Substance Abuse. A resource aid packet on

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Substance Abuse. A resource aid packet on"

Transcription

1 A resource aid packet on Substance Abuse The Center is co-directed by Howard Adelman and Linda Taylor and operates under the auspices of the School Mental Health Project, Dept. of Psychology, UCLA. Box , Los Angeles, CA (310) Fax: (310) ; Website: Support comes in part from the Office of Adolescent Health, Maternal and Child Health Bureau (Title V, Social Security Act), Health Resources and Services Administration (Project #U45 MC 00175), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

2 Please reference this document as follows: Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA. (2008). Substance Abuse. Los Angeles, CA: Author. Copies may be downloaded from: If needed, copies may be ordered from: Center for Mental Health in Schools UCLA Dept. of Psychology P.O. Box Los Angeles, CA The Center encourages widespread sharing of all resources.

3 Preface Professionals working to address barriers to student learning and promote healthy development need ready access to resource materials. The Center's Clearinghouse supplements, compiles, and disseminates resources on topics fundamental to enabling students to learn. Among the various ways we package resources are our Resource Aid Packets. Resource Aid Packets are designed to complement our series of Introductory Packets. These resource aids are a form of tool kit related to a fairly circumscribed area of practice. The packets contain materials to guide and assist with staff training and student/family interventions. They include overviews, outlines, checklists, instruments, and other resources that can be reproduced and used as information handouts and aids for training and practice. This Resource Aid on Substance Abuse is designed to provide some resources that are relevant to (a) understanding the nature and scope of substance use/abuse, (b) appropriately identifying and guiding students who need help, (c) preventing and treating abuse, and (d) pursuing additional resources. The aids are grouped into five sections: I. Basic facts sheets on substance abuse among youngsters; the causes, the impact. II. Guides and tools relevant to screening/ assessment, including a guide to major assessment tools, a summary outline of indicators of abuse, and an example of a substance abuse screening checklist. III. Information on prevention, including model schoolbased programs and guides to additional health education materials. IV. Treatment strategies and special concerns V. Resources for more information and support, including Internet sites, centers, agencies, advocacy groups, and relevant publications. [ Note: For the most up to date information you may want to visit or ]

4 Table of Contents SUBSTANCE ABUSE A Tool Kit to guide and assist with staff training and student/family interventions Introduction: Keeping a Perspective on the Problem of Substance Abuse... I. A broad overview for understanding the nature and scope of substance use/abuse: Fact Sheets and Reports: A. Incidence Figures... B. Causes and Correlates.... C. Information about Abused Substances... II. Guides and tools for appropriately identifying and guiding students who need help with substance abuse A. Screening and Surveillance... B. Assessment, Diagnosis and Referral... C. Measuring Risk and Protective Factors for Substance Use... III. Prevention A. A Research Base for Prevention... B. Principles of Prevention... C. Prevailing Approaches to Substance Abuse Prevention... D. Program Evaluation Strategies for Substance Abuse Prevention... E. Substance Abuse Prevention: Toward a comprehensive, multifaceted approach... IV. Treatment A. Strategies for Substance Abuse Treatment... B. Treatment of Ethnic Minority Substance Abusers... C. The Treatment of Co-Ocurring Mental Health and Substance Abuse Disorders... V. Resources A. References... B. Agencies and Websites... C. Guide to Helplines and Self-Help Resources... D. Center Resources... Page

5 Introduction: Keeping a Perspective on the Problem of Substance Abuse Working with children and adolescents isn't like family practice! That's what health and human service providers who directly work everyday with children and adolescents try to tell colleagues who only see youngsters in the context of a family situation. What makes working directly with young populations so challenging is the need for a broad and deep psychological and socio-cultural perspective of what motivates their behavior as they develop. Just how critical this awareness is can be seen in areas such as substance abuse, pregnancy, and teen violence. Such problems often reflect the experimentation and risk taking that is so much a part of the developmental processes of moving toward individuation and independence. Characteristic behaviors include skepticism about the warnings and advice given by adults as well as reactions against rules and authority. All this has major implications for preventing and minimizing problems. With most youngsters, developmental transitions are made without serious upheaval; good judgement and long-term goals keep high-risk behaviors to a minimum. For too many others; the lack of good alternative ways to feel competent, self-determining and connected to others leads to problems. One of these may be substance abuse. Substances do come to play a major role in some youngster's life styles. The very fact that they are illegal and forbidden often adds to the allure. As a major social problem, substance abuse has received a spotlight in the media. Celebrities are entering treatment programs (repeatedly), failed national drug czars resign, the media reports the seizure of millions of dollars of smuggled drugs. In too many urban centers, the underground economy and life style of substance abuse is endemic to the community. Schools try to provide drug prevention programs, but statistics show a rise in adolescent drug use. Given that substance abuse is a multi-determined major health and social problem, what is the most responsible and effective role for school staff and programs to play? Schools must approach the problem in ways that ensure staff have and provide accurate information take the problem seriously, but are careful not to undermine their credibility through use of unbelievable scare messages (remember Reefer Madness!) implement solutions that go well beyond surveillance and punishment And, as with all interventions, the solutions must be designed to fit the various groups and individuals who populate the school and whose relationship to substance use differs markedly. 1

6 Many students will, because of curiosity and peer inducements, try drugs, alcohol and cigarettes. Fortunately, they stop after trying the substance once or a few times. Such students tend to respond best to accurate information about immediate risks (including the risk of accidents, unsafe sex, arrest). Some students will try drugs, alcohol, and cigarettes and find immediate gratification of various needs. This gratification often outweighs their concerns about immediate risks. Whether the substance use turns into abuse depends on many factors. Efforts to prevent this from happening must include more than information and substance abuse education. Immediate opportunities and activities that can compete with the gratification a youngster finds in substance use and that are incompatible with substance abuse are needed. It is evident that a few students make drug use a way of life and use, sell, and reshape their choices around it. They seldom are influenced by strategies to inform and educate. They rarely are influenced by concerns about losing out on long-term goals such as graduation, college, and a career. They often don't fear health or legal consequences because they have convinced themselves they are immune, or they believe the consequences will not be all that bad. The need here is for approaches that are comprehensive, multifaceted, and integrated. Clearly, students differ in their use and abuse. Clearly, schools must design a range of approaches that fit these differences. The range must include providing accurate information facilitating discussions that are candid and supportive offering support systems for those who want to stop (including counseling, mutual support groups, sponsors, alternative activities such as job training/internship programs -- in settings where drug testing won't lead to a youngster's dismissal) evolving integrated systems of care (with schools, families, prevention and treatment programs, law enforcement, employment incentive programs all working together). A sophisticated range of efforts from elementary through high school with the "right" students in the "right" programs is needed. For such a comprehensive, integrated approach to evolve, school staff must enhance their efforts to mesh with the surrounding community's programs and resources, and policy makers must adopt a vision and provide the type of support that fosters such an approach. Social Norms and Sanctions and the War on Drugs As Adelman and Taylor (2003) stress in their article entitled: Creating School and Community Partnerships for Substance Abuse Prevention Programs (Journal of Primary Prevention, 23), it is important to differentiate between use and abuse. Almost everyone uses drugs in some form, such as over-the-counter and prescription medications, caffeinated products, and so forth. Clearly, it is not use of such substances that is at issue with the majority of society. For the most part, society s concern is with those who use substances excessively or are involved with illegal drugs (MacCoun & Reuter, 1998; 2

