# HIERARCHICAL LINEAR MODELS FOR ELECTORAL RESEARCH: A Worked Example in Stata

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "HIERARCHICAL LINEAR MODELS FOR ELECTORAL RESEARCH: A Worked Example in Stata"

## Transcription

1 HIERARCHICAL LINEAR MODELS FOR ELECTORAL RESEARCH: A Worked Example in Stata Marco R. Steenbergen Department of Political Science University of Zurich 2012 Abstract These notes discuss a worked example of a hierarchical linear model with extensive discussion about modeling decisions and interpretation. Note that variable names and Stata commands appear in a typewriter font. Setup Imagine we are interested in evaluations of Barack Obama in We distinguish between two levels of analysis: the individual (level-1) and the state in which he/she resides (level-2). Evaluations of Barack Obama are measured on a feeling thermometer (obamafeel), which we treat as a continuous outcome. Our primary level-1 predictor is the race of the respondent (1 = black; 0 = white). In addition, we consider partisanship (pid) and the individual s ideological distance to Obama (iddist) as predictors. Partisanship runs from 0 (= strong Democrat) to 6 (= strong Republican), while ideological distance runs from 0 (the respondent and Obama are placed at the same ideological position) to 10 (the respondent and Obama are at opposite ends of the ideological spectrum). The analysis is based on the 2008 American National Election Studies. 1 1 The data are downloadable from 1

2 Random Effects ANOVA As a starting point for the analysis, it is useful to run a random effects ANOVA. This allows us to determine what portion of the variance in candidate evaluations is due to cross-state differences as compated to individual differences. The model may be written as obamafeel ij = β 0j + ɛ ij β 0j = γ 00 + δ 0j for individual i in state j. Here, β 0j can be interpreted as the mean evaluation of Obama in a state, whereas γ 00 is the grand mean (i.e., the mean across all individuals and states). The level-1 error term (ɛ ij ) shows how an individual s evaluation deviates from the mean evaluation in the state in which he/she resides. The level-2 error term (δ 0j ) shows how the mean evaluation in a particular state deviates from the grand mean. In addition to estimating γ 00, we are interested in estimating V ar(ɛ ij ) = σ 2 and V ar(δ 0j ) = τ 00. syntax: We estimate the model using Stata s xtmixed command, using the following xtmixed obamafeel if flagmis==0, state:, var where flagmis=0 selects those cases that are not missing on the level-1 covariates or level-2 covariate (to be discussed later). The var option causes Stata to report variances rather than standard deviations, which is the default in xtmixed. The output is shown in Figure 1. The output is divided into four sections. At the top one finds descriptive information about the analysis. This is followed by a listing of the fixed effects estimates. The third section displays the variance component estimates. Finally, at the bottom of the output, a likelihood ratio test is shown. Focusing on the descriptive part, we see that there are 1673 level-1 units in the analysis (number of obs), and 33 level-2 units (number of groups). cluster size varies from 11 to 258, with an average cluster size of just shy of 51 observations. The log-likelihood is In the fixed effects part, we see an estimate associated with cons. This estimate of is the estimate of the grand mean γ 00. Thus, averaging acros respondents 2 The parts about the Wald test are left empty because there are no level-1 covariates in the model whose effects would be tested. The 2

3 Figure 1: Stata xtmixed Output for a Random Effects ANOVA and states, the expected feeling thermometer rating of Obama was just shy of 65. The standard error is 1.79, resulting in a z-test statistic of 35.99, and a p-value of.000. Clearly, the grand mean is significantly different from zero, which should not come as too great of a surprise considering that Obama won the election. More telling is the 95% confidence interval, which runs roughly from to On feeling thermometers, a value of 50 is sometimes interpreted as a neutral candidate evaluation. Since this value is not included in the confidence interval, one has clear evidence of a positive attitude toward Obama on the average. In the third section of the output, we find the estimates of the variance components. The estimate of τ 00 is given as var( cons) and is 81.26, with a 95% confidence interval running from to The estimate of σ 2 is given as var(residual) and is , with a 96% confidence interval from to The final portion of the output provides the likelihood (LR) ratio test statistic for the null hypothesis that τ 00 = 0, i.e., that there is no cross-state variation in evaluations of Obama. The LR test compares to fit of the random effects ANOVA to that of a an ordinary regression model with a constant only. The latter model allows only for individual variation. The test statistic has one degree of freedom we are testing just one variance component and comes out to The reported 3

4 p-value is.000 and should actually be halved to obtain a less conservative test. 3 In this case, halving does not affect the conclusion: the null hypothesis has to be rejected there is evidence of cross-state variation in the evaluations of Obama. Intra-class Correlation Based on the estimates in the third part of the output, we can compute the intra-class correlation (ICC). Using the definition of the ICC, its estimator is ˆρ = ˆτ 00 ˆτ 00 + ˆσ 2 Substituting for ˆτ 00 and for ˆσ 2, the ICC is estimated as ˆρ =.094. This means that around 9 percent of the variance in Obama evaluations is due to differences across states, with the remaining 91 percent attributable to individual differences. Random Intercept Model We now add level-1 covariates to the model, for now assuming fixed effects. The intercept, however, is allowed to vary across states, in order to accommodate crossstate differences in the baseline evaluation of Obama. The mixed model that is to be estimated is thus obamafeel ij = γ 00 + γ 10 pid ij + γ 20 iddist ij + γ 30 black ij + δ 0j + ɛ ij This can be estimated in Stata using xtmixed obamafeel pid iddist black if flagmis==0, state:, var The estimates are shown in Figure 2. All three covariates have statistically significant effects. The Wald test shows, not surprisingly, that they are also jointly significant (W = , p =.000). As one moves up one unit on the partisanship scale, ratings of Obama are expected to decrease by around 7 points. Compared to whites, the expected ratings of blacks are some 12 points higher. An anomalous result is that for ideological distance, as the coefficient suggests that an increased distance to Obama on the left-right scale 3 Remember that we are testing a variance component, for which the alternative hypothesis is of necessity one-sided, namely τ 00 > 0 (negative variances, which would be allowed under a two-sided test, do not make sense). 4

