Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 for A Probabilistic Approach Taperit Tongshoob 1 Chirdpun Vitooraporn 2 Cooling Load Calculation Abstract 1 Ph.D Student 2 Lecturer at Building Technology Environment Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Rd, Patumwan, Bangkok, Thail, Tel : Fax : This paper demonstrates how the probability can be used as a decision tool for justifying the appropriate results from the cooling load calculation. The ventilation heat gain, as one component in cooling load, is used to demonstrate the method presented in this paper. The probability for each amount of ventilation heat gain under various design condition is calculated. The results of ventilation heat gain in the studying case vary from 436 to 593 kw depend on what design condition is used. By using 98% of cumulative density function, it indicates that the amount of ventilation heat gain is 537 kw. Using this probability information one can now logically decide for an appropriate amount of ventilation heat gain used hence cooling load amount. This will lead to an efficient in energy management as well as reducing the risk in air conditioning system investment. Keywords: Cooling load, Uncertainty, Probability, Ventilation heat gain 2

2 1. Introduction Cooling load is the rate of heat which must be removed from the space to maintain a specific space air temperature moisture content. The parameters affecting cooling load calculations are numerous, for example, the outside air temperature, the humidity ratio, the number activity of people etc. These parameters are often difficult to precisely define always intricately interrelated. Many cooling load components vary in magnitude over a wide range during a 24 hr period. These cyclic changes in load components are not often in phase with each other. Each must be analyzed to establish the maximum cooling load for a building or zone. Moreover effects of thermal accumulation also involve in calculating procedure. Therefore various models assumptions are developed. The estimated results at the specific time of calculation are normally expected not the exact ones. By referring to or using difference values of parameters at the same specific time of calculation will result in difference outcomes of the calculation. Most of the reference data for the parameters used in calculation are from the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) stards which obtained from data collection experiments. However the stards do not present the probability variance of those data as well as the chances that other data apart from stard data might occur. ASHRAE stards define the design conditions in the form of maximum temperature for dry-bulb wet-bulb temperature. However cooling load calculations depend not only on temperature but also on other parameters such as lighting or occupants. These parameters sometimes are uncertain in some cases are difficult to find the exact information. This leads to the uncertainty in the calculation result. Therefore safety factor always involves in the final phase of cooling load calculations 2. Probabilistic Approach In order to attack this uncertainty problem in cooling load calculation, we must first categorize parameters those affect the cooling load. They can be divided into 2 types, i.e. uncontrollable controllable parameters. Uncontrollable parameters, such as outside air temperature, affect the change in the probability of cooling load occurrence while controllable parameters, such as type shading coefficient of glass, do not affect the change in the probability of cooling load occurrence. Conventionally the stard values of uncontrollable parameters that related to climate such as outside air temperature are obtained from data collection with statistical analysis. For non-climate type uncontrollable parameters, such as lighting, the values are obtained from laboratory experiment for a specific condition. Therefore in each case we are restricted to only one stard value for each parameters considered for the calculation. Under the new concept, all data values must be considered 3

3 along with probability density function that indicates the frequencies of occurrence, not just the stard ones. The cooling load received from the calculation will contain its own probability to indicate the chance for that specific cooling load to occur. Therefore specifying the amount of cooling load used can be logically decided. This will help reducing the risk in air conditioning system investment. 3. Cooling Load Calculation Heat gains that enter into or are generated in space are external heat gain, internal heat gain ventilation heat gain. Only ventilation heat gain is considered in this paper to demonstrate the application of probabilistic in cooling load calculations. Heat gain from ventilation is important for areas that need high ventilation rate, for example restaurant, theater, etc. Ventilation is used to maintain indoor air quality to stard condition. Unless the ventilation is used to maintain indoor air quality, it affects to the thermal comfort condition in the buildings. Ventilation heat gain calculations are normally referred to ASHRAE stard. The maximum drybulb temperature is used to calculate maximum sensible heat gain. At the maximum wet-bulb temperature, if dry-bulb temperature is high, latent heat gain may decrease. In the contrary, at the maximum humidity ratio, latent heat gain is always the maximum. Moreover the maximum humidity ratio value is not necessary to be the same condition for the maximum wet-bulb temperature. This indicates that the maximum ventilation heat gain can be occurred at any point. Therefore in order to determine the probability of ventilation as well as its maximum heat gain value at any condition, both the probability of dry-bulb temperature the probability of humidity ratio must be used. 4. Probabilistic Approach for Ventilation Heat Gain Calculation For constant,,, c p T i, the sensibleheat gain is a function of outside dry-bulb temperature is given by; (1) or (2) where = specific heat of air = air density = air volume flow rate = outside temperature = inside temperature If the probability density function (PDF) of the outside temperature is, then by definition Cumulative density function (CDF) (3) 4

