1 Chapter 8 Present Value Mathematics for Real Estate
2 Real estate deals almost always involve cash amounts at different points in time. Examples: Buy a property now, sell it later. Sign a lease now, pay rents monthly over time. Take out a mortgage now, pay it back over time. Buy land now for development, pay for construction and sell the building later.
3 Present Value Mathematics In order to be successful in a real estate career (not to mention to succeed in subsequent real estate courses), you need to know how to relate cash amounts across time. In other words, you need to know how to do Present Value Mathematics, On a business calculator, and On a computer (e.g., using a spreadsheet like Excel ).
4 Why is $1 today not equivalent to $1 a year from now? Dollars at different points in time are related by the opportunity cost of capital (OCC), expressed as a rate of return. We will typically label this rate, r.
5 Example If r 10%, then $1 a year from now is worth: today. $ $1 1.1 $0.909
6 Two major types of PV math problems: Single-sum problems Multi-period cash flow problems Correspond to two equations hardwired into your business calculator... PMT PMT PMT FV 0 - PV... 2 N N (1r) (1r ) (1r ) (1r ) NPV CF 0 CF1 (1 IRR) CF2 (1IRR ) 2... CFT (1IRR ) T ( r i / m )
7 8.1 Single-sum formulas Your tenant owes $10,000 in rent. He wants to postpone payment for a year. You are willing, but only for a 15% return. How much will your tenant have to pay? FV ( 1.15 ) $10,000 $11,500 This is the basic building block.
8 8.1 Single-sum formulas Single-period discounting & growing FV (1 r) PV PV FV 1 r PMT PMT PMT FV 0 - PV... 2 N N (1r) (1r ) (1r ) (1r ) With PMT 0, N 1.
9 8.1.2 Single-sums over multiple periods. PV FV 1 ( r) N FV (1 r ) N PV PMT PMT PMT FV 0 - PV... 2 N N (1r) (1r ) (1r ) (1r ) With PMT 0
10 Single-sums over multiple periods You re interested in a property you think is worth $1,000,000. You think you can sell this property in five years for that same amount. Suppose you re wrong, and you can only really expect to sell it for $900,000 at that time. How much would this reduce what you re willing to pay for the property today, if 15% is the required return?
11 Single-sums over multiple periods Answer: $1,000,000 $497,177, $900, ( 1.15) ( 1.15) $447,459 $497,177 - $447,459 $49,718, down to $950,282. On calculator: N I/YR PV PMT FV 5 15 CPT Or Or equivalently: 5 15 CPT
12 Solving for the return or the time it takes to grow a value You can buy a piece of land for $1,000,000. You think you will be able to sell it to a developer in about 5 years for twice that amount. You think an investment with this much risk requires an expected return of 20% per year. Should you buy the land?
13 Solving for the return or the time it takes to grow a value $1,000,000(1 r) 5 $2,000,000 What s r? r FV PV 1/N - 1 $2,000,000 $1,000,000 1/ % Answer: No. N I/YR PV PMT FV 5 CPT
14 Solving for the return or the time it takes to grow a value Your investment policy is to try to buy vacant land when you think its ultimate value to a developer will be about twice what you have to pay for the land. You want to get a 20% return on average for this type of investment. You need to wait to purchase such land parcels until you are within how many years of the time the land will be ripe for development?
15 Solving for the return or the time it takes to grow a value N 3.8 years. LN(FV) - LN(PV) LN(1 r) LN( 2 ) - LN( 1) LN( 1.20 ) 3.8 N I/YR PV PMT FV CPT
16 Simple & Compound Interest
17 15% interest for two years, compounded: For every $1 you start with, you end up with: (1.15)(1.15) (1.15) 2 $ The 15% is called compound interest. (In this case, the compounding interval is annual).
18 Simple & Compound Interest (1.15)(1.15) (1.15) 2 $ Note: you ended up with 32.25% more than you started with % / 2 yrs %. So the same result could be expressed as: % simple annual interest for two years (no compounding). or 32.25% simple biennial interest.
19 Simple & Compound Interest Suppose you get 1% simple interest each month. This is referred to as a 12% nominal annual rate, or equivalent nominal annual rate (ENAR). We will use the label i (or NOM ) to refer to the ENAR: Nominal Annual Rate (Simple Rate Per Period)*(Periods/Yr) i (r)(m) NOM% 12% (1%)(12 mo/yr)
20 Simple & Compound Interest Suppose the 1% simple monthly interest is compounded at the end of every month. Then in 1 year (12 months) this 12% nominal annual rate gives you: (1.01) 12 $ For every $1 you started out with at the beginning of the year % nominal rate % effective annual rate Effective Annual Rate (EAR) is aka EAY ( effective ann. yield ).
21 The relationship between ENAR and EAR: EAR (1i/m ) m - 1 "EFF%" i m [(1 EAR ) 1/m - 1] ENAR " NOM %" Rates are usually quoted in ENAR (nominal) terms.
