Cross-Domain and Cross-Layer Coarse Grained Quality of Service Support in IP-based Networks

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1 Cross-Domain and Cross-Layer Coarse Grained Quality of Service Support in IP-based Networks von der Fakultät für Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik der Technischen Universität Chemnitz genehmigte Dissertation zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Doktoringenieur (Dr.-Ing.) vorgelegt von Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Martin Knoll geboren am 10. Januar 1973 in Reichenbach eingereicht am Gutachter: Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thomas Bauschert Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jörg Eberspächer Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Klaus Franke Tag der Verteidigung: Verfügbar im MONARCH der TU Chemnitz:

2 Bibliographische Beschreibung Thomas Martin Knoll Cross-Domain and Cross-Layer Coarse Grained Quality of Service Support in IP-based Networks Dissertation (in englischer Sprache) 166 Seiten, 155 Abbildungen, 21 Tabellen, 185 Literaturverweise Referat Mit der zunehmenden Popularität des Internets steigt die Anzahl der Nutzer und vor allem die Anzahl zeit- und verlustkritische Dienste wie zum Beispiel Voice over IP, Videoübertragungen und netzbasierte Spiele. Das Internet ist dabei der Zusammenschluss von ca Betreibernetzen, die mit Hilfe des Internet Protocol (IP) derzeit ohne jede Dienstgüteunterstützung den Datenverkehraustausch realisieren. Massive Überdimensionierung der Netzkapazitäten führen zu einer Netzauslastung von nur ca. 10% und entsprechend guter Übertragungsqualität. Mit steigendem Verkehrsaufkommen wird in dieser Dissertation erwartet, das die Netzbetreiber infolge des Kostendrucks nicht schritthaltend den überhöhten Netzausbau aufrechterhalten können und somit Qualitätseinbußen zu erwarten sind. Innerhalb der Betreiber wird bereits jetzt Verkehrstrennung betrieben, jedoch am Übergabepunkt verworfen und im besten Fall im Nachbarnetz durch aufwendige Analyse erneut vorgenommen. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde deshalb ein domänen- und schichtenübergreifendes Konzept zur Realisierung grob-granularer Dienstgüte in IP-Netzen entworfen, zur Standardisierung bei der Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) vorgeschlagen, implementiert und in Auszügen simuliert und getestet. Dabei werden die Verkehrsklasseninformationen mehrere Netzschichten in transitiven Nachrichtenelementen des Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) signalisiert und schichtenübergreifend assoziiert. Die vorliegende Dissertation beinhaltet im wesentlichen drei Teile: 1. Eine umfassende Zusammenstellung von vorhandenen Dienstgütekonzepten einschließlich der bereits existierenden QoS-Funktionselemente in verfügbaren Netzelementen, 2. Die detaillierte Spezifikation des neuen Konzeptes und 3. den Ergebnissen der Simulations- und Implementierungsaktivitäten zum Nachweis der Funktion und Skalierbarkeit des Entwurfes. Zwei wesentliche Erkenntnisse und Forderungen sind durch die Bearbeitung des Themas erwachsen. Die Einfachheit der Konzeptstruktur und die Einfachheit der angestrebten Dienstgüteunterstützung. Die angestrebte Dienstgüte beschränkt sich deshalb auf die primitive Verkehrstrennung in mehrere Klassen, die in den Weiterleitungsknoten getrennt abgelegt und mit verschiedenem Vorrang behandelt werden. Schlagwörter Quality of Service (QoS), Class of Service (CoS), Cross-Domain, Cross-Layer, Inter-AS, Marking Signalling, Ingress limitation Signalling, BGP, Extended Community Attribute ii

