1 The IT Workforce Women in Cybersecurity: A Study of Career Advancement Sharmistha Bagchi-Sen, H.R. Rao, and Shambhu Upadhyaya, State University of New York, Buffalo Sangmi Chai, Slippery Rock University Although cybersecurity is a critical IT area, women continue to be underrepresented among its ranks. This first study of female cybersecurity professionals examines the required skills, the existing challenges, and the key success factors for women in the field. The US Department of Homeland Security s national strategy to secure cyberspace identifies cybersecurity awareness and training as one of five national security priorities. Indeed, one of the strategy s missions is to address the shortfall in trained and certified cybersecurity personnel (www.dhs.gov/interweb/ assetlibrary/national_cyberspace_strategy.pdf). However, according to a 2006 IDC survey (www. isc2.org/uploadedfiles/industry_resources/wfs_ gov.pdf), only 13 percent of US cybersecurity professionals are women and this percentage is higher than in Europe and Asia. The US National Science Foundation s science and engineering indicator also acknowledges this gender disparity (www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind06/toc.htm). According to the IDC survey, males will continue to dominate the cybersecurity profession into the future. To ensure a qualified, diverse, and plentiful cybersecurity workforce in the years to come, it s critical that we encourage women to join the field, and that we provide advancement opportunities for those who do. To further this goal, we conducted a study focusing on a sample from among the small group of women who have reached the level of chief security officers and chief information officers. Our study included in-person and paperbased interviews and focused on three main questions: What challenges/barriers exist at different stages of women s careers in cybersecurity? What skills and knowledge do cybersecurity professionals need? How do women cybersecurity professionals view success in their profession? 46 IT Pro September/October 2009 Published by the IEEE Computer Society /09/$ IEEE
2 To our knowledge, this is the first study of women cybersecurity professionals. Our findings indicate that women require different hard and soft skills depending on their cybersecurity career stage. More importantly, women must evaluate the required skills and the existing barriers if they want to advance to executive levels. Cybersecurity Overview The US National Security Telecommunications and Information Systems Security Committee (www.cnss.gov) defines cybersecurity as the protection of information and the systems and hardware that use, store, and transmit that information. The term cybersecurity itself commonly refers to a set of activities to protect computerrelated components and information from attacks; the state of being protected from threats; and the broad field of professionals who improve and implement those activities (see com/pdf/secure/ _cyber.pdf). Cybersecurity is distinct from IT in general in several ways. First, cybersecurity s critical activity is to stop security breaches and attacks, which hamper production and disrupt the workplace. In contrast, critical IT issues aim to enhance organizational productivity. Second, compared to IT, cybersecurity work s value is difficult to quantify in terms of revenue because it s difficult to measure the value of preventing attacks and security breaches. Within organizations, the cybersecurity department is typically a cost center and thus its budget can be targeted for cuts during periods of financial downturn (http://itmanagement. earthweb.com/secu/article.php/ ). Third, the cybersecurity subfield follows a different pattern in terms of workplace demand and supply. In 2005, for example, cybersecurity received institutional investment and had a strong job market while investments and employment in general IT were stagnating or declining (www.isc2.org/ uploadedfiles/industry_resources/2005_global_ WF_Study.pdf). Fourth, as an IT subfield, cybersecurity has a substantially more specific focus than IT. Cybersecurity professionals must merge broad IT knowledge with a high-level understanding of physical security, including forensic skills; privacy management (for fields such as finance and healthcare); business contingency; and legal matters, including policy creation and enforcement (see report383.html). In addition, cybersecurity professionals must manage network security, network security engineering, data security operations, investigations, information systems security, and risk management. Women must evaluate the required skills and the existing barriers if they want to advance to executive levels. Barriers to Career Advancement The barriers to women s advancement in cybersecurity include social, institutional, and personal challenges. Examining these challenges sheds light on both the skills needed and the opportunities that exist for women to succeed in the cybersecurity field. Social/Institutional Challenges In the workplace, more women than men claim to experience institutional barriers. 1 Many blame IT s hacker culture and social expectations for isolating women from IT. The hacker culture is prevalent in the IT world, leading to exceptionally long hours, late nights, and highly focused, almost obsessive behavior. 1 This male-oriented culture raises concerns about safety and security for women working in computer laboratories alone at night and on weekends. The culture also plays an important role in producing male domination in higher education in computer science, which in turn, influences women s position within the computing field. Because male faculty members dominate computer science and IT departments in colleges and universities, female students have limited guidance and mentoring opportunities. 2 Such opportunities play an important role in facilitating entry into the job market. 3 Women also have less opportunity than men to build mentor mentee relationships, and often take a passive role in computer.org/itpro 47