22 Example: What is the EAR of a 12% mortgage? EAR You don t have to memorize the formulas if you know how to use a business calculator: HP-10B (1 0.12/ 12 ) ( 1.01 ) % TI-BAII PLUS CLEAR ALL I Conv 12 P/YR NOM 12 ENTER 12 I/YR C/Y 12 ENTER EFF% gives CPT EFF Effective Rate EFF EAR Nominal Rate NOM ENAR
23 Bond-Equivalent & Mortgage- Equivalent Rates Traditionally, bonds pay interest semiannually (twice per year). Bond interest rates (and yields) are quoted in nominal annual terms (ENAR) assuming semi-annual compounding (m 2). This is often called bond-equivalent yield (BEY), or coupon-equivalent yield (CEY). Thus: EAR (1 BEY/ 2 ) 2-1
24 What is the EAR of an 8% bond? Fast!
25 Bond-Equivalent & Mortgage- Equivalent Rates Traditionally, mortgages pay interest monthly. Mortgage interest rates (and yields) are quoted in nominal annual terms (ENAR) assuming monthly compounding (m 12). This is often called mortgage-equivalent yield (MEY) Thus: EAR (1 MEY/ 12 ) 12-1
26 What is the EAR of an 8% mortgage? Fast!
27 Example: Yields in the bond market are currently 8% (CEY). What interest rate must you charge on a mortgage (MEY) if you want to sell it at par value in the bond market?
28 7.8698%. Answer: EAR (1 BEY/ 2 ) 2-1 ( 1.04 ) MEY 12 [(1 EAR ) 1/ 12-1] 12 [( / 12 ) - 1] HP-10B TI-BAII PLUS CLEAR ALL I Conv 2 P/YR NOM 8 ENTER 8 I/YR C/Y 2 ENTER EFF% gives 8.16 CPT EFF P/YR C/Y 12 ENTER NOM% gives CPT NOM
29 Example: You have just issued a mortgage with a 10% contract interest rate (MEY). How high can yields be in the bond market (BEY) such that you can still sell this mortgage at par value in the bond market?
30 10.21%. EAR BEY 2 (1 MEY/ 12 [(1 EAR ) ) 1/ 2 Answer: 12-1 ( ) - 1] 12 2 [( ) - 1 1/ 2-1] HP-10B TI-BAII PLUS CLEAR ALL I Conv 12 P/YR NOM 10 ENTER 10 I/YR C/Y 12 ENTER EFF% gives CPT EFF P/YR C/Y 2 ENTER NOM% gives CPT NOM 10.21
31 8.2 Multi-period problems Real estate typically lasts many years. And it pays cash each year. Mortgages last many years and have monthly payments. Leases can last many years, with monthly payments. We need to know how to do PV math with multiperiod cash flows. In general, The multi-period problem is just the sum of a bunch of individual single-sum problems:
32 Example: PV of $10,000 in 2 10%, and $12,000 in 3 years at 11% is: PV $10,000 $12,000 $8, $8, ( ) ( ) $17,038.76
33 Special Special Cases of the Multi-Period PV Problem Level Annuity Growth Annuity Level Perpetuity Constant-Growth Perpetuity
34 Special Special Cases of the Multi-Period PV Problem These special cases of the multi-period PV problem are particularly interesting to consider. They equate to (or approximate to) many practical situations: Leases Mortgages Apartment properties And they have simple multi-period PV formulas. This enables general relationships to be observed in the PV formulas.
35 Example: The relationship between the total return, the current cash yield, and the cash flow growth rate: Cap Rate Return Rate - Growth Rate.
36 8.2.2 The Level Annuity in Arrears The PV of a regular series of cash flows, all of the same amount, occurring at the end of each period, the first cash flow to occur at the end of the first period (one period from the present). PV CF 1 (1 r) CF (1 r 2 ) 2... CF (1 r N ) N where CF 1 CF 2... CF N. Label the constant periodic cash flow amount: PMT : PV PMT (1 r) PMT (1 r ) 2... PMT (1 r ) N
37 On your calculator... PMT PMT PMT FV 0 - PV... 2 N N (1r) (1r ) (1r ) (1r ) With FV 0.
38 Example: What is the present value of a 20-year mortgage that has monthly payments of $1000 each, and an interest rate of 12%/year? PV $1000 $1000 $1000 Λ $ $90,819 (Note: 12% nominal rate is 1% per month simple interest.)
39 This can be found either by applying the Annuity Formula PV PMT (1 r) PMT (1 r ) 2... PMT (1 r ) N PMT 1-1/(1r r ) N 1-1/( 1.01 $ ) 240 $90,819 Or by using your calculator... N I/YR PV PMT FV CPT
40 Answer (cont d): In a computer spreadsheet like Excel, there are functions you can use to solve for these variables. The Excel functions equivalent to the HP-10B calculator registers are: N I/YR PV PMT FV NPER() RATE() PV() PMT() FV() However, the computer does not convert automatically from nominal annual terms to simple periodic terms. For example, a 30-year, 12% interest rate mortgage with monthly payments in Excel is a 360-month, 1% interest mortgage.
41 The Excel formula below: PMT(.01,240,-90819) For example: will return the value $ in the cell in which the formula is entered. You can use the Excel key on the toolbar to get help with financial functions. f x
42 8.2.3 The Level Annuity in Advance The PV of a regular series of cash flows, all of the same amount, occurring at the beginning of each period, the first cash flow to occur at the present time.