3 Abstract The increasingly popular Internet with a steadily growing user base, the resulting traffic load and its rising usage for time and loss critical services, such as voice over IP, video streaming and gaming, consists of about 30,000 interconnected service provider networks. Those interconnections are based on the Internet Protocol (IP) and do not distinguish the mixed traffic types within the transported traffic load. The currently observed and mostly sufficient service quality can only be achieved by network internal and inter-domain link capacity over-provisioning. Resource utilization of about 10% is commonly applied to achieve stable and un-congested network operation. However, service providers are increasingly deploying Quality of Service (QoS) support mechanisms within their network domain in order to provide traffic separation and differentiated forwarding. Not only IP QoS, but also underlying link layer QoS mechanisms are applied. Such QoS support is currently removed at the interconnection link and possibly reapplied in an independent and uncoordinated fashion in the neighbouring domain. A new cross-domain and cross-layer coarse grained Quality of Service support concept has therefore been drafted, which allows for the automated inter-domain class of service (CoS) support information exchange about the distinguished traffic classes at different networking layers. The concept is based on the standard inter-domain signalling protocol, the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) version 4. Transitive BGPbased cross-domain signalling and cross-layer CoS mapping is a novel contribution. The cross-domain signalling of cross-layer mapped class set information has been submitted for standardization within the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). This includes a class overload prevention signalling by means of applied token bucket based ingress limitations. Global scale usage and omnipresent traffic class of service support is targeted with the proposed and implemented concept. It is likely, that service providers might be tempted to misuse offered service classes, hence the overload limitation. Three major contributions are documented within this thesis: 1. A comprehensive compilation of QoS support concepts with detailed network and node internal building block descriptions has been arranged, which proves the technical readiness of currently deployed devices for an inter-domain CoS based interconnection. 2. The drafted specification of the new inter-domain CoS concept including the CoS marking and class overload limitation signalling is detailed herein. 3. Simulations and implementations of vital building blocks of the concept have been made to underline its functionality and technical feasibility. Resource estimates and successful field trials provide evidence for its scalable and functioning design. The thesis work identified two fundamental design requirements for the concept. They are simplicity in design and QoS support. QoS in this approach therefore refers to primitive traffic separation into several classes, which will experience differently prioritized forwarding behaviour in relaying nodes. Enqueueing in separate queues is thereby aspired to. iii

4 Contents 1 Introduction 3 2 Fundamentals of IP routing and forwarding IP datagram structure and addressing Routing basics Routing protocols and hierarchy Inter-domain routing using BGP Router architecture Router control plane structure Router internal interconnection structure Router internal queuing structure 21 3 Basic QoS aspects Overview relative vs. absolute vs. coarse-grained QoS QoS building blocks QoS treatment scope QoS-based forwarding QoS-based routing QoS-based tunnelling Architectural scope Cross-layer QoS Cross-domain QoS 45 4 State of the art QoS Concepts IP QoS DiffServ IntServ IntServ / DiffServ combination ITU-T IP QoS concept Ethernet QoS MPLS QoS QoS in access networks Summary of expected Class of Service support 69 5 State of the art AS interconnection IP transit IP peering Internet Routing Registry - IRR 77 6 Related work 78 iv

5 7 New (coarse grained) CoS concept Motivation and target Usage of BGP for QoS signalling Definitions and information processing BGP extended community attribute for CoS marking BGP class of service interconnection 96 8 Mapping strategies Problem statement mapping between different class sets of the same layer mapping between different class sets of different layers Existing recommendations Coarse grained CoS mapping recommendations Simulation results Setup selection for QoS marking and forwarding Simulation results for QoS marking and forwarding Scenario 1: single node interconnection Scenario 2: AS interconnection Single AS Scenario 3: AS interconnection Multi-AS Scenario 4: AS interconnection Multi-AS Scenario 5: AS interconnection Multi-AS Scenario 6: AS interconnection Multi-AS Scenario 7: AS interconnection Cross-Layer Setup selection for token bucket ingress filtering Simulation results for token bucket ingress filtering Summary of simulation results Concept implementation Linux implementation Wireshark implementation Online debug form Implementation test Test setup Test result and observations Ethernet QoS support test at IXPs Resource usage estimates Increase in routing update information size Increase in memory consumption with routers Summary and outlook Contributions and results Practical usage Outlook 153 v

6 Titel Domänen- und schichtenübergreifendes Konzept zur Realisierung grob-granularer Dienstgüte in IP-Netzen Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Einleitung 3 2 Grundlagen des IP Routing und Forwarding IP Datagramstruktur und Adressierung Grundlagen des Routings Routing-Protokolle und -hierarchien Inter-Domän-Routing mittels BGP Router-Architektur Struktur der Router-Steuerungsschicht Struktur Router-internen Verbindungen Struktur der Router-internen Warteschlangen 21 3 Grundlegende Aspekte der Dienstgüte Überblick Relative vs. absolute vs. grob-granulare QoS QoS-Bausteine Ausdehnungsbereich von QoS-Mechanismen QoS-basiertes Weiterleiten QoS-basierte Wegewahl QoS-basiertes Tunneln Einflußbereiche der Konzept-Architektur Schichtenübergreifende QoS Domänübergreifende QoS 45 4 Aktuelle QoS-Konzepte IP QoS DiffServ IntServ Kombination von IntServ und DiffServ IP QoS Konzept der ITU-T Ethernet QoS MPLS QoS QoS in Zugangsnetzen Zusammenfassung der zu erwartenden Dienstklassenunterstützung 69 5 Derzeitige AS-Kopplung IP Transit IP Peering Internet Routing Registratur - IRR 77 6 Bisherige Arbeiten auf dem Gebiet 78 vi

