1 LABOUR LAWS - FRO FROM M LEGAL CONCEPTS TO PRACTICE
2 LABOUR LAWS - FROM LEGAL CONCEPTS TO PRACTICE Implications for the HR Practitioner or HR Layperson Vanessa Thomas Williams May 2012
3 Convention 2012 Theme Execute, Grow, Sustain
4 Regional Labour Laws CARICOM Countries JAMAICA TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO GUYANA BARBADOS Similar legislative provisions Recruitment of certain persons and Termination of employment Minimum Wages Leave & other benefits Workmen s Compensation & Occupational Safety and Health Equal Opportunity and equal treatment Trade Unions
5 Jamaica Employment Agencies Regulation Act Employment (Equal Pay For Men and Women) Act Employment (Termination and Redundancy Payments) Act Employment (Termination and Redundancy Payments) Regulations, 1974 Factories Act Factories Act: Building Operations and Works of Engineering Construction (Safety, Health and Welfare) Regulations
6 Jamaica Factories Act: Docks (Safety, Health and Welfare) Regulations Factories Regulations, 1961 Factories Act: Rules Foreign Nationals and Commonwealth Citizens (Employment) Act Holidays with Pay Act Labour Officers (Powers) Act Labour Relations and Industrial Disputes Act
7 Jamaica Labour Relations and Industrial Disputes: Labour Relations Code Labour Relations and Industrial Disputes Regulations, 1975 Maternity Leave Act Maternity Leave Act Minimum Wage Act Minimum Wage Act Orders Women (Employment of) Act Workmen s Compensation Act
8 Trinidad and Tobago Equal Opportunity Act 2000, as amended Industrial Relations Act The Maternity Protection Act, 1998 National Insurance Act Occupational Safety and Health Act 2004, as amended Retrenchment and Severance Benefits Act Trade Unions Act Workmen s Compensation Act
9 Guyana Accidental Deaths and Workmen s Injuries (Compensation) Act Bakeries (Hours of Work) Act Employment Exchange Act Employment of Young Persons and Children Act Equal Right Act 1990 Essential Services Act Factories (Hours and Holidays) Act
10 Guyana Holidays with Pay Act Household Service Workers (Hours of Work) Act Housing of Labour Workers on Sugar Estates Act Labour Act Labour (Conditions of Employment of certain workers) Act Leave With Pay Act Licensed Premises Act National Insurance and Social Security Act
11 Guyana Occupational Safety and Health Act, 1997 Prevention of Discrimination Act Public Utility Undertakings and Public Health Services Arbitration Act Shops (Consolidation) Act Steam Boilers Regulations Act Termination of Employment and Severance Pay Act The Recruitment of Workers Act Trade Unions Act & Trade Unions Recognition Act Wages Councils Act
13 Barbados Holiday with Pay Act Labour Clauses (Public Contracts) Act Labour Department Act National Insurance and Social Security Act, Subsidiary Legislation A1-T1 National Productivity Council Act Occupational Training Act, Subsidiary Legislation A1 Protection of Wages Act Radiation Protection Act
14 Barbados Recruiting of Workers Act Severance Payments Act Shop Act Sugar Workers (Minimum Wages and Guaranteed Employment) Act Trade Union Act Trade Disputes (Arbitration and Enquiry) Act Wages Councils Act
15 Common HR issues Remuneration Termination of Employment Leave and Absence Management Systems Implications of Collective Bargaining
16 Remuneration Industrial Relations principles and human resource management practices that govern wage determination are influenced by: 1. Minimum wages laws 2. Overall economic conditions including labour supply and labour demand 3. Industry practices on pay structure 4. Absence from work and time off work
17 Remuneration Minimum wages laws Regional Minimum wages legislation generally do not define wages. The significance of a description is critical for purpose of the levy of taxes, calculation of the payment of wages, and even profit sharing schemes. Maxim: A worker s salary is his/her property.
18 Remuneration s. 2 Protection of Wages Act[Barbados] [ wages means remuneration or earnings however designated or calculated, capable of being expressed in terms of money and fixed by mutual agreement or by law, which are payable by virtue of a contract of employment either expressed or implied by an employer to an employee for work done or to be done or for services rendered or to be rendered]
19 Remuneration Inaccurate calculations Reporting of a grievance Risk Cycle: Potential Trade Dispute Unsuccessful law suit may result in the award of DAMAGES Undetermined grievance becomes litigious
20 Remuneration Industry practices The variety of industries and sectors in any economy often offer diverse standards (complex and simple) for setting salaries. Benchmarking salaries invariably considers a mixture of tools including: Compensation survey Collective bargaining Job evaluation Pay Scale and salary range setting
21 Remuneration Holidays Public holidays commonly attract the usual rates of pay (for a normal work day), unless actual work is performed on such days. Variation in the rate of pay is determined by law (in some industries), collective agreements, contracts, and human resource management policies.
