1 Haciendo Inteligente mi movilidad Ing. Miguel Angel Aranguren Romero CISA, CISM, CGEIT, CRISC Cobit Foundations Certificate CISSP, OSCP ITIL v3 Foundations Certificate
3 The planet is getting more Instrumented, Interconnected, and Intelligent 250 million 90% 1 trillion Almost 250 million Smartphones were sold world wide in 2010, surpassing laptop sales. Nearly 90% of innovation in automobiles is related Soon, there will be 1 trillion connected devices in the world, constituting an internet of things. to software and 3 electronics systems.
4 Mobile Threat is Real
5 The use of smartphones, either company liable or employee liable, for business is being quickly adopted by corporate (M) Worldwide Business Use Smartphone Shipments, CAGR = 24.9% Sources: Worldwide Business Use Smartphone Forecast and Analysis, IDC, September Blackberry was the primary mobile device used in the enterprise, but availability of smartphones with consumer appeal (ios and Android) is changing the game. Employees are asking organizations for support for a variety of mobile devices, including those owned by individuals. Improvement in hardware performance, feature set, and network bandwidth are expanding use cases beyond . Benefits to enterprise Increased employee productivity Improved client service Reduced cost on device ownership and communication plan (for employee owned devices)
6 Las bondades de la tecnologia movil
7 Mobility solutions enable organizations to improve information access, enhance productivity and provide better client service Mobile devices bring enterprises Requirements great benefits: Allow employees to access business information anywhere, anytime Improve worker effectiveness and productivity through better connectivity Provide mobile work locations for employees Increase business communication and collaboration Improve responsiveness to clients needs Reduce telecommunication and network ownership costs 7
8 Las dificultades d en la implementacion efectiva y el control
9 Mobile devices used by workforce is a top concern of IT executives due to the challenges with device management and security Select five of the top challenges you will face over the next six months. Sources: Executive Spotlight: Top Priorities for Security and Risk Leaders, 1H 2011 Forrester, April 2011 Support for a variety of mobile device platforms, most of which have immature security functionality. Balance between non ownership of the devices and control on the devices that is needed to protect business data Mobile devices are prone to loss and theft, thus are becoming the weakest link in the path of storing/processing business data. No effective process to certify and provision mobile applications Mix of business and personal information on the same device Mobile devices are always on and connected, so are more vulnerable to network attacks. Malware threats are becoming more prevalent.
10 Mobile Security Threat Landscape Malware Malware existed in various forms (viruses, worms, Trojans, spyware) has been constantly increasing. A study of SANS.org estimated a 12% infection rate. No platform is immune. Symbian and WinMo holds lion s share of malware with Android leading new malware development Malware threats, WW, Lossand Theft A survey of consumer users found that one out of every three users has ever lost a mobile device. Approximately 2 million smartphones were stolen in the U.S. in Over 56,000 mobile devices were left in the back seats of the city of London taxi cabs during the 6 month period between 2008 and The major benefits of mobile devices (size and portability) unfortunately come with the big risk of losing sensitive data that has to be accepted but can be mitigated. Communication Bluetooth is a main exploited vector because a device in a discoverable mode can be easily discovered and lured to accept a malicious connection request. Man in the middle attacks have been demonstrated to u e ab t es. be possible with several platforms using Wi Fi links. Published Reported 3GS encryption weakness techniques to jailbreak or Phishing or pharming attacks can leverage multiple channels: , SMS, MSS, and voice root mobile devices allow 10 OS vulnerability based attacks Mobile OS vulnerabilities increased significantly in Exploits of vulnerabilities are also on the rise. Always on and connected, mobile device is a prime target for hit and run network based attacks and exploiting zero day vulnerabilities. hackers to get administrative access
11 Mobile device malware is a frequently mentioned topic on media RIM Warns Update Has Spyware html Dark Side Arises for Phone Apps html?m od=wsj_hps_middleforthnews SANS study: One in five mobile devices running malware one in five mobile devices runningmalware
12 Smartphones cause the most security concerns among IT executives, as 44% of users purchase their own devices How concerned is your firm about the level of security or IT risk in adopting the following technologies or technology initiatives? Which of the following statements describes the primary smartphone you use for work? Growth in number of known malware modifications ( ) Sources: Understanding Information Worker Smartphone Usage, Forrester, November 2009 and Kapersky Lab
13 Perspectiva de auditoria y seguridad
14 Enterprises must have a clear strategy to securely incorporate mobile devices to the business environment Who will be responsible for mobile security management? Current IT security team responsible for desktop/laptop management and security (advantages: use of the same admin/support structure, applicability of similar concepts) Outsourcing to a managed service provider (advantages: leverage industry level mobile security expertise, cost reduction) What platforms are to be supported? Blackberry, Windows Mobile, Symbian, ios, Andriod, What business data will be allowed to be stored and processed on the devices? / contact / calendar only Business applications (e.g., corporate applications for CRM) Full intranet access Extending best practices for desktop/laptop to mobile devices Registration and inventory of devices Efficient install/configure of security applications on devices Automatic update of security patches, polices, and settings Reporting of enforcement status Employee education