7 7 Das neue (grob-granulare) CoS-Konzept Motivation und Zielsetzung Nutzung von BGP zur QoS-Signalisierung Definitionen und Informationsverarbeitung BGP Extended Community Attribut zur CoS-Markierung Dienstklassen-basierte Kopplung mittels BGP 96 8 Zuordnungsstrategien Problembeschreibung Dienstklassenabbildungen innerhalb einer Schicht Dienstklassenabbildungen zwischen verschiedenen Schichten Vorhandene Empfehlungen Empfehlungen zu grob-granularen CoS-Abbildungen Simulationsergebnisse Simulationsplanung für QoS-Markierungen und QoS-Weiterleitung Simulationsergebnisse für QoS-Markierungen und QoS-Weiterleitung Szenario 1: Einzelknotenkopplung Szenario 2: AS-Kopplung Einzel-AS Szenario 3: AS-Kopplung Multi-AS Szenario 4: AS-Kopplung 2 AS Szenario 5: AS-Kopplung 3 AS Szenario 6: AS-Kopplung 4 AS Szenario 7: Schichtenübergreifende AS-Kopplung Simulationsplanung für Token Bucket-Filterung Simulationsergebnisse für Token Bucket Filterung Zusammenfassung der Simulationsergebnisse Implementierung des Konzeptes Linux-Implementierung Wireshark-Implementierung Online-Formular zur Dekodierung Implementierungstest Testaufbau Testergebnisse und Beobachtungen Tests zur Ethernet-QoS Unterstützung bei IXPs Abschätzung des Resourcenverbrauchs Anstieg der UPDATE-Größe Anstieg des Speicherbedarfs Zusammenfassung und Ausblick Beitrag und Ergebnisse Praxisanwendung Ausblick 153 vii

8 Einleitung Die Vernetzung aktueller IP-basierter Datennetze bildet zwar eine moderne Kommunikationstechnologie, besitzt jedoch einige Unzulänglichkeiten in der Netzkopplung. Die nachfolgende geschichtliche Analogie zeigt genau diese Schwachstellen des Internets auf, welche zugleich in dieser Arbeit aufgegriffen und verbessert werden. Im 19. Jahrhundert wurde die Kommunikation zwischen den Kolonien Südaustralien und Westaustralien durch Dampfschiffe realisiert, was durchaus Wochen für den Transport dauern konnte. Damals entschied man, die Kommunikation auf Telegraphie umzustellen begann man deshalb mit dem Bau der Telegraphenleitung. Südaustralien trieb die Leitung von Port Augusta westwärts bis zur Grenze und Westaustralien begann mit dem Bau in Albany in Richtung Osten. An der Telegraphenstation in der kleinen Grenzsiedlung Eucla ([145], [166]) wurde 1877 die Verbindung beider Leitungsabschnitte erreicht. Die Station wurde zu gleichen Teilen mit Mitarbeitern betrieben, die entlang eines langen Nord-Süd ausgerichteten Tisches sich gegenüber saßen. Die Grenze war dabei die Mitte des Hauses und die Mitte des Tisches. Nachrichten, die zwischen den Staaten ausgetauscht werden sollten wurden somit vom jeweiligen Personal empfangen, manuell zur anderen Seite des Tisches gereicht und dort erneut als Telegraphennachricht gesendet. Grund dafür waren verschiedene Zeichenkodierungen, die auf beiden Seiten verwendet wurden. Südaustralien verwendete den amerikanischen Morse-Code und Westaustralien den internationalen. Die Ähnlichkeit besteht darin, dass das heutige Internet aus etwa unabhängig voneinander betriebener IP-Netze, so genannter Autonomer Systeme (AS), besteht, die in unkoordinierter Weise Dienstgütekonzepte verfolgen und auf einfachstem Niveau privat oder öffentlich vernetzt sind. Trotz dessen, dass diese ASse oft intern frei gewählte Verkehrstrennung und priorisierung anwenden, wird bei deren Zusammenschluss die Trennung entfernt und ohne Verkehrstrennung und vorrangige Behandlung die Verkehrsübergabe vorgenommen. Einige Eintrittsvermittlungen der ASse betreiben dann aufwendige Klassifizierung anhand der gekapselten Empfangsdaten, um eine möglichst gute Schätzung der empfangenen Verkehrsart zu treffen und erneut die passende interne Verkehrstrennung und priorisierung anzuwenden. Deshalb wurde in dieser Arbeit die Signalisierung und direkte Verkehrsklassen-basierte Kopplung Autonomer Systeme untersucht, dokumentiert und implementiert. viii

