1 CELLULAR RESPIRATION GAME You will need: copies of the pattern pages printed in color, a few on card stock if possible scissors tape two dice for every group of 2-4 players some small colored tokens to represent electrons protons -- M&M minis are perfect. (If you can t get these, substitute with small objects about 1/2 centimeter (1/4 inch) in several colors or shapes.) a unique token for each player to move about on the board (small enough to fit into the spaces on Glycolysis) (Flat-bottom jellied cies like spice drops DOTS work well, if you want to use edible tokens.) ASSEMBLY: 1) Copy the board pages (on card stock, if possible) then tape them together like this: is splitting glucose in half THIS CYCLE IS INVISIBLE WHEN YOU LOOK AT A REAL IS NOT REALLY A CIRCLE. THINGS ARE HAPPENING ALL OVER ALL THE TMIE! RIDE ON A RED ARROW CELL! THIS PROCESS END OF THE LINE This step turns pyruvates into acetyl-coa s. The next process, the Krebs Cycle, burns acetyl-coa s. REMEMBER, If you ve only done one pyruvate, go back to the pyruvate portal. If you ve done two, your token is now finished. (pyruvate oxidation) ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN INTERMEMBRANE SPACE OXYGEN is the final electron acceptor ( makes H2O) ROLL TO MOVE ALONG THE SIDEWALK. EACH TIME YOU STOP YOU ANSWER ANOTHER KREBS KWESTION.. ons 3 prot (also known as the Citric Acid Cycle or the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle ) e 1 ATP mak THE GOAL IS TO FILL TRUCKS! They will provide the fuel for the last step. 2) Copy the page with the Karousel (octagon with red arrows) onto card stock, cut out Karousel shape (octagon). Then use an X-Acto knife (or scissors if necessary) to cut out the rectangles that say CUT OUT. Use a paper fastener to secure the Karousel onto the middle page, carefully matching the center dots. (See final set-up picture below.) 3) Cut out the PROTON box (bottom of Karousel page) assemble it as shown in the picture. Secure tabs with glue or tape. Lightly tape the PROTON box to the rectangle that says, Proton box goes here. (See final set-up picture.) 4) Copy the card pages onto card stock then cut apart the cards. Note that ideally the cards will be double-sided. If you can t manage to do double-sided copies, you can simply print the question sides then mark the cards so that you know which are for Glycolysis vs. Krebs. (Different colors?) However, most printers can manage to print the back side if you feed in printed pages. 5) Copy the score cards onto regular paper cut them apart. Each player needs a score card a pencil. 6) Copy the truck token page onto card stock cut apart the cards. You can cut strips first, then put several strips on top of each other, thus cut off several trucks at once. This speeds up the cutting process. NOTE that there are NADH trucks FADH2 trucks. ******************************* These boards are scientifically accurate can be used to teach this topic before you play.
2 SET UP: 1) Give each player an ATP score card a pencil. 2) Make sure each player has a unique token to move around on the board (small enough to fit into the spaces). 3) Make sure each group of 2-4 players has: a die (number cube) a set of Glycolysis Questions a set of Krebs Kwestions a supply of truck tokens (about a dozen NADH per player, 2 FADH2 per player) a supply of M&M minis (or whatever you are substituting) with at least several dozen of each color (Greens blues will represent protons, warm colors (red, yellow, orange, brown) will be electrons. *************************************************************************************************************************************** HOW TO PLAY: NOTE: This game is designed for 2-3 players. 4 can be accommodated, but if you divide those 4 into pairs of 2, the game will take less time to play there will be less waiting between turns. (And less crowded on the ETC section of the board.) However, if you need to have 4 on a board, you can probably make it work. SECOND NOTE: If you don t have a very long session in which to play the game, consider doing the game in two sessions, or even three. Three shorter sessions would be Glycolysis, Krebs, ETC. For two sessions, combine Glycolysis with the Krebs section. You can just make a note at the end of the first session where each player was whose turn it was, then pick up where you left off when you play again. ********** DIRECTIONS FOR PAGE: 1) Players will step on each space, both the circles the arrows. If there are only two players, they can start out sharing the first pace, but if you have more players or if the tokens are large, start out on the edge of the board, not on the first space. 2) Players must earn their hops by answering questions about glycolysis. A player draws a question card hs it another player who will read it out loud. As indicated on the card, if the player can answer the question without any clues being given, they can move 4 spaces. (No penalty for wrong guess. If the player gets it wrong, the clues can then be read, reducing the value of the card, but allowing the player to then guess the right answer.) If the player guesses correctly after the possible answers are given, he can move 3 spaces. If he misses, he can guess again, but the card will only be worth 2 spaces. If he misses again, he can guess again but then only move 1 space. (By the third guess, there will only be one clue left, so he is guaranteed to get it right.) NOTE: Many of the answers to these questions can be found by looking at the game board itself! Take a close look at the molecules word labels--they are scientifically accurate can be used for information! 