3 The IT Workforce Table 1. Interview questions. 1 What motivated you to enter (a) information technology and (b) the information security field? 2 Please define success in your line of work. 3 Please describe the 3-5 most important technical and other skills that helped you reach your current position. 4 What personal and profession-specific factors facilitated your transition from (a) a student to a professional (b) a professional to an executive? 5 What barriers did you have to overcome in your transition from a student to a professional and a professional to an executive? Please list 3-5 barriers for each stage. 6 What are the 5 most important decisions you have made as a student, an IT professional, and an executive (such as changing jobs)? 7 Can you provide 5 suggestions to an early career professional to succeed in the IT and information security field? (Please specify any gender-specific differences.) 8 Where do you plan to go from here (your current position)? initiating them. Because social identity that is, individual s perceived similarity or identification with a social group 4 is an important factor in mentoring success for women, the lack of female mentors can hinder their professional advancement. 2 The Computing Research Association s mentoring project for women exemplifies both the importance of mentoring and the need for additional opportunities (www.cra.org/activities/ craw/index.php). Professional women often must balance home and career, and are responsible for a larger share of childcare and housework than male professionals. 5 Women with family obligations are typically viewed as lacking strong career devotion compared to their male colleagues. Finally, the IT workforce s old boys network contributes to the under representation of women in IT: directly or indirectly, informal networks based on masculine activities isolate women and limit their opportunities. 6 Personal Challenges Personal factors can include educational background, personality traits, interests and abilities, IT identity (such as the geek or nerd ), gender identity (such as which jobs are perceived as feminine versus masculine ), and perceived self-efficacy in this case, a woman s belief in her ability to accomplish a task. These personal characteristics are partially a product of the family/ social environment; in the cybersecurity context, a negative manifestation of them can result from experiential knowledge and the dearth of exposure to computing role models and mentors. 7 To be successful, cybersecurity professionals must use a holistic approach to link science, math, and engineering to policymaking. 8 To advance in cybersecurity, professionals must have a strong background in each of these technical fields and the ability to transform this knowledge into law and order, external regulations, and government policy. In addition, such professionals must possess technical knowledge of hardware and software systems, as well as social/ soft skills (such as interpersonal and communication skills). A gap in interest in math and science between girls and boys contributes to gender disparity in STEM disciplines (science, technology, engineering, and math). This gap arises in middle school (grades six to eight) and grows larger through high school. 9 Several factors might contribute to this interest and confidence gap. Historically, society didn t encourage girls to pursue science; in turn, women might have come to view science as a dry and lifeless subject. Second, a lack of female teachers in science and math limits access to classroom role models. 10 Often, women show lower self-efficacy in computer/it skills, 11 which can negatively influence their choice of IT as a career. 3 Method and Data Researchers studying high-level professionals typically adopt qualitative methods due to limited sample numbers and the difficulty of collecting meaningful data from busy CEOs. 12 Given that there are few high-level female cybersecurity professionals and there s no prior research on cybersecurity and women, our study adopts an exploratory methodology focusing on establishing insights. We base our data on face-to-face and paperbased interviews at the annual Executive Women s Forum on Information Security. The forum was organized by Joyce Broccaglia, CEO of Alta Associates, a firm that places women in IS/cyber- 48 IT Pro September/October 2009
4 Table 2. A profile of cybersecurity female professionals. Variables Number of Number of (occupation) respondents Variables (industry) respondents Chief officer (CIO, CSIO, chief privacy 13 Security solution and information 7 officer, chief security officer) assurance Vice president 2 Security and general consulting 7 Executive security advisor 2 computer hardware 5 Director of data protection/privacy 3 Insurance and financial institute 4 Senior analyst in computing 1 Government 3 infrastructures group Security program manager 1 Manufacturing 3 President, partner, founder, CEO 9 education 3 Information and privacy commissioner 1 Database and software 3 Chief strategist 1 Telecommunication 1 Broad occupational categories Work experience (in years) Managerial Technical Other Educational background BA or BS 7 JD 4 MS 9 MBA 3 Other (n/a) 9 PhD 1 security jobs. The forum included senior female executives, including CIOs, chief IS officers, chief privacy officers, chief risk officers, and senior security architects. We limited our sample to female cybersecurity professionals, consistent with other studies that research female professionals. 5,13 Among our survey respondents, two-thirds of them were in managerial positions. After conducting in-depth, face-to-face interviews with 10 executive-level female professionals, we developed and distributed paper-based interview questions (see Table 1) to other cybersecurity professionals. To analyze the results, we used content analysis. In total, we used 33 paper-based interview results for our analysis. This sample size is acceptable and consistent with the sample size in other qualitative studies. 