4 The probability density function of sensible heat gain can be obtained by using the equivalent of cumulative density function on range domain is given by cumulative density function on range domain is given by (9) Latent heat gain is given by (4) (5) The total ventilation heat gain ( ) is the combination of sensible heat gain latent heat gain. (10) where = enthalpy of saturated water = outside humidity ratio = inside humidity ratio If,, h fg w i are constant then latent heat gain is a function of outside humidity ratio In order to obtain the probability density function of total ventilation heat gain, we must first find the probability of relative probability density function of sensible heat gain latent heat gain;. This relative function can be obtained by using the equivalent of cumulative density function on range domain is given by or (6) (7) (11) If the probability density function (PDF) of humidity ratio is, then by definition Cumulative density function (CDF) (8) The probability density function of total ventilation heat gain can be found from (12) The probability density function of latent heat gain can be obtained by using the equivalent of 5

5 or (13) If we consider that the outside temperature the humidity ratio are independent, which is normally the assumption for the calculation then the probability density function of relative probability density function of sensible heat latent heat gain is given by (14) the probability density function of total ventilation heat gain is 5. Case Study (15) The following case studies are used to illustrate the usefulness of the new concept to consider the ventilation heat gain presented in this paper. Given data: A building in Bangkok, Thail requires ventilation rate = 10 m 3 /s, inside temperature = 24 O C inside relative humidity ratio = 50%. Determine the appropriate amount of ventilation heat gain. Data obtained from the Meteorological department of Thail at Bangkok station during year are shown in table 1 Mean Variance Dry-bulb temperature (T db ) Wet-bulb temperature (T wb ) Humidity ratio (w) 29.1 O C 25.2 O C O C O C Note: Humidity ratio is calculated from dry-bulb wetbulb temperature data. Solution Table 1 Temperature Data Condition 1: Consider using dry-bulb temperature at 98.0 % design condition mean coincident wet-bulb temperature that indicate maximum sensible heat gain. 6

6 Dry-bulb temperature at 98.0 % design condition is 35 O C. Mean coincident wet-bulb temperature is 26.8 O C. For T db = 24 O C Rh = 50%, the humidity ratio is w = Therefore Humidity ratio at 98.0 % design condition is Mean coincident dry-bulb temperature is 29.9 O C Therefore Condition 2.1: Consider using wet-bulb temperature at 98.0 % design condition mean coincident dry-bulb temperature that indicate maximum latent heat gain. Wet-bulb temperature at 98.0 % design condition is 29.3 O C. Mean coincident dry-bulb temperature is 33.1 O C. For T wb = 29.3 O C T db = 33.1 O C, the humidity ratio is w = Therefore Condition 3: Consider using both dry-bulb temperature at 98.0 % design condition humidity ratio at 98.0 % design condition. Therefore Condition 2.2: Consider using humidity ratio at 98.0 % design condition mean coincident drybulb temperature that indicate maximum latent heat gain. As one can see that the amount of ventilation heat gain varies from 436 to 593 kw depend on what design condition is used. The question is what should be the appropriate value for ventilation heat gain to consider in our cooling load calculation. The design condition as we always use in our conventional method is obviously not the logical answer to this question since it is just the condition we select in order to accomplish the calculation. 7

7 From the least mean square error in several distribution models, we found that the suitable PDF of dry-bulb temperature humidity ratio are normal distribution the drybulb temperature humidity ratio are assumed to be independent then using equation (15) the PDF of total ventilation heat gain can be found as follow; The above equation is integrated to obtain the cumulative density function of ventilation heat gain. The result is shown in figure 1. Figure 1: Cumulative density function of ventilation heat gain. is only 2% of chance that the ventilation heat gain will be more than kw. The results of ventilation heat gain amount from various design conditions as previously mentioned can be substituted in to the graph shown in figure 1 to find the cumulative density function of their own. Results are presented in table 2 Table 2 CDF for ventilation heat gain at various design conditions Design Condition Ventilation CDF value 98 % T db Mean T wb kw % T wb Mean T db kw % w Mean T db kw % T db 98 % w kw % Total Heat Gain kw Using the information in table 2, ones can make a decision to pick up the value for ventilation heat gain with chances that they are willing to take for 98% design condition. In figure 1, various ventilation heat gain amounts are now equipped with their own cumulative density function. For example, at 98% of cumulative density function, it indicates that there 8

8 6. Conclusion The new concept for determining the cooling load which involves the probability density function is presented using the ventilation heat gain as an example. Under this method, the appropriate amount of cooling load can be logically determined using the known cumulative density function as a tool for decision making. Engineers can now state an amount of cooling load by knowing the probability that the load will occur. This helps reducing the risk in air conditioning system investment. 7. Acknowledgements This research has been supported by the Building Technology Environment Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department, the Graduate School of Chulalongkorn University, which the author acknowledges. 9