3) Notice that at step 4, you can go two directions. This is because two different molecules are formed (due to the non-symmetric nature of the glucose molecule). If actually l on arrow 4, then proceed to the right on your next turn. If you don t l on arrow 4 (just pass by it) follow the down direction. 4) When you pass by, or l on, a space that has an ATP symbol, use the pencil to put an X over one of the ATPs on the score card. The first two ATPs are gray because you need to cross them off, but you don t get to count them in your final tally. This happens because you need to offset the two ATPs that you used initially, to get the process started. Notice that there is a dashed line across the middle of the page, separating the first half of the process (the energy consuming [investment] phase) from the second half (the energy producing [harvesting] stage). When you pass by, or l on, a truck (NADH) pick up a truck token. 5) Keep using the glycolysis question cards until you reach the stop sign. The pyruvate portal the purple arrow count as spaces to l on. (Notice that you ll be coming back to the purple arrow again after you finish one round of the ETC.) There aren t any token to represent the pyruvates because they wouldn t be actually used in the game. 6) At the stop sign, roll until you get an even number. If you roll an even number, then you roll again to proceed on that turn. If you roll odd, you have to wait until next turn to try again. (This simulates the necessity of oxygen to proceed.)
3 page, continued: 7) After you roll an even number, your next move is to hop on the numbers 1 to 4, picking up a truck token when you hop on number 2. Conclude this move by ling on the red arrow (on the Krebs Karousel) that is waiting for you right where it says, Ride on a red arrow. Once you l on this arrow, your turn is over. DIRECTIONS FOR THE KREBS KAROUSEL PAGE: (NOTE: Yes, we know carousel begins with a c. This game uses k as a gimmick to match the k in Krebs. ) 1) Only one token is allowed on each red arrow. 2) Once you l on the Karousel, your next moves are simply to advance the Karousel past one enzyme. The red arrows always stop between the enzymes, pointing to the trucks. They never stop on the enzymes. The enzymes do their jobs as the arrows swing past, so to speak. You will see the words ENZYME ACTION in the window as the enzyme does its job. When your token/arrow stops on a picture of a truck, you pick up the corresponding truck token. You will also cross off an ATP at one point. 3) Once on the Karousel, you ride around, even if someone else is pushing it. The players whose turn it is will push the Karousel, but everyone will get a free ride on that turn. No matter who pushed the Karousel, all players will collect whatever their arrow points to when the Karousel stops. 4) Once your token reaches the truck that is next to the words EXIT HERE, you jump off the Karousel st on the EXIT HERE space, wait there until your next turn. 5) On your next turn, you begin the Krebs Kwestions. The goal of going along the sidewalk is to earn coupons that will give you double rolls on the last part of the game. (The question cards also function as coupons.) If you happen to roll a lot of low numbers, you will get extra chances to earn more coupons. (One of the few times when low rolls are desirable!) NOTE: There aren t any hints for these questions. However, there is a lot of helpful information right on the Karousel! Look at the pictures in the Karousel windows, read the labels, you will be able to answer many of the questions. ************** DIRECTIONS FOR THE Electron Transport Chain (ETC) PAGE: NOTE: To get all 36 of your ATPs, you will have to go through the Krebs Karousel the ETC not once, but twice. If you are limited on time, you might want to reduce the number of ATPs from 36 to 18. The number 36 was chosen because that is the correct maximum number you can get from one glucose molecule (which breaks into two pyruvates, each of which must go through the Krebs Cycle then the ETC.) SECOND NOTE: Particularly in this third section, it is important to remind ourselves that the real goal of this game is to learn the science of cellular respiration. If you have minor frustrations such as someone blocking spaces too much, or you have a request for a minor rule change, don t let these minor issues steal the show. As teachers often say, Everyone wins if we all learn something! The point is to learn the science in a relatively painless way. As you move the cies along the board, you ll be creating an experiential memory that will stay with you longer than just reading about it in a book. BEFORE YOU START: Look at the ATP synthase machine at the end of the line (the egg beater thing) you will see that it takes 3 protons to make 1 ATP. The protons will fall down through the synthase machine, (going down the concentration gradient ), causing the bottom part to turn twist a P back onto an ADP. The role of the electrons is to cause protons to move from inside the matrix (i.e. from the box) to outside the matrix (up where the title is). The three blobby things are the proton pumps that pump the protons upward. Also look carefully at the red blue lines. The red lines show the movement of electrons the blue lines show movement of protons. Every time an electron cy goes over a blue line, a proton can move up.