7 McBride, VanderWaal, Terry, & Van Buren, 1999). In this latter group are youth who access substances such as nicotine and alcohol products that are legal for adults but illegal for minors. At schools, additional concerns arise because of the role schools play in socializing the young and because substance abuse is associated with poor school performance, interpersonal violence, and other forms of negative activity (Chandler, Chapman, Rand, & Taylor, 1998; Lowry, Cohen, Modzeleski, Kann, Collins, & Kolbe, 1999). The irony is that, while schools campaign and legislate against drugs, the surrounding society appears to sanction and glamorize many substances. The impact of all this with respect to substance use is compounded by the penchant of many young people to be curious and to experiment and test limits. Moreover, the economics surrounding legal substances guarantee the ongoing operation of major market forces and advertisement designed to counter the impact of efforts to convince youngsters not to use. Although tobacco ads are being curtailed in the United States, mass media campaigns for alcohol and over-the-counter drugs and increasingly even for prescription drugs is omnipresent. Thus, youngsters are warned of the evils of substance use, while being bombarded with potent, pro-use commercial messages and provided relatively easy access to a wide range of substances. In addition, widespread use of prescribed medications for children and adolescents probably counters perceptions that drugs are dangerous. And, not surprisingly, the increased number of prescriptions has expanded the supply of drugs available for abuse. Then, there is the business of trafficking in illegal drugs. Selling illicit drugs is a lucrative business enterprise. So much so that in some places the underground economy and life style of substance use is well-integrated into the daily life of the neighborhood. Given the powerful forces operating around substance use, decisions about how to address substance abuse remain politically controversial. The ongoing debate is reflected in arguments about the war on drugs, zero tolerance policies, drug use decriminalization, the value of prevention and treatment programs, and so forth. In schools, concern about drugs translates into a variety of strategies, some of which are proactive, some of which are reactive, and almost all of which have little research supporting cost effectiveness or clarifying negative side effects (Brown& Kreft, 1998; Gorman, 1998; Rosenbaum & Hanson, 1998). Some critics hypothesize that the financial costs and negative consequences of prevailing strategies probably outweigh whatever benefits are accrued (Brown&Kreft, 1998;Weinberg, Rahdert, Colliver, & Glantz, 1998). How the Problem is Presented and Understood How big a problem is substance abuse? What leads to such abuse? Answers to these questions remain debatable. A sense of the nature and scope of substance use is provided by government-sponsored surveys, such as the Monitoring the Future Study (e.g., Johnston, O Malley, & Bachman, 1999), the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (e.g., Office of Applied Studies, 1998), the Partnership Attitude Tracking Study (e.g., Partnership for a Drug- Free American, 1999), and the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (Centers for 3

8 Disease Control and Prevention, e.g., Kann, Kinchen, Williams, et al., 1998). Such surveys have obvious limitations, and marked differences in some of the findings reported underscore the need to look for consensus across surveys. Nevertheless, the findings constitute the most comprehensive data sets available on the use of substances and are commonly cited in policy discussions... Determinants of Substance Use and Abuse A review of the extensive literature focused on improving understanding and intervention related to drug use and abuse underscores the variety of transacting factors that lead to the behavior and, for some users, addiction (e.g., Catalano, Kosterman, Hawkins, et al, 1996; Ciccheti & Rogosch, 1999; Deci & Ryan, 1987; Glantz & Hartel, 1999; Hansen, Rose, & Dryfoos, 1993; Hawkins, Catalano, & Miller, 1992; Institute of Medicine, 1996; Johnson & Pandina, 1993; National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1999; Petraitis&Flay, 1995; Weinberg, Rahdert, Colliver, & Glantz, 1998). Both proactive and reactive motivational models have been postulated within theories that emphasize biological, genetic, social, psychological, and environmental factors. Moreover, it is widely recognized that the same etiological factor(s) can produce a variety of problem behaviors and that several of these can co-occur, often exacerbating each other (e.g., delinquency, substance abuse, violence, comorbidity of mental disorders). Relatedly, it is clear that the same behavior may be caused by different factors (Donovan, Jessor, & Costa, 1988; Elliot, Huizinga, & Menard, 1988; Loeber, Stouthamer-Loeber, & White, 1999; SAMHSA, 1997; Weinberg & Glantz, 1999). No specific factors have been established as predetermining drug abuse. Therefore, rather than reviewing the host of variables under study, we think it more useful, from a broad perspective, to start with a developmentally-oriented, transactional view of the determinants of behavior. Such a view stresses that substance abusers can be grouped along a continuum. At one end are those for whom internal factors are the primary determinants of the behavior; at the other end is a group for whom environmental factors are the primary determinants; and at each point along the continuum, there are persons for whom some degree of transaction between internal and environmental factors determine the behavior (Adelman & Taylor, 1993, 1994). As illustrated in Fig. 1, substance abuse originating from environmental factors is designated at one end of the continuum and is referred to as a Type E problem. At the other end is abuse stemming primarily from factors within the person called Type P. In the middle are problems arising from a relatively equal contribution of environmental and person sources, labeled Type E/P problems. It is yet to be empirically determined how many fall into each of these groups. However, generalizing from the literature on psychopathology, it seems likely that only a small percentage of substance abuse is caused primarily by internal factors within a person (i.e., a Type P problem). Youngsters are socialized by those around them. They respond to competing environmental options. Thus, as with other psychosocial problems, there is a significant group at the other end of the continuum whose substance abuse arises primarily from factors outside the person (i.e., a Type E problem). Such factors always should be considered in hypothesizing and assessing what initially caused a given person s behavior. By first ruling out environmental causes, hypotheses about internal factors become more viable. The majority of substance abuse probably reflects varying degrees of environment-person transactions. That is, at each point between the extreme ends, environment-person transactions are the cause, but the degree to which each contributes to the problem varies. Toward the environment end of the continuum, environmental factors play a bigger role (represented as E p). Toward the other end, person variables account for more of the problem (thus e P). 4

9 Figure 1 Primary Locus of Cause Problems caused by factors in the environment (E) Problems caused equally by environment and person Problems caused by factors in the the person (P) E (E<--->p) E<--->P (e<--->p) P Type I problems caused primarily by environments and systems that are deficient and/or hostile problems are mild to moderately severe and narrow to moderately pervasive Type II problems caused primarily by a significant mismatch between individual differences and vulnerabilities and the nature of that person's environment (not by a person s pathology) problems are mild to moderately severe and pervasive Type III problems caused primarily by person factors of a pathological nature problems are moderate to profoundly severe and moderate to broadly pervasive In this conceptual scheme, the emphasis in each case is on problems that are beyond the early stage of onset. Examples: Type E problem - a neighborhood where there are not strong norms against the use of substance abuse and where illicit drugs are easily accessed. Type E/P problem - a youngster who is not doing well academically and who then gravitates to peers who also are not doing well and who are involved in abuse of substances. Type P problem - a youngster who is susceptible, psychologically and/or physiologically, to addictive behavior. Clearly, a simple continuum cannot do justice to the complexities of differentiating and labeling human behavior and designing interventions that fit specific needs. This conceptual scheme does, however, suggest the value of starting with a broad model of cause. In particular, it helps counter tendencies to jump prematurely to the conclusion that an individual s substance abuse is caused by internal deficiencies or pathology. It also helps highlight the notion that improving the environment may be sufficient to prevent many problems. Discussions of risk and protective factors related to drug abuse and other problem behaviors reflect a transactional model. Such thinking emphasizes not only factors internal to individuals, but environmental factors related to school, home, and neighborhood, and stresses complex transactions between both classes of variables. Researchers, policy makers, and practitioners are especially interested in the interplay between biological and 5

10 psychosocial risk factors in understanding cause and in protective factors as risk mediators (Coie,Watt,West, Hawkins, et al., 1993; Glantz&Sloboda, 1999; Institute of Medicine, 1994; Masten&Coatsworth, 1998; National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1999; Pandina, 1998). At this stage, the evidence suggests that the more risk factors that are at play, the less likely it is that an accumulated set of protective factors can counteract their impact (Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, 1993, 1999). Hawkins, Catalano, and Miller (1992) provide a research-based discussion of common risk and protective variables relevant to substance abuse prevention. Among the environmental variables identified by researchers as common risks are such community/school/family factors as norms favorable toward drug use, availability of drugs, extreme economic deprivation, high levels of mobility, low neighborhood attachment and community organization, friends who engage in the problem behavior, academic failure, family histories of the problem behavior, and family conflict. Person factors include various differences and vulnerabilities as manifested in behaviors seen as reflecting elevated degrees of withdrawal, alienation, impulsiveness, defiance, aggression, poor school performance, and so forth. It is essential to remember that the various correlates have limited predictive value. As a recent report from NIDA (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1999) cogently states, a list of such factors does not give much insight into how risk factors operate for individuals and groups because it does not consider the embeddedness of individuals in contexts that may place them at risk, the active role that individuals play in their own development through interactions and transactions within the social environment, developmental stages of individuals, and individual differences in the susceptibility to type and number of risks. Moreover, for many years the risk factor focus did not consider the influence of protective or resiliency factors...[such as] a stable temperament, a high degree of motivation, a strong parent-child bond, consistent parental supervision and discipline, bonding to prosocial institutions, association with peers who hold conventional attitudes... (p. 45). (See the NIDA report for more discussion of etiology covering individual, family, peer group, school, and special population considerations.) Finally and ironically, we note that an underlying motivational view leads to contrasting hypotheses about causal links between prevention efforts and substance experimentation. One view suggests that anti-substance abuse messages lead some youngsters to proactively seek out the experience. The other view hypothesizes that youngsters perceive such messages as filled with half truths and as attempts to indoctrinate them, and this leads to a form of psychological reactance motivating substance use. Neither of these hypotheses have been researched directly; they are extrapolated from theorizing about what motivates human behavior (e,g., see Brehm & Brehm, 1981; Deci & Ryan, 1985). References Adelman, H.S., & Taylor, L. (1993). Learning problems and learning disabilities: Moving forward. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. Adelman, H.S., & Taylor, L. (1994). On understanding intervention in psychology and education. Westport, CT: Praeger. Brehm, S.S., & Brehm, J.W. (1981). Psychological reactance: A theory of freedom and control. New York: Academic Press. 6

