1 Areas URI Cyber Research Funding: Law enforcement tools and technologies including steganography detection, digital evidence search string support, cell phone security, cloud forensics Trust Sensor Interface Power Grid Security
2 URI Cyber State-of-the-Art Teaching Facilities; Collaborations with Law Enforcement, Emergency Responders On Network Forensics; and Protection of Critical Infrastructure: On-line Teaching Command Center Virtual Instructional Lab, a RAVE node RI State Crime Lab located on campus, which is a model for state crime labs URI is under contract to the RI State Computer Crimes Unit, for use of the URI computer forensics lab URI is working with the State Cybersecurity Group cooperatively seeking funding for training and cyber-preparedness in RI URI is collaborating with local businesses on research related to Trust in Sensor Networks
3 Panel : Cyber Challenges for Workforce Development Introductions and Facilitator: Lisa DiPippo, Ph.D., Associate Professor, URI Department of Computer Science and Statistics Johan Uvin, Ph.D., Deputy Assistant Secretary of Policy and Strategic Initiatives, Office of Vocational and Adult Education, U.S. Department of Education Frank Zaborowski, Director, Competition Operations, CyberPatriot Vic Fay-Wolfe, Ph.D., Professor, URI Department of Computer Science and Statistics Panel Q & A Discussion
4 Johan Uvin, Ph.D. Deputy Assistant Secretary of Policy and Strategic Initiatives Office of Vocational and Adult Education U.S. Department of Education Cyber Challenges for Workforce Development
5 Cyber Crime is Worldwide Estimated 431 million adults/year victims of cybercrime $388 billion in estimated time and money lost Not just a criminal issue but a national security issue
6 Cyber Crime A Global Threat Cyber-based Terrorism Espionage Computer Intrusions Major Cyber Fraud Exploitation of minors National Security
7 Goals Tied to Federal Government Investments/National Security Interests Mark Weatherford, DHS Undersecretary of Cybersecurity: Achieving operational excellence Strengthening partnerships between the public and private sectors, particularly in the area of information sharing Building a powerful, cutting-edge cybersecurity workforce.
8 Fighting Cyber Crime thru Partnerships Operation Ghost Click A criminal cyber ring used malware to infect 4 million computers in more than 100 countries. 500,000 infections in the U.S. alone, including computers belonging to individuals, businesses, and government agencies such as NASA. Thieves made over $14 million in illicit fees. Partnerships are critical to solutions Government Private Sector Education FBI NASA OIG Estonian Police Dutch National Police Internet Systems Consortium National Cyber-Forensics & Training Alliance Mandiant Neustar Spamhaus Team Cymru Trend Micro University of Alabama at Birmingham Georgia Tech University
9 Shortage of Qualified & Certified Personnel A 2010 Report by the CSIS Commission on Cybersecurity for the 44 th Presidency A Human Capital Crisis in Cybersecurity Noted the shortfall in trained personnel Called for expanded education & rigorous certification
10 Labor Market for Critical Occupations Information Security Analysts, Web Developers, and Computer Network Architects 2010 Median Pay Entry-Level Education Work Experience in a Related Occupation On-the-job Training $75,660 per year $36.37 per hour Bachelor s degree 1 to 5 years None Number of Jobs, ,300 Job Outlook, Employment Change, % (> average) 65,700 Key Industries for These Jobs Computer Systems Design and Related Services Management of Companies and Enterprises Wired Telecommunications Carriers Management, Scientific &Technical Consulting Services Data Processing, Hosting, and Related Services Top Employment States/Metro Areas CA,TX, VA, FL, NY, MD, MA, WA, DC Washington-Arlington-Alexandria 19,070 New York-White Plains-Wayne 13,800 Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale 9,100 Seattle-Bellevue-Everett 7,910 Dallas-Plano-Irving 7,510 Boston-Cambridge-Quincy 7,010 Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington 5,890 Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Marietta 5,850 San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara 5,710 Chicago-Joliet-Naperville 5,680
11 Creating a Pipeline of Skilled Workers Partners in Business and Industry Certified Industry Credential or Degree Cyber Security Student Federal Agencies Career Pathways (CTE/STEM)
12 Meeting the Workforce Challenge The National Security Agency (NSA) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) jointly sponsor the National Centers of Academic Excellence (CAE) Producing a growing pipeline of professionals with IT expertise in various disciplines 166 centers in 42 states URI's Digital Forensics and Cyber Security Center (2012) Creates cyber experts who help to protect national security and critical information infrastructure in both the private and public sectors
13 Start Early Ensure STEM Foundation for All Start Early (Pre-K thru Secondary) Career & Technical Education Programs (Secondary thru 2- and 4- year Post- Secondary) Labor Market Outcomes Good Jobs Security and Privacy
15 Maryland Programs of Study Computer Science and Cyber Security Foundations of Computer Science Computer Science Principles Computer Science: Advanced Placement (AP) CyberWatch: Microcomputer Operating Systems CyberWatch: Ethics and the Information Age Pathway spans K-12 and postsecondary Dual credit Industry certifications Strong partnerships: State, student organizations (competitions), Cyber-Watch, UMBC.