12 Table 2 shows the sample characteristics. Results Based on our interview results, we identified various factors affecting the careers of cybersecurity professionals. We categorized the factors by social factors (such as work family conflict, informal networks, and social expectations for women) and institutional/structural factors (such as a lack of role models and mentors, occupational culture, institutional structure, and demographic composition). We now describe each factor as it relates to barriers for female cybersecurity professionals in their career choices, persistence, and advancement. 3 The 33 respondents saw similar social and institutional barriers for both IT and cybersecurity careers. However, the results showed that personal factors such as skills, cybersecurity knowledge, and job experience set cybersecurity professionals apart from other IT subfield job requirements (see Figure 1). Early Career Barriers We categorized social and institutional barriers early in a career into two groups: training and the work environment. First, in terms of training, we noted a lack knowledge about how to practically apply technology in business situations, and insufficient exposure to team work/collaboration. One respondent a graduate from a premier US institution said that her education was strong in theory, light on practice. Had to relearn things in a pragmatic way. Another respondent said the following about teamwork: Fitting into an computer.org/itpro 49
5 The IT Workforce IT professionals Cybersecurity professionals IS skills unrelated to security/privacy, including object-oriented design, hypermedia, audio/video programming, and image processing Knowledge of business, technology, and culture Communication skills Leadership Cybersecurityrelated work experiences, technical skills, and knowledge Several respondents commented on this transition s requirements: Ruthless prioritization saying no, meaning no, and acting on no. Don t say no; say yes and explain costs and risks. Selling (putting the spin on) versus telling it like it is. More is less communicating what needs to be said, versus what I d like to express. Figure 1. Factors affecting career advancement of women in IT versus those in cybersecurity. organization and working in a team after being an independent student was especially hard. According to the survey results, the cybersecurity-specific work environment described as be ready for 24x7 was also a barrier for female personnel. Such a work environment made it difficult to manage a work family balance for women, who are often in charge of household work and raising children. The discussion of the work environment corroborates findings of other studies of women working in male-dominated professions. Most also had to overcome stereotyping, such as getting mistaken for a secretary or support staff rather than being recognized as a professional. In addition, our results show that women face difficulty in building and belonging to a network of like-minded peers. Respondents mentioned that without such a network, it s difficulty to establish trust, to know about and understand political landmines in a corporate setting, and to confront/challenge an experienced superior who is clearly wrong or about to make a wrong decision. Career Advancement We grouped barriers to career advancement into three categories: skills, work environment, and personal. The most critical skill barrier was a lack of effective training in communication skills. Many respondents understood technical talk, but lacked the vocabulary for business. Furthermore, transitioning from technical to managerial positions entailed changing from being an aggressive problem solver to being an assertive manager. The final difficulty respondents said they faced was in marketing themselves as high-skilled workers or, as one put it, in tooting my own horn. Gender issues and the difficulty in managing work family balance clearly complicated the transition from professional to executive levels. One respondent said that she had limited herself to her current level (which was still very senior) due to my desire to have work life balance and raise my family. Another noted that, a maledominant work environment and gender bias to women in this area are obstacles to overcome as a female professional. Required Skills and Knowledge The paper-based interview results differentiated IT job skills and cybersecurity-specific skills for early and mid/advanced career levels. Table 3 outlines the skills for each group. Early on in a career, technical and analytical skills can be quantified to some extent. However, assessing other skills is subjective and the interpretation can vary from person to person. One respondent, for example, interpreted common sense as the ability to sink or swim with little guidance. Another said that having people skills meant that you could easily establish client confidence. As Table 3 shows, the skills essential to further advancement fall into 10 categories. One respondent summed up the difference between early and advanced career demands as follows: As you move up the ladder, the technical skills are overshadowed by the strong management skills needed. However, you must remain conversant technically. Success Factors We used responses to both the in-person and paper-based interviews to categorize success. 50 IT Pro September/October 2009