15 With proliferation of mobile devices, applications, and vulnerabilities, hackers are switching their focus to mobile Malware threats, WW, Total Mobile Operating System Vulnerabilities, The first well known malware, Cabir, appeared in After that, malware existed in various forms (viruses, worms, Trojans, spyware) has been constantly increasing during the past few years. No platform is immune. Symbian and Windows Mobile holds lion s share of malware with Android leading new malware development due to its popularity and open software distribution. Malware spreads through multiple channels used by mobile devices: 3G/4G, Wi Fi, Bluetooth, wired connection to PC. Mobile OS vulnerabilities increased significantly in Exploits of vulnerabilities are also on the rise. Many earlier vulnerabilities shared software components used by both mobile devices and desktops, but there are now exploits designed to function on various mobile platforms. Mobile devices represent opportunities for sophisticated, targeted attacks today. With more financial transactions performed on mobile devices, an associated increase in malware attacks is expected. Source: IBM X Force 2010 Trend and Risk Report, IBM Security Solutions, Source: Mobile Device Security, ABI Research, 1Q March
16 Threats can occur in various places along the paths that mobile devices traverse to get applications or data Wi Fi device App Store Mobile device Telco service provider Interne t Web site Threat targets Credentials to access financial accounts (Bluetooth enabled) Mobile device Mobile device Corporate VPN Gateway Corporate intranet Business information Phone call charges Device itself : The place where threats can happen
17 The Loss and Theft threat Threat Mobile device is lost due to carelessness or is stolen by a theft. Data on the device may also be lost when the device is lost (note the data often has a larger value than the device itself). Minutes from the wireless plan may be used or additional phone call charges may incur. Examples: Approximately 2 million smartphones were stolen in the U.S. in Over 56,000 mobile devices were left in the back seats of the city of London taxi cabs during the 6 month period between 2008 and Vulnerability The two major benefits of mobile devices, small size and high portability, unfortunately are also the major reasons they are easily lost or stolen. The frequent use of mobile devices (comparedto other carry on items such as keys) is another reason of high loss possibility. Access to device is not protected by a password. Phone calls can be placed by anyone possessing the phone. Data on the device is not appropriately protected.
18 Counter the Loss and Theft threat Methodology Protect the device fromunauthorized use. Make the device useless once it is lost or stolen. Remove the data on the device. Techniques Use a strong password to access the device. Use GPS to locate the device. Lock the device remotely. Wipe data on the device remotely (if available, backup data first and restore data later). Keep important data on the device encrypted and protected with password. De activate the phone number or wireless service temporarily.
19 Threat Malwareexist exist in severalforms: The Malware threat Virus / Worms: a self replication software that can spread quickly from device to device through app download, , Bluetooth, MMS, etc. Examples: Cabir, Commonwarrior, Locknut, Frontal. Trojan Horse: an application that appear to a valid program but contains code to make unknown use of the device. Example: Rebbrowser. Spyware: an application hides itself to monitor the activities on the device such as SMS, , phone calls. Example: Flexispy, Acllano, Mopofeli Malware could cause loss of personal or confidential data, additional service charge (e.g. by sending premium SMS), and even worse, making device unusable. Vulnerability Manymobile platforms are not designed to be secure. OSsecurity holes are continuously discovered. The current extremely open mobile software distribution mechanism and the lack of capabilities to perform code review from platform vendors give hackers a heaven to create and spread malware. When downloading an application, most users do not pay attention to what parts of the device the application will have access to. Applications can get more privileges than it needs to. Many users open /mss attachments without caution. 19
20 Counter the Malware threat Methodology Download applications only from trusted sources. Identify malware once it comes into the device and remove it before it causes any damage. Stop spreading malware. Techniques Get all business applications certified and only install and run certified applications. Do not open unknown attachment/files. Run anti malware software to detect malware in real time and scan the entire device periodically. Be knowledgeable about the malware being spread and remove the applications that are suspicious to contain malware. Employee devices are checked against company s anti malware policies before being allowed to access corporate network. 20
21 Threat The Spam threat A unsolicited text message sent to a mobile device from a known or unknown phone number, usually for a commercial advertisement purpose. Spam can take the forms of IM, SMS, MMS, , or phone calls. Some scary facts: There are4 million spamtext messagesgenerated generated every day. In 2010, 30% of text messages in AP are spam. Unlike in the case of , a recipient may be charged for each text message received, so spam is not only annoying but costs money. Wireless service providers also waste a significant ifi amount of bandwidth idthtransmitting spam. Vulnerability Extensive use of text messages on mobile devices helps grows the volume of spam. A wireless plan including unlimited text messages encourages a spammer. Spam can be sent to any random number or numbers from any online yellow book (unlike for , a correct address must be used). There is no centralized entity to filter out spam. It is not always easy to tell spam from a normal text message. 21