43 The Level Annuity in Advance PV just equals (1r) times the PV of the annuity in arrears: PV PMT PMT (1 r)... PMT N 1 (1 r ) (1 r) PMT (1 r) PMT (1 r ) 2... PMT (1 r ) N 1-1/(1r (1 r) PMT r 1-1/(1r PMT (1 r) r ) ) N N PMT just equals 1/(1r) times PMT in arrears, for same PV
44 Example: What is the present value of a 20-year lease that has monthly rental payments of $1000 each, due at the beginning of each month, where 12%/year is the appropriate cost of capital (OCC) for discounting the rental payments back to present value?
45 Answer: PV $1000 $ $ Λ $ $1000 (1.01) 1-1/( ) 240 $91, *$90,819 (Note: This is slightly more than the $90,819 PV of the annuity in arrears.) (Remember: r i/m, e.g.: 1% 12%/yr. 12mo/yr.)
46 Answer (cont d): In your calculator, set: HP-10B: Set BEG/END key to BEGIN TI-BA II: Set 2 nd BGN, 2 nd SET, ENTER (Note: This setting will remain until you change it back.) Then, as with the level annuity in advance: N I/YR PV PMT FV CPT
47 8.2.9 Solving the Annuity for Future Value. Suppose we want to know how much a level stream of cash flows (in arrears) will grow to, at a constant interest rate, over a specified number of periods.
48 The general formula is: FV (1 r) N PV (1 r) N PMT (1 r) PMT (1 r ) 2... PMT (1 r ) N (1 r) N 1 1/(1 PMT r r) N
49 Example: What is the future value after 20 years of $1000 deposited at the end of every month, at 12% annual interest compounded monthly? (1.01) $1000 (1.01) $1000 Κ $1000 $989,255 N I/YR PV PMT FV CPT
50 Solving for the Annuity Periodic Payment Amount. What is the regular periodic payment amount (in arrears) that will provide a given present value, discounted at a stated interest rate, if the payment is received for a stated number of periods? Just invert the annuity formula to solve for the PMT amount: PMT PV r 1-1/(1r ) N
51 Example: A borrower wants a 30-year, monthlypayment, fixed-interest mortgage for $80,000. As a lender, you want to earn a return of 1 percent per month, compounded monthly. Then you would agree to provide the $80,000 up front (i.e., at the present time), in return for the commitment by the borrower to make 360 equal monthly payments in the amount of?
52 Answer: PMT 0.01 $ 80, /1.01 $ $ Or, on the calculator (with P/Yr 12): N I/YR PV PMT FV CPT 0
53 Solving for the Number of Periodic Payments How many regular periodic payments (in arrears) will it take to provide a given return to a given present value amount? The general formula is: N - LN 1- r LN PV PMT ( 1r) where LN is the natural logarithm. (But who cares!)
54 Example: How long will it take you to pay off a $50,000 loan at 10% annual interest (compounded monthly), if you can only afford to pay $500 per month?
55 Answer: LN 1- LN (0.10 /12) 500 ( 1 (0.10 /12)) Or solve it on the calculator: N I/YR PV PMT FV CPT
56 Another example: Solving for the number of periods required to obtain a future value. The general formula is: N LN 1 LN r FV PMT ( 1r)
57 Example: You expect to have to make a capital improvement expenditure of $100,000 on a property in five years. How many months before that time must you begin setting aside cash to have available for that expenditure, if you can only set aside $2000 per month, at an interest rate of 6%, if your deposits are at the ends of each month? Aka: Sinking Fund
58 Answer: 45 LN 1 LN (0.005) 2000 ( 1.005) 45 months Or solve it on the calculator: N I/YR PV PMT FV CPT
59 8.2.4 The Growth Annuity in Arrears The PV of a finite series of cash flows, each one a constant multiple of the preceding cash flow, all occurring at the ends of the periods. Each cash flow is the same multiple of the previous cash flow.
60 Example: $100.00, $105.00, $110.25, $115.76,... $105 (1.05)$100, $ (1.05)$105, etc Continuing for a finite number of periods.
61 Example: A 10-year lease with annual rental payments to be made at the end of each year, with the rent increasing by 2% each year. If the first year rent is $20/SF and the OCC is 10%, what is the PV of the lease?
63 PV CF (1 r) How do we know? The general formula is: 2 ( 1 g) CF ( 1 g) CF ( 1 g) Λ 2 3 (1 r) (1 r) N 1 CF N (1 r) 1 1 CF 1 (( 1 g) ( 1 r) ) r g N So in the specific case of our example: PV ( 1.02 /1.10) 1 $ $20(6.6253) $
64 Answer (cont d): Unfortunately, the typical business calculator is not set up to do this type of problem automatically. You either have to memorize the formula (or steps on your calculator), as below: 1.02 / y x / x
65 Answer (cont d): Answer (cont d): Or you can trick the calculator into solving this problem using its mortgage math keys, by transforming the level annuity problem: 1. Redefine the interest rate to be: (1r)/(1g)-1 (e.g., 1.1/ %. 2. Solve the level annuity in advance problem with this fake interest rate (e.g., BEG/END, N10, I/YR7.8431, PMT20, FV0, CPT PV ). 3. Then divide the answer by 1r (e.g., / ). (Note: you set the calculator for CFs in advance (BEG or BGN), but that s just a trick. The actual problem you are solving is for CFs in arrears.)