5 Figure 2: Stata xtmixed Output for a Random Intercept Model actually improves his ratings. This result may possibly be a consequence of model misspecification, i.e., ideological distance picking up some other effect. There is evidence of variation in the intercepts. The variance of the δ 0j s is estimated as 11.19, which is sizable. Moreover, comparing the fit of the random intercept model to that of a regression model yields LR = with a halved p-value of.000. Thus, we can clearly reject the null hypothesis that the intercept is the same across all of the states, as the regression model assumes. Explained Variance How much of the variance do the three level-1 covariates explain? To answer this question, we compare the variance in the outcome in the random intercept model and that in the random effects ANOVA. Specifically, we evaluate R 2 1 = 1 V ar New(Y ) V ar Old (Y ) where V ar New (Y ) is the variance in Obama feelings in the random intercept model and V ar Old (Y ) is the variance in the random effects ANOVA. From the estimates in Figure 1, V ar Old = = From Figure 2, we get V ar New = = Consequently, R 2 1 =.48 so that the three covariates 5

6 OH NV AL LA TN MI ND IN NC MS VA PA MN DE FL GA RI NM KS OK OR IL SC MA CA AZ TX NJ NY WA WI CO CT Random Intercepts Figure 3: Empirical Bayes Estimates of the Random Intercepts Across States account for about 48 percent of the variation in the outcome. 4 Empirical Bayes Estimates across the states. To that effect, we compute It is useful to get a sense of how the intercepts vary ˆβ 0j = ˆγ 00 + ˆδ 0j where ˆδ 0j is the empirical Bayes residual. We can then display the estimates in a dot plot. The following syntax accomplishes this: predict ebres*, reffects level(state) gen beta0=obamafeel[ cons]+ebres1 graph dot (mean) beta0, over(v081201a, gap(v081201a) sort(beta0)) cw linetype(line) ytitle(random Intercepts) where V081201a is a variable containing the abbreviation of the state name. The resulting estimates are shown in Figure 3. We see that the smallest estimated intercept (19.77) occurs for Louisiana, and the highest one (29.73) occurs for Colorado. The spread in intercept values is considerable, further evidence that cross-state variation in the evaluations of Obama was considerable in Accounting for Variation in the Intercepts We now seek to account for the variation in the intercepts and do so by including the percentage of blacks in each state (pctblack). Thus, we estimate the following 4 For comparison, the OLS regression R 2 is.46, which is comparable. 6

7 Figure 4: Stata xtmixed Output for a Hierarchical Linear Model with Random Intercept and Level-2 Covariates mixed model: obamafeel ij = γ 00 + γ 01 pctblack j + γ 10 pid ij + γ 20 iddist ij + γ 30 black ij + δ 0j + ɛ ij We can also think of this as a model in which the state-level intercepts are given by β 0j = γ 00 + γ 01 pctblack j + δ 0j Estimation of the model is straightforward: one simply adds pctblack to the list of covariates in the xtmixed command. This produces the estimates shown in Figure 4. Focusing on the fixed effects, we observe that the level-1 covariates remain statistically significant. The newly added level-2 covariate is also statistically significant at conventional levels. We see that Obama evaluations tend to be more negative in states with higher shares of black people. Specifically, for every percentage point increase in the share of blacks, ratings of Obama are expected to drop by 2/10 of a point. 7

8 Explained Variance Addition of the level-2 covariate has reduced the size of the level-2 variance component, which is now The variance component remains statistically significant: the LR test statistic is 5.37, with a halved p-value of.005. It is thus clear that the percentage of blacks in a state does not fully account for all of the variation in the intercepts but, due to the reduced variance component, we can say that it accounts for some. To obtain a better sense of the variance that is explained by the percentage of blacks we compute a level-2 R 2 measure, which is given by R2 2 = 1 τ 00 New τ00 Old Here, τ Old 00 is the level-2 variance component from the random intercept model, which is estimated as (see Figure 2). Further, τ New 00 is the level-2 variance component from the model with the level-2 covariate and random intercept; this is estimated as 7.27 (see Figure 4). Thus, R 2 2 = 1 (7.27/11.19) =.35. This means that the percentage of blacks in a state accounts for around 35 percent of the variation in the intercepts. Random Slope and Intercept Model We now add a random slope for the effect of black on evaluations of Obama. We can represent the resulting model through the following system of equations: obamafeel ij = β 0j + β 1j pid ij + β 2j iddist ij + β 3j black ij + ɛ ij β 0j = γ 00 + γ 01 pctblack j + δ 0j β 1j = γ 10 β 2j = γ 20 β 3j = γ 30 + δ 3j The model can be estimated using the following syntax: xtmixed obamafeel pid iddist black pctblack if flagmis==0, state: black, covariance(indep) var The request for an independent covariance matrix (covariance(indep)) suppresses the estimation of a covariance between the random intercept and slopes. 5 5 In this particular example, the covariance looks reasonable when we estimate it by specifying the option covariance(unstruc) in Stata, specifically, the estimate is , which translates 8