9 Zusammenfassung und Ausblick Diese Dissertation betrachtet den Zusammenschluss von so genannten Autonomen Systemen, die derzeit keinerlei Dienstgüteunterstützung bieten. Die erbrachten Beiträge dieser Arbeit sind in wesentlichen in drei Teile gegliedert. Den ersten Teil bildet eine umfassende Zusammenstellung von vorhandenen Dienstgütekonzepten einschließlich der bereits existierenden QoS-Funktionselemente in verfügbaren Netzen und Geräten zur Netzkopplung. Diese Geräte sind nachweislich für die Unterstützung von domänenübergreifender, klassenbasierter Dienstgüte geeignet. Aus diesen Erkenntnissen und zusammen mit den mündlichen Aussagen führender Europäischer und Amerikanischer Netzbetreiber und Betreibern aus dem Nahen Osten über die akzeptable Komplexität solcher Dienstgütevorhaben entstand die vordringliche Forderung nach einem einfachen, leicht fassbaren und handhabbaren Dienstgütekonzept. In einem zweiten Teil wurde das angestrebte domänenübergreifende Dienstgütekonzept spezifiziert und zur Standardisierung bei der IETF eingereicht. Im dritten Teil wird durch Simulation und Implementierung wesentlicher Konzeptbestandteile deren Funktion und technische Machbarkeit dargelegt. Die Skalierbarkeit und Funktionalität des Konzeptes wurde durch Feldtests und durch Abschätzungen des Ressourcenverbrauchs nachgewiesen. Beitrag und Ergebnisse Folgende Erkenntnisse und Beiträge wurde in der Arbeit erbracht: Der Zusammenschuss von autonomen Systemen zum globalen Internet stellt aus technischer und ökonomischer Sicht eine neuralgische Schnittstelle zwischen Netzbetreibern dar. Derzeitige Zusammenschlüsse basieren ausschließlich auf dem Austausch von IP-Nachrichten ohne Dienstgüteunterstützung. Überdimensionierung und netzinterne Dienstgüteunterstützung werden derzeit vorgenommen. Durch das anhaltende Wachstum des Internetverkehrs wird in der Dissertation ein Anstieg an Netzausbaukosten und zunehmender Verkehrsstau auf den Kopplungsleitungen erwartet. Eine neues klassenbasiertes Kopplungskonzept wurde deshalb entwickelt, das für globale Anwendung geeignet ist. Die Einfachheit eines Entwurfes wurde als entscheidendes Entwurfskriterium für die Akzeptanz des Konzeptes in der Internet-Gemeinde erkannt. Es erstreckt sich dabei sowohl auf die Signalisierungsstrukturen als auch das tatsächliche Ausmaß der Klassenunterstützung. Die Wichtigkeit der Unterstützung von mindestens zwei oder besser 4 Dienstklassen wurde mit Hilfe von Simulationen untermauert. Im Gegensatz zu existierenden komplexen Dienstgütekonzepten, die Garantien zu Verzögerungen, Verzögerungsschwankungen und Verlustraten anstreben, wird aus Kosten- und Akzeptanzgründen im vorliegenden Konzept nur einfache Verkehrstrennung gefordert. Der erreichte Grad an Einfachheit durch Wegfall von Dienstgütegarantien ist eine zentrale Voraussetzung für die globale Anwendbarkeit. Die Entscheidung zur Verwendung von BGP für die Signalisierung wurde auf Basis der Betrachtungen zu bereits existierenden und emporkommenden Signalisierungsprotokolle getroffen. Im BGP wurden neue so genannte Extended Communities und ein neues Pfadattribut definiert, die zur Signalisierung der erforderlichen domänen- und schichtenübergreifenden Klasseninformation verwendet werden. ix