66 A more complicated example (like Study Qu.#49): A landlord has offered a tenant a 10-year lease with annual net rental payments of $30/SF in arrears. The appropriate discount rate is 8%. The tenant has asked the landlord to come back with another proposal, with a lower initial rent in return for annual stepups of 3% per year. What should the landlord s proposed starting rent be?
67 Answer First solve the level-annuity PV problem: 10 1 ( 1/1.08) PV $ $ M STO 1 Then plug this answer into the growth-annuity formula and invert to solve for CF 1 : CF $ 10 ( 1.03/1.08) $ / y x /- ( ) /x X RM (or RCL 1) 26.66
68 Or, using the calculator trick method, the steps are: HP-10B TI-BA II CLEAR ALL, BEG/ENDEND BGN SET (END) ENTER QUIT 1 P/YR P/Y 1 ENTER QUIT 10 N 10 N 8 I/Y 8 I/Y 30 PMT 30 PMT PV gives CPT PV / X / X I/Y I/Y BEG/END BEG BGN SET (BGN) ENTER QUIT PMT gives CPT PMT X X
69 Answer (cont d): Tenant gets an initial rent of $26.66/SF instead of $30.00/SF, but landlord gets same PV from lease (because rents grow).
70 8.2.5 The Constant-Growth Perpetuity (in arrears). The PV of an infinite series of cash flows, each one a constant multiple of the preceding cash flow, all occurring at the ends of the periods. Like the Growth annuity only it s a perpetuity instead of an annuity: an infinite stream of cash flows.
71 The general formula is: PV CF1 (1 r) ( 1 g) CF ( 1 g) (1 r) CF 3 (1 r) 1 Λ CF1 r g The entire infinite collapses to this simple ratio!
72 This is a very useful formula, because: 1) It s simple. 2) It approximates a commercial building. 3) Especially if the building doesn t have long-term leases, and operates in a rental market that is not too cyclical (e.g., like most apartment buildings).
73 The perpetuity formula & the cap rate You ve already seen the perpetuity formula. It s the cap rate formula: BldgVal caprate PV NOI PV CF1 r g r g NOI caprate ( r RP) f g Tbill Rate Risk Pr emium GrowthRate (Remember the three determinants of the cap rate )
74 Example: If the the required expected total return on the investment in the property (the OCC) is 10%, And the average annual growth rate in the rents and property value is 2%, Then the cap rate is approximately 8% ( 10% - 2%). (Or vice versa: If the cap rate is 8% and the average growth rate in rents and property values is 2%, then the expected total return on the investment in the property is 10%.)
75 Suppose Tbill yield is 6%, risk premium is 4%, and cap rate is 10%, then what is realistic LR gowth rate expectation for property net cash flows?... Cap r g g r cap g (6%4%) 10% 0%.
76 Example: An apartment building has 100 identical units that rent at $1000/month with building operating expenses paid by the landlord equal to $500/mo. On average, there is 5% vacancy. You expect both rents and operating expenses to grow at a rate of 3% per year (actually: 0.25% per month). The opportunity cost of capital is 12% per year (actually: 1% per month). How much is the property worth?
78 2) Calculate PV of Constant-Growth Perpetuity: PV $ ( ) $47500 ( ) $ Λ CF1 r g $ $ $6,333,333 Cap Rate / mo. X 12 9%
79 Combining the Single Lump Sum and the Level Annuity Stream: Classical Mortgage Mathematics The typical calculations associated with mortgage mathematics can be solved as a combination of the single-sum and the level-annuity (in arrears) problems we have previously considered.
80 The classical mortgage is a level annuity in arrears with: Loan Principal PV amount Regular Loan Payments PMT amount
81 Outstanding Loan Balance (OLB) can be found in either of two (mathematically equivalent) ways: 1) OLB PV with N as the number of remaining (unpaid) regular payments. 2) OLB FV with N as the number of already paid regular payments.
82 OLB In other words, if Tm is the original number of payments in a fully-amortizing loan, and q is the number of payments that have already been made on the loan, then the OLB is given by the following general formula: OLB PMT i m i m (Tm-q)
83 Example: Recall the $80,000, 30-year, 12% mortgage with monthly payements that we previously examined (recall that PMT $ per month). What is its OLB after 10 years of payments?
84 Answer: /(1.01 ) $74,734.
85 This can be computed in either of two ways on your calculator: 1) Solve for PV with Nnumber of remaining payments: N I/YR PV PMT FV CPT ) Solve for FV with Nnumber of payments already made: N I/YR PV PMT FV CPT
86 Another example: Balloon Mortgages Some mortgages are not fully amortizing, that is, they are required to be paid back before their OLB is fully paid down by the regular monthly payments. The balloon payment (due at the maturity of the loan, when the borrower is required to pay off the loan), simply equals the OLB on the loan at that point in time.
