EXIGENCIA DE ESTUDIOS DE BIOEQUIVALENCIA A TRAVÉS DE METODOS IN VITRO

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1 EXIGENCIA DE ESTUDIOS DE BIOEQUIVALENCIA A TRAVÉS DE METODOS IN VITRO Q.F. ALEXIS ACEITUNO, PhD Jefe Subdepto. Biofarmacia & Bioequivalencia Agencia Nacional de Medicamentos Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile

2 GENERAL CONSIDERATION TO CERTIFY BIOEQUIVALENCE Same dosage form, API and strength as the reference product (exception when reference product differs from the test product and the BE is tested among pharmaceutical alternatives (OMS)). Patent protection period must be expired Must be commercialized under the INN or non proprietary name or branded name Registration is performed under a simplified procedure Manufactured in compliance with GMP (HVAC and manufacture validation)

3 Concentración de fármaco Farmacodinamia Farmacocinética Pk and PD plasma tissues Dosage form release Dissolved Fármaco disuelto drug absorption Bound drug plasma Free drug elimination Bound drug tejidos Free drug A B metabolism excretion Drug in effect compartment drugreceptor Tiempo Therapeutic effect C Pharmacological response Differences in excipients or in the manufacturing process eventos affect drug release post-receptor and absorption changes drug concentration vs time profiles of the drugs efecto bioquímico Comparative dissolution profiles

4 Technical reports or guidances: -G-BIOF 01 (in vivo studies) -G-BIOF 02 (in vitro studies)

5 Biowaivers: Bioequivalence in vitro Biopharmaceutical classification system Permeability API Solubility DOSAGE FORM Dissolution They control the absorption rate and the drug amount absorbed El SCB plantea la posibilidad de establecer correlaciones in vitro - in vivo que permitan sustituir los estudios de BE por ENSAYOS DE DISOLUCIÓN (Se correlaciona la velocidad de disolución in vitro con la velocidad de Absorción in vivo)

6 BCS High solubility High permeability EXCIPIENTS BIOWAIVER BASED ON BCS Gastrointestinal stability DISSOLUTION RISK: THERAPEUTIC INDEX INDICATION

7 Dose proportionality studies Bioequivalent product in vivo confirmed Bio batch Atorvastatin 80 mg Must demonstrate proportionality of main or critical excipients. Same manufacturer and manufacturing process. Dissolution profile testing in a discriminative medium. dissolution profile similiarity of proportional dose Atorvastatin 40 mg

8 BCS 1. Based on API physicochemical properties: solubility and permeability (high/low) 2. Biowaivers are acceptable for high/high S/P drugs (class I) 3. Based on the drug release rate from conventional dosage forms (at least 85% dissolved in 30 min in 900 ml or less, dissolution media 0.1 N HCl (or simulated gastric fluid), ph 4,5 and ph 6,8 buffers (or simulated intestinal fluid) 4. In addition, the following criteria must be accomplished: 1. Non NTI 2. Excipients do not affect rate or extent of absorption (conventional excipients for IR dosage forms) 3. Pharmaceutical product is not designed to be absorbed in the oral cavity 4. Cannot be a pro-drug (unless conversion occurs by FPE)

9 SOLUBILITY DOSE / SOLUBILITY 250 ml D / S[ ml] * Dose Solubility max [ mg] [ mg / ml] Dose number Do 1 Do Dose max *Solubility (mg) 250 (ml) (mg/ml) Intrinsic solubility is combined with the dose as the given doses can vary for drugs with similar intrinsic solubility.

10 Can be assessed by: Drug permeability -Indirectly from the drug fraction absorbed from the administered dose (pk info from literature) -Directly from measures the mass transfer rate through the human intestinal mucosa Highly permeable: If the amt. absorbed in human is: > al 85 % OMS > al 90 % FDA & ISP

11 number Bioequivalence requirement 148 API Out of 155 API: 51 could potentially apply for a biowaiver or in vitro study (33%) and 104 should perform in vivo testing (67%). (However, if the reference product does not fit BCS criteria, in vivo testing is required) API Emisión de Decretos Exentos: N 864, 12 nuevos principios activos. N 981, 100 nuevos principios activos. N principios activos + 22 pa en FFLM

12 Cantidad BIOEQUIVALENT PRODUCTS (CERTIFIED BY ANAMED) Año

13 Type of report Rejected studies by type Decision after evaluation Approved studies by type

14 FUTURE ASPECTS TO BE PROBABLY ASSESSED To look for more discriminative dissolution media that may better correlate in vitro dissolution results with in vivo absorption performance (IVIV)

15 EXCIPIENTS: how much inert are they from the biopharmaceutical point of view? It has been demonstrated subtle changes in the integral membrane protein activity in vitro (i.e. efflux and influx transporters) Effect seen for drugs such as chemotherapeutics, antibiotics & antivirals: final effect could be therapeutic failure or toxicity If excipients were considered potentially active substances, this would have negative effects for patients, health providers and the pharmaceutical company itself. Intestinal absorption pathways included paracellular transport (A), transcellular mediated transport (B), and passive diffusion with potential efflux process(c). Permeability changes

16 Besides, potential effects of excipients on: -Motility of the GI tract -GIT time (absorption window) Manitol, sorbitol Manitol is absorbed by the paracellular route and could compete with drug using that route of absorption like loperamide, ISDN, NG. Excipients that are not considered conventional in IR dosage forms

17 FINAL REMARKS 1. Bioequivalence requirements were established in Currently more tan 180 APIs included in IR dosage form, 2 of them are associations, require BE testing, in vitro or in vivo. 3. There is a new list of 22 APIs included in non conventional dosage forms that must demonstrate BE. 4. Applications may include API not listed in the current decrees. 5. ISP uses internationally accepted criteria (OMS, FDA, EMA, etc) in order to approved bioequivalence dossiers. 6. Biowaivers account for not more than 24% of approved bioequivalence dossiers. 7. If the drug product contains an API candidate for biowaiver the dissolution profile is compared with any strength of the reference product (independent strength release). 8. Success in the application to a biowaiver is highly dependent upon the biopharmaceutic performance of the reference product.

18 RESUMEN EXPANSION 2012 SNSS Y ESTABLECIMIENTOS EXPERIMENTALES

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