9 8. References [1] ASHRAE, 1993 ASHRAE Hbooks Fundamental (SI), Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigeration Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., [2] ASHRAE, 2001 ASHRAE Hbooks Fundamental (SI), Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigeration Air-ConditioningEngineers, Inc., [3] McQuiston, Faye C. Spitler, Jeffery D., Cooling Heating Load Calculation Manual, 2 nd ed., American Society of Heating, Refrigeration Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., [4] McQuiston, Faye C., Parker, Jerald D. Spitler, Jeffery D., Heating, Ventilating Air-Conditioning; Analysis Design, 5 th ed., John Wieley & Son, [5] Stoecker, W.F., Design of Thermal System,3 rd ed., McGraw-Hill, [6] A. H-S Ang W.H. Tang, Probability Concepts in Engineering Planning Design, John Wieley, New York, [7] Jim Pitman, Probability, Springer Verlag, [8] S.C. Gupta, V.K. Kapoor, Fundamentals of Mathematical Statistics, Sultan Ch & Son, Delhi, [9] Pederson C.O., Development of Heat Balance for Cooling Load, ASHRAE Transaction, [10] Pederson C.O., Richard J. Liesen, An Evaluation of Inside Surface Heat Balance Model for Cooling Load Calculations, ASHRAE Transaction, [11] Pederson C.O., Todd M. McClellan, Investigation of Outside Heat Balance Models for Used in a Heat Balance, ASHRAE Transaction, [12] The Metrological Department of Thail, Climate data record sheet, The Metrological Department of Thail, Bangkok,

### Total Heat Versus Sensible Heat Evaporator Selection Methods & Application

Total Heat Versus Sensible Heat Evaporator Selection Methods & Application Scope The purpose of this paper is to provide specifying engineers, purchasers and users of evaporators in industrial refrigeration

### ASHRAE Climatic Data Activities. Dru Crawley Didier Thevenard

ASHRAE Climatic Data Activities Dru Crawley Didier Thevenard ASHRAE American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Engineers >50,000 members Major products: Handbooks (Fundamentals, Systems

### MODELLING AND OPTIMIZATION OF DIRECT EXPANSION AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDING ENERGY SAVING

MODELLING AND OPTIMIZATION OF DIRECT EXPANSION AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FOR COMMERCIAL BUILDING ENERGY SAVING V. Vakiloroaya*, J.G. Zhu, and Q.P. Ha School of Electrical, Mechanical and Mechatronic Systems,

### HVAC Calculations and Duct Sizing

PDH Course M199 HVAC Calculations and Duct Sizing Gary D. Beckfeld, M.S.E., P.E. 2007 PDH Center 2410 Dakota Lakes Drive Herndon, VA 20171-2995 Phone: 703-478-6833 Fax: 703-481-9535 www.pdhcenter.com An

### Software Development for Cooling Load Estimation by CLTD Method

IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) ISSN: 2278-1684Volume 3, Issue 6 (Nov. - Dec. 2012), PP 01-06 Software Development for Cooling Load Estimation by CLTD Method Tousif Ahmed Department

### CHAPTER 3. BUILDING THERMAL LOAD ESTIMATION

CHAPTER 3. BUILDING THERMAL LOAD ESTIMATION 3.1 Purpose of Thermal Load Estimation 3.2 Heating Load versus Cooling Load 3.3 Critical Conditions for Design 3.4 Manual versus Computer Calculations 3.5 Heating

### District Cooling Plant : Refrigeration Plant Simulation

1 District Cooling Plant : Refrigeration Plant Simulation Dr. Chirdpun Vitooraporn Department of Mechanical Engineering Chulalongkorn University Phayathai Rd., Patumwan, Bangkok, 13. THAILAND E-mail: fmecvt@kankrow.eng.chula.ac.th

### International Telecommunication Union SERIES L: CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION AND PROTECTION OF TELECOMMUNICATION CABLES IN PUBLIC NETWORKS

International Telecommunication Union ITU-T TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDIZATION SECTOR OF ITU Technical Paper (13 December 2013) SERIES L: CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION AND PROTECTION OF TELECOMMUNICATION CABLES

Calculations -1- AIRCONDITIONING Cooling s Calculations Employer : 4M SA Project Location : ASHRAE Office Room : Example from ASHRAE 2013 Handbook - Fundamentals : Chapter 18, Single Room Example (p. 18.37)

### Theoretical Study on Separate Sensible and Latent Cooling Air-Conditioning System

Purdue University Purdue e-pubs International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference School of Mechanical Engineering 2008 Theoretical Study on Separate Sensible and Latent Cooling Air-Conditioning

### Energy Recovery Ventilation Equipment

AHRI Standard 1060 (I-P) 2013 Standard for Performance Rating of Airto-Air Exchangers for Energy Recovery Ventilation Equipment IMPORTANT SAFETY DISCLAIMER AHRI does not set safety standards and does not

### University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Slovenia

Paper received: 2011-08-24, paper accepted: 2011-11-18 DOI:10.5545/sv-jme.2011.160 2012 Journal of Mechanical Engineering. All rights reserved. Analysis of Building Electric Energy Consumption Data Using

### By Tom Brooke PE, CEM

Air conditioning applications can be broadly categorized as either standard or critical. The former, often called comfort cooling, traditionally just controlled to maintain a zone setpoint dry bulb temperature