87 Example: What is the balloon payment owed at the end of an $80,000, 12%, monthly payment mortgage if the maturity of the loan is 10 years and the amortization rate on the loan is 30 years?
88 Answer: $74,734 (sounds familiar?) Found either as: Or: N I/YR PV 1-1/(1.01 ).01 PMT CPT N I/YR PV PMT FV FV CPT
89 Interest-only mortgages: Some mortgages don t amortize at all. That is, they don t pay down their principal balance at all during the regular monthly payments. The OLB remains equal to the initial principal amount borrowed, throughout the life of the loan. This is called an interest-only loan. You can represent interest-only loans in your calculator by setting the FV amount equal to the PV amount (only with an opposite sign), representing the contractual principal on the loan.
90 On your calculator... PMT PMT PMT FV 0 - PV... 2 N N (1r) (1r ) (1r ) (1r ) With FV -PV.
91 Example: What is the monthly payment on an $80,000, 12%, 10-year interest-only mortgage?
92 Answer: $800 $80000 (0.12/12) $80000 (0.01) $ Or compute it on your calculator as: N I/YR PV PMT FV CPT
93 How the Present Value Keys on a Business Calculator Work There are two types of PV Math keys on a typical business calculator:
94 1) The Mortgage Math keys. They are useful for problems that involve a level annuity and/or at most one additional single-sum amount at the end of the annuity (e.g., the typical mortgage, even if it is not fully-amortizing). These keys solve the following equation: PV PMT (1r) PMT PMT... 2 N (1r ) (1r ) FV (1r ) Normally: PV Loan initial principal or OLB. FV Loan OLB or balloon. PMT Regular monthly payment. r i/m Periodic simple interest (per month). N Number of payment periods (remaining, or already paid, depending on how you re using the keys). N
95 Note that this equation is equivalent to: PMT PMT PMT FV 0 - PV... 2 N N (1r) (1r ) (1r ) (1r ) This makes it clearer why the PV amount is usually opposite sign to the PMT and FV amounts. (If you are solving for FV then FV may be of opposite sign to PMT, and same sign as PV.)
96 The second type of PV Math keys on your calculator are 2) The DCF keys. They are useful for problems that are not a simple or single level annuity. The DCF keys can take an arbitrary stream of future cash flows, and convert them to present value or compute the Internal Rate of Return ( IRR ) of the cash flow stream (including an up-front negative cash flow representing the initial investment). The DCF keys solve the following equation: NPV CF 0 CF 1 (1 IRR) CF 2 (1 IRR ) 2... CF T (1 IRR ) T
97 The DCF Keys NPV CF 0 CF 1 (1 IRR) CF 2 (1 IRR ) 2... CF T (1 IRR ) T where the IRR is the discount rate that implies NPV0. Typically, CF 0 is the up-front investment and therefore is of opposite sign to most of the subsequent cash flows (CF 1, CF 2, ). Each cash flow can be a different amount.
98 The DCF Keys NPV CF 0 CF 1 (1 IRR) CF 2 (1 IRR ) 2... CF T (1 IRR ) T In general, the IRR is the single rate of return (per period) that causes all the cash flows (including the up-front investment) to discount such that NPV0.
99 NPV CF 0 The DCF Keys CF 1 (1 IRR) CF 2 (1 IRR ) CF T (1 IRR ) By setting CF 0 0, and entering the opportunity cost of capital (the discount rate, or required going-in IRR ) as the interest rate ( I/YR in the HP-10B, or I in the NPV program of the TI-BA2), the DCF keys will solve the above equation (with IRR equal to the input interest rate) for the present value of the future cash flow stream. Note: Make sure that the last cash flow amount, CF T, includes the reversion (or asset terminal value) amount T
100 Example (like Ch.8 Study Qu.#53): Suppose a certain property is expected to produce net operating cash flows annually as follows, at the end of each of the next five years: $15,000, $16,000, $20,000, $22,000, and $17,000. In addition, at the end of the fifth year the property we will assume the property will be (or could be) sold for $200,000. What is the net present value (NPV) of a deal in which you would pay $180,000 for the property today assuming the required expected return or discount rate is 11% per year?
102 On the calculator this is solved using the DCF keys as: HP-10B TI-BAII CLEAR ALL 2 nd P/Y 1 ENTER 2 nd QUIT 1 P/YR CF 11 I/YR 2 nd CLR_Work /- CFj CF /- ENTER CFj C ENTER CFj F CFj C ENTER CFj F CFj C ENTER NPV gives 4394 F03 1 C ENTER F04 1 C ENTER F05 1 NPV I 11 ENTER NPV CPT 4394
103 Example (cont.): If you could get the previous property for only $170,000, what would be the expected IRR of your investment?