9 Figure 5: Stata xtmixed Output for a Hierarchical Linear Model with a Random Intercept and Slope The estimation results are shown in Figure 5. Testing the Additional Variance and Covariance Components Looking at the Figure, we see a sizable variance component on race, suggesting that its effect varies across states. To see if we really need the variance component, we can perform a LR test comparing the new model to that from Figure 4. The latter model, which had a random intercept only, yielded a log-likelihood of ; this translates into a deviance of The new model has a log-likelihood of , corresponding to a deviance of The reduction in the deviance is thus 2.211, which is the LR test statistic. To obtain the p-value, we issue the command di chi2tail(1,2,211) which yields p =.137. When halved, this produces.069, which means that the variance component on the slope of race is only marginally significant. It is a into a correlation of The reason we decided not to include the covariance is that its estimate turns into a corner solution (-1) once we include the cross-level interaction. To keep consistency across models, we therefore decided to omit the covariance. This is also justified by the fact that it is not statistically significant. 6 Recall that the deviance is -2 times the log-likelihood. 9

10 CA OK MI NY TX PA FL OH KS VA MN TN NM CO AZ RI DE AL NC CT INIL WA LA SC GA MS Random Slopes for Black Figure 6: Empirical Bayes Estimates of the Random Slopes Across States judgment call whether to conclude if this p is sufficiently small to conclude that the slope of race varies. One reason to assume it is that with J = 33 level-2 units, we severely lack in statistical power and might be willing to settle for a slightly larger type-i error rate. Empirical Bayes Estimates To obtain a sense of the variation in the effect of race, we again compute the empirical Bayes estimates. The syntax for doing so is analogous to what we did for the random intercept model. The results are shown in Figure 6. As this figure reveals, the smallest effect occurs in California, where the gap between blacks and whites in terms of their evaluations of Obama is only about 22 points. The largest effect occurs in Mississippi, where the gap between blacks and whites is around 30 points. While perhaps not overwhelming, these differences are still noteworthy. A Hierarchical Linear Model with a Cross-Level Interaction We conclude our analysis of Obama feeling thermometer ratings by considering a possible explanation for the random slope on race. Our hypothesis is that the racial divide in the ratings depends on the percentage of blacks in the states. In states with a large black population, we expect the divide to be greater than in states were this is not the case. One reason could be that the perceived threat of a black presidential candidate to whites is greater when there is a sizable black population in 10

11 Figure 7: Stata xtmixed Output for a Hierarchical Linear Model with a Cross-Level Interaction the state. To bring this explanation into the model, we modify the random intercept and slope model by formulating the following level-2 model for the effect of race: β 3j = γ 30 + γ 31 pctblack j + δ 3j. This produces the following mixed model: obamafeel ij = γ 00 + γ 01 pctblack j + γ 10 pid ij + γ 20 iddist ij + γ 30 black ij + γ 31 pctblack j black ij + δ 0j + δ 1j black ij + ɛ ij Here pctblack j black ij is the cross-level interaction term. In our analysis, this interaction is called inter. It can simply be added to the list of predictors in the Stata syntax for the random slope and intercept model. The model estimates are shown in Figure 7. Explained Variance We see that the variance component on black has gone practically to zero. This means that percentage blacks in the state explains 100 percent of the variance in the slopes for race. This may seem like an unreasonable 11

12 amount, but level-2 R 2 estimates like these are not unheard of in multilevel analysis. Simple Slope Estimates Ignoring, i.e., averaging over, the level-1 and level-2 error components, the mean of the outcome variable is given by µ ij = γ 00 + γ 01 pctblack j + γ 10 pid ij + γ 20 iddist ij + γ 30 black ij + γ 31 pctblack j black ij If we are interested in the partial effect of black on this mean, then we compute µ ij black ij = γ 30 + γ 31 pctblack j This is the simple slope equation for race. We can assess the impact of percentage black on the effect of race in a variety of ways. First, we can set some values for the percentage of blacks, say the minimum, median, and maximum. We can then use Stata s lincom command to assess the slope of race at these values. This is done in Figure 8. We see that the predicted race gap in Obama evaluation ranges from 4.7, which is not quite significant, when the percentage black is at the minimum (of 1.2) to 25.3 when percentage black is at its maximum (of 37). We can also plot the simple slope over the entire range of percentage black and add a 95% confidence band. To compute this band, we need to compute the variance of the simple slope, which is V ar[ˆγ 30 + ˆγ 31 pctblack j ] = V ar[ˆγ 30 ] + 2pctblack j Ĉov[ˆγ 30, ˆγ 31 ] + pctblack 2 j V ar[ˆγ 31 ] The variances and covariances of the estimators can be obtained by giving the estat vce command. This yields V ar[ˆγ 30 ] = 6.721, V ar[ˆγ31 ] = 0.019, and Ĉov[ˆγ 30, ˆγ 31 ] =.298. The 95% confidence interval can then be computed as ˆγ 30 + ˆγ 31 pctblack j ± 1.96 V ar[ˆγ 30 + ˆγ 31 pctblack j ] The resulting graph is shown in Figure 9. 12

13 Figure 8: The Impact of Race on Obama Evaluations at Different Values of Percentage Black Percent Black Figure 9: The Simple Slope for Black on Obama Evaluations 13

### Other State Policy. CA Policy. Increase Requested

Rate History Contact: 1 (800) 331-1538 Form * ** Date Date Name 1 NH94 I D 9/14/1998 N/A N/A N/A 35.00% 20.00% 1/25/2006 3/27/2006 8/20/2006 2 LTC94P I F 9/14/1998 N/A N/A N/A 35.00% 20.00% 1/25/2006 3/27/2006

### Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants in the United States: Current Patterns of Distribution and Recent Trends. Preliminary Tables and Figures

Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants in the United States: Current Patterns of Distribution and Recent Trends Preliminary Tables and Figures Kevin M. Stange, PhD Assistant Professor Gerald R. Ford

### NAAUSA Security Survey

NAAUSA Security Survey 1. How would you rate the importance of each of the following AUSA security improvements. Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not at all important Secure parking

### Mapping State Proficiency Standards Onto the NAEP Scales:

Mapping State Proficiency Standards Onto the NAEP Scales: Variation and Change in State Standards for Reading and Mathematics, 2005 2009 NCES 2011-458 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Contents 1 Executive

### State Corporate Income Tax-Calculation

State Corporate Income Tax-Calculation 1 Because it takes all elements (a*b*c) to calculate the personal or corporate income tax, no one element of the corporate income tax can be analyzed separately from

### Regional Electricity Forecasting

Regional Electricity Forecasting presented to Michigan Forum on Economic Regulatory Policy January 29, 2010 presented by Doug Gotham State Utility Forecasting Group State Utility Forecasting Group Began

### Federation of State Boards of Physical Therapy Jurisdiction Licensure Reference Guide Topic: Continuing Competence

This document reports CEU requirements for renewal. It describes: Number of required for renewal Who approves continuing education Required courses for renewal Which jurisdictions require active practice

### NHIS State Health insurance data

State Estimates of Health Insurance Coverage Data from the National Health Interview Survey Eve Powell-Griner SHADAC State Survey Workshop Washington, DC, January 13, 2009 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND

### TITLE POLICY ENDORSEMENTS BY STATE

TITLE POLICY ENDORSEMENTS BY STATE State Endorsement ID Endorsement Description AK ARM ALTA 6 Adjustable (Variable) Rate AK BALLOON FNMA Balloon Endorsement AK CONDO ALTA 4 Condominium AK COPY FEE Copies

### Standardized Pharmacy Technician Education and Training

Standardized Pharmacy Technician Education and Training Kevin N. Nicholson, RPh, JD Vice President, Pharmacy Regulatory Affairs National Association of Chain Drug Stores May 19, 2009 Overview of how technicians

### Florida Workers Comp Market

Florida Workers Comp Market 10/5/10 Lori Lovgren 561-893-3337 Lori_Lovgren@ncci.com Florida Workers Compensation Rates 10-1-03 1-1-11 to 1-1-11* Manufacturing + 9.9% 57.8% Contracting + 7.3% 64.4 % Office

### Federation of State Boards of Physical Therapy Jurisdiction Licensure Reference Guide Topic: PTA Supervision Requirements

These tables provide information on what type of supervision is required for PTAs in various practice settings. Definitions Onsite Supervision General Supervision Indirect Supervision The supervisor is

### The Economic Impact of Commercial Airports in 2010

The Economic Impact of Commercial Airports in 2010 January 2012 Prepared for: Airports Council International North America Prepared by: CDM Smith 8805 Governor s Hill Drive Cincinnati, Ohio 45249 Table

### LexisNexis Law Firm Billable Hours Survey Report

LexisNexis Law Firm Billable Hours Survey Report Executive Summary Despite the critical impact on a firm s bottom line, it remains challenging for some attorneys and legal staff to efficiently capture

### Return-to-Work Outcomes Among Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) Beneficiaries

Return-to-Work Outcomes Among Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) Beneficiaries Yonatan Ben-Shalom Arif Mamun Presented at the CSDP Forum Washington, DC September 17, 2014 Acknowledgments The research

### Table 11: Residual Workers Compensation Insurance Market By Jurisdiction

Table 11: Residual Workers Market By AL Yes/NCCI 3 Two declination AK Yes/NCCI Two declination AZ Yes/NCCI Three declination, including one from the State Fund Agent/ ()/ Access? 4 Recommend NWCRP Recommend

### States Future Economic Standing

States Future Economic Standing if current education levels remain the same. Presentation by Joe Marks SREB Director of Data Services State Leaders Forum St. Petersburg, Florida November 17, 2004 1 The

### The Lincoln National Life Insurance Company Variable Life Portfolio

The Lincoln National Life Insurance Company Variable Life Portfolio State Availability as of 12/14/2015 PRODUCTS AL AK AZ AR CA CO CT DE DC FL GA GU HI ID IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MP MD MA MI MN MS MO MT NE

### Department of Business and Information Technology

Department of Business and Information Technology College of Applied Science and Technology The University of Akron Summer 01 Graduation Survey Report 1. How would you rate your OVERALL EXPERIENCE at The

### STATE INCOME TAX WITHHOLDING INFORMATION DOCUMENT

STATE INCOME TAX WITHHOLDING INFORMATION DOCUMENT Zurich American Life Insurance Company (ZALICO) Administrative Offices: PO BOX 19097 Greenville, SC 29602-9097 800/449-0523 This document is intended to

### Highway Loss Data Institute Bulletin

Highway Loss Data Institute Bulletin Helmet Use Laws and Medical Payment Injury Risk for Motorcyclists with Collision Claims VOL. 26, NO. 13 DECEMBER 29 INTRODUCTION According to the National Highway Traffic

### ehealth Price Index Trends and Costs in the Short-Term Health Insurance Market, 2013 and 2014

ehealth Price Index Trends and Costs in the Short-Term Health Insurance Market, 2013 and 2014 June 2015 1 INTRODUCTION In this report, ehealth provides an analysis of consumer shopping trends and premium