16 Resources for Furthering Cybersecurity Career opportunities and programs 31 emerging specialty areas Competencies and KSAs Internships & scholarships Teaching tools Hands-on experiences for students Examples of curriculum integration Competitions and cyber challenges Much more for parents, students, educators, employers and communities
17 Cybersecurity Challenges Many of the challenges and competitions are stand-alone events or supplement curriculum Need to find ways for better integration into programs/curricula
18 Virtual Cybersecurity Labs Government aims to establish a network of virtual cybersecurity laboratories that allow students and professionals alike to test out their latest cybersecurity technologies. The network of virtual cybersecurity labs will help provide easier, more coordinated access to the facilities to help test the technologies of tomorrow.
19 Returns for Students Will Be There Computer and Information Technology Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Profiles OCCUPATION ENTRY-LEVEL EDUCATION 2010 MEDIAN PAY Computer and Information Research Scientists Doctoral or professional degree $100,660 Computer Programmers Bachelor s degree $71,380 Computer Support Specialists Some college, no degree $46,260 Computer Systems Analysts Bachelor s degree $77,740 Database Administrators Bachelor s degree $73,490 Information Security Analysts, Web Developers, and Computer Network Architects Bachelor s degree $75,660 Network and Computer Systems Administrators Bachelor s degree $69,160 Software Developers Bachelor s degree $90,530
20 Closing Thoughts Start early STEM foundation is key for all Ethics are critical Cross-sector partnerships ensure relevance Bringing real-world cyber security challenges into the classroom can be improved Existing funding can be leveraged
21 Frank Zaborowski Director Competition Operations, CyberPatriot
22 Air Force Association s CyberPatriot The National High School Cyber Defense Competition Program Update May 2013
23 Cyber is everywhere in America Finance Manufacturing Logistics Transportation Retail Public Safety National defense
24 Requirement: A Cyber Workforce National cyber security can t exist without strong, indigenous cyber workforce We aren t graduating enough STEM scientists, technical grads, engineers, math majors, cyber experts We must motivate high-school youth to pursue STEM paths When compared to other nations, the math and science achievement of U.S. pupils and the rate of STEM degree attainment appear inconsistent with a nation considered the world leader in scientific innovation. In a recent international assessment of 15-year-old students, the U.S. ranked 28th in math literacy and 24th in science literacy. Moreover, the U.S. ranks 20th among all nations in the proportion of 24-year-olds who earn degrees in natural science or engineering Congressional Research Study Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education: Background, Federal Policy, and Legislative Action
25 Career Opportunities Cybersecurity jobs on average offer a premium of about $12,000 over average for all computer jobs. Average salary for cybersecurity jobs in 2012 was $100,733 versus $89,205 for all computer jobs. Demand for cybersecurity professionals over past five years grew 3.5 times faster than demand for other IT jobs and about 12 times faster than for all other jobs. Source: Computerworld, March 7, 2013 Over next year, need for 330,000 more IT security professionals worldwide. Julie Peeler, Director of ISC2 Foundation
26 What doesn t work What does Academic instruction is important, but students aren t particularly inspired by more class time, more lectures Multi-media instruction is a good tool, but they see plenty of that What excites, motivates: A well-organized, well-structured, competition