11 Brown, J.H., & Kreft, I.G. (1998). Zero effects of drug prevention programs: Issues and solutions. Evaluation Review, 22, Catalano, R.F., Kosterman, R., Hawkins, J.D., et al. (1996). Etiology of substance use: A test of the Social Development Model. Journal of Drug Issues, 26, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (1993). Prevention strategies based on individual risk factors for alcohol and other drug abuse (CSAP Technical Report 7). Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (1999). Understanding substance abuse prevention - Toward the 21st Century: A primer of effective programs. (CSAP Monograph). Rockville, MD: U.S.Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Chandler, K.A., Chapman, C.D., Rand, M.R.,&Taylor, B.M. (1998). Students reports of school crime:1989 and 1995.Washington, DC: U.S. Departments of Education and Justice publications NCES /NCJ Ciccetti, D., & Rogosch, F.A. (1999). Psychopathology as risk for adolescent substance use disorders: A developmental psychopathology perspective. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28, Coie, J.D., Watt, N.F., West, S.G., Hawkins, J.D., Asarnow, J.R., Markham, H.J., Ramey, S.L., Shure, M.B.,&Long, B. (1993). The science of prevention:aconceptual framework and some directions for a national research program. American Psychologist, 48, Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Books. Donovan, J.E., Jessor, R., & Costa, F.M. (1988). Syndrome of problem behavior in adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, Elliot, D., Huizinga, D., & Menard, S. (1988). Multiple problem youth: Delinquency, substance abuse, and mental health problems. New York: Springer-Verlag. Fisher, L.B., Miles, I.W., Austin, S.B., Camargo Jr. C.A., & Colditz, G.A. (2007) Predictors of Initiation of Alcohol Use Among US Adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc. 161: Glantz, M.D., & Hartel, C.R. (Eds.). (1999). Drug abuse: Origins and interventions.washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Glantz, M.D., & Sloboda, Z. (1999). Analysis and reconceptualization of resilience. In M.D. Glantz & J.L. Johnson (eds.), Resliency and development: Positive life adaptations. New York: Plenum Press. Gorman, D.M. (1998). The irrelevance of evidence in the development of school-based drug prevention policy, Evaluation Review, 22, Hansen, W.B., Rose, L.A., & Dryfoos, J.G. (1993). Causal factors, interventions, and policy considerations in school-based substance abuse prevention. Washington, DC: Report to the Office of Technology Assessment. Hawkins, J.D., Catalano, R.F., & Miller, J.Y. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin, 112, Institute of Medicine (1994). Reducing risks for mental disorders: Frontiers for preventive intervention research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Johnson, V. & Pandina, R.J. (1993). A longitudinal examination of the relationships among stress, coping strategies, and problems associated with alcohol use. Alcoholism: Clinical&Experimental Research, 17, Johnston, L.D., O Malley, P.M., & Bachman, J.G. (1996). National survey results on drug use from the Monitoring the Future study, Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Kann, L., Kinchen, S.A., Williams, B.I., Ross, J.G., Lowry, R., Hill, C.V., Grunbaum, J.A., Blumson, P.S., Collins, J.L., & Kolbe, L.J. (1998). Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, United States, In CDC Surveillance Summaries, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, August 14, Vol. 47, No. SS-3. Libby, A.M, PhD, Orton, H.D, MS, Barth, R.P., Webb, M.B., PhD, Burns, B.J., PhD, Wood, P., MS, & Spicer, P., PhD. (2006). Alcohol, Drug, and Mental Health Specialty Treatment Services and Race/ Ethnicity: A National Study of Children and Families Involved With Child Welfare. American Journal of Public Health. Vol 96, No. 4, Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & White, H.R. (1999). Developmental aspects of delinquency and internalizing problems and their association with persistent juvenile substance use between ages 7 and 18. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28, Lowry, R., Cohen, L.R., Modzeleski,W., Kann, L., Collins, J.L.,&Kolbe, L.J. (1999). School violence, substance use, and availability of illegal drugs on school property among U.S. high school students. Journal of School Health, 69, MacCoun, R., & Reuter, P. (1998). Drug control (pp ). In M.H. Tonry (Ed.), The handbook of crime and punishment. New York: Oxford University Press. 7

12 McBride, D.C., VanderWaal, C.J., Terry, Y.M., & Van Buren, H. (1999). Breaking the cycle of drug use among juvenile offenders. Final Technical Report.Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, NCJ (Web only document). Marsetn, A.S.,&Coatsworth, J.D. (1998). The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments: Lessons from research on successful children. American Psychologist, 53, National Institute on Drug Abuse (1999). Sixth triennial report to Congress on drug use and drug and drug use research. Rockville, MD: National Institutes of Health. Office of Applied Studies (1998). National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Population estimates. Rockville, MD: DHHS Publication. Pandina, R.J. (1998). Risk and protective factor models in adolescent drug use: Putting them to work for prevention. In National conference on drug abuse prevention research: Presentations, papers, and recommendations. Rockville, MD: National Institutes of Health Publication NIH Partnership for a Drug-Free American (1999). Partnership Attitude Tracking Study.Washington, D.C. Author. Petraitis, J. & Flay, B.R. (1995). Reviewing theories of adolescent substance use: Organizing pieces of the puzzle. Psychological Bulletin, 117, Rosenbaum, D.P., & Hanson, G.S. (1998). Assessing the effcets of school-based drug education: A six-year multilevel analysis of Project D.A.R.E. Journal of Research in Crime & Delinquency, 35, SAMHSA, National Advisory Council (1997). Improving services for individuals at risk of, or with, co-occuring substance-related and mental health disorders. Rockville, MD: Author. Weinberg, N.Z., & Glantz, M.D. (1999). Child psychopathology risk factors for drug abuse: Overview. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28, Weinberg, N.Z., Rahdert, E., Colliver, J.D., & Glantz, M.D. (1998). Adolescent substance abuse: A review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37,

13 I. A broad overview for understanding the nature and scope of substance use/abuse: Fact sheets & reports A. Incidence Figures 1. High School and Youth Trends 2. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance 3. Patterns of substance use in early through late adolescence 4. Data on Racial and Ethnic Incidence B. Causes and Correlates 1. Predictor variables by developmental stages: a center for substance abuse prevention multisite study. 2. Socioeconomic status, Depression Symptoms and Adolescent Substance Use 3. The Role of Family Influence in Development and Risk 4. Youth Violence and Substance Use: 2001 Update 5. Substance Use and the Risk of Suicide Among Youths 6. Academic Performance and Youth Substance Use 7. Neighborhood Characteristics and Youth Marijuana Use 8. Substance Abuse Dependence in Metropolitan and Non-Metropolitan Areas C. Information About Abused Substances 9

