Key Research Challenges in Cloud Computing

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1 3rd EU-Japan Symposium on Future Internet and New Generation Networks Tampere, Finland October 20th, 2010 Key Research Challenges in Cloud Computing Ignacio M. Llorente Head of DSA Research Group Universidad Complutense de Madrid Project co-lead and Director OpenNebula Open-source Cloud Community Acknowledgments Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA) 1/17

2 A Model for Delivering IT Capabilities as a Service What Who Software as a Service On-demand access to any application End-user (does not care about hw or sw) Platform as a Service Platform for building and delivering web applications Developer (no managing of the underlying hw & swlayers) ᄎ Infrastructure as a Service Raw computer infrastructure System Administrator (complete management of the computer infrastructure) Physical Infrastructure 2/17

3 Cloud Deployments Public Cloud Simple Web Interface Pay-as-you-go (On-demand access) Elastic & infinite Capacity Private Cloud A Public Cloud behind the firewall Simplify internal operations Dynamic allocation of resources Higher utilization & operational savings Security concerns Hybrid Cloud Supplement the capacity of the Private Cloud Utility Computing dream made a reality! 3/17

4 Cloud Computing as an Enabler for the Internet of Services SaaS Software applications are available as a service in the Internet Service User PaaS and IaaS The tools to develop applications and the infrastructure are available as a service Service Provider Service Front-ends Cluster Computing VM VM VM egov Web Service Platforms Multimedia Cloud Computing as an Enabler Reduce infrastructure management complexity Automatic scalability Cloudbursting Reduce infrastructure costs Pay-per-use (utility) models Reduce development time Speed-up time-to-market of services 4/17

5 Open Research Issues PaaS Cloud Management Cloud-enabled Applications and Platforms Cloud Aggregation IaaS Cloud Management Cloud Enablement Cloud Interoperability 5/17

6 Platform Management Challenges in delivering middleware capabilities for building, deploying, integrating and managing applications in a multi-tenant, elastic and scalable environment Scalability and multi-tenancy of application containers Placement optimization algorithms of containers in resources Application Instances Service Consumer SaaS Application Containers Resources PaaS IaaS 6/17

7 Cloud-enabled Applications and Platforms Challenges in building cloud-enabled applications and platforms to take advantage of the scalability, agility and reliability of the cloud Elastic and scalable applications and frameworks on very large-scale environments Self-scaling, self-awareness, self-knowledge, and self-management capabilities of services Novel applications of cloud computing Power-efficient applications and platforms Load Balancer App Server App Server App Server 7/17

8 Cloud Aggregation Research challenges in the aggregation of resources from diverse cloud providers adding additional layers of service management Novel architectural models for aggregation of cloud providers Brokering algorithms for high availability, performance, proximity, legal domains, price, or energy efficiency Sharing of resources between cloud providers Networking in the deployment of services across multiple cloud providers SLA negotiation and management between cloud providers Additional privacy, security and trust management layers atop providers Support of context-aware applications Automatic management of service elasticity Cloud Aggregation 8/17

9 Cloud Management Research challenges in delivering infrastructure resources on-demand in a multi-tenant, secure, elastic and scalable environment Scalable management of network, computing and storage capacity Scalable orchestration of virtualized resources and data Placement optimization algorithms for energy efficiency, load balancing, high availability and QoS Accounting, billing, monitoring and pricing models Security, privacy and trust issues in the cloud Energy efficiency models, metrics and tools at system and datacenter levels 9/17

10 Cloud Enablement Research challenges in enhancing platform infrastructure to support cloud management requirements Technologies for virtualization of infrastructure resources Virtualization of high performance infrastructure components Autonomic and intelligent management of resources Implications of Cloud paradigm on networking and storage systems Support for vertical elasticity Provision of service related metrics 10/17

11 Cloud Interoperability Challenges to ensure that the available cloud services can work together and interoperate successfully. Common and standard interfaces for cloud computing Portability of virtual appliances across diverse clouds providers Public Cloud Cloud Management Private Cloud Hybrid Cloud 11/17

12 Ongoing Research Projects CumuloNimbo PaaS Cloud Management Cloud-enabled Applications and Platforms Cloud Aggregation IaaS Cloud Management Vision Cloud Cloud Enablement Cloud Interoperability 12/17

13 Non-Technical Challenges to Boost Adoption Boost Adoption of Cloud Technologies Technology Gap Usability Gap Cultural Gap Research Initiatives Promote OSS Focused Innovation Standards Interoperability Legalistic issues, trust and security Educate users Provide exp. testbeds Main Areas for EU-Japan Collaboration 13/17

14 Building an Open Cloud Ecosystem Openness Open architectures Open interfaces Open code Adaptability Modular architectures Key Principles to Maximize Value Standardization Use standards Implement standards Re-use Re-use existing open-source components Contribute to existing communitties 14/17

15 The OpenNebula Case Flagship International Project in Cloud Computing Result of many years of research and development in efficient and scalable management of virtual machines on large-scale distributed infrastructures. Open-source Toolkit Open platform for innovation to research the challenges that arise in cloud management, and production-ready tool in both academia and industry Started in 2005, first release in march 2008 Open-source released under Apache v2.0, packaged for main Linux distributions Mailing lists for best-effort support and open development framework Development and roadmap definition driven by the community and projects Active and engaged open community and ecosystem > 3,000 downloads/month (not including code repository and Ubuntu) 15/17

16 Reference Open Source Stack for Cloud Computing Open Source Community Open architecture and interfaces Open code Open community and ecosystem Very liberal license Adopt Standards Avoid Software Fragmentation Re-use sw Components Wide Adoption Tool for innovation Build a commercial service Build a commercial product 16/17

17 References, Questions and Comments Reports The Future of Cloud Computing. Opportunities for European Cloud Computing Beyond 2010, Expert Group Report (http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/ict /ssai/docs/cloud-report-final.pdf) Research References B. Rochwerger, J. Caceres, R.S. Montero, D. Breitgand, E. Elmroth, A. Galis, E. Levy,I.M. Llorente, K. Nagin, Y. Wolfsthal, The RESERVOIR Model and Architecture for Open Federated Cloud Computing, IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 53, No. 4. (2009) B. Sotomayor, R. S. Montero, I. M. Llorente and I. Foster, Virtual Infrastructure Management in Private and Hybrid Clouds, IEEE Internet Computing, September/ October 2009 (vol. 13 no. 5) Rafael Moreno-Vozmediano, Ruben S. Montero, Ignacio M. Llorente, Multi-Cloud Deployment of Computing Clusters for Loosely-Coupled MTC Applications, IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, in press 17/17

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