### State Survey Results MULTI-LEVEL LICENSURE TITLE PROTECTION

MULTI-LEVEL LICENSURE TITLE PROTECTION Prior AK MN TN MO AL MO KY VA AZ MS MO DC NYC NE HI ME OR IA RI PA IL TX VA KS WA LA WI MA WV Prior AK ME OR TN AL MI PA HI CO MS FL DC NC MN IA NE UT IL NV WA IN

### EFFECTS OF LEGALIZING MARIJUANA 1

EFFECTS OF LEGALIZING MARIJUANA 1 Effects of Legalizing Medical On Illegal Use Professor Elizabeth Jacobs, PhD Psychology 230 November 29, 2010 EFFECTS OF LEGALIZING MARIJUANA 2 Introduction With the increasing

### U.S. Department of Education NCES 2011-460 NAEP. Tools on the Web

U.S. Department of Education NCES 2011-460 NAEP Tools on the Web Whether you re an educator, a member of the media, a parent, a student, a policymaker, or a researcher, there are many resources available

### Federation of State Boards of Physical Therapy Jurisdiction Licensure Reference Guide Topic: License Renewal Who approves courses?

Federation of State s of Physical The table below provides information on approval of continuing education/competence courses and for each jurisdiction. Summary Number of jurisdictions requiring approval

### United States Bankruptcy Court District of Arizona NOTICE TO: DEBTOR ATTORNEYS, BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS AND DEBTORS

United States Bankruptcy Court District of Arizona NOTICE TO: DEBTOR ATTORNEYS, BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS AND DEBTORS UPDATED REQUIREMENTS FOR FORMAT OF MASTER MAILING LIST The meeting of creditors

### ANALYSIS OF US AND STATE-BY-STATE CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS AND POTENTIAL SAVINGS IN FUTURE GLOBAL TEMPERATURE AND GLOBAL SEA LEVEL RISE

ANALYSIS OF US AND STATE-BY-STATE CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS AND POTENTIAL SAVINGS IN FUTURE GLOBAL TEMPERATURE AND GLOBAL SEA LEVEL RISE by Paul Knappenberger SPPI ORIGINAL PAPER Updated April 2013 ANALYSIS

Broadband Technology Opportunities Program: Sustainable Broadband Adoption and Public Computer Centers National Telecommunications and Information Agency (NTIA) U. S. Department of Commerce Funded by the

### Enrollment Snapshot of Radiography, Radiation Therapy and Nuclear Medicine Technology Programs 2013

Enrollment Snapshot of Radiography, Radiation Therapy and Nuclear Medicine Technology Programs 2013 A Nationwide Survey of Program Directors Conducted by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists

### CINCINNATI HILLS CHRISTIAN ACADEMY COLLEGE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS

CINCINNATI HILLS CHRISTIAN ACADEMY COLLEGE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STUDENTS Complete & bring with you to your Junior College Planning Meeting. NAME: ADDRESS: EMAIL: BIRTHDATE: PHONE #: DATE: PLEASE READ BEFORE

### Ambulance Industry Receives Financial Relief Through the MMA

Ambulance Industry Receives Financial Relief Through the MMA On June 25, 2004, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) issued Transmittal 220 to Medicare Contractors outlining changes to the

### State Annual Report Due Dates for Business Entities page 1 of 10

State Annual Report Due Dates for Business Entities page 1 of 10 If you form a formal business entity with the state, you may be required to file periodic reports on the status of your entity to preserve

### LexisNexis Law Firm Billable Hours Survey Top Line Report. June 11, 2012

LexisNexis Law Firm Billable Hours Survey Top Line Report June 11, 2012 Executive Summary by Law Firm Size According to the survey, we found that attorneys were not billing all the time they worked. There

### United States Bankruptcy Court District of Arizona

United States Bankruptcy Court District of Arizona NOTICE TO: DEBTOR ATTORNEYS, BANKRUPTCY PETITION PREPARERS AND DEBTORS UPDATED REQUIREMENTS FOR FORMAT OF MASTER MAILING LIST The meeting of creditors

### A N S W E R S R E L 2 0 0 9 N

ISSUES& ANSWERS REL 2009 No. 076 Reducing stereotype threat in classrooms: a review of socialpsychological intervention studies on improving the achievement of Black students U.S. D e p a r t m e n t o

### Table 12: Availability Of Workers Compensation Insurance Through Homeowner s Insurance By Jurisdiction

AL No 2 Yes No See footnote 2. AK No Yes No N/A AZ Yes Yes Yes No specific coverage or rate information available. AR No Yes No N/A CA Yes No No Section 11590 of the CA State Insurance Code mandates the

Residual Markets, Uninsured Motorists and Competition in Maryland Auto Insurance Maryland Auto Insurance Plan Senate Hearing on Uninsured Motorists Annapolis, MD December 16, 2015 Download at www.iii.org/presentations

### Dashboard. Campaign for Action. Welcome to the Future of Nursing:

Welcome to the Future of Nursing: Campaign for Action Dashboard About this Dashboard: These are graphic representations of measurable goals that the Campaign has selected to evaluate our efforts in support

### In Utilization and Trend In Quality

AHA Taskforce on Variation in Health Care Spending O Hare Hilton, Chicago February 10, 2010 Allan M. Korn, M.D., FACP Senior Vice President, Clinical Affairs and Chief Medical Officer Variation In Utilization

### Enrollment Snapshot of Radiography, Radiation Therapy and Nuclear Medicine Technology Programs 2012

Enrollment Snapshot of, and Nuclear Medicine Programs 2012 A Nationwide Survey of Program Directors Conducted by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists January 2013 2012 ASRT. All rights reserved.