14 I. A. Broad Overview: Incidence Figures 1. Excerpt from National Institute on Drug Abuse High School and Youth Trends (http://www.nida.nih.gov/infofacts/hsyouthtrends.html) Since 1975, the Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey has been administered annually to study the extent of and beliefs about drug use among 12th-graders. The survey was expanded in 1991 to include 8th- and 10th-graders. It is funded by NIDA and is conducted by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research. The goal of the survey is to collect data on past month, past year, and lifetime (1) drug use among students in these grade levels. The 33rd annual study was conducted during 2007.(2) Decreases or stability in abuse patterns were noted for most drugs from 2006 to Below are the key findings, based on data from the 2007 MTF survey. For individual drugs, a decrease or increase is noted only if statistically significant; other trends are considered stable and are not highlighted below. Positive Trends Any illicit drug From 2006 to 2007, 8th-graders reporting lifetime use of any illicit drug declined from 20.9 percent to 19.0 percent and past year use declined from 14.8 percent to 13.2 percent. Since 2001, annual prevalence has fallen by 32 percent among 8th-graders, nearly 25 percent among 10th-graders, and 13 percent among 12th-graders. Since the peak year in 1996, past year prevalence has fallen by 44 percent among 8th-graders. The peak year for past year abuse among 10th- and 12th-graders was 1997; since then, past year prevalence has fallen by 27 percent among 10th-graders and by 15 percent among 12th-graders. Negative Trends Prescription Drugs Prescription drug use remains unacceptably high with virtually no drop in nonmedical use of most individual prescription drugs. This year, for the first time, researchers pulled together data for all prescription drugs as a measurable group (including amphetamines, sedatives/barbituates, tranquilizers, and opiates other than heroin such as Vicodin and OxyContin) and found that 15.4 percent of high school seniors reported nonmedical use of at least one prescription medication within the past year.(5) MDMA (Ecstasy) The 2007 results represent the third year in a row showing a weakening of attitudes among the youngest students regarding MDMA. Between 2004 and 2007 past year use of MDMA increased in 10th-graders from 2.4 to 3.5 percent, and between 2005 and 2007 past year use of MDMA increased among 12th-graders going from 3.0 to 4.5 percent.. Hallucinogens Among 10th-graders, the perceived harmfulness of taking LSD once or twice decreased from 38.8 percent in 2006 to 35.4 percent in Heroin/Opiates Among 8th-graders, past month use of injecting heroin increased from 0.2 percent in 2006 to 0.3 percent in

15 I. A. Broad Overview: Incidence Figures 2. Excerpts from Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Surveillance Summaries Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance United States, 2005 (http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5505a1.htm) The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults. Results from the 2005 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) indicated that, during the 30 days preceding the survey, many high school students engaged in behaviors that increased their likelihood of death from these four causes: 9.9% had driven a car or other vehicle when they had been drinking alcohol; 18.5% had carried a weapon; 43.3% had drunk alcohol; and 20.2% had used marijuana. Lifetime Alcohol Use Nationwide, 74.3% of students had had at least one drink of alcohol on >1 day during their life. Current Alcohol Use Nationwide, 43.3% of students had had at least one drink of alcohol on >1 of the 30 days preceding the survey. Episodic Heavy Drinking Nationwide, 25.5% of students had had >5 drinks of alcohol in a row (i.e., within a couple of hours) on >1 of the 30 days preceding the survey. Lifetime Marijuana Use Nationwide, 38.4% of students had used marijuana one or more times during their life. Current Marijuana Use Nationwide, 20.2% of students had used marijuana one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey. Lifetime Cocaine Use Nationwide, 7.6% of students had used any form of cocaine (e.g., powder, crack, or freebase) one or more times during their life. 11

16 Current Cocaine Use Nationwide, 3.4% of students had used any form of cocaine (e.g., powder, crack, or freebase) one or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey. Lifetime Illegal Injection Drug Use Nationwide, 2.1% of students had used a needle to inject any illegal drug into their body one or more times during their life. Lifetime Inhalant Use Nationwide, 12.4% of students had sniffed glue, breathed the contents of aerosol spray cans, or inhaled any paints or sprays to get high one or more times during their life. Lifetime Illegal Steroid Use Nationwide, 4.0% of students had taken steroid pills or shots without a doctor's prescription one or more times during their life. Lifetime Hallucinogenic Drug Use Nationwide, 8.5% of students had used hallucinogenic drugs (e.g., LSD, acid, PCP, angel dust, mescaline, or mushrooms) one or more times during their life. Lifetime Heroin Use Nationwide, 2.4% of students had used heroin (also called "smack," "junk," or "China White") one or more times during their life. Lifetime Methamphetamine Use Nationwide, 6.2% of students had used methamphetamines (also called "speed," "crystal," "crank," or "ice") one or more times during their life Lifetime Ecstasy Use Nationwide, 6.3% of students had used ecstasy (also called "MDMA") one or more times during their life. Offered, Sold, or Given an Illegal Drug on School Property Nationwide, 25.4% of students had been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug by someone on school property during the 12 months preceding the survey. 12

17 I. A. Broad Overview: Incidence Figures 3. Patterns of substance use in early through late adolescence American Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 30, No. 6, December 2002 Kinga Zapert, University of Maryland David L. Snow and Jacob Kraemer Tebes, Yale University Abstract This study examined patterns of substance use throughout adolescence. A cluster analytic approach was used to identify subgroups of adolescents on the basis of their levels of substance use from early through late adolescence (Grades 6 through 11). Six distinct clusters of substance users emerged-2 groups representing relatively stable patterns of substance use from early through late adolescence (ie., nonusers and alcohol experimenters), and 4 groups of users showing escalating patterns of substance use (i.e., low escalators, early starters, late starters, and high escalators). The study provides a comprehensive view of adolescent substance use by examining the progression of use from early to late adolescence, demonstrates the usefulness of studying patterns of use across multiple substances, and underscores the importance of building classification schemes based on repeated measurements of substance use to reflect changes over time. Implications of the findings for future research and for identifying high-risk subgroups of adolescents for purposes of intervention based on timing and pattern of escalation are discussed. 13

18 Excerpted from SAMHSA Office of Applied Studies A Day in the Life of American Adolescents: Substance Use Facts (Http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k7/youthfacts/youth.cfm) Highlights: Facts about substance use among youth aged 12 to 17 are based on data from SAMHSA's 2006 National Survey on Drug Use & Health (NSDUH) and SAMHSA's 2005 Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), and for clients under the age of 18 from SAMHSA's 2005 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS). Data are presented on first substance use, past year substance use, receipt of substance use treatment, and source of substance use treatment referrals "on an average day." On an average day in 2006, youth used the following substances for the first time: 7,970 drank alcohol for the first time, 4,348 used an illicit drug for the first time, 4,082 smoked cigarettes for the first time, 3,577 used marijuana for the first time, and 2,517 used pain relievers nonmedically for the first time. Youth who used alcohol in the past month drank an average of 4.7 drinks per day on the days they drank and those who smoked cigarettes in the past month smoked an average of 4.6 cigarettes per day on the days they smoked. On a average day in 2005, the number of youth admissions to substance abuse treatment were referred by the following sources: 189 by the criminal justice system; 66 by self-referral or referral from other individuals; 43 by schools; 37 by community organizations; 22 by alcohol or drug treatment providers; and 18 by other health providers. On an average day in 2005, active substance abuse treatment clients under the age of 18 received the following the types of substance abuse treatment: 76,240 were clients in outpatient treatment; 10,313 were clients in non-hospital residential treatment; and 1,058 were clients in hospital inpatient treatment. 14

19 I. A. Broad Overview: Incidence Figures 4. Data on Racial and Ethnic Incidence Public Health Rep 2002;117 Suppl 1:S67-75 Tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use: racial and ethnic differences among U.S. high school seniors, Wallace JM Jr, Bachman JG, O'Malley PM, Johnston LD, Schulenberg JE, Cooper SM. University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, 426 Thompson Street, Ann Arbor, MI , USA. OBJECTIVE: This study examines differences in adolescents' use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs by racial and ethnic groups. METHODS: The authors analyzed questionnaire data from large, nationally representative samples of U.S. high school seniors to examine differences in drug use prevalence and trends among racial and ethnic groups between 1976 and RESULTS: On average, American Indian seniors showed the highest levels of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use. Cuban American and white seniors also tended to have relatively high levels of substance use, followed by Mexican American and Puerto Rican seniors. Other Latin American, African American, and Asian American seniors reported the lowest levels of drug use. Most of these differences are longstanding, but some have widened and others narrowed during the past 25 years. CONCLUSION: Significant differences exist in adolescent use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs by racial and ethnic groups, and these differences have changed over time. Future research should examine these differences and seek to identify the sources and consequences of the disparities. Public Health Rep 2002;117 Suppl 1:S51-9 Differences in onset and persistence of substance abuse and dependence among whites, blacks, and Hispanics. Reardon SF, Buka SL. Penn. State University, 310F Rackley Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA. OBJECTIVE: This article describes patterns of onset, persistence, and cessation of substance abuse among whites, blacks, and Hispanics that are masked in cross-sectional prevalence data. METHODS: The authors analyzed longitudinal data from a sample of 1,004 white, black, and Hispanic respondents from Chicago to investigate processes of onset, persistence, and cessation of substance abuse and dependence for two age cohorts, 15 and 18 at baseline and 17 and 20 at follow-up. RESULTS: The data show few racial or ethnic differences in the prevalence of alcohol and marijuana abuse and dependence at age 15. Rates of onset of alcohol abuse and dependence among whites between ages 15 and 17 were significantly higher than for blacks and Hispanics, and the rates of onset of marijuana abuse and dependence among blacks between ages 18 and 20 were significantly higher than for whites and Hispanics of the same age group. There were few significant differences among the three groups in the persistence rates of abuse and dependence. CONCLUSION: By age 20 the rates of marijuana abuse and dependence are significantly higher among blacks than among whites and Hispanics. 15