### Comparing Air Cooler Ratings Part 1: Not All Rating Methods are Created Equal

Technical Bulletin By Bruce I. Nelson, P.E., President, Colmac Coil Manufacturing, Inc. Comparing Air Cooler Ratings Part 1: Not All Rating Methods are Created Equal SUMMARY Refrigeration air coolers (evaporators)

### Absolute and relative humidity Precise and comfort air-conditioning

Absolute and relative humidity Precise and comfort air-conditioning Trends and best practices in data centers Compiled by: CONTEG Date: 30. 3. 2010 Version: 1.11 EN 2013 CONTEG. All rights reserved. No

### Understanding Heating Seasonal Performance Factors for Heat Pumps

Understanding Heating Seasonal Performance Factors for Heat Pumps Paul W. Francisco, University of Illinois, Building Research Council Larry Palmiter and David Baylon, Ecotope, Inc. ABSTRACT The heating

### Green Building Handbook for South Africa Chapter: Heating, Ventilation and Cooling Luke Osburn CSIR Built Environment

Green Building Handbook for South Africa Chapter: Heating, Ventilation and Cooling Luke Osburn CSIR Built Environment The heating, ventilation and cooling loads of typical commercial office space can range

### EFFECTS OF INDOOR RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON REFRIGERATED DISPLAY CASE PERFORMANCE

P (5, EFFECTS OF INDOOR RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON REFRIGERATED DISPLAY CASE PERFORMANCE Ronald H. Howell, Professor Luis Rosario, Graduate Student Antonio Bula, Graduate Student Department of Mechanical Engineering

### Whole House Dehumidification for Occupant Comfort and Energy Savings

Downloaded from www.rsrews.com. Since 1968, RS Andrews has proudly served Atlanta's Heating, Air Conditioning & Plumbing Needs. Whole House Dehumidification for Occupant Comfort Energy Savings June 2009

### APPLICATION GUIDE. Comparison of Latent Cooling Performance of Various HVAC systems in a Classroom Application

APPLICATION GUIDE Comparison of Latent Cooling Performance of Various HVAC systems in a Classroom Application Section Comparison of Latent Cooling Performance of Introduction Most commercial HVAC systems

### Akton Psychrometric Chart Tutorial and Examples

Akton Psychrometric Chart Tutorial and Examples December 1999 Akton Associates Inc. 3600 Clayton Road, Suite D Concord, California 94521 (925) 688-0333 http://www.aktonassoc.com Copyright 1999 Akton Associates

### Application of Building Energy Simulation to Air-conditioning Design

Hui, S. C. M. and K. P. Cheung, 1998. Application of building energy simulation to air-conditioning design, In Proc. of the Mainland-Hong Kong HVAC Seminar '98, 23-25 March 1998, Beijing, pp. 12-20. (in

### KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS ORGANIZATION SASO. SAUDI STANDARD DRAFT No. 3457/2005

KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA SAUDI ARABIAN STANDARDS ORGANIZATION SASO SAUDI STANDARD DRAFT No. 3457/2005 NON-DUCTED AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS TESTING AND RATING PERFORMANCE This standard is developed

### Simulation of hygroscopic materials in the HVAC system of an office building

Simulation of hygroscopic materials in the HVAC system of an office building IEA/ECBCS Annex 41 Porto Meeting Melanie Fauchoux, Carey Simonson and David Torvi Department of Mechanical Engineering, University

### Residential HVAC System Sizing

Residential HVAC System Sizing William P. Goss University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA Corresponding email: goss@acad.umass.edu SUMMARY Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC)

### Moisture Control. It s The Dew Point. Stupid! Its not the humidity.

Moisture Control Its not the humidity. It s The Dew Point Stupid! Mike Schell EpiphanyTec Inc. Santa Barbara, CA mschell@epiphanytec.com 805 687-3175 Matching great technology to market need! Topics SHR

### FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER

FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER Creating Energy Independence Since 1975 Impact of Energy-Efficiency Parameters on Home Humidity Rob Vieira Florida Solar Energy Center A Research Institute of the University

### Dharam V. Punwani President, Avalon Consulting, Inc. Presented at Turbine Inlet Cooling Association Webinar April 9, 2014

Dharam V. Punwani President, Avalon Consulting, Inc. Presented at Turbine Inlet Cooling Association Webinar April 9, 2014 Background: What is the problem that needs a solution? What is Turbine Inlet Cooling

### J3.4 DESIGN TEMPERATURES FOR HEATING AND COOLING APPLICATIONS IN NORTHERN COLORADO -- AN UPDATE

J3.4 DESIGN TEMPERATURES FOR HEATING AND COOLING APPLICATIONS IN NORTHERN COLORADO -- AN UPDATE Wendy A. Ryan 1a, Nolan J. Doesken a and Doug Swartz b a Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO b Fort

### Green Architecture and Construction

Green Architecture and Construction Prof. Dr. Soontorn Boonyatikarn Center of Excellence Building and Environmental Technology, Department of Architecture, School of Architecture, Chulalongkorn University,