22 Counter the Spam threat Methodology Restrict the capability of text messaging. Protect your phone number from being used by a spammer. Block a spam text message. Techniques Wireless service provider imposes limits on the number of text messages that can be sent out within a short period of time. Use an alias address rather than using the mobile phone number as a text message address. Only messages sent to the alias are delivered; messages sent to the phone number are discarded. Use anti spam feature on the device to define a blacklist to block spam messages. In an corporate environment, spam can be filtered by the corporate mail server. Report spam to the wireless service provider. 22
23 Threat The Phishing threat Phishing is an or an SMS text message (SMiShing) sent from a fraudster to trick a user to access a faked web site, send a text message, or make a phone call to reveal personal information (e.g., SSN) or financial information (e.g., bank account id/pwd, credit card number). Examples: Dear customer, we are conducting annual account verification. Please logon to your account at Bank of xxx, N.A. to verify your account within 7 days. Otherwise your account will be temporarily locked. Thank you. Text: Congratulations! You have got a big prize. Please call xxx xxxx immediately to claim your award. Phishing can cause serious financial loss. Vulnerability Many users do not verify the source of the or text message, and tend to immediately click on a web link included in an /text. The small screen size of mobile devices make some protection features used on PC (web address bars, green warning light, etc.) not available for mobile devices. URLs may not show full domain names on mobile devices. Most web sites do not use site authentication techniques to prove their authenticity to users. 23
24 Counter the Phishing threat Methodology Block a phishing or text message. Enable a user to recognize a fraudent web site or phone number. Make stolen account information (id/pwd) useless to the fraudster. Techniques Use anti spam feature to block an or text message coming from an unknown source. Do not ever click on an URL contained in an or text message. Instead, start the browser and enter the URL directly to access the web site. Financial institutes should use site authentication techniques to let users know they are communicating with a genuine web site. Usetwo factor authentication to authenticate users. Even if a user ss id/pwd is stolen, a fraudster won t be able to log on without a 2 nd authentication factor (OTP, device characteristics, biometrics, etc.). Once you know you have entered your id/pwd on a phishing site, log on to the genuine site and change your password immediately. Report the phishing site to the company that owns the genuine web site. 24
25 Threat The Bluetooth & Wi Fi threat Bluetoothand Wi FI are not threats themselves but very effective communication channels/mechanisms to increase the connectivity of mobile devices within a certain range. However, Bluetooth and Wi Fi can be easily exploited to infect a mobile device with malware or compromize the data transmitted. A mobile device may be lured to accept a Bluetooth connection request from another infected/malicious device. A hacker can use his laptop/server to pretend to be a valid Wi Fi hot spot to be connected by mobile devices so a Man in the Middle attack can be played to intercept and compromize all the data sent from/to the devices. Examples of Bluebooth based security attacks: BlueJacking, BlueBugging, Bluetooth DoS attacks. Vulnerability Many users leave their mobile devices in a discoverable mode, allowing other Bluetooth enabled devices to find them and make connections. A user often accepts a connection request without any trust relationship established with the other communicating device. A user tries to connect to a Wi Fi network available in a public area without knowledge of its genuineness. 25
26 Counter the Bluetooth & Wi Fi threat Methodology Do not expose your mobile device to other (infected/malicious) devices. Accept a connection request with some degree of trust established first. Block uninvited connections. Techniques Do not auto connect to any Bluetooth device or Wi Fi network. Switch the device s Bluetooth to a non discoverable mode to disable other Bluetooth connections entirely, especially in a public place. Define trusted devices that can exchange data without asking for permissions. Be alert to the Wi Fi hot spot that your mobile device is trying to connect to or turn off the Wi Fi capability in a public space. Run a firewall to filter incoming connection requests from unknown devices. Do not transmit personal information or business critical information over a untrusted Wi Fi network. 26
27 Mejores Practicas
28 Choosing the right mobile security solution that can sustain changes of device technology, use cases, and threat landscape A client server/cloud solutionarchitecture that can effectively support platform and feature expansion A server or cloud service controls and manages policies and settings for various security features. The server is fully independent of the mobile platforms and provides easy to use admin interface. The client installed on the device communicates with the server/cloud to obtain policies and execute functions locally. Some security functions or data may even be offloaded to the server/cloud. The client should be built so it can be easily ported to a new platform. Each platform provides some security features. The client should either ih leverage the platform specific functions (wherever available) or include platform agnostic capabilities. Ideally all the security features can be invoked from one client, so the client needs to be flexible to incorporate new capabilities to counter new threats. Features need to be easy to use and require little user intervention. Report and analysis capabilities should enable policy and regulation compliance. Efficient solution roll out and management is critical to large enterprise deployment.