4 NOTE: The demonstration video is very helpful for this part of the instructions. Go to: (or use the link provided on the Lesson 20 page if you are using this game as part of the A&P ecourse). 1) Each player will choose a color for their electrons. Assuming you are using M&M minis, the electrons will be the warm colors: red, orange, yellow brown. If you only have two players, two colors won t be used ( can be eaten as you go!) The blues greens should already be in the proton box. 2) At the beginning of each turn, the player will have to decide to move either electrons OR protons. (If you don t have any protons, you have to move electrons.) If the player decides to move electrons, he must pick up one of his truck cards place it on the appropriate rectangle (NADH or FADH2). Then, two electrons are placed on the circles that are labeled with a number 1. 3) Now a die (number cube) is rolled to determine how many spaces those electrons may move. Let s say a 6 is rolled. The player may move each electron cy 3 spaces, or one cy all 6 spaces, or one cy 2 the other 4, or any combination that adds up to 6. As an electron cy crosses a blue line, a proton cy may be removed from the proton box. (To avoid confusion, it might work best if each player keeps their protons in a separate pile.) Remembering to move protons every time you cross a red line can be a real challenge! Notice that the two cies can both be moved from a 1 to a 2 circle, then they can both go to a 3. However, after that, the shuttle bus can only hold 1 electron at a time. So one electron will go on, one has to wait. Imagine that the purple oval is a one-seater car. Only one person can ride at a time. Once the electron moves from 4 to 5, so that the 4 is open again, then another electron can l on the 4. The end of the line is number 6, where the tired electrons join a water molecule. When both oxygens have gained 2 electrons, (filling all 4 of the number 6 circles) the electrons can then be removed from the board be recycled. 3) When the electrons have been moved from the number 1 circles, the NADH truck is then empty is removed from the board. It can be recycled if you are going to head back to the Krebs Cycle again. As long as there is an electron sitting on a number 1 circle, the NADH truck stays in place. This can mess up the next player s move(s) therefore might possibly be used as strategy by the first player. 4) FADH2 trucks can be placed on the board even if an NADH truck is still there. FADH2 trucks come go independently of NADH. Same as NADH, you place two electrons onto the number 1 circles above the truck. Then you roll the die to see how far they will be able to go. Once the electrons have moved on, you can remove the truck. 5) Only one electron is allowed to sit on a numbered circle, you can t jump over the numbers to move ahead. However, you may push ahead other players electrons to make way for your own. In other words, if you want to move onto a 3 they are filled, you can move one of the electrons on to a 4, then take the 3 spot yourself. The other player, whose electron you just pushed ahead, needs to be alert to see whether their electron went over a blue line, if it did, they make take a proton. 6) If you have at least three protons, you can choose to move protons instead of electrons on your turn. Roll the die to find out the maximum number of ATPs you can make on that turn. You can make less, but not more. To move protons, you simply place 3 protons on the 3 circles that are on the ATP synthase machine. This simulates the protons going down through the machine. After placing the 3 protons in the circles, you may cross out one of the ATPs on your score card. The protons may then be put back into the box. If you happen to have saved up 18 protons you roll a 6, it is possible to make 6 ATPs on one turn! 7) DOUBLE ROLLS: This is where those Krebs coupons come in hy. If you need to double your roll, you may use one of your coupons to do so. After the card is used, return it to the bottom of the pile. 8) General review of how you can move electrons: Always go in order on the numbered circles. no more than one electron per circle. You can t jump over or skip any numbers, but you may push ahead other players electrons to make way for your own. The other players may collect any protons that are created by their electrons in the process. You can move any of your electrons as part of your move, not just one of them. Keep clearing the electrons off the water molecules at the end, every time all 4 of the number 6 s are filled. If any odd situations arise that are not covered here, decide on a rule that suits all of the players. As long as everyone is playing by the same rules, it s fair.
