#D74 Advanced Design of Mega Yachts and High Performance Frigates - Proven Synergies

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1 #D74 Advanced Design of Mega Yachts and High Performance Frigates - Proven Synergies Dr.-Ing. Hans-Dieter Ehrenberg Manager Research and Development of Blohm+Voss GmbH Juergen Engelskirchen Senior Executive of Blohm + Voss GmbH, Hamburg/Germany ABSTRACT The shipyard Blohm + Voss in Hamburg, Germany, has been known for their frigates and corvettes of the MEKO -class as well as for their mega-yacht designs from 60 meters up to 160 meters. With the recent design of the mega yacht "ECO" with combined GT/Diesel engine propulsion and the exhaust being led completely out of the ship's stern on one hand and the growing requirements for a significant optimization in all design aspects of naval vessels on the other hand, a distinct MEKO -frigate design originated at Blohm + Voss shipyard in Hamburg, the MEKO A-class. After being introduced during the MECON Conference in 1997, the South African Navy has decided to place an order for four MEKO A 200 SAN Corvettes with a consortium led by B+V. The major features of the MEKO A 200 SAN are the CODAG-WARP-Propulsion System, which is a similar arrangement as on the M.Y. "ECO", but has a combination of propellers and a waterjet booster consequent shaping for low radar signature an efficient hull space utilization by concentrating the propulsion in the aft ship high degree of automation facilitating a low complement high upgrade/growth potential (the entire combat suite will be installed locally) mission flexibility through modularization Based on this proven concept, Blohm + Voss has developed an advanced, fast mega yacht design, which will be introduced. This design makes particular use of the advantages of the CODAG- WARP-propulsion package with its superior performance regarding comfort, economy and range at all speeds and its innovative exhaust layout. The synergies taken from the naval development allow for unprecedented advantages in the design of a large displacement, fast mega yacht. 1. INTRODUCTION The competitive situation of the world shipbuilding market requires innovative solutions from yards, especially when situated in high wage countries. One solution is to create sophisticated products by utilizing the best in-house resources and capabilities in combination with the vast know-how-potential of experienced system suppliers, engineering offices and institutions performing active research in shipbuilding. In case of the shipyard Blohm + Voss, such companies and institutions are situated nearby, and with many of them there exist long standing relationships. The other key to success is the focusing on products which have more in common than one would think on first glance, and to profit from the resulting synergies in design and construction. The latter will be demonstrated with the two product lines of the yard, MEKO Naval Vessels and Mega Yachts. 2. MEKO - CLASS FRIGATES AND CORVETTES BY BLOHM + VOSS Since its introduction in the seventies, the MEKO Modular Concept, later supplemented by the additional features of MEKO Technology, has been applied to approx. 60 Frigates and Corvettes for 11 Navies. Within these MEKO -Contracts B+V has executed the task, mostly within consortia, of a prime contractor, being fully responsible for the system integration and the technical and commercial contract fulfillment. The approx MEKO -Modules delivered or on order until today, contain about every payload system available on the free market. Exam- 1

2 ples are search radar systems, fire control systems, naval gun or missile vertical launching systems. A significant part of these systems has been manufactured by US companies. MEKO Technology consists of three main features (Fig. 1): Modularity, Signature Reduction and High Survivability. Fig. 1 MEKO Technology Modularity means the arrangement of weapon, electronic and certain ship s machinery systems in self contained functional units with standardized dimensions, foundations and standardized interfaces for cooling, electricity and data. Through the 25 years since its introduction, the MEKO Modular Concept has seen a consequent and continuous development. The benefits of the modular installation of payload systems are a short installation time of the systems on board, later upgrade and refit flexibility, which is, especially in the view of today s asymmetric and diffuse threats, more important than ever, less danger of damaging the complex electronic systems during installation, modules as functional units can be pre-tested in system suppliers factory, a surface combatant with modular payload can be configured much easier and faster to new requirements than a warship with conventionally installed payload, furthermore, a fleet of consequently modularized warships can dispose of several payload sets in the form of mission packages, which are not installed on board but are kept at the depot or naval base for a quick adaptation to emerging new threats. The MEKO -Modularity with its well established and proven standard dimensions and interfaces is a reliable and proven basis for such a system of mission packages. Signatures The most important signatures which have to be controlled on a warship are the radar cross section, the infrared and the acoustic signature. In all of these three signature areas, B+V has continuously undertaken to improve and further develop their MEKO surface combatants for minimization of these signatures. Details will be referred to later when introducing the latest ship classes built with MEKO Technology. Survivability The continuous improvement of survivability has been a permanent focus of MEKO Technology. It has been pursued together with the German Navy. MEKO ships today have consequent compartment independent arrangement of all major and vital ship s service systems. What is more, the F 123-class and F 124-class frigates for the German Navy dispose of special protective structures such as splinter-protected and specially fire-insulated double bulkheads. These are connected to box girders integrated in the sides and the middle of the strength deck to prevent the ship from breaking apart after a massive missile or torpedo hit. The state of the art of modern surface combatants with MEKO Technology is represented by three classes of vessels: the F124-class of Anti-Air-Warfare-Frigates for the German Navy the K 130-class of multi-purpose Anti-Surface Warfare Littoral Combatants, also for the German Navy, and the MEKO A 200 Corvettes for the South African Navy F124-Class AAW-Frigate The 5600-tons-F124-class Frigates (Fig. 2) for Germany are characterized by a powerful Anti-Air- Warfare capability. It consists of the Long-Range- Volume-Search-Radar, the Active Phased Array Radar for tracking, target designation and illumination, a Mk. 41 Vertical Launching Module also for the SM-2 Block 3A and ESSM-Missiles as well as a fully digitized, fully distributed Combat Direction System for threat evaluation and automated weapon assignment in real-time and non-real time environments. Fig. 2: F124-Class Frigate 2