20 I. B. Broad Overview: Causes and Correlates Psychological Addictive Behavior 2002 Dec;16(4 Supplement):S Predictor variables by developmental stages: a center for substance abuse prevention multisite study. Tarter RE, Sambrano S, Dunn MG. Five articles present the results obtained in a multisite study funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP). The overarching goal of this effort was to determine the efficacy of reducing severity of factors during childhood that are known to magnify the risk for substance abuse (SA) in adolescence. The factors targeted for preventive intervention were Behavior Self-Regulation, Parental Involvement, School Bonding, and Social Competence. Conceptualizing SA within a developmental framework, the findings indicate that prevention directed at youth between 3-14 years of age has a significant positive impact on attenuating intermediary factors predisposing to SA. In this introduction, both the theoretical framework and rationale guiding this cooperative agreement and the key findings are described. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2002;156: Socioeconomic Status, Depressive Symptoms, and Adolescent Substance Use Elizabeth Goodman, MD; Bin Huang, PhD Objective To determine the relationships among socioeconomic status (SES), depression, and substance use among teenagers. We hypothesized that, among teenagers, substance use was associated with SES in a graded fashion and that depression is a mechanism through which SES affects substance use behaviors. Design Linear regression analyses of cross-sectional data from Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1995). Participants Fifteen thousand one hundred twelve adolescents whose parents answered questions assessing household income and parental education. Conclusions Socioeconomic status is associated with substance use among teenagers but the nature of the relationship is not consistent across SES indicators or across race/ethnicity groups. Depressive symptoms are a mechanism through which SES affects cigarette and cocaine use behaviors among teenagers. However, these data indicate that interventions targeted toward decreasing depressive symptoms will not have a strong impact on the effects of SES on teenage substance use. 16

Behavioral Health Barometer. United States, 2014

Behavioral Health Barometer. United States, 2014 Behavioral Health Barometer United States, 2014 Acknowledgments This report was prepared for the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) by RTI International under contract No.

More information

Maternal and Child Health Issue Brief

Maternal and Child Health Issue Brief Maternal and Child Health Issue Brief Why is substance abuse an issue among youth? December 14 8 Substance Abuse among Youth in Colorado Substance abuse among youth is defined as using alcohol, tobacco,

More information

National Adolescent Health Information Center NAHIC NAHIC NAHIC NAHIC NAHIC NAHIC NAHIC NAHIC NAHIC NAHIC NAHIC NAHIC NAHIC NAHIC

National Adolescent Health Information Center NAHIC NAHIC NAHIC NAHIC NAHIC NAHIC NAHIC NAHIC NAHIC NAHIC NAHIC NAHIC NAHIC NAHIC National Adolescent Health Information Center N 2007 Fact A H I C Sheet on Substance : Adolescents & Young Adults Highlights: 4 After an increase in the early 1990s, adolescent substance use has decreased

More information

In Brief MICHIGAN. Adolescent Behavioral Health. A Short Report from the Office of Applied Studies

In Brief MICHIGAN. Adolescent Behavioral Health. A Short Report from the Office of Applied Studies MICHIGAN Adolescent Behavioral Health In Brief A Short Report from the Office of Applied Studies Adolescence (12 to 17 years) is a critical and vulnerable stage of human development, during which males

More information

Behavioral Health Barometer. United States, 2014

Behavioral Health Barometer. United States, 2014 Behavioral Health Barometer United States, 2014 Acknowledgments This report was prepared for the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) by RTI International under contract No.

More information

Daily marijuana use among U.S. college students highest since 1980

Daily marijuana use among U.S. college students highest since 1980 August 31, 215 Contact: Jared Wadley, 734-936-7819, jwadley@umich.edu Ariel Bronson, 734-647-83, abrons@umich.edu U-M has a satellite uplink TV studio and an ISDN radio line for interviews. EMBARGOED FOR

More information

Alcohol Abuse Among our Nation s Youth What to do as educators

Alcohol Abuse Among our Nation s Youth What to do as educators Alcohol Abuse Among our Nation s Youth What to do as educators The devastating rate of drug and alcohol abuse by American youth is cause for alarm and its prevention and treatment remains one of our nation

More information

2008 Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey

2008 Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey 2008 Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey Baker County Report Executive Office of the Governor 2008 Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey Baker County Report 2008 Florida Department of Children & Families

More information

Alcohol and Drug Problem Overview

Alcohol and Drug Problem Overview Alcohol and Drug Problem Overview Alcohol and Drug Problem Overview The abuse of alcohol and other drugs including prescription drugs is common and costly. It can cause or worsen many medical problems

More information

In Brief UTAH. Adolescent Behavioral Health. A Short Report from the Office of Applied Studies

In Brief UTAH. Adolescent Behavioral Health. A Short Report from the Office of Applied Studies UTAH Adolescent Behavioral Health In Brief A Short Report from the Office of Applied Studies Adolescence (12 to 17 years) is a critical and vulnerable stage of human development, during which males and

More information

Louisiana Caring Communities Youth Survey Results for 2008. Results for Black or African American

Louisiana Caring Communities Youth Survey Results for 2008. Results for Black or African American Louisiana Caring Communities Youth Survey Results for 8 Results for Black or African American The Louisiana Caring Communities Youth Survey and this report are sponsored by: Louisiana Department of Health

More information

In Brief ARIZONA. Adolescent Behavioral Health. A Short Report from the Office of Applied Studies

In Brief ARIZONA. Adolescent Behavioral Health. A Short Report from the Office of Applied Studies ARIZONA Adolescent Behavioral Health In Brief A Short Report from the Office of Applied Studies Adolescence (12 to 17 years) is a critical and vulnerable stage of human development, during which males

More information

Substance Abuse 2014-2015. Chapter 10: Substance Abuse

Substance Abuse 2014-2015. Chapter 10: Substance Abuse Substance Abuse 214-215 Chapter 1: Substance Abuse 265 214-215 Health of Boston Substance Abuse Substance abuse involves the excessive use of alcohol or illicit substances (e.g., marijuana, cocaine, heroin,

More information

Behavioral Health Barometer. United States, 2013

Behavioral Health Barometer. United States, 2013 Behavioral Health Barometer United States, 2013 Acknowledgments This report was prepared for the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) by RTI International under contract No.

More information

Karla Ramirez, LCSW Director, Outpatient Services Laurel Ridge Treatment Center

Karla Ramirez, LCSW Director, Outpatient Services Laurel Ridge Treatment Center Karla Ramirez, LCSW Director, Outpatient Services Laurel Ridge Treatment Center 1 in 4 Americans will have an alcohol or drug problems at some point in their lives. The number of alcohol abusers and addicts

More information

Assessing the Perceptions and Usage of Substance Abuse among Teenagers in a Rural Setting

Assessing the Perceptions and Usage of Substance Abuse among Teenagers in a Rural Setting Journal of Rural Community Psychology Vol E12 No 2 Assessing the Perceptions and Usage of Substance Abuse among Teenagers in a Rural Setting Regina Fults McMurtery Jackson State University Department of

More information

Substance Abuse, Violence, Mental Health, and Academic Success

Substance Abuse, Violence, Mental Health, and Academic Success Substance Abuse, Violence, Mental Health, and Academic Success July 2009 The mission of the American school has expanded considerably over the last thirty years. We expect our schools to teach the traditional

More information

MONTHLY VARIATION IN SUBSTANCE USE INITIATION AMONG FULL-TIME COLLEGE STUDENTS

MONTHLY VARIATION IN SUBSTANCE USE INITIATION AMONG FULL-TIME COLLEGE STUDENTS Students College Full-Time Among Initiation Use Substance in Variation Monthly National Survey on Drug Use and Health Short Report August 27, 2015 MONTHLY VARIATION IN SUBSTANCE USE INITIATION AMONG FULL-TIME

More information

TRENDS IN HEROIN USE IN THE UNITED STATES: 2002 TO 2013

TRENDS IN HEROIN USE IN THE UNITED STATES: 2002 TO 2013 2013 to 2002 States: United the in Use Heroin in Trends National Survey on Drug Use and Health Short Report April 23, 2015 TRENDS IN HEROIN USE IN THE UNITED STATES: 2002 TO 2013 AUTHORS Rachel N. Lipari,