10 Das neuartige Prinzip der transitiven Weiterleitung von Dienstklasseninformationen mittels der Extended Communities und der vom Betreiber festlegbaren Zuordnung der Dienstgüteeinstellungen verschiedener Netzschichten innerhalb der Signalisierung stellt eine grundlegende Errungenschaft dar. Die Ergebnisse aufwendiger Einzelknoten-Simulationen und Simulationen auf AS-Niveau wurden auszugsweise in dieser Dissertation dokumentiert und sind auf Anfrage vollständig verfügbar. Der Nachweis der Anwendbarkeit des Konzeptes und der Interoperabilität mit vorhandenen Netzelementen wurde durch Tests mit der Linux- Implementierung erbracht. Abschätzungen zum Ressourcenverbrauch wurden vorgenommen, die einen vernachlässigbar kleinen Einfluss des zusätzlichen Signalisierens von Dienstklasseninformationen auf die Größe der BGP-UPDATE-Nachrichten aufzeigten. Ein maßvoller Verbrauch an Speicherressourcen wurde ebenfalls ermittelt. Dabei wurde unter der Annahme von realistischen Szenarien die Anwendbarkeit der Konzepten auch für große Netzausmaße nachgewiesen. Die Gestaltung des Konzeptes behindert nicht den zusätzlichen gezielten Einsatz komplexer Dienstgütemechanismen mit garantierter Dienstgüte. In der Tat wird der universelle Einsatz des hiesigen Konzeptes und der selektive Einsatz höherwertiger Konzepte an ausgewählten Kopplungen oder Transit- Pfaden unterstützt. Auf der Basis des Konzeptes wird die Umwandlung des heutigen Internets hin zu einem 2- oder besser 4-Klassen unterstützenden Internet. Praxisanwendung Besonderes Augenmerk wurde auf die praktische Nutzung des Konzeptes gelegt. Die folgenden Punkte listen wichtige Meilensteine für die Anwendbarkeit. Mit der Übertragung der Konzeptspezifikation an die IETF Standardisierung wurde praktisch eine lizenzfreie Nachnutzung ohne patentrechtliche Einschränkungen ermöglicht. Die globale Anwendung des Konzeptes ist angestrebt und mögliche Kosteneinsparungen auf Betreiberseite tragen zum durch das Konzept erreichbaren Gewinn bei. Die Implementierungen in der Linux Routing-Software, Quagga, und dem Netzanalysewerkzeug, Wireshark, sind frei verfügbar. Die Wireshark- Ergänzung ist dabei bereits von den Entwicklern akzeptiert und in die aktuelle Softwareversion integriert worden. Gleiches ist für die Quagga-Erweiterung geplant. Ein Online-Dienst wurde eingerichtet der die Dekodierung von signalisierten Klasseninformationen im Rohdatenformat akzeptiert. Er ist unter folgender Adresse zu finden: Die Nummernvergabestelle, IANA, hat bereits Typnummern für die QoS Marking und CoS Capabilities Elemente zugeteilt, so dass diese offiziell in den Produktionsnetzen der Betreiber verwendet werden können. Damit hat das Konzept bereits die Schwelle vom Laboraufbau hin zum öffentlichen Einsatz überschritten. x

11 Ausblick Derzeit ist die Anwendung des neuen domänen- und schichten-übergreifenden Konzept zur Realisierung grob-granularer Dienstgüte auf Linux-basierte Netzelemente beschränkt. Laufende Gespräche mit Netzbetreibern und Router-Herstellern zielen jedoch auf die generelle Unterstützung des Konzeptes in kommerziellen Routern ab. Die technische Machbarkeit wurde dabei bestätigt und Interesse daran wurde von Europäischen Betreibern bekundet. Zukünftige Praxiserfahrungen und Änderungswünschen werden dabei zur Verfeinerung des Konzeptes führen. Um die Anwendung des Konzeptes zu fördern, wird derzeit an der Ergänzung der herkömmlichen kommerziellen Router um eine interaktive Linux-basierte Fernsteuerung gearbeitet. Fig. 155 zeigt dabei den verdeckten Steuermechanismus des kommerziellen Routers durch einen internen Linux-PC. Dadurch, dass die Signalisierungselemente transitiv definiert wurden, kann der Router mit passivem bidirektionalem Durchleiten die Verarbeitung und Generierung von Dienstklasseninformationen an das Linux-System deligieren. Mit Hilfe einer zweiten Verbindung kann nun der Linux-PC die Steuerschnittstelle des Routers erreichen und die notwenigen Kommandos zur Konfiguration und Aktivierung der vorhandenen Router internen QoS Funktionen absetzen. Dies Übergangslösung erlaubt den Netzbetreibern ohne kostspielige Software- oder Hardwareaktualisierungen eine klassenbasierte Netzkopplung anzubieten. Fig. 153 Steuerung eines kommerziellen Routers durch einen Linux-PC Eine derzeitige Diskussion über Netzneutralität beeinflusst die Bereitschaft von Netzbetreibern und Herstellern, domänenübergreifende Dienstgütemechanismen zu unterstützen. Dabei steht der neutrale Netzbetrieb ohne Dienstlimitierungen, Inhaltsfilter, und ohne jegliche Bevorzugung einzelner Nutzer im Vordergrund. Entsprechende Gespräche mit Netzbetreibern und verschiedener staatlicher Netzagenturen haben ergeben, dass das vorgeschlagene Dienstgütekonzept mit seiner einfachen und allgemein anwendbaren Struktur womöglich als nicht diskriminierende und flächendeckend einsetzbare Verbesserung des Internets angesehen würde. Zusätzliche techno-ökonomische Studien zu erreichbaren Kosteneinsparungen werden von Nöten sein, um die Entscheidungsprozesse der Betreiber hinsichtlich Geräteaktualisierungen und der Einführung von klassenbasierter Dienstgüte zu unterstützen. xi

