1 AP Human Geography 2006 Scoring Guidelines The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,000 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT, the PSAT/NMSQT, and the Advanced Placement Program (AP ). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. College Board, AP Central, APCD, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Vertical Teams, Pre-AP, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. Admitted Class Evaluation Service, CollegeEd, connect to college success, MyRoad, SAT Professional Development, SAT Readiness Program, and Setting the Cornerstones are trademarks owned by the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. All other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at: Visit the College Board on the Web: AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program: apcentral.collegeboard.com.
2 Question 1 PART A (3 Points) Define each of the following principles. Principle Core- Periphery Distance Decay Chain Migration Definition Uneven spatial distribution of economic, political, or cultural power. Must show basic understanding of the relationship between more-developed and less-developed regions of the world. Decreased spatial interaction linked to increased distance. Decreased influence or intensity of cultural traits and processes with increased distance. Once migration starts subsequent migrants will follow earlier migrants. PART B (6 Points) For each principle in part A, select a migration stream identified by letter on the map and discuss how the stream you choose illustrates the principle. Note: Each lettered migration stream may be used only once. Discussion 1 point: Must specifically identify regions or the groups of people involved in the migration, correctly linked to the principle defined in part A. 2 points: Discuss specific reason for the migration pattern. Core- Periphery Distance Decay Chain Migration A discussion that shows an understanding of the characteristics of the migration stream relative to the core-periphery principle. Greater number of migrants settled at the edge of the country closer to the country of origin, compared to the number settled on the opposite edge of the country. The diminishing evidence of cultural traits by a group on people, if the explanation clearly shows a link to the fact that due to migration there is less contact between the migrants and their home country. Explanatory factor behind distance decay relationship (e.g., travel cost, information availability). Examples must clearly establish a link/transfer of knowledge between the first group of migrants and subsequent groups OR it should be clear that subsequent migrants are from areas of close proximity to the source area of the early migrants, and that they are migrating to the same destination area. 2
3 Question 2 PART A (2 points: 1 point for each correct reason) Identify two reasons why businesses would choose to locate their call centers in small southern towns. Low wage structure Low tax structure, tax incentives Low land (site costs) or rent Low building costs/buildings available Large labor pool (from deindustrialization) and small town/rural area Telecommunications in place or easily provided Business climate, e.g., right to work, zoning PART B (6 points: For each of 3 examples 1 point for Core Idea; 1 point for Discussion) Discuss three disadvantages in the use of call centers as a local economic developmental strategy. Core Idea(s) Low wages Footloose; short term; unstable employer Low multiplier effect Low spin-off development Amount of labor required is minimal Skill level requirements minimal Part-time employment Global corporation Discussion Points Adds little to local economy through disposable income Corporate mobility facilitated by globalization of language, communications, technology, and minimal local investment Few local resources needs or demands Future technological advances Not a long-term contributor to local economic development Not a provider of goods, so a minimal need for associated services, supplies, or local linkages Small addition of capital to local economy highly automated Jobs requiring basic in-house training Upward mobility/promotions restricted Limited improvements on education system Limited employment benefits Separation from parent company headquarters does not encourage loyalty to locality Low investment requirements Longevity in the place depends on corporate success, succession of owners 3
4 Question 3 PART A (2 points) Define the concepts centripetal force and centrifugal force. 1 point: Generalized definition of centripetal and centrifugal without explicit reference to viability of a state OR one correct definition. 2 points: Centripetal forces unify a state (provide stability, strengthen, bind together, create solidarity) Centrifugal forces divide a state (lead to balkanization/devolution, disrupt internal order, destabilize, weaken). 4
5 Question 3 (continued) PART B (2 points: 1 point for generalized identification of a force with a country specified; 2 points for identification of a force with country specified and specific details) Give a specific example of and explain a centripetal force that affects the viability of any of the states shown on the map. Religion Language Centripetal force examples Expressions of national pride/symbols (generalized: anthem, sports teams, flag ) Transportation/ Communication infrastructure Raison d être/shared history External threat Morphology/Compact state Charismatic or strong leader Forward capital Disaster response Economic-development programs Physical geography Government Specific details Hinduism in India or Nepal; Islam in Pakistan or Bangladesh; Buddhism in Bhutan Urdu (official language), Punjabi or English in Pakistan; Hindi or English in India; Bengali in Bangladesh Cricket in India; Place name changes in India Railroads in India History of British imperialism; Creation of states (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh) India, Pakistan Sri Lanka, Bhutan Absolute monarchy in Nepal; Military leader in Pakistan Capital of Pakistan moved from Karachi to Islamabad Earthquake in Pakistan; Cyclones or flooding in Bangladesh; Tsunami in India/Sri Lanka must reference unifying effect on population Self-sufficiency program in India Pakistan as a river valley, isolated by mountains and desert India s representative democracy 5
6 Question 3 (continued) PART C (2 points: 1 point for generalized identification of a force with a country specified; 2 points for identification of a force with country specified and specific details) With reference to a different specific example, explain a centrifugal force that affects the viability of any of the states shown on the map. Religion Language Centrifugal force examples Federal Government/Regionalism Ethnicities/Separatist movements Morphology/Fragmented or Prorupt External threat Territorial Disputes Multicore state Physical geography Specific details Islam/Hindu in India or Bangladesh; Buddhist/Hindu in Sri Lanka; Sunni/Shiite Muslims in Pakistan; Islam/Hindu in Kashmir; Sikhs/ Hindu in India; Jains/Hindu in India India official languages (4 language families); disputes regarding place name changes in India Federal system (28 states) in India Sikhs in India; Muslims in Kashmir, Tamil/Sinhalese in Sri Lanka, Maoist rebels in Nepal Bangladesh exclave in India; Prorupt portion of India India, Pakistan Kashmir dispute between Pakistan and India Several large cities in India Mountains divide communities in Nepal WILL NOT ACCEPT: Examples with countries not on the map (e.g., Afghanistan, Burma, Madagascar) Same force and country for both B and C (MAY use same country with different forces or same force with different countries) 6
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