Frequently Asked Questions About Using The GRE Search Service General Information Who can use the GRE Search Service? Institutions eligible to participate in the GRE Search Service include (1) institutions

### AN INSIDE LOOK AT SOCIAL RECRUITING IN THE USA

AN INSIDE LOOK AT SOCIAL RECRUITING IN THE USA THE BULLHORN REACH RANKINGS REPORT TM WWW.BULLHORNREACH.COM @BULLHORNREACH JUNE 2012 COPYRIGHT 2012 BULLHORN, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

### COUNCIL OF GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN COMMUNICATION SCIENCES AND DISORDERS 1996-97 NATIONAL SURVEY OF UNDERGRADUATE AND GRADUATE PROGRAMS

COUNCIL OF GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN COMMUNICATION SCIENCES AND DISORDERS 1996-97 NATIONAL SURVEY OF UNDERGRADUATE AND GRADUATE PROGRAMS Conducted by the Information Exchange Committee Linda Petrosino Bowling

### Health of Wisconsin. Children and young adults (ages 1-24) B D. Report Card 2013. July 2010

Health of Wisconsin Summary Grades Life stage Health grade Health disparity grade Infants (less than 1 year of age) C D Children and young adults (ages 1-24) B D Working-age adults (ages 25-64) B C Older

### Health Workforce Data Collection: Findings from a Survey of States

Health Workforce Data Collection: Findings from a Survey of States Jean Moore, DrPH David Armstrong, PhD Health Workforce Technical Assistance Center School of Public Health University at Albany, SUNY

### How to Eliminate Your Tax Debt

How to Eliminate Your Tax Debt Bankruptcy Solutions for Tax-Burdened Individuals A White Paper Presented by MARKOWITZ O DONNELL How To Eliminate Your Tax Debt Bankruptcy Solutions for Tax-Burdened Individuals

### Enrollment Snapshot of Radiography, Radiation Therapy and Nuclear Medicine Technology Programs 2014

Enrollment Snapshot of, Radiation Therapy and Nuclear Medicine Technology Programs 2014 January 2015 2015 ASRT. All rights reserved. Reproduction in any form is forbidden without written permission from

### INTRODUCTION. Figure 1. Contributions by Source and Year: 2012 2014 (Billions of dollars)

Annual Survey of Public Pensions: State- and Locally- Administered Defined Benefit Data Summary Report: Economy-Wide Statistics Division Briefs: Public Sector By Phillip Vidal Released July 2015 G14-ASPP-SL

### Building a Market for Small Wind: The Break-Even Turnkey Cost of Residential Wind Systems in the United States

Building a Market for Small Wind: The Break-Even Turnkey Cost of Residential Wind Systems in the United States Ryan H. Wiser Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory rhwiser@lbl.gov; 510-486-5474 Global WINDPOWER

### Notices of Cancellation / Nonrenewal and / or Other Related Forms

Forms are listed alphabetically by form title. INDEX POLICY CODES 1. Auto 2. Fire and Multiple Peril 3. Liability 4. Property, other than Fire and Multiple Peril (e.g. Crime & Inland Marine) 5. Workers

### Final Expense Life Insurance

Dignified Choice - Classic Series Final Expense Life Insurance Columbian Mutual Life Insurance Company Home Office: Binghamton, NY Administrative Service Office: Norcross, GA Columbian Life Insurance Company

### 2016 Individual Exchange Premiums updated November 4, 2015

2016 Individual Exchange Premiums updated November 4, 2015 Within the document, you'll find insights across 50 states and DC with available findings (i.e., carrier participation, price leadership, gross

### State of the Residential Property Management Market Survey Report, Fall 2012

State of the Residential Property Management Market Survey Report, Fall 2012 Recently we asked you to give us your opinion regarding the state of the residential property management market. Now that we

### DEGREE QUALIFICATIONS PROFILE: A PRIMER FOR IR AND ASSESSMENT PROFESSIONALS

DEGREE QUALIFICATIONS PROFILE: A PRIMER FOR IR AND ASSESSMENT PROFESSIONALS Natasha Jankowski, NILOA, Assistant Director George Kuh, NILOA, Director AIR May 28, 2014 The Plan Brief Introduction to DQP

### State Special Education Forms September 2002 Eileen M. Ahearn, Ph.D.

QTA A brief analysis of a critical issue in special education Special Education s September 2002 Eileen M. Ahearn, Ph.D. Purpose and Method One of the major issues mentioned in connection with the pending

### MT/editor Total Responses: 516 full-time, 212 part-time, with 872 total respondents in the MT field (MTs/editors; QA; MT supervisors)

Medical Transcription Summary MT/editor Total Responses: 516 full-time, 212 part-time, with 872 total respondents in the MT field (MTs/editors; QA; MT supervisors) MT Salary Overall 2006: \$25,400 2007:

### LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY ORGANIZATION CHART

LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY ORGANIZATION CHART The following Chart has been designed to allow you in a summary format, determine the minimum requirements to form a limited liability company in all 50 states

### Recipient Demographics

ZINN EDUCATION PROJECT Recipient Demographics The following graphs profile the demographic of the people who ordered the Zinn Education Project packets and how they heard about the project. The packet

### When To Refinance. Your Mortgage

When To Refinance Your Mortgage US Mortgage Corporation (NMLS ID#3901). Corporate Office is located at 201 Old Country Road, Suite 140, Melville, NY 11747; 631-580-2600 or (800) 562-6715 (LOANS15). Licensed