22 Remuneration Absence due to illness or disease Approved absence from work and time off work may be considered either with pay or without pay, based on the reason for the absence from work and the duration of such absence. In the case of injury and illness, the employer is usually only under an obligation to pay for a compensable work-related injury or occupational disease, or only for that period of sick/injury leave which is allocated by law, practice or policy.
23 Remuneration The determination as to whether a disease is compensable is usually based on if- The employee is exposed to the disease by reason of his/her employment, The disease is causally related to the employee's industry or occupation, or The incidence of the disease is considerably higher in that industry or occupation than it is in the general population.
24 Remuneration In order to ensure that all staff are remunerated and rewarded fairly and are treated according to standard practices, Remuneration Policies must be crafted in such a way that they incorporate among other things the rationale and procedures for -
25 Remuneration Components of Remuneration (including fixed remuneration, performance-based remuneration, pension schemes, other benefits, severance payment etc); Original salary offers; Changes to salary by reason of successful probation and performance management systems; Changes to salary by reason of promotion and acting appointments; and Absence and time off work with and without pay.
26 Termination of employment Termination for cause Cause includes but is not limited to: a) Misconduct b) Breach of Contract c) Medical grounds Termination without cause Without cause includes but is not limited to: a) Voluntary Separation of Employment & Redundancy b) Efflux of time c) Mediated termination
27 Termination of employment Misconduct Where the disciplinary offence of misconduct has been committed, and the employee has been charged, the right to a fair hearing requires that an the employee must not be penalized by a decision affecting his/her rights or legitimate expectations unless he/she has been given prior notice of the case against him/her, a fair opportunity to answer the case, and the opportunity to present his own case.
28 Termination of employment Medical grounds [An employer] is entitled to consider and take into account the nature of the worker s illness (if any), the likely length of the continuing absence, the need of the Company to have done the work which the worker was engaged to do and all the other circumstances of the case. Oilfields Workers Trade Union v. Nestle Caribbean Incorporate, Nestle Trinidad and Tobago Limited (Trade Dispute No. 57 of 2002.)
29 Termination of employment Medical grounds The five C s to follow- Compile all relevant employee data Consider laws, employment contracts, policies, collective agreement Communicate with absent injured/ill worker Consult relevant parties (registered medical practitioner, insurer etc.) Capture decisive action in writing
30 Termination of employment Redundancy Retrenchment is governed by legislative provisions*, and other stipulations in policy manuals and collective agreements. Those documents prescribe the procedure to be followed in the event of redundancy and to provide for severance payments to retrenched workers. *Jamaica Flour Mills Limited v.the Industrial Disputes Tribunal and National Workers Union [Privy Council Appeal No. 69 of 2003]
31 Termination of employment Redundancy Factors to be taken into consideration prior to embarking upon a retrenchment exercise include employment history, job classification, requirements for the position (including academic & job experience), updated qualifications, possible alternative job placement or re-assignment and disciplinary and other records.
32 Name of Employee Date of Employment Current Position Consider date of hire, nature of employment (temporary & permanent) probationary periods & successor employer implications Requirements for the position (including academic & job experience) Employee s current qualifications Possible alternative job match Employee s disciplinary, medical and other records
33 Termination of employment Voluntary Separation of Employment " As its name implies, a voluntary separation is entirely voluntary in character. A worker elects whether or not to leave his employment on acceptable terms offered by his employer. Any termination of his employment is, therefore, consensual and not forced. The employer induces the worker to leave his employment prematurely by offering a payment that is not based on any particular formula but which is attractive enough to persuade the employee to resign or retire from his employment before his normal age of retirement... Of course, there is always the possibility that his employment may become surplus to his employer's requirements and liable to be compulsorily retrenched, in which event he would be entitled by law to receive compensation for his past service by way of severance benefits." Oilfields Workers Trade Union v.bp (Formerly Amoco) [Trade Dispute No. 125 of 1999]
34 LAWS BENEFITS NOTICE IF IMPLEMENTED Retrenchment Governed by Retrenchment laws Severance benefits/redundancy payments specified by law Statutory notice must be given unless there are unforeseen circumstances. Workers may bring a claim for wrongful/unfair termination VSEP Not generally governed by laws Payments are enhanced and attractive No particular notice is generally given but there ought to be consultation Workers need not accept offer and, may remain employed unless by virtue of contract end, compulsory retrenchment or dismissal for cause.
35 PRINCIPLES AFTER IMPLEMENTED The last worker employed is usually the first to be retrenched (LIFO), all things being equal No new worker may be hired in the position of the retrenched worker, unless some period has elapsed. All workers may be offered VSEP regardless of their date of employment New workers may be hired in any position, almost immediately
36 Leave and Absence Management systems Managing the absent worker requires an understanding of- the application of the Laws, Human Resource Management policies and/or Collective Agreements and Contracts of Employment, and the principles and practices of good Industrial Relations.