104 ( ) 13.15%: Answer: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) HP-10B CLEAR ALL 1 P/YR CF TI-BAII 2 nd P/Y 1 ENTER 2 nd QUIT /- 2 nd CLR_Work (if you want) CFj CF /- ENTER CFj C ENTER CFj F CFj C ENTER CFj F02 1 IRR gives C ENTER F03 1 C ENTER F04 1 C ENTER F05 1 IRR CPT 13.15
105 Example of Geometric Series long- term leased space PV problem (Ch.8 Study Qu.#55): A simple model of an arch-typical commercial building space is as a perpetual series of long-term fixed-rent leases. Once signed, the lease CFs are relatively low risk, hence a low intra-lease discount rate is appropriate. But prior to lease signings, the future rent is more risky, hence, a higher inter-lease discount rate is appropriate. Rent may be expected to increase between leases, but not within
106 Example (cont.): Suppose expected first lease rent is $20/SF/yr net, 100,000 SF building, first lease will be signed in one year with rent paid in advance annually. Leases will be 5 years, fixed rent, with expected rent growth between leases 2%/yr, no vacancy in between leases. Suppose intra-lease (low risk) discount rate is 8%/yr, inter-lease (high risk) discount rate is 12%. What is the PV of this space?
107 Answer: The rent in the initial lease will be 20* $2,000,000 per year. The first lease when it is signed will have a PV of $8,624,254. This is a level annuity in advance: 2(1.08/0.08)(1 - (1/1.08) 5 ) The PV today of that first lease is / 1.12 $7,700,227. The rent on each subsequent lease will be higher than the rent on the previous lease, but it s PV will be discounted by 5 more years at 12%. This is a constant-growth perpetuity with a common ratio of: (1.02/1.12) 5. Thus, apply the perpetuity formula of the geometric series (GM p.162): PV a/(1-d) / (1 - (1.02/1.12) 5 ) The space is worth $20,615,582 today.
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Chapter 6 The Time Value of Money: Annuities and Other Topics Chapter 6 Contents Learning Objectives 1. Distinguish between an ordinary annuity and an annuity due, and calculate present and future values
Chapter 6 Learning Objectives Principles Used in This Chapter 1. Annuities 2. Perpetuities 3. Complex Cash Flow Streams 1. Distinguish between an ordinary annuity and an annuity due, and calculate present
Reading 5 The Time Value of Money Money has a time value because a unit of money received today is worth more than a unit of money to be received tomorrow. Interest rates can be interpreted in three ways.
1 Simple interest 2 5. Time value of money With simple interest, the amount earned each period is always the same: i = rp o We will review some tools for discounting cash flows. where i = interest earned
Chapter 4 Discounted Cash Flow Valuation 4B-1 Appendix 4B Using Financial Calculators This appendix is intended to help you use your Hewlett-Packard or Texas Instruments BA II Plus financial calculator
This tutorial has been developed to be used in conjunction with Brigham and Houston s Fundamentals of Financial Management 11 th edition and Fundamentals of Financial Management: Concise Edition. In particular,
Texas Instruments BAII PLUS Calculator Tutorial to accompany Cyr, et. al. Contemporary Financial Management, 1 st Canadian Edition, 2004 Version #6, May 5, 2004 By William F. Rentz and Alfred L. Kahl Introduction
Chapter 6 Key Concepts and Skills Be able to compute: the future value of multiple cash flows the present value of multiple cash flows the future and present value of annuities Discounted Cash Flow Valuation
1. Future Value of Multiple Cash Flows 2. Future Value of an Annuity 3. Present Value of an Annuity 4. Perpetuities 5. Other Compounding Periods 6. Effective Annual Rates (EAR) 7. Amortized Loans Chapter
Quick Quiz: Part 2 You know the payment amount for a loan and you want to know how much was borrowed. Do you compute a present value or a future value? You want to receive $5,000 per month in retirement.
Chapter 4 The Time Value of Money 1 Learning Outcomes Chapter 4 Identify various types of cash flow patterns Compute the future value and the present value of different cash flow streams Compute the return
Chapter 5 & 6 Financial Calculator and Examples Konan Chan Financial Management, Spring 2016 Five Factors in TVM Present value: PV Future value: FV Discount rate: r Payment: PMT Number of periods: N Get
Time Value of Money (Text reference: Chapter 4) Topics Background One period case - single cash flow Multi-period case - single cash flow Multi-period case - compounding periods Multi-period case - multiple
Using Financial And Business Calculators Daniel J. Borgia August 2000 Table of Contents I. Texas Instruments BA-35 SOLAR II. Texas Instruments BAII PLUS III. Hewlett Packard 12C IV. Hewlett Packard 17BII..
CHAPTER 4 DISCOUNTED CASH FLOW VALUATION Solutions to Questions and Problems NOTE: All-end-of chapter problems were solved using a spreadsheet. Many problems require multiple steps. Due to space and readability
Time Value of Money Reading 5 IFT Notes for the 2015 Level 1 CFA exam Contents 1. Introduction... 2 2. Interest Rates: Interpretation... 2 3. The Future Value of a Single Cash Flow... 4 4. The Future Value
UNDERSTANDING HEALTHCARE FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Calculator (Hewlett-Packard 10BII) Tutorial To begin, look at the face of the calculator. Most keys (except a few) have two functions: Each key s primary function
Section 4: Using a Financial Calculator Tab 1: Introduction and Objectives Introduction In this section, the functions of a financial calculator will be reviewed and some sample problems will be demonstrated.