12 In Kapitel 5.2 wurde bereits kurz ein von der Firma Google vorgeschlagener Unterschriftsprozess beschrieben, der mit Hilfe von so genannten BGP Communities die Teilnahme an neuen Diensten und Konzepten besiegelt. Je nach Erfolg dieses Vorhabens kann es dazu führen, dass das vorgeschlagene Dienstgütekonzept als Vertragsbasis für die Vereinbarung von klassenbasierter Dienstgüte zwischen Betreibern genutzt wird. xii

13 Acronyms ABR ABR AD ADSL AFI ARP ASBR ASN ATM B-ISDN BA BGP BGRP BRAS CAC CAPEX CBR CBWFQ CIDR CIR CLI CLP COPS CR-LDP CS DE DFZ DiffServ DMA DNS DRR DS DSCP DSL DV E-LSP ebgp ECN EF ECN EGP EIGRP FCFS FIB Area Border Router Available Bit Rate Administrative Distance Asymmetric DSL Address Family Identifier Address Resolution Protocol Autonomous System Border Router Autonomous System Number Asynchronous Transfer Mode Broadband ISDN Behaviour Aggregate Border Gateway Protocol Border Gateway Reservation Protocol Broadband Remote Access Server Call Admission Control Capital Expenditure Constant Bit Rate Class-Based Weighted Fair Queueing Classless Inter-Domain Routing Committed Information Rate Command Line Interface Cell Loss Priority (CLP) bit Common Open Policy Service Constraint-based Routed LDP Class Selector Discard Eligibility bit in frame relay Default Free Zone Differentiated Services Direct Memory Access Domain Name System Deficit Round-Robin Differentiated Services DiffServ Code Point Digital Subscriber Line Distance Vector EXP-Inferred-PSC LSP / now: Explicitly TC-encoded-PSC LSP external Border Gateway Protocol Explicit Congestion Notification Expedited Forwarding Explicit Congestion Notification Exterior Gateway Protocol Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol First Come First Served Forwarding Information Base xiii

14 FIFO First In First Out FR Frame Relay FSM Finite State Machine FTP File Transfer Protocol GbE Gigabit Ethernet GBR Guaranteed Bit Rate GCRA Generic Cell Rate Algorithm GIST General Internet Signalling Transport GMPLS Generalized MPLS GPS Generalized Processor Sharing GRE Generic Routing Encapsulation HDLC High Level Data Link Control HOLB Head of Line Blocking IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority ibgp internal Border Gateway Protocol ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol IETF Internet Engineering Task Force IESG Internet Engineering Steering Group IGP Interior Gateway Protocol IGRP Interior Gateway Routing Protocol IntServ Integrated Services IP Internet Protocol IPv4 Internet Protocol version 4 IPv6 Internet Protocol version 6 IRR Internet Routing Registry IS-IS Intermediate System to Intermediate System ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network ISO International Organization for Standardization ISP Internet Service Provider IXP Internet Exchange Point L-LSP Label-only-Inferred-PSC LSP LAN Local Area Network LDP Label Distribution Protocol LIB Label Information Base LIFO Last In First Out Loc-RIB Local RIB LQD Longest Queue Drop LS Link State LSDB Link State Database LSP Label Switched Path MAC Media Access Control MAC-in-MAC Encapsulation of Ethernet frames in Ethernet frames MED Multiple Exit Discriminator MESCAL Management of End-to-end Quality of Service Across the Internet at Large MPLS Multi Protocol Label Switching MSS Maximum Segment Size MTU Maximum Transmission Unit NGN Next Generation Network NLRI Network Layer Reachability Information NSIS Next Steps In Signalling NSLP NSIS Signalling Layer Protocol NTLP NSIS Transport Layer Protocol xiv