37 Leave of absence from work There are generally two broad categories of Leave: Vacation PAID LEAVE Sick and (extended) Injury (compensable) Casual Maternity/ Paternity Bereavement/ Compassionate Special Study UNPAID LEAVE Unauthorised Leave Extended Sick Injury/ Extended Injury No Pay Extended maternity on non-medical grounds Extended bereavement
38 Sick Leave and Injury Leave Sick Leave usually refers to that period during which an employee is suffering from some illness and as a result, is permitted or authorised to be away from the job and does not perform any of the functions or jobs assigned. Proof of the illness (by way of submitting a medical certificate) is usually required when an employee utilises more than two (2) consecutive days of leave.
39 Sick Leave and Injury Leave Injury Leave usually refers to that period during which an employee is suffering from some injury and as a result, is permitted or authorised to be away from the job and does not perform any of the functions or jobs assigned. Pay, while on Injury Leave is usually determined by the nature of the employment relationship and whether the employer admits that the employee was injured by reason of his employment.
40 Relevant Laws on leave Duration of Leave (certain workers) Minimum Wages Acts Maternity Protection Acts Employers duties regarding absence caused by injury/illness at work Workmen s Compensation Acts Factories Acts Occupational Safety and Health Acts Benefits National Insurance Acts 40
42 Leave and Absence Management systems The best absence management systems use a combination of a clear policies on leave, good shift schedules, incentives, overtime provisions, cross-training, temporary personnel, and predetermined limits to manage absences. These systems use well defined procedures that are properly communicated so as to address each type of absence.
43 Leave and Absence Management systems Additional strategies which may be implemented to foster an attendance culture include: Flexible Working hours Part-time work Job sharing Career break schemes Working at home Part-year employment Wellness management programs Use of Leave Tracking software
44 EMPLOYEES Date(s) CATEGORIES OF LEAVES OF ABSENCE VACATION SICK INJURY MATERNITY BEREAVEMENT PATERNITY Local External EDUCATION/ STUDY CASUAL HERNANDEZ, Camille September 8-10, THOMAS, Raul Balance 11 April 12 20, June 10-13, Balance 4 THOMAS WILLIAMS, Vanessa January 2, Balance 13
45 Leave Policies Components of the best leave Policies include: Identification of types of leave and eligibility Leave allocation Processing (and approval of) the leave request & suitable forms Return to Work provisions Pay & benefits during a leave of absence
46 Collective Bargaining The concept relates to negotiations between an employer and a group of employees (or their representative bodies) by meeting and treating in good faith, with a view to the conclusion of a collective agreement or the revision or renewal thereof or the resolution of disputes.
47 Collective Bargaining Under The Labour Relations and Industrial Disputes Act [Jamaica] it is noted that - The major aim of the collective bargaining process is to arrive at terms and conditions acceptable to both employers and workers. These terms and conditions are usually enshrined in collective agreements, and often contain procedural and substantive provisions.
48 Collective Agreements Purpose to settle the terms and conditions of to settle the terms and conditions of employment of workers in a bargaining unit for an agreed period with a view to avoiding disruptions of work for the duration of the agreement.
49 Collective Agreements Terms in collective agreements are deemed to be incorporated into contracts of employment. This position in English law was codified in the Industrial Relations Act Chap. 88:01 [Trinidad and Tobago]. s. 47. (2) of the Industrial Relations Act: The terms and conditions of a registered agreement shall, where applicable, be deemed to be the terms and conditions of the individual contract of employment of the workers comprised from time to time in the bargaining unit to which the registered agreement relates. 49
50 Collective Agreements Terms and conditions of collective agreements are- legally binding, directly enforceable in the Court, and generally valid for a specific term. Once the collective agreement is registered, the parties shall be deemed to have actual notice of all the provisions. 50
51 Collective Agreements Statutory provisions for the registration of collective agreements mandate that copies of such agreements are dispatched to the various Ministries of Labour for their records. Employees must also be notified of new and/or revised agreements. Notice is actual notice and not constructive (indirect) notice
52 Collective Agreements There is a duty on the part of the employer to meet and treat with the recognised majority union. Apart from the inclusion of terms and conditions of employment of general application, Collective Agreements must include procedures for settling disputes, either on the industry wide level or in the individual undertaking
53 Collective Agreements Prescribed methods or procedures for settling disputes usually adopt/ follow chains of command and allow for protracted processes for unresolved issues. This may lead to potential legal actions
54 Collective Agreements Collective agreements are not HR management policies and therefore ought not applied or adopted to the exclusion of management prerogative. The prudent HR practitioner constantly reviews the collective agreement (if applicable) to ensure that it supports the workplace policies, if necessary.
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