1 Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI
2 I. Background theory. 1. Formation and propagation of electromagnetic waves. 2. Maxwell's equations. 3. Methods for producing radio waves and microwaves. 4. Construction and operation of klystrons. 5. Electromagnetic waveguides: a) rectangular waveguides; b) propagation and intensity of electric and magnetic fields in rectangular waveguides; c) speed of waves in a waveguide; d) observing waveguides; e) standing waves in a rectangular waveguide. 6. The free propagation of electromagnetic waves: a) structure of the ionosphere; b) communications satellites and broadcasting; c) geostationary orbit, geostationary satellite elevation angle; d) the shadow of a satellite on the receiving antenna. II. Experimental tasks. 1. Familiarise yourself with the experimental setup for studying the properties and applications of microwaves shown in Picture 1 and in the microwaves bridge diagram in Figure 2. Picture 1. Experimental setup for studying the properties and applications of microwaves: 1 microwave bridge; 2 klystron power supply; 3 voltmeter; 4 tuner; 5 LCD monitor. Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej 1.
3 Figure 2. Microwave bridge diagram: 1 attenuator; 2 probe; 3 waveguide; 4 - detector ; 5 cavity; 6 scale; 7 transmitting antenna; 8 detector elements; 9 detector knob; 10 graduation; 11 mount ; 12 klystron; 13 cavity offset screw 2. Measure the standing wave distribution in the waveguide. To do this, turn on the power supply (2 in Picture 1) to the klystron (12 in Figure 2). Connect the measuring cavity detector output (5 in Figure 2) to the voltmeter (3 in Picture 1) and set the attenuation knob (1 in Figure 2) to any position between 5 and 10. Turn the screw (13 in Figure 2) measured on a centimetre scale (6 in Figure 2). 3. Take voltage readings while reading the cavity detector position on the centimetre scale. Take measurements for four different attenuator settings and three probe depths (2 in Figure 2). Proposed attenuator settings are 6, 5, 4, 3 and probe depths 2, 1, 5, Determine the standing wave distributions in the waveguide and present them on a common graph. 5. Calculate the length of the standing wave in the waveguide. 6. Connect the measuring detector (8 in Figure 2) to the voltmeter. Using the knob (9 in Figure 2), set the detector (8 in Picture 1) to position 0 on the scale (10 in Figure 2). Then, move everything resting on the mount (11 in Figure 2) in the direction of the transmitting antenna in order to obtain maximum amplitude of the meter (3 in Picture 1). 7. Successively substitute rubber, acrylic glass and glass between the transmitting antenna (7 in Figure 2) and detector (4 in Figure 2) to calculate the microwave phase change when passing through a dielectric layer. Set the detector (4 in Figure 2) in the position corresponding to the maximum amplitude of the standing wave. Insert the dielectric screens between the Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej 2.
4 transmitting antenna and detector (with the screen set closest to the transmitting antenna). Moving the detector (8 in Figure 2) in the direction of the transmitting antenna with the knob (9 in Figure 2), measure the required displacement to regain a maximum reading on the voltmeter. 8. Using callipers, measure the thickness of the dielectric screens. 9. Calculate the refractive index, relative permittivity and relative susceptibility of the dielectric screens. 10. Using the satellite television set (Picture 1 and Figure 3) and the instructions in Appendix B, identify the location of individual telecommunications satellites. Determine the number of transponders for each satellite. A description of the remote control is found in Figure 4. Figure 3: Satellite television set. Figure 4. Remote control: 1 power button; 2 option selection button; 3 negative option adjustment; 4 positive option adjustment; 5 menu button. 11. Calculate the temporal parameters (months, days, hours) corresponding to orientation settings towards the sun, the Astra satellite and the receiving antenna (see Appendix A). 12. Draw a geostationary orbit including the identified satellites and their corresponding parameters. 13. Determine the distance between the receiving antenna and the Astra satellite. Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej 3.
5 III. Apparatus. 1. Microwave bridge power supply. 2. Voltmeter. 3. Microwave bridge. 4. Set of dielectric screens: glass, rubber, acrylic glass. 5. Satellite receiver TF 5000 CI with power supply. 6. Remote control. 7. LCD monitor. 8. Satellite antenna. IV. Literature. 1. D.M. Pozar Microwave Engineering, John Willey & Sons Inc., NY J.B. Tsui Microwave Receivers with Electronic Warfare Applications, J. Willey, NY R.S. Elliott An Introduction to Guided waves and Microwaves Circuits, Prentice-Hall, R.P. Feynman, R. Leighton, M. Sands The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol. 2., Part 2., Wesley, R.E. Collin Foundations for Microwaves Engineering, McGraw-Hill, Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej 4.