More information

2008 Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey

2008 Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey 2008 Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey Duval County Report Executive Office of the Governor 2008 Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey Duval County Report 2008 Florida Department of Children & Families

More information

Underage Drinking. Underage Drinking Statistics

Underage Drinking. Underage Drinking Statistics Underage Drinking Underage drinking is a serious public health problem in the United States. Alcohol is the most widely used substance of abuse among America s youth, and drinking by young people poses

More information

States In Brief. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health. texas. Prevalence of Illicit Substance 1 and Alcohol Use

States In Brief. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health. texas. Prevalence of Illicit Substance 1 and Alcohol Use texas States In Brief Substance Abuse and Mental Health Issues At-A-Glance a short Report from the Office of applied studies Prevalence of Illicit Substance 1 and Alcohol Use The National Survey on Drug

More information

Use of alcohol, cigarettes, and a number of illicit drugs declines among U.S. teens

Use of alcohol, cigarettes, and a number of illicit drugs declines among U.S. teens Dec. 16, 2014 Contacts: Jared Wadley, (734) 936-7819, jwadley@umich.edu EMBARGOED FOR RELEASE AT 12:01 A.M. ET, TUESDAY, DEC. 16, 2014 Note: Video explaining the results is available at http://youtu.be/9lpjo7j3k8u

More information

Drug Abuse Prevention Training FTS 2011

Drug Abuse Prevention Training FTS 2011 Drug Abuse Prevention Training FTS 2011 Principles of Prevention Prevention programs should enhance protective factors and reverse or reduce risk factors (Hawkins et al. 2002). The risk of becoming a drug

More information

Clarendon Consolidated Independent School District Annual Performance Report (TEC 39.053) School Year 2011/2012

Clarendon Consolidated Independent School District Annual Performance Report (TEC 39.053) School Year 2011/2012 Clarendon Consolidated Independent School District Annual Performance Report (TEC 39.053) School Year 2011/2012 Part 3: Violent or Criminal incidences occurring on the- Clarendon Elementary Campus: Clarendon

More information

OAHP Key Adolescent Health Issue. Behavioral Health. (Mental Health & Substance Abuse)

OAHP Key Adolescent Health Issue. Behavioral Health. (Mental Health & Substance Abuse) OAHP Key Adolescent Health Issue Area 1 Behavioral Health (Mental Health & Substance Abuse) Introduction In Ohio, the promotion of positive mental health and the prevention of substance abuse and mental

More information

YOUTH DRUG SURVEY CHARLOTTE-MECKLENBURG PUBLIC SCHOOLS

YOUTH DRUG SURVEY CHARLOTTE-MECKLENBURG PUBLIC SCHOOLS YOUTH DRUG SURVEY CHARLOTTE-MECKLENBURG PUBLIC SCHOOLS 2010 Paul C. Friday, Ph.D. Research & Training Specialists, Inc. Concord, NC June, 2011 Special appreciation is extended to Helen Harrill, John Basilice,

More information

Prescription for Danger

Prescription for Danger Prescription for Danger A Report on the Troubling Trend of Prescription and Over-the-Counter Drug Abuse Among the Nation s Teens OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT

More information

Tri-Town Youth Substance Abuse Prevention Coalition. 2013 Adult Perception Survey Report

Tri-Town Youth Substance Abuse Prevention Coalition. 2013 Adult Perception Survey Report Tri-Town Youth Substance Abuse Prevention Coalition 2013 Adult Perception Survey Report Executive Summary INTRODUCTION The Tri-Town Youth Substance Abuse Prevention Coalition conducted its second Adult

More information

Youth Alcohol, Tobacco and Drug Use

Youth Alcohol, Tobacco and Drug Use Attitude and Perception Survey on Youth Alcohol, Tobacco and Drug Use Sponsored by: Northeast Center for Healthy Communities Lawrence, Massachusetts INTRODUCTION TO ATTITUDE AND PRECEPTION SURVEY This

More information

Adolescent Substance Use: America s #1 Public Health Problem June 29, 2011

Adolescent Substance Use: America s #1 Public Health Problem June 29, 2011 Adolescent Substance Use: America s #1 Public Health Problem June 29, 2011 A Report by The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University 9 in 10 People Who Are Addicted* Begin

More information

And, despite the numbers, for many people, the Facts About Drugs are not clear.

And, despite the numbers, for many people, the Facts About Drugs are not clear. According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), an estimated 20 million Americans aged 12 or older used an illegal drug in the past 30 days. This estimate represents 8% percent of the

More information

How Does. Affect the World of a. Child?

How Does. Affect the World of a. Child? How Does Affect the World of a Child? Because we are constantly updating our web pages to incorporate the most recent statistics, there may be some differences between the statistics in our published documents

More information

Maternal and Child Health Issue Brief

Maternal and Child Health Issue Brief Maternal and Child Health Issue Brief Substance Abuse among Women of Reproductive Age in Colorado September 14 9 Why is substance abuse an issue among women of reproductive age? Substance abuse poses significant

More information

Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions Involving Abuse of Pain Relievers: 1998 and 2008

Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions Involving Abuse of Pain Relievers: 1998 and 2008 Treatment Episode Data Set The TEDS Report July 15, 010 Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions Involving Abuse of Pain Relievers: 1998 and 008 In Brief The proportion of all substance abuse treatment admissions

More information

Mental Health in Schools and Public Health

Mental Health in Schools and Public Health Special Report on Child Mental Health Mental Health in Schools and Public Health Howard S. Adelman, PhD a Linda Taylor, PhD a Health policy and practice call for health and mental health parity and for

More information

Risk and Resilience 101

Risk and Resilience 101 Risk and Resilience 101 July 2004 Thirty years ago, most prevention efforts relied on fear. They tried to convince young people that smoking or using drugs would damage their health and ruin their futures.

More information

INSIGHT on the Issues

INSIGHT on the Issues INSIGHT on the Issues Prevalence of Illicit Drug Use in Older Adults: The Impact of the Baby Boom Generation AARP Public Policy Institute The prevalence of illicit drug use among older adults is expected

More information

States In Brief Substance Abuse and Mental Health Issues At-A-Glance

States In Brief Substance Abuse and Mental Health Issues At-A-Glance virginia States In Brief Substance Abuse and Mental Health Issues At-A-Glance a Short report from the Office of applied Studies Prevalence of Illicit Substance 1 and Alcohol Use The National Survey on

More information

Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction

Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction NOTE: This is a fact sheet covering research findings on effective treatment approaches for drug abuse and addiction. If you are seeking treatment, please call 1-800-662-HELP(4357)

More information

Special Report Substance Abuse and Treatment, State and Federal Prisoners, 1997

Special Report Substance Abuse and Treatment, State and Federal Prisoners, 1997 U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report Substance Abuse and Treatment, and Prisoners, 1997 January 1999, NCJ 172871 By Christopher J. Mumola BJS

More information

1. Youth Drug Use More than 40% of Maryland high school seniors used an illicit drug in the past year.

1. Youth Drug Use More than 40% of Maryland high school seniors used an illicit drug in the past year. 1. Youth Drug Use More than 4% of Maryland high school seniors used an illicit drug in the past year. Any Illicit Drug Alcohol Marijuana Ecstasy Cocaine Percentage of Maryland and U.S. high school seniors

More information

September 2013. Publication # 2013 11

September 2013. Publication # 2013 11 Publication # 2013 11 Adolescent Health Highlight: By David Murphey, Ph.D., Megan Barry, B.A., Brigitte Vaughn, M.S., Lina Guzman, Ph.D. and Mary Terzian, Ph.D. Adolescence is a time when many young people

More information

34 th Judicial District Substance Abuse Study Guide

34 th Judicial District Substance Abuse Study Guide 34 th Judicial District Substance Abuse Study Guide What is Drug Addiction? 2 It is characterized by intense and, at times, uncontrollable drug craving, along with compulsive drug seeking and use that

More information

BROADALBIN-PERTH CENTRAL SCHOOL ADOPTED 7/19/04 2 ND READING AND ADOPTION 6/21/10 SUBSTANCE ABUSE

BROADALBIN-PERTH CENTRAL SCHOOL ADOPTED 7/19/04 2 ND READING AND ADOPTION 6/21/10 SUBSTANCE ABUSE BOARD OF EDUCATION ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATION 7.6.1A BROADALBIN-PERTH CENTRAL SCHOOL ADOPTED 7/19/04 2 ND READING AND ADOPTION 6/21/10 Primary Prevention SUBSTANCE ABUSE The intent of primary prevention

More information

TEENS AND PRESCRIPTION DRUGS An Analysis of Recent Trends on the Emerging Drug Threat

TEENS AND PRESCRIPTION DRUGS An Analysis of Recent Trends on the Emerging Drug Threat TEENS AND PRESCRIPTION DRUGS An Analysis of Recent Trends on the Emerging Drug Threat OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT FEBRUARY 2007 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction

More information

About drugs. Psychoactive drugs. Drugs are substances that change a person s physical or mental state.