### States Served. CDFI Fund 601 Thirteenth Street, NW, Suite 200, South, Washington, DC 20005 (202) 622-8662 25

s Served CDFI Fund 601 Thirteenth Street, NW, Suite 200, South, Washington, DC 20005 (202) 622-8662 25 New Markets Tax Credit Program Sixth Round (2008) s Served NOTES: (1) Allocatees that are italicized

### Dartmouth / SilverScript Retiree Prescription Drug Plan

Dartmouth / SilverScript Retiree Prescription Drug Plan Agenda What s Happening /Why the Change? What is Medicare Part-D? Who is SilverScript? How is this affecting my Dartmouth coverage? What do I need

2015 Q2 Small Business Credit Outlook A Change Will Do You Good Foreign markets falling. The U.S. economy holding up relatively well due to the consumer. Technology radically changing entire industries

### STATE SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM PARTICIPATION RATES IN 2009 FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE

Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act.... STATE SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM PARTICIPATION RATES IN 2009 FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE Recent studies have examined national participation

### 2014 APICS SUPPLY CHAIN COUNCIL OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT EMPLOYMENT OUTLOOK

2014 APICS SUPPLY CHAIN COUNCIL OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT EMPLOYMENT OUTLOOK 1 ABOUT THIS REPORT APICS Supply Chain Council, in conjunction with the Cameron School of Business at the University of North Carolina-Wilmington,

### Life Settlements Source List

BROKERS Ashar Group LLC - Life Settlement Specialists 407-772-1818 www.ashargroup.com Except AK NH VT Except AK NH VT Varies based on current market opportunities and groups that pass Ashar s due diligence

### Breakeven Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities (Report Summary)

Breakeven Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities (Report Summary) Paul Denholm Robert M. Margolis Sean Ong Billy Roberts December 2009 NREL/PR-6A2-47248

### Forethought Medicare Supplement and ForeLife Final Expense Life Insurance Phase 1

Forethought Medicare Supplement and ForeLife Final Expense Life Insurance Phase 1 FOR AGENT USE ONLY NOT FOR USE WITH CONSUMERS 1 Company History Forethought Financial Group, Inc., through its subsidiaries,

### FIELD SERVICE BULLETIN

FSB_971_1A HUGHES NETWORK SYSTEMS FIELD SERVICE BULLETIN SUBJECT: Updated Commissioning Rules FSB NUMBER: FSB_971_1A FSB ISSUE DATE: 7/1/9 SUBMITTED BY: J. Callow APPROVED BY: D. Dostalik CHANGE TO BE

### Understanding Payroll Recordkeeping Requirements

Understanding Payroll Recordkeeping Requirements 1 Presented by Sally Thomson, CPP Directory of Payroll Training American Payroll Association sthomson@americanpayroll.org 2 Agenda Recordkeeping Requirements

### AmGUARD Insurance Company EastGUARD Insurance Company NorGUARD Insurance Company WestGUARD Insurance Company GUARD

About Us For over 30 years, we have protected the interests of the small- to mid-sized businesses that insure with us. At Berkshire Hathaway Insurance Companies, we dedicate our efforts in the areas that

### Enrollment Snapshot of Radiography, Radiation Therapy and Nuclear Medicine Technology Programs 2015

Enrollment Snapshot of, Radiation Therapy and Nuclear Medicine Technology Programs 2015 December 2015 2015 ASRT. All rights reserved. Reproduction in any form is forbidden without written permission from

### Ending Veteran and Veteran Family Homelessness: The Homeless Veteran Supported Employment Program (HVSEP)

Ending Veteran and Veteran Family Homelessness: The Homeless Veteran Supported Employment Program (HVSEP) Carma A. Heitzmann, Ph.D. National Program Manager HVSEP VHA Homeless Program Office carma.heitzmann@va.gov

### APICS OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT EMPLOYMENT OUTLOOK REPORT SUMMER 2013

APICS OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT EMPLOYMENT OUTLOOK REPORT SUMMER 2013 1 ABOUT THIS REPORT APICS, in conjunction with the Cameron School of Business at the University of North Carolina Wilmington, is pleased

### Moving TIM from Good to Great?

FHWA Update: Traffic Incident Management Program Moving TIM from Good to Great? Iowa Traffic Safety Forum November 19, 2014 Mr. Jeff King (Retired Capt. AzDPS) Traffic Incident Management Public Safety

### HLM software has been one of the leading statistical packages for hierarchical

Introductory Guide to HLM With HLM 7 Software 3 G. David Garson HLM software has been one of the leading statistical packages for hierarchical linear modeling due to the pioneering work of Stephen Raudenbush

### Athene Annuity (DE) Rates

January 29, 2015 Athene Annuity (DE) s Athene Benefit 10 SM, Athene Choice, Athene Max and Athene 7 MYG SM rates will remain unchanged for the Athene Annuity (DE) product series. Guaranteed payout rates

` Hourly Wages For additional information, please contact: Jeanette Janota, Surveys & Analysis American Speech-Language-Hearing Association 2200 Research Boulevard Rockville, MD 20850-3289 800-498-2071,

### January 2015. Report on SBLF Participants Small Business Lending Growth Submitted to Congress pursuant to Section 4106(3) of

January 2015 Report on SBLF Participants Small Business Lending Growth Submitted to Congress pursuant to Section 4106(3) of the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 OVERVIEW Small businesses are a vital part

### Variable Universal Life Permanent Life Insurance. Flexible premiums and potential cash value

Variable Universal Life Permanent Life Insurance Flexible premiums and potential cash value Why consider a Variable Universal Life Policy? Permanent life insurance protection, plus potential cash value

### The Survey of Undergraduate and Graduate Programs in Communication. Sciences and Disorders has been conducted since 1982-83. Surveys were conducted in

Introduction The Survey of Undergraduate and Graduate Programs in Communication Sciences and Disorders has been conducted since 1982-83. Surveys were conducted in 1982-83, 1983-84, 1984-85, 1985-86, 1986-87,

### What does Georgia gain. by investing in its

What does Georgia gain by investing in its colleges and universities 2 A tremendous return: More economic prosperity. Less government spending. A stronger competitive advantage. A higher quality of life.