6 Appendix A Drawings and models to help locate the position of the Astra satellite Taking into account the movement of the earth around the sun, you can calculate the time at which the receiving antenna, satellite and sun will lie on a straight line (Figure 5). Figure 5. Satellite position relative to the earth and sun. The celestial equator is at an angle of 23,4 to the ecliptic plane. Consequently, the angle between the earth s equator and the direction toward the sun varies sinusoidally over the course of one year: δ = ε sin 2πt T, (1) where ε = 23,4 - the angle between the plane of the celestial equator and the ecliptic plane, T = 365,242 mean solar year in days. As shown in Figure 6 : Thus: From equations (1) and (3) : f + g d = 180. (2) d = 90 (j + g 0 ). (3) 90 (φ + γ 0 ) = ε sin 2πt T. (4) The interval t relating the spring or autumn equinoxes to the satellite s shadow falling on the coordinates for Gdańsk (54,38 N; 18,63 E) is: t = T arcsin 90 (φ+γ 0 ) [dni] (5) 2π ε Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej 5.
7 Figure 6. Sun eclipsed by satellite. Symbols in Figure 6 : γ 0 = 28,3 - elevation angle of a hypothetical satellite zenith; R z - radius of the earth; R s - radius of a geostationary orbit; j = 54,38 - latitude of Gdańsk. The solar transit interval in Gdańsk (at noon) t g relative to Greenwich mean time is: λ g - longitude of Gdańsk; k apparent speed of rotation of the earth around the sun t g = λ g [min], (6) k k = 0,25 min. (7) Because Gdańsk lies to the east of the Greenwich meridian (Figure 7 ), time t g will be negative. The longitude of the satellite λ s and of Gdańsk differ by λ Δλ = λ s λ g. (8) Therefore, the time interval t s, for which the receiving antenna, satellite and sun are co-linear, is given by t s = Δλ k. (9) Thus, the receiving antenna shadow time in Greenwich time can be calculated as t x = t g t s [min]. (10) Because the time zone of Gdańsk (CET) differs from Greenwich mean time by one hour, the time at which the satellite s shadow is over Gdańsk is given by t = t x 60 min. (11) Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej 6.
8 Figure 7. View from the North Pole. Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej 7.
9 Appendix B Digital satellite receiver TF 5000 CI instructions I. Motorised dish. 1) Use the menu button on the remote control to program the rotary mechanism of the satellite dish. 2) Select the option Instalacja from Menu Główne and press OK. (Picture 8 ). Picture 8. View of the receiver settings and Menu Główne. 3) Select Ustawienie Anteny (Picture 9) in Instalacja and press OK. Picture 9. View of settings in Instalacja. 4) Select Ustawianie Anteny. Choose the option Ustawianie Ręczne (Picture 10) and press OK on the remote. Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej 8.
10 Experiment 3 : Study of the physical properties of microwaves. Picture 10. View of the Ustawianiu Anteny settings screen. 5) You will see the option Zmotoryzowane Ustawianie Anteny (Picture 11). This is used to program the selected satellite s position. Picture 11. View of the Zmotoryzowane Ustawiania Anteny settings screen. 6) Select the desired satellite with the Nazwa Satelity option. 7) Select the starting position of the satellite using the option Pozycja. 8) Adjust the antenna position within the limits EL and WL using the buttons V+ and V- on the remote. The current antenna position is shown by a red indicator in the EL WL toolbar. II. Channel search. 1) Adjust the position of the satellite until you see high values for Poziom and Jakość. 2) After attaining high values for Poziom and Jakość, save the settings with the red button on the remote. Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej 9.
11 Picture 12. View of Przeszukiwanie Kanałów settings. 3) Repeat the procedure for each selected satellite. 4) Proceed with the programming of channels broadcast by the satellite after remembering the position of the antenna. 5) Program the satellite channels using the option Przeszukiwanie Kanałów (Picture 12). 6) Press OK on the remote after searching. The receiver will automatically save the search results. Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej 10.
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