Bioremediation of contaminated soil. Dr. Piyapawn Somsamak Department of Environmental Science Kasetsart University

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1 Bioremediation of contaminated soil Dr. Piyapawn Somsamak Department of Environmental Science Kasetsart University

2 Outline Process description In situ vs ex situ bioremediation Intrinsic biodegradation Engineered (enhanced) bioremediation slurry-phase, solid-phase Integration of bioremediation with other technologies

3 Bioremediation : Definition The use of living microbes to transform undesirable or harmful substances into non-toxic compounds The husbandry and management of naturally occurring microbes to degrade target pollutants for the purpose of restoring contaminated environment bioreovernew.htm

4 Bioremediation 1. Enzyme released by microbe break the contaminant down into digestible pieces. 2. The contaminant is metabolized by the cell for carbon and/ or energy. 3. Harmless biological wastes are all that remain of the contaminant organic contaminant carbon electrons New cell electron acceptor energy bioreovernew.htm e.g. O 2

5 US EPA pollutant categories for bioremediation Organic solvents Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons PAH wastes (coal tars, creosotes) Pesticides Munitions Metals (special case)

6 Basic information of bioremediation Bioremediation is viewed as a green technology Whether microorganisms will be successful in destroying contaminants in the subsurface depends on three factors: the type of organisms, the type of contaminant, the geological and chemical conditions at the contaminated site.

7 Basic information of bioremediation Microbial activities differ according to whether they are aerobic or anaerobic Aerobic Oxygen serves as a terminal electron acceptor Degradation of most organic compounds is aerobic Petroleum hydrocarbons Most chlorinated pesticides Some chlorinated solvents Faster degradation than under anaerobic conditions

8 Basic information of bioremediation Anaerobic

9 Complicating factors Unavailability of contaminants to the organisms Toxicity of contaminant to the organisms Presence of multiple contaminants and natural organic chemicals Incomplete degradation Inability to remove contaminant to low concentrations Aquifer clogging

10 Goals 1. Ultimate goal - Mineralization* of contaminants Biochemical transformation of hazardous organic chemical to harmless in-organic constituents CO 2 (or other gas), water, cell materials 2. Secondary goal - economics

11 Criteria for selecting bioremediation Is the chemical biodegradable? what function do they serve Primary substrate carbon and/or energy source or electron donor Electron acceptor chlorinated benzoates, PCBs Cometabolized substrate compound is not utilized for growth Inhibitors or poisons

12 Criteria for selecting bioremediation Is there any an indigenous population of degraders at the site? Is it too toxic for microorganisms Are there sufficient nutrients for microbial activity What is the rate limiting factor and can it be modified?

13 in situ vs ex situ in situ in place site specific ex situ excavation of contaminated soil controlled and optimized

14 Treatability Test Microbiological techniques Biochemical techniques Molecular techniques Microcosm studies Lab scale Pilot scale

15 Natural Attenuation vs Intrinsic Biodegradation

16 Intrinsic Biodegradation An option when the naturally occurring rate of contaminant biodegradation is faster than the rate of contaminant migration. These relative rates depend on the type and concentration of contaminant, the microbial community, the subsurface hydrogeochemical conditions.

17 Intrinsic Biodegradation The ability of native microbes to metabolize the contaminant must be demonstrated either in field tests or in laboratory tests performed on site-specific samples. The effectiveness of intrinsic bioremediation must be continually monitored. In intrinsic bioremediation the rate-controlling step is frequently the influx of oxygen.