1 3. Time value of money We will review some tools for discounting cash flows. Simple interest 2 With simple interest, the amount earned each period is always the same: i = rp o where i = interest earned
Texas Instruments (TI) BA II PLUS Professional The TI BA II PLUS Professional functions similarly to the TI BA II PLUS model. Any exceptions are noted here. The TI BA II PLUS Professional can perform two
REVIEW MATERIALS FOR REAL ESTATE ANALYSIS 1997, Roy T. Black REAE 5311, Fall 2005 University of Texas at Arlington J. Andrew Hansz, Ph.D., CFA CONTENTS ITEM ANNUAL COMPOUND INTEREST TABLES AT 10% MATERIALS
Ch. 5 Discounted Cash Flows & Valuation In Chapter 5, we found the PV & FV of single cash flows--either payments or receipts. In this chapter, we will do the same for multiple cash flows. 2 Multiple Cash
McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright 2014 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Key Concepts and Skills Be able to compute: The future value of an investment made today The present value of cash
Course FM / Exam 2 Introduction It wasn t very long ago that the square root key was the most advanced function of the only calculator approved by the SOA/CAS for use during an actuarial exam. Now students
Texas Instruments BAII Plus Tutorial for Use with Fundamentals 11/e and Concise 5/e This tutorial was developed for use with Brigham and Houston s Fundamentals of Financial Management, 11/e and Concise,
Math of Finance Texas Association of Counties January 2014 Money Market Securities Sample Treasury Bill Quote*: N Bid Ask Ask Yld 126 4.86 4.85 5.00 *(Yields do not reflect current market conditions) Bank
Time Value of Money 2014 Level I Quantitative Methods IFT Notes for the CFA exam Contents 1. Introduction... 2 2. Interest Rates: Interpretation... 2 3. The Future Value of a Single Cash Flow... 4 4. The
Chapter 5 DISCOUNTED CASH FLOW VALUATION and MULTIPLE CASH FLOWS The basic PV and FV techniques can be extended to handle any number of cash flows. PV with multiple cash flows: Suppose you need $500 one
Mathematics of Finance Interest is the rental fee charged by a lender to a business or individual for the use of money. charged is determined by Principle, rate and time Interest Formula I = Prt $100 At
Chapter 2 - Sample Problems 1. If you wish to accumulate $140,000 in 13 years, how much must you deposit today in an account that pays an annual interest rate of 14%? 2. What will $247,000 grow to be in
Chapter 5 Time Value of Money Topics 1. Future Value of a Lump Sum 2. Present Value of a Lump Sum 3. Future Value of Cash Flow Streams 4. Present Value of Cash Flow Streams 5. Perpetuities 6. Uneven Series
The Mathematics of Financial Planning (supplementary lesson notes to accompany FMGT 2820) Using the Sharp EL-738 Calculator Reference is made to the Appendix Tables A-1 to A-4 in the course textbook Investments:
QUANTITATIVE METHODS THE TIME VALUE OF MONEY Reading 5 http://proschool.imsindia.com/ 1 Learning Objective Statements (LOS) a. Interest Rates as Required rate of return, Discount Rate and Opportunity Cost
Time Value of Money 1 This topic introduces you to the analysis of trade-offs over time. Financial decisions involve costs and benefits that are spread over time. Financial decision makers in households
Chapter Time Value of Money Future Value Present Value Annuities Effective Annual Rate Uneven Cash Flows Growing Annuities Loan Amortization Summary and Conclusions Basic TVM Concepts Interest rate: abbreviated
This is a sample of the instructor resources for Understanding Healthcare Financial Management, Fifth Edition, by Louis Gapenski. This sample contains the chapter models, end-of-chapter problems, and end-of-chapter
Introduction to Real Estate Investment Appraisal Maths of Finance Present and Future Values Pat McAllister INVESTMENT APPRAISAL: INTEREST Interest is a reward or rent paid to a lender or investor who has
Principles of Annuities The Mathematical Foundation of Retirement Planning Knut Larsen Brigus Learning Inc. Friday, June 5, 2015 Learning Objectives for this Presentation 1. Know the structure of the course
The Mathematics of Financial Planning (supplementary lesson notes to accompany FMGT 2820) Using the Sharp EL-733A Calculator Reference is made to the Appendix Tables A-1 to A-4 in the course textbook Investments:
CHAPTER 5 INTRODUCTION TO VALUATION: THE TIME VALUE OF MONEY 1. The simple interest per year is: $5,000.08 = $400 So after 10 years you will have: $400 10 = $4,000 in interest. The total balance will be
Calculating interest rates A reading prepared by Pamela Peterson Drake O U T L I N E 1. Introduction 2. Annual percentage rate 3. Effective annual rate 1. Introduction The basis of the time value of money
Page 1 of 23 Module 5: Interest concepts of future and present value Overview In this module, you learn about the fundamental concepts of interest and present and future values, as well as ordinary annuities
CHAPTER 6 DISCOUNTED CASH FLOW VALUATION Answers to Concepts Review and Critical Thinking Questions 1. The four pieces are the present value (PV), the periodic cash flow (C), the discount rate (r), and
To begin, look at the face of the calculator. Almost every key on the BAII PLUS has two functions: each key's primary function is noted on the key itself, while each key's secondary function is noted in
Bond valuation A reading prepared by Pamela Peterson Drake O U T L I N E 1. Valuation of long-term debt securities 2. Issues 3. Summary 1. Valuation of long-term debt securities Debt securities are obligations