About drugs. Psychoactive drugs. Drugs are substances that change a person s physical or mental state. 1 About drugs Drugs are substances that change a person s physical or mental state. The vast majority of drugs are used to treat medical conditions, both physical and mental. Some, however, are used outside

More information

Alcohol & Drug Use. Among Louisiana Public School Students. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Surveys 2011 & School Health Profiles Comparison 2010:

Alcohol & Drug Use. Among Louisiana Public School Students. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Surveys 2011 & School Health Profiles Comparison 2010: LOUISIANA Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Surveys 2011 & School Health Profiles Comparison 2010: Alcohol and Drug Use Among Public School Students Alcohol & Drug Use Introduction The Youth Risk Behavior

More information

With Depression Without Depression 8.0% 1.8% Alcohol Disorder Drug Disorder Alcohol or Drug Disorder

With Depression Without Depression 8.0% 1.8% Alcohol Disorder Drug Disorder Alcohol or Drug Disorder Minnesota Adults with Co-Occurring Substance Use and Mental Health Disorders By Eunkyung Park, Ph.D. Performance Measurement and Quality Improvement May 2006 In Brief Approximately 16% of Minnesota adults

More information

States In Brief Substance Abuse and Mental Health Issues At-A-Glance

States In Brief Substance Abuse and Mental Health Issues At-A-Glance kentucky States In Brief Substance Abuse and Mental Health Issues At-A-Glance A Short Report from the Office of Applied Studies Prevalence of Illicit Substance 1 and Alcohol Use The National Survey on

More information

TEEN MARIJUANA USE WORSENS DEPRESSION

TEEN MARIJUANA USE WORSENS DEPRESSION TEEN MARIJUANA USE WORSENS DEPRESSION An Analysis of Recent Data Shows Self-Medicating Could Actually Make Things Worse Millions of American teens* report experiencing weeks of hopelessness and loss of

More information

Drugs and Drug Po Hey. The Control of Consciousness. Alteration. Second Edition. Clayton J. Mosher. Washington State University Vancouver

Drugs and Drug Po Hey. The Control of Consciousness. Alteration. Second Edition. Clayton J. Mosher. Washington State University Vancouver Drugs and Drug Po Hey The Control of Consciousness Alteration Second Edition Clayton J. Mosher Washington State University Vancouver Scott M. Akins Oregon State University (DSAGE Los Angeles London New

More information

DEFINING THE ADDICTION TREATMENT GAP

DEFINING THE ADDICTION TREATMENT GAP EXECUTIVE Summary Our society and our health care system have been slow to recognize and respond to alcohol and drug addiction as a chronic but treatable condition, leaving millions of Americans without

More information

The Partnership Attitude Tracking Study (PATS)

The Partnership Attitude Tracking Study (PATS) The Partnership Attitude Tracking Study (PATS) Teens 7 Report Released August 4, 8 Partnership for a Drug-Free America Partnership Attitude Tracking Study Table of Contents Page Mission..........................................3

More information

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Moderator: Juan Pablo Yga Director: Patricio Williams Secretary: Andrea Cisneros Topic B: Decreasing drug abuse among minors Description of Committee: The

More information

The Relationship Between Drug Use and Depressive Symptoms Among High School Students

The Relationship Between Drug Use and Depressive Symptoms Among High School Students University of Connecticut DigitalCommons@UConn Master's Theses University of Connecticut Graduate School 5-9-2015 The Relationship Between Drug Use and Depressive Symptoms Among High School Students Andrea

More information

Identify the influences that encourage young people to abstain from alcohol, tobacco and other drug use.

Identify the influences that encourage young people to abstain from alcohol, tobacco and other drug use. Too Good for Drugs Curriculum Correlations Correlated with Oregon State Standards Grade 8 Lesson One: Go for Your Goals Develop personal goals. List steps for reaching a goal. Demonstrate how to picture

More information

Facts for Teens: Youth Violence

Facts for Teens: Youth Violence P.O. Box 6003 Rockville, MD 20849-6003 nyvprc@safeyouth.org www.safeyouth.org Facts for Teens: Youth Violence Introduction Many teenagers are concerned about youth violence, and with good reason. Each

More information

Drug Abuse Trends Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota

Drug Abuse Trends Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota Drug Abuse Trends Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota January 21 Carol Falkowski Alcohol and Drug Abuse Division Minnesota Department of Human Services Background This report is produced twice annually for

More information

California Society of Addiction Medicine (CSAM) Consumer Q&As

California Society of Addiction Medicine (CSAM) Consumer Q&As C o n s u m e r Q & A 1 California Society of Addiction Medicine (CSAM) Consumer Q&As Q: Is addiction a disease? A: Addiction is a chronic disorder, like heart disease or diabetes. A chronic disorder is

More information

Behavioral Health Barometer. Mississippi, 2014

Behavioral Health Barometer. Mississippi, 2014 Behavioral Health Barometer Mississippi, 2014 Acknowledgments This report was prepared for the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) by RTI International under contract No.

More information

This report was prepared by the staff of the Health Survey Program:

This report was prepared by the staff of the Health Survey Program: Massachusetts Department of Public Health Health Survey Program Center for Health Information, Statistics, Research, and Evaluation Alcohol Use, Illicit Drug Use, and Gambling in Massachusetts, 22 Supplement

More information

Substance Abuse Prevention Dollars and Cents in Arkansas: A Cost-Benefit Analysis

Substance Abuse Prevention Dollars and Cents in Arkansas: A Cost-Benefit Analysis Substance Abuse Prevention Dollars and Cents in Arkansas: A Cost-Benefit Analysis February 2010 Office of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Division of Behavioral Health Services, Arkansas Department of

More information

Teenage Prescription Drug Abuse

Teenage Prescription Drug Abuse Teenage Prescription Drug Abuse Rickard E. Terenzi, PhD, CASAC Manhasset Community Coalition Against Substance Abuse September 30, 2010 Teenage Prescription Drug Abuse Presentation Summary: Trends Definitions

More information

American Society of Addiction Medicine

American Society of Addiction Medicine American Society of Addiction Medicine Public Policy Statement on Core Benefit for Primary Care and Specialty Treatment and Prevention of Alcohol, Nicotine and Other Drug PREFACE Statement of the Problem:

More information

Behavioral Health Barometer. Virginia, 2014

Behavioral Health Barometer. Virginia, 2014 Behavioral Health Barometer Virginia, 2014 Acknowledgments This report was prepared for the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) by RTI International under contract No. 283

More information

Behavioral Health Indicators for Tennessee and the United States

Behavioral Health Indicators for Tennessee and the United States Behavioral Health Indicators for Tennessee and the United States April 2015 Prepared by: Lymari Benitez, Ph.D. and Rachel L. Jones Tennessee Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services Office

More information

Massachusetts Population

Massachusetts Population Massachusetts October 2012 POLICY ACADEMY STATE PROFILE Massachusetts Population MASSACHUSETTS POPULATION (IN 1,000S) AGE GROUP Massachusetts is home to more than 6.5 million people. Of these, more than

More information

3 DRUG REHAB FOR TEENAGERS

3 DRUG REHAB FOR TEENAGERS 4 4 5 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 3 DRUG REHAB FOR TEENAGERS Discovering that a teen is taking drugs or alcohol is worrisome. Parents not only worry about the impact on a child s health, but also the possible impact

More information

New Jersey Population

New Jersey Population New Jersey October 2012 POLICY ACADEMY STATE PROFILE New Jersey Population NEW JERSEY POPULATION (IN 1,000S) AGE GROUP New Jersey is home to nearly9 million people. Of these, more than 2.9 million (33.1

More information

Co-Occurring Substance Use and Mental Health Disorders. Joy Chudzynski, PsyD UCLA Integrated Substance Abuse Programs

