bioavailability Increases temperature and mixing Scientific Challenge Oxidizing conditions ph change Soil organic matter degradation Oxidants Optimal ph Oxidation Potential (V) Fenton s Reagent H 2 O 2 + Fe (OH - ) Persulfate: S 2 O to > (SO 4- ) Ozone O 3 neutral 2.1 Permanganate MnO - 4 neutral 1.7

9 Chemical oxidation + bioremediation Scientifically Attractive: unique system to investigate Fundamental Understanding of Entire System Groundwater Soil Contaminant Microbial Community Groundwater

10 Dissertation Structure Motivation Chemical Oxidation and Bioremediation Part One: Review; limitations to ISB Part Two: Aerobic ISB: TPH Part Three: Anaerobic ISB: chlorinated ethenes Diesel bioremediation with oxygen PCE and TCE bioremediation with electron donor

11 Dissertation Structure Motivation Chemical Oxidation and Bioremediation Part One: Review; limitations to ISB Part Two: Aerobic ISB: TPH Part Three: Anaerobic ISB: chlorinated ethenes Literature Laboratory Field

12 Dissertation Structure Motivation Chemical Oxidation and Bioremediation Part One: Review; limitations to ISB Part Two: Aerobic ISB: TPH Part Three: Anaerobic ISB: chlorinated ethenes Literature Chapter 2 Review of ISCO coupled with ISB Laboratory Chapter 3 Bioavailability limitations to bioremediation Chapter 5 Aqueous constituents impact bioremediation Chapter 6 Microbial community dynamics following oxidation Chapter 8 Development of OHRB resilience to chemical oxidation Field Chapter 4 Field limitations to bioavailability Chapter 7 Geochemical and microbial community changes during ISCO and ISB Chapter 9 Changes to OHRB and rdh abundance during ISCO

13 Dissertation Toolbox Aspects Chapter soil type X X X System chemical oxidant type X nutrient amendment X X Microbiological microbial community X X X X X X groundwater X X X X Geochemical soil characteristics contaminant characteristics X X X X

14 Major Conclusions Technological: Chemical oxidation plus bioremediation is very effective

15 Major Conclusions Technological: Chemical oxidation plus bioremediation is very effective Scientific: Bacteria are very resilient

16 Major Conclusions Technological: Chemical oxidation plus bioremediation is very effective Scientific: Bacteria are very resilient Chemical oxidation impacts subsurface processes

17 Major Conclusions Technological: Chemical oxidation plus bioremediation is very effective Scientific: Bacteria are very resilient Chemical oxidation impacts subsurface processes DNA-based tools are essential to understanding system

18 Major Conclusions Technological: Chemical oxidation plus bioremediation is very effective Scientific: Bacteria are very resilient Chemical oxidation impacts subsurface processes DNA-based tools are essential to understanding system Fundamental Understanding of Entire System

19 Program Defense: 13:30-13:45 Presentation 13:45-14:30 Examination by Committee 14:30-14:45 Committee withdraws 14:45-15:00 Announcement of decision Reception: 15:00-15:45 in Aula Dinner and Party: 17:30 Cafe Carre, Vijzelstraat 2

20 Microbiological and Geochemical Dynamics of the Subsurface: chemical oxidation and bioremediation of organic contaminants Nora Barbour Sutton

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