27 CyberPatriot Is 1. The national high school cyber defense competition. 2. Carefully structured to excite, educate, and motivate participants. 3. Designed to instill in all participants the importance to our nation of cyber, cyber security, and good computer security practices. 4. Designed to motivate all participants to consider STEM academic disciplines to meet our nation s needs. 5. Designed to motivate many participants to become the next generation of cyber defenders and our nation s digital workforce. We will begin a national campaign to promote cyber security awareness and digital literacy from our boardrooms to our classrooms, and to build a digital workforce for the 21st century. President Obama, May 2009
28 CyberPatriot Is Not 1. Hacker training We don t teach hacking tools or techniques, and hacking in competition is strictly forbidden. 2. A recruiting tool for the Air Force, the Department of Defense, or the Federal government This is about building a strong national foundation for cyber skills throughout our high schools. 3. Boring academic instruction CyberPatriot is designed with extremely high fun and excitement quotients.
29 History CP-I: Feb 2009 Concept Demonstration (Orlando, Florida) Eight teams (7 AFJROTC/1 CAP), all from Florida CP-III: Apr 2010 April 2011 First National Deployment All-Service Division: JROTC of all Services, CAP Open Division: Any high school 661 teams, 48 states CP-V: Apr 2012 March 2013 Most Recent Season All-Service Division: JROTC of all Services, CAP, U.S. Naval Sea Cadet Corps Open Division: Any high school 1,225 teams, 50 states, Canada CP-II: Apr 2009 Feb 2010 Pilot Deployment 200+ teams (AFJROTC/CAP) 42 States & Japan CP-IV: Apr 2011 April 2012 Second National Deployment All-Service Division: JROTC of all Services, CAP Open Division: Any high school 1,014 teams, 50 states, Canada CP-VI: Apr 2013 March 2014 Upcoming Season Open Division: Any high school All-Service Division: JROTC of all Services, CAP, U.S. Naval Sea Cadet Corps Goal: 3,000 teams 41
30 Team Structure Coach (Adult Leader): Supervises, chaperones team. Usually a teacher. Mentor (Technical Advisor)(Optional): Particularly useful when coach not cyber-savvy. Helps teach cyber concepts. AFA helps find them. Competitors: 2-5 students, 9th-12th grade, minimum age 13. National Finals Competition teams consist of six competitors (five primary and one alternate), one coach, and one chaperone.
31 Two Competition Divisions Open Division Open to any high school Public, private, parochial, magnet, home-school Highly valued CyberPatriot competition attributes: Technical/STEM education Career preparation/development Teamwork Goal-achievement All Service Division Open to any JROTC unit Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps Naval Sea Cadet Corps Open to Civil Air Patrol cadet squadrons and composite squadrons Highly valued CyberPatriot competition attributes: Teamwork Goal-achievement Leadership
32 Skills Participants Learn Leadership and teamwork Creative and analytical problem solving Non-technical cyber principles (e.g. social engineering, phishing, vishing, spear-phishing, etc.) Netiquette Cyber safety Cyber hygiene Computing and networking principles Operating systems Network topologies Foundational cyber security principles Cyber and system vulnerabilities Network topology Vulnerability remediation Technical threats
33 CP-VI Competition Timeline 2 International Exhibition Teams (If no Canadian teams qualify) Open Division (Any High School) Exhibition Round Apr Practice Round Oct Round 1 Nov 1-3 Round 2 Dec 6-8 Semi-Finals 36 Teams Jan Finalist Teams Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Recruiting/Registration April 1 September 30 On-Line Consolation Round Feb National Finals Competition March 26-29, 2014 Washington, DC Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar 14 Finalist Teams Exhibition Round Apr All Service Division (JROTC/CAP/Sea Cadets) Practice Round Oct Round 1 Nov 1-3 Round 2 Dec Teams Jan Semi-Finals 2 x Army JROTC 2 x Navy JROTC 2 x Marine Corps JROTC 2 x Air Force JROTC 2 x Civil Air Patrol 2 x US Naval Sea Cadet Corps 2 x Wild Card CP-VII Recruiting Pre-Registration Jan 1 Apr
34 What Participants See
35 What Participants See