### Cooling Load Calculations and Principles

Cooling Load Calculations and Principles Course No: M06-004 Credit: 6 PDH A. Bhatia Continuing Education and Development, Inc. 9 Greyridge Farm Court Stony Point, NY 10980 P: (877) 322-5800 F: (877) 322-4774

### Determining Measurement Uncertainty for Dimensional Measurements

Determining Measurement Uncertainty for Dimensional Measurements The purpose of any measurement activity is to determine or quantify the size, location or amount of an object, substance or physical parameter

### The Impact of Demand-Controlled and Economizer Ventilation Strategies on Energy Use in Buildings

4276 The Impact of Demand-Controlled and Economizer Ventilation Strategies on Energy Use in Buildings Michael J. Brandemuehl, Ph.D., P.E. Member ASHRAE James E. Braun, Ph.D., P.E. Member ASHRAE ABSTRACT

### Dr. Michael K. West, PE 1 Dr. Richard S. Combes, PE 2 Advantek Consulting / Melbourne, Florida

Optimizing 100% Outside Air Systems with Heat Pipes Dr. Michael K. West, PE 1 Dr. Richard S. Combes, PE 2 Advantek Consulting / Melbourne, Florida Introduction To meet increasingly rigorous building codes

### ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR COMPOSITE CLIMATE

ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR COMPOSITE CLIMATE Overview of Design Conditions: Air conditioning system consumes most of the energy that a building needs in its operation. In order to reduce energy consumption

### Evaporative Cooling for Residential and Light-Commercial

EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES This article was published in ASHRAE Journal, October 2011. Copyright 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Posted at www.ashrae.org.

### APPLICATION GUIDE. Moisture Management in Waterborne Climate Systems

APPLICATION GUIDE Moisture Management in Waterborne Climate Systems Contents Introduction 3 WBCS Concept 3 Condensation 4 Moisture Sources in the Space 4 Impact of a High Moisture Load 5 Designing to Manage

### PROTOCOL FOR BUILDING ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE For Class 3, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 buildings

PROTOCOL FOR BUILDING ENERGY ANALYSIS SOFTWARE For Class 3, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 buildings Version 2006.1 AUSTRALIAN BUILDING CODES BOARD JANUARY 2006 TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword 1. Scope 2. Purpose and context

### Validation of a building simulation tool using field data for three identical. configuration full-serve restaurants using different HVAC Systems

Validation of a building simulation tool using field data for three identical configuration full-serve restaurants using different HVAC Systems Paul L. Brillhart, PhD nstructor University of llinois, Chicago

### RosevilleProject. LoE _ 2 Glass Products. You can reduce your cooling energy usage by 25% or more. Here is the proof.

RosevilleProject Glass Products You can reduce your cooling energy usage by 25% or more. Here is the proof. Hot-Button Issues Residents of California, Arizona, and Nevada don t need a weather forecast

### HOT & COLD. Basic Thermodynamics and Large Building Heating and Cooling

HOT & COLD Basic Thermodynamics and Large Building Heating and Cooling What is Thermodynamics? It s the study of energy conversion using heat and other forms of energy based on temperature, volume, and

### Selecting the Supply Air Conditions for a Dedicated Outdoor Air System Working in Parallel with Distributed Sensible Cooling Terminal Equipment

AT-01-7-3 Selecting the Supply Air Conditions for a Dedicated Outdoor Air System Working in Parallel with Distributed Sensible Cooling Terminal Equipment Kurt M. Shank Student Member ASHRAE Stanley A.

### ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR WARM-HUMID CLIMATE CLIMATE

ENERGY EFFICIENT HVAC DESIGN FOR WARM-HUMID CLIMATE CLIMATE Overview of Design Conditions: Air conditioning system consumes most of the energy that a building needs in its operation. In order to reduce

### Why Measure Carbon Dioxide Inside Buildings? By Rich Prill, Washington State University Extension Energy Program

Why Measure Carbon Dioxide Inside Buildings? By Rich Prill, Indoor air quality Workers and students spend about half their waking hours at work or school. Therefore, maintaining adequate indoor air quality

### COOLING AND HEATING OF BUILDINGS BY ACTIVATING THEIR THERMAL MASS WITH EMBEDDED HYDRONIC PIPE SYSTEMS -

pcoolingandheating COOLING AND HEATING OF BUILDINGS BY ACTIVATING THEIR THERMAL MASS WITH EMBEDDED HYDRONIC PIPE SYSTEMS - Bjarne W. Olesen, Ph.D. D. F. Liedelt "Velta" Summary Due to intensive use of

### Development and testing of a multi-type air conditioner without using AC inverters

Energy Conversion and Management 46 (2005) 373 383 www.elsevier.com/locate/enconman Development and testing of a multi-type air conditioner without using AC inverters Shih-Cheng Hu *, Rong-Hwa Yang Department

### ENERGY SAVING STUDY IN A HOTEL HVAC SYSTEM

ENERGY SAVING STUDY IN A HOTEL HVAC SYSTEM J.S. Hu, Philip C.W. Kwong, and Christopher Y.H. Chao Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Clear Water Bay,