Co-Occurring Substance Use and Mental Health Disorders. Joy Chudzynski, PsyD UCLA Integrated Substance Abuse Programs Co-Occurring Substance Use and Mental Health Disorders Joy Chudzynski, PsyD UCLA Integrated Substance Abuse Programs Introduction Overview of the evolving field of Co-Occurring Disorders Addiction and

More information

Behavioral Health Barometer. Oklahoma, 2014

Behavioral Health Barometer. Oklahoma, 2014 Behavioral Health Barometer Oklahoma, 2014 Acknowledgments This report was prepared for the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) by RTI International under contract No. 283

More information

Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction

Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction [NOTE: This is a fact sheet covering research findings on effective treatment approaches for drug abuse and addiction. If you are seeking treatment, please call

More information

Mental Health. Health Equity Highlight: Women

Mental Health. Health Equity Highlight: Women Mental Health Background A person s ability to carry on productive activities and live a rewarding life is affected not only by physical health but by mental health. In addition, mental well-being can

More information

ADOLESCENT HEALTH AMONG MINNESOTA S RACIAL/ETHNIC GROUPS: PROGRESS AND DISPARITIES

ADOLESCENT HEALTH AMONG MINNESOTA S RACIAL/ETHNIC GROUPS: PROGRESS AND DISPARITIES Community Health Division Center for Health Statistics Population Health Assessment Quarterly Volume 4, Issue 1 Summer 3 ADOLESCENT HEALTH AMONG MINNESOTA S RACIAL/ETHNIC GROUPS: PROGRESS AND DISPARITIES

More information

GETTING RESULTS. fact sheet. California Youths and Alcohol Use Strategies for Parents and Schools to Take Action. How Does Alcohol Impact Youths?

GETTING RESULTS. fact sheet. California Youths and Alcohol Use Strategies for Parents and Schools to Take Action. How Does Alcohol Impact Youths? GETTING RESULTS fact sheet Jack O Connell, State Superintendent of Public Instruction California Department of Education, Sacramento, 2007 California Youths and Alcohol Use Strategies for Parents and Schools

More information

WHAT WE KNOW. Collective Action Issue Brief #2 Updated June 2014 PRESCRIPTION PAIN MEDICATION MISUSE

WHAT WE KNOW. Collective Action Issue Brief #2 Updated June 2014 PRESCRIPTION PAIN MEDICATION MISUSE Collective Action Issue Brief #2 Updated June 2014 PRESCRIPTION PAIN MEDICATION MISUSE WHAT WE KNOW The misuse and abuse of prescription drugs has become a leading cause of harm among New Hampshire adults,

More information

Family Ties: How Parents Influence Adolescent Substance Use

Family Ties: How Parents Influence Adolescent Substance Use ][ Strength ening our community through education and awaren ess ][ Report from the Mercyhurst College Civic Institute Vol.1 Issue 1 Summer 2009 Additional Reports Erie County Truancy Assessment Erie County

More information

Chapter 4 STRATEGIC GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Chapter 4 STRATEGIC GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Chapter 4 STRATEGIC GOALS AND OBJECTIVES PRINCIPLES OF A COMPREHENSIVE, BALANCED STRATEGY This urban-based Substance Abuse Strategy (the Strategy) is built on the premise that no single approach can end

More information

2012 PARTNERSHIP ATTITUDE TRACKING STUDY

2012 PARTNERSHIP ATTITUDE TRACKING STUDY 2012 PARTNERSHIP ATTITUDE TRACKING STUDY Sponsored by MetLife Foundation Teens and Parents Released: April 23, 2013 1 2012 Partnership Attitude Tracking Study, sponsored by MetLife Foundation TABLE OF

More information

Results for. North East Region

Results for. North East Region Results for North East Introduction North East Prevention Needs Assessment Survey Report This report summarizes the findings from the of Montana Prevention Needs Assessment (MPNA) Survey that was conducted

More information

RACE, CLASS AND THE WAR ON DRUGS

RACE, CLASS AND THE WAR ON DRUGS RACE, CLASS AND THE WAR ON DRUGS A community forum examining the disproportionately adverse effects of current drug law enforcement on racial minorities and the poor sponsored by King County Bar Association

More information

Rural Substance Abuse Partnership (RSAP) State Profile: OKLAHOMA

Rural Substance Abuse Partnership (RSAP) State Profile: OKLAHOMA Rural Substance Abuse Partnership (RSAP) State Profile: OKLAHOMA Overview: The Rural Substance Abuse Partnership (RSAP), organized with the help of a U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs

More information

Creating School and Community Partnerships for Substance Abuse Prevention Programs

Creating School and Community Partnerships for Substance Abuse Prevention Programs The Journal of Primary Prevention, Vol. 23, No. 3, Spring 2003 ( C 2003) Creating School and Community Partnerships for Substance Abuse Prevention Programs Howard S. Adelman 1,2 and Linda Taylor 1 The

More information

General Mental Health Issues: Mental Health Statistics

General Mental Health Issues: Mental Health Statistics Mental Health America of Franklin County 2323 W Fifth Ave Suite 160, Columbus, OH 43204 Telephone: (614) 221-1441 Fax: (614) 221-1491 info@mhafcorg wwwmhafcorg General Mental Health Issues: Mental Health

More information

REVISED SUBSTANCE ABUSE GRANTMAKING STRATEGY. The New York Community Trust April 2003

REVISED SUBSTANCE ABUSE GRANTMAKING STRATEGY. The New York Community Trust April 2003 REVISED SUBSTANCE ABUSE GRANTMAKING STRATEGY The New York Community Trust April 2003 1 I. INTRODUCTION Substance Abuse is defined as the excessive use of addictive substances, especially narcotic drugs,

More information

Substance Abuse in Brief

Substance Abuse in Brief Alcohol use is legal for persons age 21 and older, and the majority of people who drink do so without incident. However, there is a continuum of potential problems associated with alcohol consumption.

More information

The State of Prescription Drug Use in Georgia: A Needs Assessment

The State of Prescription Drug Use in Georgia: A Needs Assessment 2012 The State of Prescription Drug Use in Georgia: A Needs Assessment Submitted By: Dr. Sheryl Strasser, Evaluator and Megan Smith, MPH, Assistant Evaluator Georgia State University, Institute of Public

More information

Substance Abuse. Health Equity Highlight: Adolescents

Substance Abuse. Health Equity Highlight: Adolescents Substance Abuse 108 Background The deliberate use and overuse of harmful substances has a serious impact on the quality of life of Maine people. As a result of substance abuse, the lives of Maine residents

More information

Behavioral Health Barometer. New Jersey, 2013

Behavioral Health Barometer. New Jersey, 2013 Behavioral Health Barometer New Jersey, 2013 Acknowledgments This report was prepared for the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) by RTI International under contract No.

More information

MONITORING. 2013 Volume 2. College Students & Adults Ages 19 55 NATIONAL SURVEY RESULTS ON DRUG USE 1975-2013

MONITORING. 2013 Volume 2. College Students & Adults Ages 19 55 NATIONAL SURVEY RESULTS ON DRUG USE 1975-2013 MONITORING thefuture NATIONAL SURVEY RESULTS ON DRUG USE 1975-2013 2013 Volume 2 College Students & Adults Ages 19 55 Lloyd D. Johnston Patrick M. O Malley Jerald G. Bachman John E. Schulenberg Richard

More information

San Diego County 2010

San Diego County 2010 Indicators of Alcohol and Other Drug Risk and Consequences for California Counties San Diego County 21 Indicators of Alcohol and Other Drug Risk and Consequences for California Counties San Diego County

More information

Los Angeles County 2010

Los Angeles County 2010 Indicators of Alcohol and Other Drug Risk and Consequences for California Counties County 2010 Indicators of Alcohol and Other Drug Risk and Consequences for California Counties County 2010 TABLE OF CONTENTS

More information

Georgia Performance Standards. Health Education

Georgia Performance Standards. Health Education HIGH SCHOOL Students in high school demonstrate comprehensive health knowledge and skills. Their behaviors reflect a conceptual understanding of the issues associated with maintaining good personal health.

More information

EFFECTIVENESS OF TREATMENT FOR VIOLENT JUVENILE DELINQUENTS

EFFECTIVENESS OF TREATMENT FOR VIOLENT JUVENILE DELINQUENTS EFFECTIVENESS OF TREATMENT FOR VIOLENT JUVENILE DELINQUENTS THE PROBLEM Traditionally, the philosophy of juvenile courts has emphasized treatment and rehabilitation of young offenders. In recent years,

More information