15 OPEX OS OSI OSPF PBB PBT PC PCN PCP PDB PDP PDU PFC PGPS PHB POTS PS PSTN PT q-bgp Q-in-Q QoS QoE RAM ReaSE RED RFD RIB RIP RPSL RPSLng RR RR RS RSVP RSVP-TE SAFI SDH SDU SLA SONET SP SPF SPI TC TCA TCP TOS TTL UBR UDP UMTS Operational Expenditure Operating System Open Systems Interconnection Open Shortest Path First Provider Backbone Bridges Provider Backbone Transport Personal Computer Pre-Congestion Notification Priority Code Point Per Domain Behaviour Policy Decision Point Protocol Data Unit Priority-based Flow Control Packet-by-packet Generalized Processor Sharing Per Hop Behaviour Plain Old Telephone Service Processor Sharing Public Switched Telephone Network Packet Type QoS enhanced BGP 802.1q in 802.1q encapsulation Quality of Service Quality of Experience Random Access Memory Realistic Simulation Environments for IP-based Networks Random Early Detection Route Flap Damping Routing Information Base Routing Information Protocol Routing Policy Specification Language Routing Policy Specification Language next generation Round Robin Route Reflector Router Server Resource Reservation Protocol RSVP-Traffic Engineering Subsequent Address Family Identifier Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Service Data Unit Service Level Agreement Synchronous Optical NETwork Strict Priority Shortest Path First System Packet Interface Traffic Class Traffic Conditioning Agreement Transmission Control Protocol Type of Service Time To Live Unspecified Bit Rate User Datagram Protocol Universal Mobile Telecommunications System xv

16 URL VBR VC VLAN VLSM VoIP VOQ VTYSH WAN WDRR WiMAX WRED WRR WLAN WLL Uniform Resource Locator Variable Bit Rate Virtual channel Virtual LAN Variable Length Subnet Mask Voice over IP Virtual Output Queues Virtual TeletYpe shell Wide Area Network Weighted Deficit Round-Robin Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access Weighted Random Early Detection Weighted Round Robin Wireless LAN Wireless Local Loop xvi

17 Acknowledgments The work presented in this thesis was done at Chemnitz University of Technology in Chemnitz, Germany. The interest for the topic and the idea for the proposed concept arose through the lecturing work at the Chair of Communication Networks. I would like to express my deep thanks to the current and the former head of chair, Prof. Thomas Bauschert and Prof. Klaus Franke, respectively, for their support during the last years and for invaluable discussions and comments on my work. I am very grateful to Prof. Jörg Eberspächer for his offer to act as a co-examiner of my thesis and for the chance to present this work at his institute. A special thanks goes to David Ward, Dr. Yakov Rekhter, Robert Raszuk and Jie Dong for their support with IANA s number assignment, fruitful discussions and detailed feedback on the concept. I am very grateful to Arnold Nipper and Wolfgang Tremmel from DE-CIX as well as Jens Wengenmayr and Frank Benndorf from envia TEL GmbH for their technical feedback and support. Furthermore, I wish to thank Simon Ehnert for the programming support with the Quagga routing suite, my co-worker Daniel Manns for his support in the work with OMNET++, Uwe Steglich for challenging hours with NS2 and the other co-workers and students at the chair of Communications Networks for their helpful comments and reflections. My thanks is due as well, to Brian Schaefer, who has helped me with correcting my writing. Finally, I would like to thank my family for their support, patience, and understanding during these challenging years. Thomas Martin Knoll Chemnitz, July