36 CP Growth Surge in registrations: All Service Division: +26% Open Division: +113% Strong growth in female and underrepresented populations Canadian presence at National Finals Competition CyberPatriot Centers of Excellence established Enhanced focus, training, support #001: Los Angeles Unified School District #002: City of San Antonio, Texas #003: Spokane Public Schools #004: Rose State College, Oklahoma City
37 CP-V National Champions All Service Division: Marine Military Academy Harlingen,Texas Open Division: Chantilly Academy, Chantilly, Virginia
39 Our Biggest News Since Inception The CyberPatriot Middle School Program
40 Why We Are Doing This 1. We need to reach students earlier to effectively shape their education and career choices and draw them to math and science. 2. Youth need to be immunized against the growing on-line threats they face. 3. A strong middle school STEM presence will draw more high school students to high school programs.
41 Middle School Considerations Very different population Different learning processes Statutory implications Enormous opportunity 3x schools/students Numbers will be a challenge Ability to draw more females and minorities sooner Parental engagement different
42 Middle School Program Roll-Out LA-USD Lead Pilot ~12 schools COE Pilot ~ schools Development/Testing Feedback/ Revision Feedback/Revision National Recruitment Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Prime Pilot (LAUSD): Late summer 2013 ~12 schools Full Pilot: October 2013 COEs (~50-100) Full Deployment: school year
43 GCCS Timeline Facts CyberPatriot is contributing to reversing the STEM shortfall ~15,000 direct participants in 4 years ~150,000 broad contacts in 4 years CyberPatriot is placing young people on a path to educational, vocational, and professional success in an area of vital importance to our nation CyberPatriot is reaching underrepresented populations and giving them opportunities they likely would never have had Ours is a target rich environment 40,000 high schools in America
44 This isn t about AFA This isn t about the military This isn t about national defense This is about a way of life
45 Victor Fay-Wolfe, Ph.D. Professor Department of Computer Science and Statistics University of Rhode Island
46 The Open Cyber Challenge Platform * Dr. Victor Fay-Wolfe, PhD Director, URI Digital Forensics and Cyber Security Center * Supported By The U.S. National Science Foundation grants: Federal Cyber Service Scholarship For Service Program: Award Research Experience For Undergraduates: Award
47 Problem Need for realistic, up-to-date, hands-on ways to teach cyber security. Cyber challenges (team defends a real network data center from attacks) been proven effective in events and training. No low-cost option for establishing cyber challenge platform for high schools and colleges to use in their curriculum.
48 Current Cyber Challenges Some are restricted to government-only Xnet National Cyber Range Commercial packages are expensive >$100K plus maintenance Some are created from scratch each time National Collegiate Competition DEFCON Capture The Flag Challenges are typically free for all not designed to be configurable to test specific concepts
49 Solution Build cyber challenge platform Free/low-cost software Reasonable hardware requirements Architected to be configurable by organizations Open source so new configurations can be released back to the community to keep challenges current
50 OCCP Architecture Red Team attacks network to steal data and deny services Gray Team - is normal traffic and service requests that must be maintained Blue Team - defends network (patches vulnerabilities, etc) White Team officiates and scores challenge
51 Uses In Cyber Security Teaching/Training Network Defense Blue Team is students, Red Team is scripted attacks. Negative points assigned to Blue for data stolen and services denied Penetration Testing Red Team is students, Blue Team is scripted. Positive points assigned for data stolen and services denied Secure Programming Blue Team is student programmers, Red Team is scripted attacks (e.g. SQL injection). Negative points assigned for data stolen and services denied. Digital Forensics Red Team is scripted attack, Blue Team of students must find what data was stolen and who did it.