5 9) After you use up all of your NADH FADH2 trucks, you must go back fill them again. Assuming this was your first time through the ETC, you now go back to the purple arrow pick up your other pyruvate. (Oh yeah, remember that other pyruvate you left behind?!) You must do the Krebs Karousel again to harvest all the energy from the second pyruvate. Just think, though, that all this your mitochondria millions of times per second! WINNING: The first player to cross out 36 ATPs wins the game. If you are playing the shortened version, then 18 ATPs wins the game. BUT... we all win because we had a great learning experience! FOLLOW-UP YOU MIGHT WANT TO ASK THE STUDENTS: 1) What is the end result of glycolysis? (2 pyruvate molecules snd 2 ATPs) 2) What is the main goal of the Krebs Cycle? (filling NADH FADH2 trucks) 3) What provides energy for the ATP synthase machine to work? (moving protons) 4) How many proton pumps are in the ETC? (3) 5) How many steps are there in the Krebs Cycle? (8) 6) How many steps are there in glycolysis? (10) 7) What happens to the protons after they have gone down through ATP synthase? (They can be pumped up again.) 8) Does the Krebs Cycle proceed if there is no oxygen available for the ETC? (no) 9) Mitochondrial Diseases are genetic disorders where at least one part of this system does not work right. Can you name some things that might go wrong? (Just about any answer is acceptable. There are lots of things that could go wrong. Proton pumps might not work (or at least be ineffective), parts of the ATP synthase machine might be the wrong shape, enzymes might be missing, proton pumps might be too far apart, there might not be enough shuttles, NADH might not work right, etc.) 10) What is the maximum number of ATPs that can be harvested from one glucose molecule? (36) The tokens ride around on the Karousel, sitting on the red arrows. Put your finger slightly into a window to turn the Karousel. It should push along easily. The protons are everywhere inside the matrix, but to control chaos on our board, we ve put them into a box. This game is the intellectual property of Ellen J. McHenry. Purchasers are welcome to copy use it with their own classes. Reproduction outside of fair use is prohibited. (It may not be packaged or copied for resale, or used in any other publication without the permission of the author.)
6 Paying back initial investment. Paying back initial investment. Paying back initial investment. Paying back initial investment. MAKE 36 ATP s MAKE 36 ATP s Paying back initial investment. Paying back initial investment. Paying back initial investment. Paying back initial investment. MAKE 36 ATP s MAKE 36 ATP s PRINT COPIES ON REGULAR PAPER. EACH PLAYER WILL NEED ONE ATP SCORE CARD. (This page gives you four.)
7 QUIZ CARDS -- OPTIONAL TOP SIDE PATTERN (for printing double-sided copies)
8 How many carbon atoms are in a pyruvate molecule? a) 1 b) 2 *c) 3 How many ATP molecules does glycolysis consume (use)? a) none b) 1 *c) 2 How many phosphates does an ADP have? a) 1 *b) 2 c) 3 Which nitrogenous base is found in ATP? *a) adenine b) thymine c) cytosine d) guanine How many NADH molecules are recharged during glycolysis? a) 1 *b) 2 c) 4 Energy is released when ATP loses what? a) a ribose sugar b) all three of its phosphates *c) one phospate How many enzymes are involved in the process of glycolysis? *a) 10 b) 5 c) 2 How many pyruvate molecules does glycolysis produce? a) 1 *b) 2 c) 4 What does the Greek word lysis mean? *a) break b) join c) absorb QUIZ CARDS pg 1 PRINT ONE COPY PER GAME (card stock if possible)
9 What are enzymes made of? *a) amino acids b) nucleic acids c) fatty acids The ring in the glucose molecule is made of 5 carbons a a) hydrogen *b) oxygen c) phosphorus Name a process that MAKES glucose? (opposite of cellular respiration) a) the carbon cycle *b) photosynthesis c) dehydration synthesis What needs to be present before the pyruvate is allowed to cross into the matrix? *a) oxygen b) carbon dioxide c) ATPs Where does glycolysis occur? a) in the mitochondrial matrix b) in the intermembrane space *c) in the cytosol What by-product is produced in step 9 of glycolysis? a) oxygen *b) water c) carbon dioxide Which of these can NOT do glycolysis? *a) viruses b) bacteria c) plant cells No guessing without options on this one. Correct after the options are read = move 4 Correct on second try - move 2 What does phosphorylation mean? (foss-for-ill-a-shun) a) making ATP *b) adding a phosphate (PO 4 ) c) breaking off hydrogens In the Krebs Pre-Step, what gets chopped off pyruvate? a) an oxygen *b) a carbon dioxide c) two hydrogens QUIZ CARDS pg 2 PRINT ONE COPY PER GAME (card stock if possible)
10 is splitting glucose in half T RE S PRE STEP (pyruvate oxidation) This step turns pyruvates into acetyl-coa s. The next process, the Krebs Cycle, burns acetyl-coa s.
