1 Scott Teitelbaum, MD, FAAP, FASAM Vice Chair, Department of Psychiatry Professor, Departments of Psychiatry & Pediatrics University of Florida College of Medicine, Division of Addiction Medicine Medical Director, Florida Recovery Center President, Florida Society of Addiction Medicine Diplomat, American Board of Addiction Medicine
2 To review and understand the history and evolution of addiction treatment and recovery in the United States To review and understand the factors that led to the demise of the treatment field To review and understand the history of the rebirth of treatment / movement and the role of AA To review and understand the lessons from history and where we are today
3 Problem of Language 1784 Benjamin Rush, An Inquiry into the effects of Ardent Spirits Intemperance, Dipsomania, Inebriety Magnus Huss coined Alcoholism 1849 Alcohol and Substance abuse and dependence chemical dependency, addiction, etc.
4 Native America Pre-contact and early contact Rise of alcohol problems & Firewater Myths Resistance and Recovery New Resource: Alcohol Problems in Native America: The Untold Story of Resistance and Recovery (Coyhis & White, 2006)
5 Excessive Drinking Cider Wine Beer Distilled Spirits Annual per capita Consumption gallons The Alcoholic Republic, W.J. Rorabaugh
6 Pervasiveness of Drinking in Colonial America High Risk Occupations Clergy, physicians Binge of a New Republic ( )
7 Benjamin Rush AASCI American Association for Study and Cure of Inebriates Medicalization of Addiction Increase number of asylums Large Profits Dr. T.D. Crothers - Quarterly Journal of Inebriety,
8 Dr. Benjamin Rush Father of the American Disease Concept of Alcoholism
10 From Lincoln's address to the Washington Temperance Society, Springfield, Ill. February In my judgment such of us as have never fallen victims have been spared more from the absence of appetite than from any mental or moral superiority." I believe if we take habitual drunkards as a class, their heads and their hearts will bear an advantageous comparison with those of any other class. The victims of it were to be pitied and compassionated, just as are the heirs of consumption and other hereditary diseases.."
11 Non-Specialty Institutions, jails, county farms, water cure institutes, insane asylums. Failure of approaches led to medial, religious, legal, and business influences. Inebriate Homes, (Based in Boston, San Francisco, Chicago), Voluntary and Short Treatment.
12 Temperance Movement a) Process of moral reformation b) Moved from moderation to abstinence c) Initial focus on alcohol moved to other drugs after civil ware d) Moved from individual to shared recovery
13 Murphy Pledge Card
14 Followed Struggling Temperance Movement Leaders from Working Class, in Contrast to Temperance Elite Ritual of Public Confessions by Charismatic Leaders
15 Washingtonian Meeting
16 John R. Gough, Esq.
17 1 st Mutual Aid Society for Alcoholics Laid foundation which included focus on: Welfare and reformation of individual alcoholic Abstinence Fellowship Sharing Recovery Spiritual foundation Demise secondary to ideological issues and relapse of reformed drinkers
21 Kelley Institutes ( ) Dr. Leslie Keeley Double Chloride of Gold Remedies Believed Heredity and Childhood Exposure to Alcohol Critical Treatment at Keeley Institutes ^ 4 weeks 4x/day injection of Keeley remedy Focus on regular sleep, exercise, health recreation, abstinence and careful selection of friends Keeley Legacy Contents of remedy never revealed Approach carried aura of scientific truth and lots of emotional intensity Helped pioneer disease model Hired recovered alcoholics Social milieu of received shots greatest legacy
22 Keeley Home Cure Bottles
24 Keely Patients in Line for Shots
25 Collier s List of Quack Cures
27 Medicine still not established Premise secrecy, low cost, quick fix (no long term treatment) Often contained cocaine, alcohol, morphine Fraud as a theme in treatment of the addicted
28 Skid Row Alcoholic Water Street Mission Jerry McAuley Salvation Army - William Booth 1878 Focus on Religious Conversion
29 William Booth, Founder Salvation Army
30 Native Americans Fool s water, Devil s spittle shared own recovery Temperance Missionaries Changed from moderation to abstinence Washingtonians John Hawkins, John Gough High Causality Rate Luther Benson, Edward Uniac (15 years in Hell, important lesson about working in field) Use of recovered persons controversial