6 Table 3. Essential skills for early career and career advancement. General IT job skills Cybersecurity-specific skills Early career skills Technical skills (system administration, Technical skills (security packages, networks and database, networking, programming network security components, firewall management languages) skills, understanding security processes and controls) Problem-solving skills System development methodology Analytical aptitude Ability to work hard (staying up-to-date on new technology) common sense People skills (establish client confidence, be a team player, encourage loyalty) Problem-solving skills (investigation and forensic analysis to detect intruders) Support skills (24x7 availability to protect information security) communication skills (explain security in simple language and to non-it personnel) Additional skills Breadth of knowledge Understanding cybersecurity project strategies and for career Ability to learn new technology relating them to business and technical requirements advancement Continuous skill improvement establish and implement security polices communication skills Project design Understanding enterprise-level infrastructure Ability to relate business and technical requirements to project strategies Multitasking skills expertise in outsourcing Ability to satisfy clients and customers Loyalty, honesty, and ethical behavior Leadership skills Management aptitude Industry networking skills Audit and review security skills The women perceived success not just as something measured by certain metrics (such as salary), but also as reflecting recognition for both innovative and visionary functions and routine preventive tasks that were essential to information security. Among the innovative and visionary functions, respondents identified three unique tasks: developing new solutions, products, or processes to enhance operations; creating and operationalizing risk management teams; and incorporating feedback from staff to operationalize security. Respondents also provided two indicators of job recognition as a measure of success: their reputation among peers and having clients regularly seek their advice on security protection issues. The two most common preventive routine tasks, which are somewhat quantifiable, are preventing security breaches and reducing risk, and performing within budget or efficiently managing expenditures. Metrics for measuring success aren t always tangible. Among the criteria respondents considered were salary, designation/rank, opportunities to serve on boards/panels, position within the management team, recognition by company executives, the tenacity to stay in business (often mentioned by owners/managers of small- and medium-sized companies), and the ability to create industry standards. Our findings show that context is extremely important when evaluating skills and barriers. One of the main contexts is a respondent s career stage: as careers advance, women face different barriers. Early on, technical skills are important, but for cybersecurity professionals, the ability to relate technical knowledge to business computer.org/itpro 51
7 The IT Workforce goals is far more important to survival. For career advancement, critical skills include teamwork, organizational loyalty, and client relationships. In cybersecurity, hard and soft skills such as solving problems to manage risk and effectively communicating with vendors and clients complement each other. Career advancement is directly related to acquiring new technical knowledge and communication skills; that is, to knowing the four Ps of product, process, people, and policy. Among the key soft skills are the abilities to manage relationships within and outside the organization and to be assertive in decision-making without alienating clients, vendors, and peers. Career advancement is directly related to knowing the four Ps of product, process, people, and policy. As cybersecurity provides more jobs and becomes central to company operations, women s advancement to executive and managerial positions will have serious consequences for gender equity in the overall IT sector. As our results show, addressing the needs of women at the beginning of their careers starting at educational institutions is crucial to their successful entry and success in the field. Currently, the US government has responded to this issue by providing grants to attract and train women in cybersecurity at the university level. The success of such efforts in terms of furthering gender equality is a topic of future research. Also, several of the barriers we ve identified obviously apply to men as well as to women. However, it s likely that such issues would affect men and women differently, which offers another topic for future research. Acknowledgments We re deeply grateful to Joyce Broccaglia of Alta Associates for her help with this research. The US National Science Foundation funded our research through grant , but the opinions expressed here are our own. References 1. C.A. Heaton and E. McWhinney, Women in Management: The Case of MBA Graduates, Women in Management Rev., vol. 14, no. 4, 1999, pp S. Parasuraman, Y. Purohit, and V. Godshalk, Work and Family Variables, Entrepreneurial Career Success, and Psychological Well-Being, J. Vocational Behavior, vol. 48, no. 3, 1996, pp M.K. Ahuja, Women in the Information Technology Profession: A Literature Review, Synthesis and Research Agenda, Euro. J. Information Systems, vol. 11, no. 1, 2002, pp B.R. Ragins, Antecedents of Diversified Mentoring Relationships, J. Vocational Behavior, vol. 51, no. 1, 1997, pp D.J. Armstrong et al., Advancement, Voluntary Turnover, and Women in IT: A Cognitive Study of Work Family Conflict, Information & Management, vol. 44, no. 2, 2007, pp M. Gamba and B.H. Kleiner, The Old Boys Network Today, Int l J. Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 21, no. 8, 2001, pp E.M. Trauth, J.L. Quesenberry, and A.J. Morgan, Understanding the Under Representation of Women in IT: Toward A Theory of Individual Differences, Proc. SIGMIS Conf. Computer Personnel Research, ACM Press, 2004, pp A. Sharma, A Holistic Approach to Physical and IT Security, Security, Nov. 2006, w w w.securitymagazine. com/articles/feature_article/c805be157db0f010vgn VCM100000f932a8c0. 