11 REMEMBER, THIS CYCLE IS INVISIBLE WHEN YOU LOOK AT A REAL IS NOT REALLY A CIRCLE. THINGS ARE HAPPENING ALL OVER ALL THE TMIE! RIDE ON A RED ARROW CELL! THIS PROCESS ROLL TO MOVE ALONG THE SIDEWALK. EACH TIME YOU STOP YOU ANSWER ANOTHER KREBS KWESTION.. RE S CYCLE (also known as the Citric Acid Cycle or the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle ) THE GOAL IS TO FILL TRUCKS! They will provide the fuel for the last step.
12 AROUSEL K THE KREBS RIDE HERE RIDE HERE CUT OUT RIDE HERE CUT OUT CUT OUT RIDE HERE CUT OUT RIDE HERE CUT OUT CUT OUT CUT OUT RIDE HERE RIDE HERE CUT OUT RIDE HERE protons (H + ) floating around in matrix COPY ONTO CARD STOCK
13 KREBS KWESTION Get this question right keep this card as a KREBS KWESTION Get this question right keep this card as a KREBS KWESTION Get this question right keep this card as a KREBS KWESTION Get this question right keep this card as a KREBS KWESTION Get this question right keep this card as a KREBS KWESTION Get this question right keep this card as a KREBS KWESTION Get this question right keep this card as a KREBS KWESTION Get this question right keep this card as a KREBS KWESTION Get this question right keep this card as a KREBS KWESTIONS -- OPTIONAL TOP SIDE PATTERN (for printing double-sided copies)
14 How many carbon atoms are in a molecule of oxaloacetate? (ox-al-o-as-i-tate) Answer: 4 Name a type of food that you think might contain citric acid. Answer: citrus fruits To dehydrogenate something means to take off hydrogen atoms. How many Krebs Cycle enzymes take off hydrogens? Hint: Read the names. Answer: 4 What does enzyme 2 change? a) the number of carbons b) the position of an oxygen c) the number of double bonds d) nothing, because iso means same Answer: b When you put a proton an electron together, what do you get? Answer: a hydrogen atom Which produces more ATPs: the Krebs Cycle or glycolysis? Answer: glycolysis (which nets you 2 ATPs, compared to only 1 in the Krebs Cycle)) Every time a molecule of CO 2 is produced in the Krebs Cycle, what else is made? Answer: NADH If ATP contains adenine, what do you think the G sts for in GTP? Hint, if needed: It is a similiar molecule to adenine but it starts with the letter G. Answer: Guanine Are the carbon atoms that come into the cycle as acetyl-co the ones that get chopped off turned into carbon dioxide by enzymes 3 4? Answer: No. KREBS KWESTIONS QUIZ CARDS pg 1 PRINT ONE COPY PER GAME (card stock if possible)
15 TRUE or FALSE? Steps 1-5 in glycolysis consume energy, not produce it. (T) TRUE or FALSE? Glycolysis is an oxygendependent reaction. (F) What does the root word synth mean? ANSWER: to make TRUE or FALSE? Water is a by-product of one of the steps in glycolysis. (T) TRUE or FALSE? NADH molecules (the taxi trucks) carry 2 electrons 2 protons. (F) Where does the Krebs Cycle take place? ANSWER: In the mitochondrial matrix (just matrix is okay) Remember: KRebs-- K for Keanu, R for Reeves, he s in The Matrix. Which of these can NOT do glycolysis? a) viruses b) bacteria c) plant cells ANSWER: a TRUE or FALSE? Enzymes are not changed by the reactions they participate in, so they can be recycled many times. (T) Where (in a cell) does glycolysis occur? ANSWER: in the cytosol (or cytoplasm) KREBS KWESTIONS QUIZ CARDS pg 2 PRINT ONE COPY PER GAME (card stock if possible)
16 If you ve only done one pyruvate, go back to the pyruvate portal. If you ve done two, your token is now finished. END OF THE LINE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN is the final electron acceptor ( makes H2O) OXYGEN INTERMEMBRANE SPACE 3 pro tons mak e1a TP
17 PRINT ONE COPY PER GAME (card stock if possible) This gives you enough trucks for 4 players.