### Two-Stage High Efficiency Air Conditioners: Laboratory Ratings vs. Residential Installation Performance

Two-Stage High Efficiency Air Conditioners: Laboratory Ratings vs. Residential Installation Performance John Proctor and Gabriel Cohn, Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. ABSTRACT The increased installation

### Humid Air. Water vapor in air. Trace Glasses 1% Argon (A) Water vapor (H 2

Humid Air Water vapor in air Oxygen 21% Trace Glasses 1% Argon (A) Water vapor (H 2 O) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) Neon (Ne) Helium (He) Krypton (Kr) Hydrogen (H) Ozone (O 3 ) Nitrogen 78% Humid Air Water vapor

### Yijun Gao, Wei Wu, Zongwei Han, Xianting Li *

Study on the performance of air conditioning system combining heat pipe and vapor compression based on ground source energy-bus for commercial buildings in north China Yijun Gao, Wei Wu, Zongwei Han, Xianting

### Impacts of Static Pressure Set Level on the HVAC Energy Consumption and Indoor Conditions

Impacts of Static Pressure Set Level on the HVAC Energy Consumption and Indoor Conditions M. Liu, Y. Zhu, D. E. Claridge Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University Ed. White Energy Management Operation

### Causes of High Relative Humidity Inside Air Conditioned Buildings. Roger G.Morse AIA, Paul Haas CSP, CIH Morse Zehnter Associates

Causes of High Relative Humidity Inside Air Conditioned Buildings Roger G.Morse AIA, Paul Haas CSP, CIH Morse Zehnter Associates S. FLORIDA AVE. AMBIENT 91 F db / 78 F wb 16,000 HOURS ANNUALLY THAT wb

### Performance Rating of Room Fan- Coils

ANSI/AHRI Standard 440 with Addendum 1 (Formerly ARI Standard 440) 2008 Standard for Performance Rating of Room Fan- Coils ANSI/AHRI STANDARD 440-2008 WITH ADDENDUM 1, PERFORMANCE RATING OF ROOM FAN-COILS

### CHAPTER 4 LOAD CALCULATIONS 4.1 CONTEXT

CHAPTER 4 LOAD CALCULATIONS 4.1 CONTEXT The accurate calculation of heating and cooling loads is essential to provide a sound bridge between fundamental building design decisions and an operating building.

### AC System Equipment Specification, Installation and Operational Options for Improved Indoor Humidity Control

AC System Equipment Specification, Installation and Operational Options for Improved Indoor Humidity Control Authors Don B. Shirey, III Original Publication Shirey III, D., "AC System Equipment Specification,

### LG Electronics AE Company, Commercial Air Conditioning

www.lgeaircon.com New concept Ecofriendly Highefficiency Heating solution Total heating & Hot water Solution for MULTI V LG Electronics AE Company, Commercial Air Conditioning 2 Yeouidodong, Yeongdeungpogu,

### Carnegie Mellon University School of Architecture, Department of Mechanical Engineering Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics

Carnegie Mellon University School of Architecture, Department of Mechanical Engineering Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics A Presentation of Work in Progress 4 October 2006 in the Intelligent

### Air Water Vapor Mixtures: Psychrometrics. Leon R. Glicksman c 1996, 2010

Air Water Vapor Mixtures: Psychrometrics Leon R. Glicksman c 1996, 2010 Introduction To establish proper comfort conditions within a building space, the designer must consider the air temperature and the

### Field Comparison of Conventional HVAC Systems with a Residential Gas-Engine-Driven Heat Pump

Field Comparison of Conventional HVAC Systems with a Residential Gas-Engine-Driven Heat Pump James D. Miller, Pacific Northwest Laboratory Through its Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP),

### Dedicated Outdoor Air-Dual Wheel System Control Requirements

4428 Dedicated Outdoor Air-Dual Wheel System Control Requirements Stanley A. Mumma, Ph.D., P.E. Fellow ASHRAE ABSTRACT The central thrust of this paper is to develop a clear understanding of the performance

### Study on Performance Evaluation of a Split Air Conditioning System Under the Actual Conditions

Purdue University Purdue e-pubs International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference School of Mechanical Engineering 2006 Study on Performance Evaluation of a Split Air Conditioning System Under

### Exploring the Building Energy Impacts of Green Roof Design Decisions - A Modeling Study of Buildings in 4 Distinct Climates

Final version for publication: Exploring the Building Energy Impacts of Green Roof Design Decisions - A Modeling Study of Buildings in 4 Distinct Climates David J. Sailor 1, Timothy B. Elley 2, and Max

### Air Conditioner Cooling Capacity Test AS/NZS 3823.1.1:1998

ABC FOUR CORNERS Air Conditioner Cooling Capacity Test AS/NZS 3823.1.1:1998 Reverse Cycle, High Wall Mounted, Non-Ducted, Single Phase, Single Split System Air Conditioner OPTICAL ACC-25V2 Report No. 30W-07-0038-TRP-221466-0