### 50-State Analysis. School Attendance Age Limits. 700 Broadway, Suite 810 Denver, CO 80203-3442 303.299.3600 Fax: 303.296.8332

0-State Analysis School Attendance Age Limits 700 Broadway, Suite 810 Denver, CO 80203-32 303.299.3600 Fax: 303.296.8332 Introduction School Attendance Age Limits By Marga Mikulecky April 2013 This 0-State

### American Equity Investment Life Insurance Company Bonus Gold (Index 1-07) PFG Marketing Group, Inc.

A Fixed Indexed Annuity with a 16-year surrender period. This product is not available in AK AL CT DE MN NJ NV NY OH OK OR PR TX UT VI WA Ratings A.M. Best : A- Standard & Poor's: BBB+ 1 Year S&P 500 Annual

### Vocational Rehabilitation

Vocational Rehabilitation Senate Education Appropriations Committee October 7, 2015 Emily Sikes, Chief Legislative Analyst, OPPAGA oppaga THE FLORIDA LEGISLATURE S OFFICE OF PROGRAM POLICY ANALYSIS & GOVERNMENT

### An Introduction to... Equity Settlement

An Introduction to... Equity Settlement The New York CEMA & Co-op Process June 2009 About Us... Established in 1986 Over 100 Associates Approved Vendor for Bank of America Preferred Vendor for Many National

### Rates and Bills An Analysis of Average Electricity Rates & Bills in Georgia and the United States

Rates and Bills An Analysis of Average Electricity Rates & Bills in Georgia and the United States During regulatory and public policy discussions of electricity costs for Georgia ratepayers, the conversation

### GE Inventory Finance. Unlock your cash potential.

GE Inventory Finance Unlock your cash potential. Benefits of Floor Planning Increased sales Interest-free extended terms Ecommerce / Customer Online Management Systems (COMS) (Purchase Approvals / Inventory

### Regional Short-term Electricity Consumption Models

Regional Short-term Electricity Consumption Models Prepared for 25 th Annual North American Conference of the USAEE/IAEE, Denver September 18-21, 25 Frederick L. Joutz, Department of Economics The George

### Regional Short-term Electricity Consumption Models

Regional Short-term Electricity Consumption Models Prepared for Brown Bag Seminar on Forecasting of the Federal Forecasters Consortium (FFC), in alliance with Research Program on Forecasting at The George

### Estimating college enrollment rates for Virginia public high school graduates

ISSUES& ANSWERS REL 2011 No. 104 Estimating college enrollment rates for Virginia public high school graduates ISSUES& ANSWERS REL 2011 No. 104 Estimating college enrollment rates for Virginia public high

### State and Local Sales Tax Revenue Losses from E-Commerce: Updated Estimates

State and Local Sales Tax Revenue Losses from E-Commerce: Updated Estimates by Donald Bruce, Assistant Professor dbruce@utk.edu and William F. Fox, Professor billfox@utk.edu Center for Business and Economic

### Please follow the directions once you locate the Stata software in your computer. Room 114 (Business Lab) has computers with Stata software

STATA Tutorial Professor Erdinç Please follow the directions once you locate the Stata software in your computer. Room 114 (Business Lab) has computers with Stata software 1.Wald Test Wald Test is used

### Funding Your Technology and Archive Conversion Needs

Funding Your Technology and Archive Conversion Needs Presented at the NACRC Legislative Conference March 5, 2011 Facilitators: Larry Burtness & Carol Foglesong Technology funding The question was asked

### ENS Governmental Format Status (As of 06/16/2008)

Alaska AK Production (G) Region D Tan - Development Required Alabama AL Production (G) Region C Arkansas AR Production (G) Region C D Yellow - Pended for required Beta Site Green - In Production - Direct

### STC Insured Deposit Program (STID) Updated 06/16/2016

STC Insured Deposit Program (STID) Welcome to the AIG Federal Savings Bank ( AIG FSB ), d/b/a SunAmerica Trust Company ( STC ) STC Insured Deposit Program. Under this program, available cash balances (from

### National Student Clearinghouse. CACG Meeting

National Student Clearinghouse Presentation for CACG Meeting February 2010 Dr. Jeff Tanner, Vice President The Clearinghouse A non-profit organization founded in 1993 in affiliation with several educational

### Admitting Foreign Trained Lawyers. National Conference of Bar Examiners Chicago, May 2, 2015

Admitting Foreign Trained Lawyers National Conference of Bar Examiners Chicago, May 2, 2015 Professor Laurel S. Terry Penn State s Dickinson Law Carlisle, Pennsylvania LTerry@psu.edu Overview of Remarks

### Understanding. Debt. Consolidation

Understanding Debt Consolidation US Mortgage Corporation (NMLS ID#3901). Corporate Office is located at 201 Old Country Road, Suite 140, Melville, NY 11747; 631-580-2600 or (800) 562-6715 (LOANS15). Licensed

SUMMARY The 80/20 Rule: How Insurers Spend Your Health Insurance Premiums The Affordable Care Act holds health insurers accountable to consumers and ensures that American families receive value for their