52 Virtual Target Network (VTN) VMWare vsphere package of virtual machines on a virtual network Runs on one low-end/moderate physical computer/server Virtual internal network, external (Internet) network, private white team network Current network defense scenario uses metasploitable, which is a virtual web server with vulnerabilities as part of the metasploit project.
53 Blue Team Humans in Network Defense, Secure Programming, and Forensics. Scripts in Penetration Testing In Network Defense: Blue Team gets short network administrator document showing network architecture, passwords, etc. Blue Team is given pre-training on the specific tools and components used (e.g. pfsense firewall) Blue Team is provided a network administrator virtual desktop with all required tools (and possibly an Internet connection to get other tools and documentation). E.g. WireShark Interface to Snort Intrusion Detection Putty and remote login tools Blue Team has an account on the network administrator desktop to which hints can be ed
54 Blue Team Tools Blue Team member using web interface from the Blue network administrator desktop to fix a weak firewall rule Blue Team member using web interface from the Blue network administrator desktop to examine the mail server system log
55 Red Team Attacks Network/Data Center Scripted for network defense, secure programming and forensics Human for penetration testing For current network defense scenario: Exploits come from Metasploit (open source) library Configuration file specifies attacks and timing Ruby (scripting language) scripts execute exploit attempts Red scripts report success to White scripts for scoring
56 Red Team In Demo Attacks Run Brute force login ssh rlogin Web application exploit tikiwiki php exec Exposed internal services Post Exploit Privilege escalation Backdoor accounts Stolen passwords Website defacement Erase logs
57 Gray Team Normal Service Requests Ruby scripts generate traffic What protocols, timing/density of requests, and specific VTN services are specified in configuration file Use of standard protocol libraries (e.g. http library) to generate traffic under Ruby scripting Gray scripts report to White Team successful receipt of services for scoring purposes
58 White Team Scores and Officiates Uses Nagios (open source network monitoring) to get status of services Uses Nagios messages to receive updates from the other teams In Network Defense scenario: Red team reports successful exploits (negative points) Gray team report successful services (positive points) and denied/incorrect service (negative points) Provides hint communication for White Team humans to help Blue Team humans Displays running score Provides monitoring of all parts of the system by White Team human administrators
59 Uses In Cyber Security Teaching/Training Network Defense Blue Team is students, Red Team is scripted attacks. Negative points assigned to Blue for data stolen and services denied Penetration Testing Red Team is students, Blue Team is scripted. Positive points assigned for data stolen and services denied Secure Programming Blue Team is student programmers, Red Team is scripted attacks (e.g. SQL injection). Negative points assigned for data stolen and services denied. Digital Forensics Red Team is scripted attack, Blue Team of students must find what data was stolen and who did it.
60 Status University of Rhode Island is building the OCCP under funding from the National Science Foundation Low cost/free hardware and VMware environment URI will release OCCP free and open source on web portal Description The Open Cyber Challenge Platform (OCCP) is a virtual environment for establishing cyber challenges to test cyber security concepts in teaching, training, and cyber competitions Supported By - The US National Science Foundation First network defense scenario developed and alpha tested Download, configure, teach, contribute! -Company X
61 The Open Cyber Challenge Platform * Dr. Victor Fay-Wolfe Director, URI Digital Forensics and Cyber Security Center Web: OCCP Project:
62 Panel : Cyber Challenges for Workforce Development Introductions and Facilitator: Lisa DiPippo, Ph.D., Associate Professor, URI Department of Computer Science and Statistics Johan Uvin, Ph.D., Deputy Assistant Secretary of Policy and Strategic Initiatives, Office of Vocational and Adult Education, U.S. Department of Education Frank Zaborowski, Director, Competition Operations, CyberPatriot Vic Fay-Wolfe, Ph.D., Professor, URI Department of Computer Science and Statistics Panel Q & A Discussion
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