### THE COMFORT HOUSES. - The Experienced and Measured Indoor Environment

THE COMFORT HOUSES - The Experienced and Measured Indoor Environment Camilla Brunsgaard Ph.D. Fellow Architectural Engineering, University of Aalborg, Denmark Mary-Ann Knudstrup Associated Professor Architectural

### Get the FACTS about SEER and Deliver Better Customer Value

What is SEER? SEER stands for Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio. It s a number that describes how well air-conditioning equipment works. A higher SEER means better efficiency and lower energy bills. SEER

### DEVELOPMENT OF AN OPEN SOURCE HOURLY BUILDING ENERGY MODELING SOFTWARE TOOL

DEVELOPMENT OF AN OPEN SOURCE HOURLY BUILDING ENERGY MODELING SOFTWARE TOOL Brittany Hanam, MASc, EIT RDH Building Engineering Ltd. Vancouver, BC John Straube, PhD, P.Eng. Building Engineering Group, Civil

### How do I measure the amount of water vapor in the air?

How do I measure the amount of water vapor in the air? Materials 2 Centigrade Thermometers Gauze Fan Rubber Band Tape Overview Water vapor is a very important gas in the atmosphere and can influence many

### UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION

FINAL REPORT NCEMBT-080801 UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION AN EXPERIMENTAL COMPARISON OF AIR DIFFUSION PERFORMANCE BETWEEN UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION AND CONVENTIONAL OVERHEAD AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS AUGUST

### Standards & Labeling System for Air-conditioning Equipment in US, Europe and Japan

Standards & Labeling System for Air-conditioning Equipment in US, Europe and Japan The Japan Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Industry Association (JRAIA) Tetsuro Kishimoto, President Sugawara Sakuo,

### CFD AND MULTI-ZONE MODELLING OF FOG FORMATION RISK IN A NATURALLY VENTILATED INDUSTRIAL BUILDING

2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved., Air Distribution in Rooms, (ROOMVENT 2000) Editor: H.B. Awbi 767 CFD AND MULTI-ZONE MODELLING OF FOG FORMATION RISK IN A NATURALLY VENTILATED INDUSTRIAL

### Measured Cooling Load, Energy, and Peak Demand Savings from High-Performance Glass in a California Production House

Measured Cooling Load, Energy, and Peak Demand Savings from High-Performance Glass in a California Production House Bruce A. Wilcox, P.E. Member ASHRAE James Larsen Associate Member ASHRAE ABSTRACT In

### Using Time-of-Day Scheduling To Save Energy

The following article was published in ASHRAE Journal, May 29. Copyright 29 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. It is presented for educational purposes only.

### Rating Water-Source Heat Pumps Using ARI Standard 320 and ISO Standard 13256-1

Rating Water-Source Heat Pumps Using ARI Standard 320 and ISO Standard 13256-1 W. Vance Payne and Piotr A. Domanski National Institute of Standards and Technology Building and Fire Research Laboratory

### HVAC Efficiency Definitions

HVAC Efficiency Definitions Term page EER - 2 SEER - 3 COP - 4 HSPF - 5 IPLV - 6 John Mix May 2006 Carrier Corporation 1 Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) The energy efficiency ratio is used to evaluate the

### This paper has been downloaded from the Building and Environmental Thermal Systems Research Group at Oklahoma State University (www.hvac.okstate.

This paper has been downloaded from the Building and Environmental Thermal Systems Research Group at Oklahoma State University (www.hvac.okstate.edu) The correct citation for the paper is: Spitler, J.D.,

### Frost. On Air-Cooling Evaporators. refrigeration applications at temperatures below freezing. These heat exchangers

The following article was published in ASHRAE Journal, February 2009. Copyright 2009 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Engineers, Inc. It is presented for educational purposes

### Saving Heating Costs In Warehouses

2005, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). Reprinted by permission from ASHRAE Journal, (Vol. 47, No. 12, December 2005). This article may not

### Infrastructure & Cities Sector

Technical Article Infrastructure & Cities Sector Building Technologies Division Zug (Switzerland), October 18, 2011 Saving Energy in a Data Center A Leap of Faith? New guidelines from ASHRAE (American

### Influence of Solar Radiation Models in the Calibration of Building Simulation Models

Influence of Solar Radiation Models in the Calibration of Building Simulation Models J.K. Copper, A.B. Sproul 1 1 School of Photovoltaics and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales,

### Comparisons of HVAC Simulations between EnergyPlus and DOE-2.2 for Data Centers

ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY Comparisons of HVAC Simulations between EnergyPlus and DOE-2.2 for Data Centers Tianzhen Hong, Dale Sartor, Paul Mathew, Mehry Yazdanian Environmental

### Power Plant Water Use By Alissa Cooperman; John Dieckmann, Member ASHRAE; and James Brodrick, Ph.D., Member ASHRAE S

EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES This article was published in ASHRAE Journal, January 2012. Copyright 2012 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Posted at www.ashrae.org.