18 1 Introduction The internetworking of current IP-based data networks is a modern communication technology with some major interconnection drawbacks. The following historical allegory depicts the weak spot of the widely used Internet, that is addressed in this work. Back in the 19th century, the two colonies of South Australia and Western Australia decided to communicate between each other via telegraph, rather than steamship, which took weeks. In 1874 both colonies started to erect a new telegraph line to interconnect their independently operating telegraph systems. South Australia, started its line from Port Augusta towards the border in the west and Western Australia erected its line from Albany towards its eastern border. In 1877, the interconnection was established at the Eucla Telegraph Station ([158], [179]), a small settlement near the border between the colonies. The station was equally staffed and the telegraphists of both colonies sat along a north to south oriented table. In fact the technical border divided the building and the operators table in half. The West Australian operators received their inter-state messages at the western half of the table and pushed the message across it towards their respective South Australian colleague. From there, the message was again telegraphed into South Australia and vice versa. The reason for this manual repeater station was the different character encoding used on either side. South Australia used the American Morse code and Western Australia the International one. The similarity lies in the fact that the current Internet consists of about independently operated IP networks, called Autonomous Systems (AS), which run uncoordinated quality of service concepts and are in a very basic manner privately or publicly interconnected. Despite the fact, that ASes often apply some sort of independently chosen traffic separation and prioritization within the respective network cloud, their interconnection removes all such separation and handles the exchange traditionally without any separation or prioritization. Some AS ingress routers in turn apply multi-layer ingress classification methods in order to make a good guess on what traffic enters the network and should be separated and or prioritized. The signalling and direct traffic class based interconnection of Autonomous Systems has therefore been investigated, documented and implemented. 3

19 2 Fundamentals of IP routing and forwarding The robust and inexpensive exchange of information between end systems in global scale is the major achievement of the current Internet. Many networking technologies exist, which allow for the networking of electronic devices using different layer two technologies. However, such local area networks make use of several, independently chosen technologies, which require interworking functions for an internetworking between them. This barrier is removed with the introduction of the commonly used Internet Protocol (IP) as least common denominator regarding the very basic requirements for a primitive datagram based information exchange. The Internet is therefore a patchwork of many networking clouds, which all provide the means for an end-to-end IP-based datagram transmission service. 2.1 IP datagram structure and addressing In order to understand the capabilities of the globally available IP datagram service, it is best to review the protocol s control information exchange, which is carried within the header structure of each single protocol data unit. Fig. 1 depicts the datagram structure of the currently predominantly used version four of the Internet protocol. Its original structure was defined in RFC791 [153]. Fig. 1 IP version 4 datagram structure The most important elements of the header are the destination and the source IP address, which are used for a hop-by-hop relay process towards the destination and for backward error reporting in case of delivery failures, respectively. IP addresses used to be grouped into address classes A, B, C, D, E following the structure given in Fig. 2. Each node belonging to a network cloud was assigned an IP address containing the same network part within the 32 bit number. A router would therefore decide by the destination address of the datagram as well as of the network 4

20 number its receiving interface belongs to, whether the datagram is destined for the originating cloud or needs to be relayed towards a next hop router. Fig. 2 IPv4 address class system - [22] The stiff address class regime, as well as the huge and small network clouds for class A and C type networks, respectively, led to a revised scheme for network/host differentiation allowing any bit position within the 32 bit field as network address boundary. The scheme is called Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) [81], [82] and introduces a network mask field of 32 bit to support variable length subnet masks (VLSM). Combined with the traditional address classes, it now allows the creation of subnets out of one larger network and supernets out of several consecutive smaller networks. Fig. 3 gives a subnetting example for the creation of 128 subnets out of one class B network. 10 Network Subnet Host Fig. 3 CIDR example network mask Routers in CIDR networks now compare the network part of their interface address with the network part of the currently processed IP destination address using a simple AND operation with the network mask applied on both addresses. The major advantage of CIDR in global scale routing lies on the field of route aggregation. IP address ranges (so called prefix blocks) of Internet service providers or some large scale companies tend to have fine grained address allocations with network masks in their twenties. However, routers in the core regions of the Internet might see a number of consecutive address blocks in their routing tables, which all resolve towards the same next hop neighbour. Summarizing those table entries into just one bigger address block with a shorter network mask saves on table storage, table lookup delay and route advertisement messages. Such prefix aggregation by means of CIDR is therefore heavily used in today s Internet routing. Further work on IP addressing was performed with the introduction of IP version 6 [63], [64], [5][1]. This new version extends the IP addresses to 128 bit fields and specifies a fixed size basic header structure of 40 bytes length. The new scheme of header extensions allows for a dynamic incorporation of additional header information. Fig. 4 depicts the version 6 datagram structure. 5

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