29 Where there is a threat, there is a way to counter it Threat management Identity threat Analyze threat Counter threat Find out the essence of the threat (what, when, where) Best Practices Strong password Open files from known sources Download certified applications Disable Bluetooth Figure out why the threat can happen and what vulnerabilities are exploited Use technology and best practice to combat the threat t Threats Loss and Theft Malware Spam Phishing Bluetooth & Wi Fi Technology Monitor threat Evaluate the countering effectiveness Authentication Encryption Lock / wipe Malware detection Firewall Anti spam
30 Enterprises must embrace mobility to reap the benefits, but also must have a clear strategy to address mobile security requirements Extendthe the current workplace IT security control to mobile devices Corporations have worked hard over the years to develop a corporate security policy to ensure traditional end point devices (desktop, laptop) are protected from threats and vulnerabilities, and now have to extend the policy to mobile devices (smartphone, tablet). Recognize uniquecharacteristics of mobile phonesinconsidering security measures Proliferation of different Smartphone platforms (not just Windows) High portability leading to a much higher chance of loss/theft (no physical lock) No ownership/control on the devices Choose a security solution that can sustain changes of device technologies and security threats Smartdevice technologyadvances extremely quickly and new mobile security threats are evolving fast, so the chosen mobile security solution must be flexible to be compatible with growing technology and capable of incorporating new techniques to counter new threats. Education issoso important as technology Education for employees to use mobile devices in a smart and secure way is even more important because employees have bigger control on the devices and may access corporate sensitive data using unapproved applications from unsupported devices.
31 Propuesta metodologica de revision
32 Mobile security technology can help counter the threats Run anti malware software to detect malware in real time and scan the device periodically. Run a firewall to filter incoming i connection requests from unknown devices. Use ani spam to block spam messages, voice call, and . Encrypt personal or business data stored and transmitted. Locate and lock a lost/stolen device remotely. Wipe data on a lost/stolen device remotely. Periodically backup device data so restore is possible. Use site authentication and/or two factor user authentication to increase the trustworthiness between a user and a web site to prevent phishing. Manage and certify applications and remove suspicious/malicious applications automatically. Integrate mobile security technology with the corporate VPN gateway so device security posture becomes dependency for corporate resource access. Incorporate mobile security into the end point security management program of the organization
33 But mobile security best practices are equally important Install the latest platform and security patches Use a stronger password to access the device. Set up a timeout to lock the device when it is not used. Do not open or run unsolicited multimedia messages and attachments coming from unknown sources. Do not download unknown third partyapplications applications at will. Do not click on an URL contained in an or text message. Instead, start the browser and enter the URL directly to access the web site. Do not download content from dubious or unknown web sites. Disable Bluetooth when it is not used. Set Bluetooth in a undiscoverable mode. Turn off the automatic Wi FI connection, especially in a public area. Reduce the amount of confidential or business data stored on the mobile device.
34 Propuesta metodologica SSL VPN for Mobile Antivirus Firewall Anti spam Lock/Wipe, Backup/Restore Advanced MDM GPS Locate Parental Controls App Control/Removal Security Event Reporting Device Registration Reporting Cloud based
35 Conclusiones y reflexiones finales
36 Conclusiones y reflexiones finales Embracing mobile devices such as smart phones or tablets in the workplace enables organizations to improve information access, enhanceemployee employee productivity, andprovide better client service, but also present significant challenges in device and security management. The security threats to mobile devices have evolved to all the threats applicable to desktops plus new ones unqiue to mobile devices due to the natures of highportability, divesity of platforms, and mixed device ownership. Organizaiton need to have a clear strategy and a capable solution to addressevolving evolving mobile security requirements..
37 GRACIAS!!! Ing. Miguel Angel Aranguren Romero CISA, CISM, CGEIT, CRISC Cobit Foundations Certificate CISSP, OSCP ITIL v3 Foundations Certificate