### Energy Efficient Building Design College of Architecture Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. Relative Humidities RH% 49.4. 0.

Psychrometrics Psychrometric Chart Relative Humidities RH% 49.4 100% 80% 0.030 Enthalpies 70% H btu/lb 46.5 0.028 85 Not to Scale 0.026 Humidity Numbers and Values 43.7 60% Ratios are approximate 0.024

### Super Heated Steam Drying of Wood on Industrial Scale

Super Heated Steam Drying of Wood on Industrial Scale Wolfgang F. Gard Delft University of Technology Timber Structures & Wood Technology Delft / 1 Introduction Drying process Drying schedule Drying quality

### THE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART: Theory and Application. Perry Peralta NC State University

THE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART: Theory and Application Perry Peralta NC State University PSYCHROMETRIC CHART Identify parts of the chart Determine moist air properties Use chart to analyze processes involving

### Causes and Prevention of Symptom Complaints in Office Buildings: Distilling the Experience of Indoor Environment Quality Investigators

Causes and Prevention of Symptom Complaints in Office Buildings: Distilling the Experience of Indoor Environment Quality Investigators Mark J. Mendell, Richard C. Diamond, William J. Fisk Environmental

### LIQUID DESICCANT AIR CONDITIONING Saves energy, Controls humidity, Cleans air. Trevor Wende Vice President, Marketing Advantix Systems, Inc.

LIQUID DESICCANT AIR CONDITIONING Saves energy, Controls humidity, Cleans air Trevor Wende Vice President, Marketing Advantix Systems, Inc. 0 Humidity: The Hidden Cost Driver Conventional A/C process Start

### Laboratory Test Report for Fujitsu 12RLS and Mitsubishi FE12NA Mini-Split Heat Pumps

Laboratory Test Report for Fujitsu 12RLS and Mitsubishi FE12NA Mini-Split Heat Pumps Jon Winkler, Ph.D. September 2011 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the

### By Donald Fisher, P.Eng., Associate Member ASHRAE

By Donald Fisher, P.Eng., Associate Member ASHRAE Decisions to purchase a commercial kitchen ventilation (CKV) system often are based on rule-of-thumb estimates using a \$/cfm index (i.e., annual energy

### A car air-conditioning system based on an absorption refrigeration cycle using energy from exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine

A car air-conditioning system based on an absorption refrigeration cycle using energy from exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine G Vicatos J Gryzagoridis S Wang Department of Mechanical Engineering,

### Building Performance Evaluation Guide Version 1.7

Building Performance Evaluation Guide Version 1.7 Prepared by Center for Energy and Environment January 2014 Minnesota Sustainable Building 2030: Building Performance Evaluation Guide p 1 1. Schematic

### Tech Byte 27: Small Computer Room and IT Closet Cooling

Questions Answered in This Paper Sensible cooling capacity is the measuring stick for IT cooling capacity needs. What is the sensible cooling capacity of the comfort split system in comparison to the precision

### HVAC Made Easy - Overview of Psychrometrics

PDHonline Course M135 (4 PDH) HVAC Made Easy - Overview of Psychrometrics Instructor: A. Bhatia, B.E. 2012 PDH Online PDH Center 5272 Meadow Estates Drive Fairfax, VA 22030-6658 Phone & Fax: 703-988-0088

### Air Conditioning Clinic

Air Conditioning Clinic Cooling and Heating Load Estimation One of the Fundamental Series April 2011 TRG-TRC002-EN Cooling and Heating Load Estimation One of the Fundamental Series A publication of Trane,

### Energy Efficiency: Integrated Design and HVAC Systems HEALTHCARE - TOP 5 GREEN BUILDING STRATEGIES

EPA Publication 909-F-07-001 What? Energy use in healthcare facilities is higher than nearly all other building types. With rising energy costs and climate change concerns energy efficiency is financially

### Opening the Bonnet. Prof Darren Woolf WYSINWYG 1

Opening the Bonnet Prof Darren Woolf WYSINWYG 1 WYSINWYG What You See Is NOT What You Get: Looking inside the Pandora s Box Prof Darren Woolf WYSINWYG 2 WYSIWYG implies a user interface that allows the

### The ASHRAE HQ Building Can the energy efficiency of the different mechanical systems really be compared? RESIDENTIAL LIGHT COMMERCIAL COMMERCIAL

The ASHRAE HQ Building Can the energy efficiency of the different mechanical systems really be compared? RESIDENTIAL LIGHT COMMERCIAL COMMERCIAL Technical Article April 2013 The ASHRAE HQ Building Can

### THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF AUTOMOBILE AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM USING R134A

THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF AUTOMOBILE AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM USING R134A Jignesh K. Vaghela Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, SVMIT, Bharuch-392001, (India) ABSTRACT

### Rate of Heating Analysis of Data Centers during Power Shutdown

2011. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (www.ashrae.org). Published in ASHRAE Transactions, Volume 117, Part 1. For personal use only. Additional reproduction,