31 Inadequate Clinical Technology/Science Fragmentation of Field Ethical Abuses/ Public Exposure Failure of Leadership Development Social Policy Shifts--Criminalization Economic Depressions
32 Inebriate Penal Colonies Insane Asylums Foul wards and cells of urban hospitals Invasive Treatments, e.g., mandatory sterilization, ECT, psychosurgeries
33 A Shameful Regression
34 Electroshock Therapy
35 Inebriate Farm / Colony T.D. Crothers Local Hospital Local Psychopathic Hospital State Insane Asylums Private Sanitarium Every time we ve taken a drunk in this place, we ve regretted it. Dr. Quigley, 1930
36 Benjamin Rush used bleeding, blistering and treatment with mercury laden calomel Water Cures Drugs: Cocaine, Morphine, Bromide (20% fatality) Drink wine in which eels suffocated Aversion ECT, Psycho-surgery Mandatory sterilization
37 Boston s Emmanuel Church, 1906 Integration of Religion, Psychology and Medicine Jacoby Club Mutual Support by Friendly Visitors (Recovery Alcoholics) Courtney Baylor 1st Person Without Professional Credentials to be Employed as Addiction Therapist Remaking of a Man (Baylor 1919) and Peabody s Common Sense of Drinking
38 Cocaine and Freud Opiate Addiction Hidden Disease Treatment Mostly cold turkey and tapers Drastic change after Harrison Act (1914) Criminalization followed
39 Women > Men Secrecy of use in one s own home Three Approaches to Treatment: 1. Cold Turkey 2. Short Taper (1 week) 3. Prolonged Taper After Narcotic Substitutes Used (Codeine) but also Sedative, Aversion, etc.
40 Hidden Drug Maintenance Federal Narcotic Farms: Lexington, KY and Fort Worth Texas primary source of treatment, Isolation of the Addict Great Majority of Addicts Relapse
41 Doctor Shopping Pain Complaints Prescription Forgery
42 Patients with Spectrum of Profiles Long Treatment (Voluntary vs Involuntary) Little (no) Involvement of Family High Relapse Rate Labor Focused
44 Radical Re-definition of Alcohol Problems Contextual Factors - Repeal of Prohibition - Great Depression - Rising Public Health Movement The Role of the Alcohol Industry - Wet vs. Dry (Alcoholism Safe Topic) Workplace, Church, State, Philanthropy Changing view of Alcoholism
45 Psychoanalytic approach fixation on oral stage of development Latent Homosexuality Didn t believe in need for abstinence Contributions of Freud: a) Psychological Disease b) Lay Therapy c) Character Reconstruction
46 Alcoholics Anonymous Research Council on Problems of Alcohol Yale Center for Alcohol Studies National Committee for Education on Alcoholism
48 Timing Carl Jung, Rowland H. failed treatment Oxford Groups 12 Steps Traditions &
49 Bill Wilson Dr. Bob Smith Sister Ignatia Dr. William Silkworth Dr. Harry Tiebout
52 Recognition of the physical, mental and spiritual dimensions of alcoholism Acceptance of total abstinence as goal Use of charismatic speakers Focus on self-reflection, self-inventory, confession and restitution Need for service for others to help oneself Fellowship (sober networking)
53 AA made but abandoned plans to create AA Hospitals AA members served as advocates of alcoholism treatment on local, state, and national levels AA members served as primary referral sources early on many institutions required AA membership AA members served as volunteers often in educational and in co-therapist roles AA members eventually got paid
54 Gender Age or duration of sobriety Ethnicity Sexual orientation Smoking status Degree of religiosity Endless varieties of meeting formats
55 Dr. William Silkworth The Little Doctor Who Loved Drunks
56 1. Emancipated spirituality from its roots in religious institutions 2. Legitimized varieties of spiritual experiences in recovery 3. Separated antidotes for guilt from religion: selfinventory, confession, acts of restitution, acts of service
57 Initially members served as managers, physicians, social workers, etc. AA and 12 Traditions Bill W. Boundaries Between AA and Treatment
58 Anonymous Alcoholics
59 Linda Kurtz summarized that mutual aid societies 1) focused on prohibition of resources with self, family, and community 2) are inherently personal egalitarian and anti bureaucratic, and 3) Eschew expert advice in lieu of hope, strength and experience