9. K. A. Frenkel, Women and Computing, Comm. ACM, vol. 33, no. 11, 1990, pp H. Dryburgh, Underrepresentation of Girls and Women in Computer Science: Classification of 1990s Research, J. Educational Computing Research, vol. 23, no. 2, 2000, pp K. Hartzel, How Self-Efficacy and Gender Issues Affect Software Adoption and Use, Comm. ACM, vol. 46, no. 9, 2003, pp D.F. Feeny, B.R. Edwards, and K.M. Simpson, Understanding the CEO/CIO Relationship, MIS Quarterly, vol. 16, no. 4, 1992, pp C. Cross and M. Linehan, Barriers to Advancing Female Careers in the High-Tech Sector: Empirical Evidence from Ireland, Women in Management Review, vol. 21, no. 1, 2006, pp Sharmistha Bagchi-Sen is a professor at the State University of New York, Buffalo, where she is director of graduate studies in the Department of Geography. Her research interests are in the high-technology industry, labor markets, organizational dynamics, and international business. Bagchi-Sen has a PhD from the University of Georgia. Contact her at 52 IT Pro September/October 2009
8 H.R. Rao is a professor of management systems and science at SUNY, Buffalo. His research interests are in management information systems, decision-support systems, e-business, emergency-response management systems, and information assurance. He is an associate editor of Decision Support Systems, Information Systems Research, and IEEE Transactions in Systems, Man and Cybernetics, and co-editor-in-chief of Information Systems Frontiers. Rao has a PhD in management information systems from Purdue University. Contact him at Shambhu J. Upadhyaya is a professor of computer science and engineering at SUNY, Buffalo, where he directs the Center of Excellence in Information Systems Assurance Research and Education. His research interests include information assurance, computer security, fault diagnosis, fault-tolerant computing, and VLSI testing. He was guest co-editor of the book Managing Information Assurance in Financial Services (IGI Global, 2007). Upadhyaya has a PhD in electrical and computer engineering from the University of Newcastle, Australia, and is a senior member of IEEE. Contact him at buffalo.edu. Sangmi Chai is an assistant professor in the College of Business, Information, and Social Sciences at Slippery Rock University. Her research interests include information security, ethical issues and information privacy in IT, and the IT and cybersecurity workforce. Chai has a PhD in management from the State University of New York, Buffalo. Contact her at computer.org/itpro 53
Would I Follow Me? An Introduction to Management Leadership in the Workplace This dynamic program clearly shows the right and wrong ways to deal with the very important human dimension of team performance.
The Leader s Edge How Best Practices Programs Can Be Used Most Effectively to Support the Growth of Women Leaders The Leaders Edge research study completed in February, 2004 demonstrates the need for companies
Room at the Top: Advancement and Equity for Women in the Business World Donna Evans According to The Double-Bind Dilemma for Women in Leadership: Damned if You Do, Doomed if You Don't, a study released
Effective Practices at Community Colleges and Four- Year Institutions for Increasing Women in Information Technology (IT) Fields Project Results and Overview Problem Statement and Project Goals Colorado
Socio-economic Empowerment of Women and IT:the practices & lessons From the Provincial Government Cho Jung Ah and Huh Jung Eun 1 Republic of Korea Korea has achieved leadership in IT with its highly advanced
Facts and Breaking Down the Barriers to Improve Gender Equity California Perkins Joint Special Populations Conference Carolyn Zachry, Ed.D. California Department of Education CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
lean in DISCUSSION GUIDE FOR ALL AUDIENCES Introduction We are grateful for what we have. What did past generations have to deal with that we don t have to deal with? What are you most grateful for? Men
Junior Achievement USA A Solution to the Workforce Skills Gap The Issue The health of a nation is largely influenced by the make-up of the current and future workforce. The characteristics of the workforce
Gender Differences In Attitudes Toward Computers And Performance In The Accounting Information Systems Class Mary Jane Lenard, Meredith College, USA Susan Wessels, Meredith College, USA Cindi Khanlarian,
Millennial Leaders: Myths and Reality Pinsight s Research Report What s the generational make-up in today s workforce? As of last year, Millennials became the largest group in the labor force, with 53.5
Center for Creative Leadership Emerging Leaders Research Survey Summary Report Executive Summary Despite what is seen on television, heard on radio, and written in newspapers, magazines, books, the differences
12 Section Two: Ohio Standards for the Teaching Profession 1 Teachers understand student learning and development and respect the diversity of the students they teach. Teachers display knowledge of how
"Gender diversity in the healthcare sector - how much progress have we made?" Nicola Hartley Director, Leadership Development Why a survey? To get insight into current views in the service Check out what
Why are there so few women in the tech industry in Oslo, Norway? I believe that these kinds of networks, such as Oda- Nettverk and others, give a united strength and community feeling, and there is obviously
Executive Summary A Racial/Ethnic Comparison of Career Attainments in Healthcare Management Summary Report 2008 Background....1 Methods.. 1 Major Findings..2 Conclusions...7 Recommendations...8 Background
Course Descriptions for the Business Management Program Upon completion of two quarters, students will earn a Professional Certificate in Business Management with a specialization in a chosen area: HR,
Adopted by state board of education of ohio October, Ohio Standards for School Counselors Ohio Standards for School Counselors ii Contents Section I: Overview of the Ohio Standards for School Counselors...