CHAPTER 5 INTRODUCTION TO VALUATION: THE TIME VALUE OF MONEY Answers to Concepts Review and Critical Thinking Questions 1. The four parts are the present value (PV), the future value (FV), the discount
Time Value of Money Problems 1. What will a deposit of $4,500 at 10% compounded semiannually be worth if left in the bank for six years? a. $8,020.22 b. $7,959.55 c. $8,081.55 d. $8,181.55 2. What will
2 Time-Value-of-Money and Amortization Worksheets The Time-Value-of-Money and Amortization worksheets are useful in applications where the cash flows are equal, evenly spaced, and either all inflows or
Present Value Concepts Present value concepts are widely used by accountants in the preparation of financial statements. In fact, under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), these concepts
Solutions Manual Corporate Finance Ross, Westerfield, and Jaffe 9 th edition 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO CORPORATE FINANCE Answers to Concept Questions 1. In the corporate form of ownership, the shareholders
C- 1 Time Value of Money C- 2 Financial Accounting, Fifth Edition Study Objectives 1. Distinguish between simple and compound interest. 2. Solve for future value of a single amount. 3. Solve for future
Financial Math on Spreadsheet and Calculator Version 4.0 2002 Kent L. Womack and Andrew Brownell Tuck School of Business Dartmouth College Table of Contents INTRODUCTION...1 PERFORMING TVM CALCULATIONS
Using Financial and Business Calculators Daniel J. Borgia Table of Contents Texas Instruments (TI) BA-35 SOLAR......................................1 Texas Instruments (TI) BA II PLUS........................................11
CALCULATOR TUTORIAL INTRODUCTION Because most students that use Understanding Healthcare Financial Management will be conducting time value analyses on spreadsheets, most of the text discussion focuses
Chapter 2 Present Value Road Map Part A Introduction to finance. Financial decisions and financial markets. Present value. Part B Valuation of assets, given discount rates. Part C Determination of risk-adjusted
2 The Mathematics of Finance Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2.3 Annuities, Loans, and Bonds Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Annuities, Loans, and Bonds A typical defined-contribution
Main TVM functions of a BAII Plus Financial Calculator The BAII Plus calculator can be used to perform calculations for problems involving compound interest and different types of annuities. (Note: there
Chapter 02 How to Calculate Present Values Multiple Choice Questions 1. The present value of $100 expected in two years from today at a discount rate of 6% is: A. $116.64 B. $108.00 C. $100.00 D. $89.00
An annuity is a series of payments or withdrawals. ANNUITIES An Annuity can be either Simple or General Simple Annuities - Compounding periods and payment periods coincide. General Annuities - Compounding
Compounding Assumptions Financial Calculations on the Texas Instruments BAII Plus This is a first draft, and may contain errors. Feedback is appreciated The TI BAII Plus has built-in preset assumptions
Ordinary Annuities Chapter 10 Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, you will be able to: > Define and distinguish between ordinary simple annuities and ordinary general annuities. > Calculate
Chapter The Time Value of Money PPT 9-2 Chapter 9 - Outline Time Value of Money Future Value and Present Value Annuities Time-Value-of-Money Formulas Adjusting for Non-Annual Compounding Compound Interest
380.760: Corporate Finance Lecture 2: Time Value of Money and Net Present Value Gordon Bodnar, 2009 Professor Gordon Bodnar 2009 Financial Decision Making Finance decision making is about evaluating costs
CALCULATOR COURSE BASICS Most keys have three functions: Primary function printed in white Secondary function printed in orange Tertiary function printed in blue Access blue functions with [Shift up] Access
Hewlett Packard (HP) 10BII The HP10BII is programmed to perform two basic types of operations: statistical operations and financial operations. Various types of computations are activated by depressing
Chapter 4 The Time Value of Money 4-2 Topics Covered Future Values and Compound Interest Present Values Multiple Cash Flows Perpetuities and Annuities Inflation and Time Value Effective Annual Interest
PowerPoint to accompany Chapter 5 Interest Rates 5.1 Interest Rate Quotes and Adjustments To understand interest rates, it s important to think of interest rates as a price the price of using money. When
EXAM 2 OVERVIEW Binay Adhikari FEDERAL RESERVE & MARKET ACTIVITY (BS38) Definition 4.1 Discount Rate The discount rate is the periodic percentage return subtracted from the future cash flow for computing
and Loans Mathematics Rome, University of Tor Vergata and Loans Future Value for Simple Interest Present Value for Simple Interest You deposit E. 1,000, called the principal or present value, into a savings
1.-1.3 ime Value of Money and Discounted ash Flows ime Value of Money (VM) - the Intuition A cash flow today is worth more than a cash flow in the future since: Individuals prefer present consumption to
file:///f /Courses/2010-11/CGA/FA2/06course/m05intro.htm Module 5: Interest concepts of future and present value Overview In this module, you learn about the fundamental concepts of interest and present