60 1940 s to 1950 Insulin Shock Therapy, ECT, Psychosurgery Medically infecting alcoholics with Gonorrhea Natural Therapies Biggest Changes Drug Interventions Sedative, Tranquilizers, Amphetamines (including Meth), LSD, Hallucinogens, Hormones, Co 2, 1972 Study 15,000 Docs ~ 65% prescribed benzo s past detox! Methadone Opiate Maintenance
61 Increase in drug (heroin) use especially in juveniles Eisenhower new war on narcotic addiction Treatment for drug addiction lagged behind alcoholism treatment - Methadone just arriving Methadone use for heroin addiction in mid 1960 s Narcotics Anonymous
62 Father Daniel Egan (the Junkie Priest Priest ) Saint Mark s Clinic in Chicago (1954) Addict s Rehabilitation Center in Manhattan (1957) Samaritan Halfway Society (1958) Exodus House (1958) Teen Challenge (1961) Village Haven (1962)
63 Pioneer House, Hazelden, Willmar, State Hospital Minnesota Model From Hazelden to Lutheran General/ Parkside & the world
65 Context Pat C. gets sober: AA Comes to MN (1940) NCEA NCEA s 5 Kinetic Ideas & 5 point strategy (1944) Synergy of 3 Programs Pioneer House (1948) Hazelden (1949) Willmar State Hospital (1950)
66 Alcoholism is an involuntary, primary, chronic, progressive biopsychosocial (& spiritual) disease Recovery is contingent upon, but is more than, abstinence from all non non-medical alcohol and other drug use. Early conceptualization of chemical dependency Recovery best achieved through the Twelve Steps of AA and immersion in a community of shared experience, strength & hope.
67 Focus on direct treatment of the disease. Abandonment of psychoanalytic and moral views of addiction Addiction best treated in a milieu of dignity and respect Altered view of motivation Motivation or lack of it at intake is not a predictor of outcome Motivation is as much the responsibility of the milieu as the patient
68 Patient education via introduction of lectures (possibly adapted from Ray McCarthy McCarthy s work at Yale). 28 lectures over 60 days at Willmar AA participation during treatment AA viewed as essential framework for long-term recovery
69 1954 Counselor on Alcoholism, title created Minnesota Model 1. created means of preparing recovering persons to work as counselors 2. integrated AA counselors into interdisciplinary team of psychiatrist, psychologists, social workers and clergy 3. helped separate responsibilities of professional counselor and AA member ( 2-hatters )
70 Use of Multidisciplinary Team Introduced Counselor on Alcoholism role into addiction treatment (1954) (adaptation of earlier lay therapist role) Introduced Pastoral Counselor as key role Use of patient, AA and alumni volunteers Philosophy of Respect / Choice Unlocked the inebriate wards
71 Increase in # of Programs Diversity of Settings Multi-disciplinary Teams Advances in Psychosocial Rehab (Halfway Houses)
72 Synanon and Charles Dederich Climate was right Human Potential Movement Synanon I II III Became more cult like Many contributions, ex-addicts as counselors laid foundation for other therapeutic communities Saw addiction as characterlogical issue
73 Addicts had to fight his/her way into program Long length of stay (12 mo 3 yrs) Staffed with ex-addicts Own language tipping out punching holes selling wolf tickets
74 Charles Dederich Founder, Synanon
76 1 st Addicts Anonymous in Lexington KY NY and California 1 st Narcotics Anonymous initially small habit forming drugs (HFD) Jimmy K considered the father of NA NA s 1 st step powerless over addiction, not alcohol 3 Obstacles: members getting high after meetings presence of pushers and undercover agents at meetings lack of sufficient personal sobriety
78 Federal/State/Local Partnership Alcoholism Education and Local Treatment De-stigmatization Decriminalization/Diversion Medicalization Betty Ford and the Recovery Movement
79 drug addiction is not a mysterious disease drug addiction is simply a degrading, debasing habit, and it is not necessary to consider this indulgence in any other light than an antisocial one. Dr. Dana Hubbard
80 Deluge of Addiction Treatment Legislation 1970 Hughes Act Comprehensive Alcoholism Treatment and Prevention Act NIAAA / NIDA Two Worlds: Alcoholism and Drug Addiction Rebirth of Addiction Medicine ASAM Hidden Story: Exploitation and Relapse of Recovery Folks
81 Commercialization and Profiteering An Ideological Backlash Addiction is a myth. Excessive AOD learned, not a disease. Treatment and mutual aid ineffective and harmful. Treatment experiment is a failure and should be defunded.