Anatomy of the Information Security Workforce JinKyu Lee Oklahoma State University Sharmistha Bagchi-Sen, H. Raghav Rao, and Shambhu J. Upadhyaya University at Buffalo SUNY Survey results indicate that
AN INVESTIGATION OF GENERAL PERCEPTIONS OF THE IT WORKFORCE David Munro, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, firstname.lastname@example.org Paul Ambrose, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, email@example.com ABSTRACT The
INTERNATIONAL GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS MBA IS AN MBA RIGHT FOR YOU? THE MBA THAT S S AHEAD OF OF THE THE REST REST Is an MBA right for me? Over the years we ve helped thousands answer this question.
Gender Equity in CTE and STEM Education in Illinois Public Schools Joel R. Malin, Asia N. Fuller Hamilton, and Donald G. Hackmann PATHWAYS RESOURCE CENTER The struggle for gender equity in the U.S. workplace
STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING NONTRADITIONAL ENROLLMENT Recruitment Strategies Issue a personal invitation to a girl to attend a nontraditional class or activity in the class. Let her know you think she has
YEP VOICES Mapping the Young Education Professional s Career Pathway YEP Voices 2015: Mapping the Young Education Professional s Career Pathway EXECUTIVE SUMMARY YEP Voices: Mapping the Young Education
PMO Director It s about you Are you curious about how individual projects further a company s strategy? Can you think at the macro level across broad groups of people and services? Do you have an eye for
Get to Know My RE Observe Collect Evidence Mentor Moments Reflect Review Respond Tailor Support Provide Provide specific feedback specific Feedback What does my RE need? Practice Habits Of Mind Share Data
University of Maryland Robert H. Smith School of Business Executive MBA Smart ready Experienced Successful just like you steady Determined confident Motivated smith Ambitious driven EMBA Our students and
20% and No More: Barriers to Women s Advancement in Higher Education Administration Dr. Terrie Smith Director of Faculty Affairs, University of South Carolina President Elect, South Carolina Women in Higher
Hiring for Retention Get It Right, Right Out of the Gate By Russell M. Klosk, SPHR, GPHR Unrelenting Hiring Pressures Global workforces, maturing workforces, baby-boomer retirement waves you don t have
Insight Driven Health Eight-Country Survey of Doctors Shows Agreement on Top Healthcare Information Technology Benefits, But a Generational Divide Exists Research finds that routine users of healthcare
Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Career Cluster Engineering Concepts Course Number 21.47100 Course Description: Engineering Concepts is the second course in the Engineering and Technology
The Association of 2014 International Salary Survey ima Accountants and Financial Professionals Younger Members Earning More in Business Understanding and Implementing Internet 2014 INTERNATIONAL E-Commerce
Accenture Risk Management Industry Report Life Sciences Risk management as a source of competitive advantage and high performance in the life sciences industry Risk management that enables long-term competitive
Summary of the Research on the role of ICT related knowledge and women s labour market situation Comparative anlysis of the situation in the five surveyed countries: Analysis of data about employment shows
Is an Executive MBA right for you? A GUIDE TO THE EXECUTIVE MBA achieve goals busy schedule support classroom contribution cost peer network the new MBA What is an Executive MBA? The Executive MBA is a
PI Worldwide Recruitment and Retention Trends Survey Q2 2015 Respondent Details Industries Variety of industries, with the majority of respondents from Business Support and Logistics, Education, Finance
Manager briefing Gender pay equity guide for managers GENDER P Y EQUITY Manager briefing Gender pay equity guide for managers Managers play a vital role in addressing pay equity as they are responsible
SESSION ID: PROF-M04 Building The Bridge Across The Great Minority Cyber Divide MODERATOR: PANELISTS: Larry Whiteside Jr. Renee Forney Lisa Foreman-Jiggetts C0-Founder & Executive VP ICMCP International
Business Education Standards FINAL Approved on January 9, 2004 Copyright 2003 Texas State Board for Educator Certification BUSINESS EDUCATION STANDARDS Standard I. Standard II. Standard III. Standard IV.