18 Intrinsic Biodegradation Lack of a sufficiently large microbial population can also limit the cleanup rate. The microbial population may be small because of: a lack of nutrients, limited availability of contaminants resulting from sorption to solid materials other physical phenomena, or an inhibitory condition such as low ph or the presence of a toxic material

19 Engineered bioremediation Engineered bioremediation may be chosen over intrinsic bioremediation because of time and liability. biostimulation involves the addition electron donors, electron acceptors and nutrients to stimulate naturally occurring microbial population bioaugmentation introduces specific microorganisms aimed at enhancing the biodegradation of target compounds

20 Engineered bioremediation

21 Engineered bioremediation Engineered bioremediation requires installing wells and other engineering systems to circulate electron acceptors and nutrients that stimulate microbial growth. Key site characteristics for engineered bioremediation are: hydraulic conductivity greater than 10-4 cm/s (if the system circulates water) intrinsic permeability greater than 10-9 cm 2 (if the system circulates air) Relatively uniform subsurface medium Residual concentration of nonaqueous-phase contaminants of less than 10,000 mg/kg of subsurface solids.

22 Bioventing technology that stimulates the natural in situ biodegradation of any aerobically degradable compounds in soil by providing oxygen to existing soil microorganisms.

23 Bioventing Bioventing is an in-situ remediation technology that uses indigenous microorganisms to biodegrade organic constituents adsorbed to soils in the unsaturated zone. The activity of the indigenous bacteria is enhanced by inducing air (or oxygen) flow into the unsaturated zone (using extraction or injection wells) to promote biodegradation of constituents and minimize volatilization nutrients may be added, if necessary

24 Bioventing Bioventing has proven to be very effective in remediating releases of petroleum products including gasoline, jet fuels, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Bioventing is most often used at sites with mid-weight petroleum products (i.e., diesel fuel and jet fuel), - lighter products (i.e., gasoline) tend to volatilize readily and can be removed more rapidly using SVE. - heavier products (e.g., lubricating oils) generally take longer to biodegrade than the lighter products.

25 Bioventing : Disadvantages Not applicable for certain site conditions (e.g., low soil permeabilities, high clay content) High constituent concentrations may initially be toxic to microorganisms. Cannot always achieve very low cleanup conditions.

26 "What proves in situ bioremediation?" A THREE-PART STRATEGY FOR ''PROVING" IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION Build a consistent, logical case the relies on convergent lines of independent evidence taken from the field site itself

27 A challenge to identify in situ biodegradation processes The general strategy for demonstrating that in situ bioremediation is working : 1. documented loss of contaminants from the site, 2. laboratory assays showing that microorganisms in site samples have the potential to transform the contaminants under the expected site conditions, and 3. one or more pieces of evidence showing that the biodegradation potential is actually realized in the field.

28 Ex situ Bioremediation Technology Solid phase Biopile Land farming Slurry phase- biological reactor

29 Typical landfarming operation (www.epa.gov)

30 Landfarming Landfarming has been proven effective in reducing concentrations of nearly all the constituents of petroleum products Lighter (more volatile) petroleum products (e.g., gasoline) evaporation > microbial respiration The mid-range hydrocarbon products (e.g., diesel fuel, kerosene) biodegradation > evaporation Heavier (non-volatile) petroleum products (e.g., heating oil, lubricating oils) biodegradation ( minimal evaporation)

31 Typical biopile operation (www.epa.gov)

32 Tanked base Bioslurry

33 Slurry phase biological treatment A site can be especially amenable to remediation by slurryphase biotechnology if: the amount of available land for other technologies is limited, the soil or sludge is only contaminated with organic biodegradable compounds, the soil or sludge is not sterile, the contaminating materials are soluble,

34 Slurry phase biological treatment the contaminating materials are soluble, the remediation project is schedule-driven, a slurry evaluation test shows that the soil or sludge can produce a pumpable. suspendable slurry, and/or the solid matrix is either of such a consistency that it can produce a slurry without any treatment

35 Integration of Bioremediation with other technologies frequently combined with nonbiological treatment technologies, both sequentially and simultaneously. implemented after excavating soils near the contaminant source. combined with a vapor recovery system to extract volatile contaminants from soils. follows engineered bioremediation, which cleans up most of the contamination, with intrinsic bioremediation

36 Thank you

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