82 Financial Backlash UR and QA Managed Care Closure/downsizing of Hospital Hospital-based and private programs ( ) Mergers and emergence
83 Grew from Minnesota Model Influence Originally Lutheran General Multidisciplinary to Interdisciplinary Differentiated 12 Step Work and Counseling Two Hat Issues Explosive Growth Demise of Parkside Dilution Lower Standards for Staff Grandiosity We ve Got the Truth Distraction Addicted to making the deal Insulation Lasting Legacy
84 Cultural and policy shifts (Zero Tolerance) Restigmatization Demedicalization Recriminalization
85 Addiction Treatment From : Increased Accessibility Increased Intensity, and Increased Duration Since 1985: Decreased Accessibility Decreased Intensity, and Decreased Duration
86 Only 1 in 10 Americans who need treatment receive it Of those that need it, approximately 95% don t think they do Of the 5% who believe they need it, 2/3 made no effort to obtain it Less than 50% of those admitted to publically funded treatment successfully completed treatment
87 Very Serious Use In Treatment ~ 2,300,000 Addiction ~ 23,000,000 Medically Harmful Use ~ 40,000,000 Little/No Use Little or No Use
89 Most individuals leaving addiction treatment are fragilely balanced between recovery and re-addiction in the hours, days, weeks, months, and years following discharge. Recovery and re-addiction decisions are being made at a time that service professionals have disengaged from their lives, while many sources of recovery sabotage are present.
90 Substance addiction comparable to asthma, hypertension and diabetes. Risk of relapse highest during first 3-6 months. Patients respond best to a combination of pharmacological and behavioral interventions. Treatment of severe cases improves outcomes.
91 Social Cost ~ 600 billion NIDA estimates every dollar invested in addiction treatment programs yields a return of $4-7 in decreased crime, criminal justice and theft When health care costs are included, savings increases to $12 In 2012 the U.S. spent $28 billion for addiction treatment, $43.8 billion for diabetes and $86.8 billion for cancer.
92 Percent of Patients Who Relapse 40 to 60% 30 to 50% 50 to 70% 50 to 70% Relapse Rates Are Similar for Drug Dependence And Other Chronic Illnesses Drug Dependence Addiction Treatment Does Work Type I Diabetes Hypertension Asthma Source: McLellan, A.T. et al., JAMA, Vol 284(13), October 4, 2000.
93 Detoxification 100% Ambulatory 85% Opioid Substitution Therapy 50% Urine Drug Screen 100% 7 per year Note Great variability state to state
94 All are program benefits not visit benefits Very few care options, poor access Little acknowledgement of patients rights, No effort to make care attractive
95 Physician Visits 100% Screening, Brief Intervention, Assessment Evaluation and medication Tele monitoring Clinic Visits 100% Home Health Visits 100% Family Counseling Alcohol and Drug Testing 100% 4 Maintenance and Anti-Craving Meds 100% Monitoring Tests (urine, saliva, other) Smoking Cessation 100%
97 Primary Care Specialty Care Primary Continuing Care
98 1. Post-treatment monitoring 2. Sustained recovery coaching 3. Stage-appropriate recovery education 4. Assertive linkage to communities of recovery 5. When needed, early re-intervention 6. Recovery community resource development
99 Alcoholism Addiction, Chemical Dependency Single to Multiple Pathways of Addiction and Recovery Biology of Addiction Genetics Functional Imaging Pharmacology Developmental Model of Recovery Addiction as Chronic Disease Continuation of Care Pain vs Hope Specialized Treatment
100 The use of principles of state PHPs (coercion, contingency contracting) and other mandated programs (Hawaii HOPE program, Drug Court, etc ) Shifts balance of decision making toward lasting recovery NOT hands off, but engaging
101 PHPs HOPE Drug Court LAP HIMS- pilot study
102 ~79% reported satisfaction ~93% would recommend PHP to a friend ~85% continued to attend meetings after contract ended Most reported strengths of PHP: Accountability provided by monitoring Fellowship and social support Restoring relationships Building a spiritual foundation
103 The nucleus accumbens lighting up
104 While science has taught us that addiction is a hijacking of the brain, recovery must involve healing of the heart and the soul.
105 Coming of Age: ASAM, ABAM, Residencies New Technology Suboxone, Vivitrol Unintentional Consequences of Getting What we Want Repeat of History?
106 Stay Clinically and Ethically Centered Practice within Boundaries of Care Addiction Technology Monitor Political and Economic Environment Pay Attention and be Active Don t lose sight of Singleness of Purpose To Help the Suffering Addict and Families
107 To Integrate: Addiction Medicine, Psychiatry, and Spirituality in the Treatment of Substance Use Disorders.
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