The attraction, retention and advancement of women leaders: Strategies for organizational sustainability BUSINESS CASE 1 Table of Contents Introduction Business Case 1 Barriers and Success Factors Overview
2007 Coaching Association of Canada, ISSN 1496-1539 July 2007, Vol. 7, No.3 Developing Female Leadership in the Canadian Sport System: Recommendations for High-Level Sport Organizations Few would disagree
WHERE? WILL THEY LEAD MBA STUDENT ATTITUDES 2003 ABOUT BUSINESS & SOCIETY WHERE WILL THEY LEAD? 2003 MBA Student Attitudes About Business & Society Over the last two years we have faced a series of disturbing
AMES Research Report AMES Working the Australian Way A corporate workshop for professionally qualified migrants About AMES Vision Full participation for all in a cohesive and diverse society. AMES is the
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at wwwemeraldinsightcom/1751-1879htm in professional development of healthcare managers Gulcin Gumus Department of Health Policy and
Brochure Network Consulting Engineer February, 2012 2012 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. This document is Cisco Public Information. Page 1 of 7 The Cisco Support Center in Krakow To understand
Sustained Gender Equity High School Programs Enrich Pipeline of Female Future Engineers Leslie Wilkins, Isla Yap, Sheryl Hom, Christine L. Andrews Maui Economic Development Board/Women in Technology Project
Recruitment of Male Elementary Teachers, 1 Administrator Suggestions Regarding the Recruitment of Male Elementary Teachers Julia Wilkins, Ph.D. Robert J. Gamble, Ph.D. D Youville College, Buffalo, NY Recruitment
Peer Mentoring in BME can be Extended to other Disciplines Semahat Demir Program Director Biomedical Engineering National Science Foundation Joint Biomedical Engineering Program Univ. of Memphis & Univ.
How Accelerated Nursing Students Learn A Comparative Case Study of the Facilitators, Barriers, Learning Strategies, Challenges and Obstacles of students in an Accelerated Nursing Program Background and
Preparing the Engineer of 2020 Community and Two-Year College Survey 1. How likely is it that you will transfer to a four-year college or university and enroll in a bachelor's degree program in engineering?
JOURNAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACADEMIC PUBLICATION Alphabetical order Ninth Edition February 2012 INTRODUCTION This list provides guidelines for staff on which journals they should consider submitting their
The MetLife Survey of Challenges for School Leadership Challenges for School Leadership A Survey of Teachers and Principals Conducted for: MetLife, Inc. Survey Field Dates: Teachers: October 5 November
Area: CAREER AND VOCATIONAL Level: CV.ID1.1 Resources CV.ID1.1.1 Students prepare and analyze CV.ID188.8.131.52 Students will create projects using personal financial information. community and classroom resources.
WHY GIRLS ACHIEVE BEST IN GIRLS SCHOOLS 2013 From the Alliance of Girls Schools Australasia www.agsa.org.au No individual study can give a definitive statement about whether girls receive a better education
MS in Information Systems & Assurance (MS-ISA) Stephen D. Burd Anderson School of Management & UNM Center for Information Assurance Research and Education firstname.lastname@example.org Last Revised: 9/24/2014 What is Information
Dell Global Technology Adoption Index Overview Dell prioritizes developing a deep understanding of our customers specific technology needs to provide the best possible solutions to unleash their organizations
The BSIS at UNC Connecting People, Information, and Technology Why a Bachelor of Science in Information Science (BSIS)? The School of Information and Library Science (SILS) at the University of North Carolina
Education Code section 44270.5 allows an examination alternative to the Administrative Services preparation program as long as the examination is aligned with the current Administrative Services Program
Montana State Government Leading by Example Montana State Government's Pay Audit Executive Summary, Report and 2014 Contents Introduction... 3 Pay Audit Overview... 3 Agency Distribution... 3 Figure 1...
National Society leadership and management development (supporting National Society development) Executive summary This is one of four sub-plans of the programme Supporting National Society development.
Business Analyst to Business Architect To Infinity... and Beyond! White Paper March 2010 Authors: Jack Hilty Cathy Brunsting Editor: Janice Koerber Copyright 2010 SentientPoint, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Talent management consulting is the giving of professional, expert advice to executives who are put in charge of handling, directing, or managing those who have a capacity for achievement or success. THE
MUSE 2011, Page 1 Proposal for Mentored Undergraduate Summer Experience (MUSE) Summer 2011 Faculty Mentor: Name: Jason J. Dahling Title: Assistant Professor Years at TCNJ: 4 Department: Psychology Phone:
Competency Framework FROM THE CEO When I founded ICE in 2000, there were nine of us working around the clock and practically living together. We laughed together, struggled together, learned together and
White Paper: Hiring and Retention Practices in North Carolina Criminal Justice Agencies Prepared by: The North Carolina Criminal Justice Education and Training Standards Commission, Planning and Standards
Women enter the workforce with aspirations equal to their male coworkers, but few women actually reach the top. What do the best female leaders do to buck this trend? Lessons from female leaders in professional
Business Analyst - IT It s about you Are you a logical thinker who is up-to-date with the latest trends in information technology and their application to business? Can you translate tech-speak into plain
THE SKILLS GAP IN ENTRY-LEVEL MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE The Problem, Its Consequences, and Promising Interventions THE SKILLS GAP IN ENTRY-LEVEL MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE The Problem, Its
MPA Program Assessment Report Summer 2015 Introduction: This was the second full year for doing learning outcomes assessment based on the 2009 NASPAA accreditation standards and conducting our exit interviews
Examining Science and Engineering Students Attitudes Toward Computer Science Abstract Concerns have been raised with respect to the recent decline in enrollment in undergraduate computer science majors.
Managing educational change in the ICT discipline at the tertiary education level Project authors Project directors University partners Tony Koppi and Fazel Naghdy University of Wollongong Joe Chicharo
Career Capital 2014 Global Research Results International Women s Day 2014 1 Research Objectives Accenture conducted its global research study, Career Capital for release on International Women s Day to
NASCIO 2014 State IT Recognition Awards Project: California Cybersecurity Task Force Category: Cybersecurity Initiatives Project Initiation Date: September, 2012 Project Completion Date: May 2013 Carlos
Business and Management Business Administration Certificate Program extension.uci.edu/busadmin University of California, Irvine Extension s professional certificate and specialized studies Improve Your
STUDENT LEARNING ASSESSMENT REPORT SUBMITTED BY: JASON DOLL, PHD, CHAIR, DEPARTMENT OF FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY DATE: 10/03/14 BRIEFLY DESCRIBE WHERE AND HOW ARE DATA AND DOCUMENTS USED TO GENERATE THIS REPORT
Women are GREAT Leaders, Investors & Entrepreneurs So why aren t there more of all three. Judith Giordan Managing Director, Steel City Re Senior Advisor, NCIIA Vice President, Visions in Education, Inc.
Position Title: Business Development Manager (BDM) Department: Business Development Reports to: Vice President, Business Development Overall Responsibilities The Business Development Manager is responsible
GaPSC Teacher Leadership Program Standards Purpose: Georgia has identified a need to improve P-12 students academic performance as measured by various assessments. One method to ensure improved student
ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH AND SAFETY PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT LEVELING GUIDE Levels Job Codes Scope of Position Top Environmental Affairs Executive (Corporate) 1000 The most senior Environmental, Health and Safety
IACBE Advancing Academic Quality in Business Education Worldwide Example of an MBA Student Exit Survey International Assembly for Collegiate Business Education 11374 Strang Line Road Lenexa, Kansas 66215,
GENERAL POSITION PAPER STRENGTHENING PRE-COLLEGE SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING & MATHEMATICS (STEM) EDUCATION IN THE U.S. PS14-23 SEPTEMBER 2014 GOVERNMENT RELATIONS 1828 L STREET NW, SUITE 810, WASHINGTON
Eileen Beaudry HR Program Manager City of San Jose, CA 200 East Santa Clara San Jose, CA 95113 P: 408-975-1491 Email: Eileen.email@example.com URL: www.sanjoseca.gov City of San Jose Art and Practice
Women in STEM and Cyber Security Fields Dr. Jane LeClair Chief Operating Officer National Cybersecurity Institute at Excelsior College, D.C, Dr. Lifang Shih Associate Dean Excelsior College, Albany, NY.
Massachusetts Women s Leadership Index March 2015 Release Developed and presented by: Reflections from... President Susan West Engelkemeyer, Nichols College We are pleased to release the inaugural Massachusetts