3 The superstructure and hull of the F124-Frigates are shaped in a special way to reduce the cross section and therefore to have low radar signature from all azimuth and elevation angles. Typical radar corners and reflecting areas of upper deck gear like boats and cranes etc. are hidden behind specially shaped bulwarks or curtains. A spacious helicopter area with two hangars can land Helicopters up to 15 tons, the hangars and maintenance systems are designed for the 12 tons - NH 90- Helicopter. The CODAG-propulsion system consists of two 7400 KW-high speed diesel engines, connected via a cross connection gear to one 24,000 kw gas turbine and two shafts with controllable pitch propellers. This configuration allows economic cruising with one diesel engine driving two shafts as well as a quick attainment of the maximum speed with the two diesels and the gas turbine operating together. The First-of-Class F124-Frigate Sachsen has been handed over to the customer in It is planned to enter service with the German Navy after finalization and testing of the complex AAWsoftware at the end of The F124 s hull has growth potential and space capacities to meet future requirements for additional equipment. The F124- Programme is executed within a Consortium of Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft in Kiel and Nordseewerke Emden with Blohm+Voss being the lead yard. K130-Class Corvette The 1700 tons-k130-corvettes for the German Navy (Fig. 3) are designed for Anti-Surface-Warfare with special focus on Littoral Warfare. As active weapons, the Corvettes will dispose of long-range anti-ship missiles, also capable of attacking land targets, a newly developed medium range optical guided missiles and a 76mm-gun. Self-defense is performed via two RAM-Launchers, which are fully integrated into the Combat Direction System (CDS). Sensors will comprise a 3D-radar, electro-optical sensors and two organic unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) operating as over the horizon-radars. 12-tonhelicopters can operate from the same spacious flight deck of the 89m-Corvette as the drones for which a hangar is foreseen. The K130 will be operated by a mixed-gendercomplement of only 65, for which comfortable living areas are provided. The CDS is a slightly further developed, adapted and compatible version of the CDS on board of the F124-Frigates and is also based on fully distributed architecture with two data bus systems linking weapons and sensors with the CDS. Two 20V-high-speed diesel-engines of together 14.8 MW with two shafts Controllable Pitch Propeller (CPP) in combination with an optimized underwater hull form including a patented, specially shaped bulbous bow facilitate economic cruising as well as a maximum speed of more than 26 knots. As on the F124, a highly Integrated Monitoring and Control System (IMCS) is used to effectively support the crew in surveillance of the ship s technical systems, their management and damage control measures. Fig. 3: K130-Class Corvette The MEKO A 200 SAN Corvettes (Fig. 4) The development of the MEKO A-Class vessels started in 1996 with a small group of design engineers taking into account the experience with the MEKO - vessels built so far and systematically identifying those frigate design features, which offered the greatest potential for improvement. The development concentrated on signature reduction, increase in payload, further development and adaptation of the propulsion system with regard to weight, space utilization and economy, reduction of crew number with, at the same time, providing better habitability on board. The arrangement of a propulsion system with a power of approx. 30 MW up to 40 MW in connection with the voluminous exhaust ducts of gas turbines significantly determines the hull design of (naval) vessels of corvette and frigate size (understood here to have approx tons up to 6000 tons displacement). Therefore, design optimization for the MEKO A-Class started from the propulsion system. In this respect, Blohm+Voss could take profit from the inhouse design capability for large yachts and cruise liners. As will be reported in paragraph 5, it was the design of the Mega Yacht Katana ex Eco, which gave the basic ideas of rearranging the propulsion system on the MEKO A-Class Generic Vessel design. This MEKO A-Class-design will be described in detail in paragraph 6. Fig. 4: MEKO A 200 SAN Corvette 3

4 Fig. 5: M.Y. Savarona 3. MEGA YACHTS - A DEMANDING CLASS OF SHIPS Very much like naval vessels, mega yachts represent a niche within the world's ship fleet. The complexity of their design gives these ships a place ranking close to the complexity of naval vessels and cruise vessels. There is no distinct definition of the size which makes a sailing or motor yacht become a 'mega yacht', but the common understanding in the industry is a threshold value of length beyond 200 feet (61 meters). The following facts might be helpful to underline the importance of the mega yacht industry: The mega yacht order book is consistent since years, in spite of all political and economical crisis The 1999 number of 200 mega yachts over 200 feet has grown to an impressive number of 414 in 2002 The largest yacht world wide is the Abdul Aziz yacht of Saudi Arabia. With a length over all of 147 m (482 feet) this yacht has the size of a cruise vessel. The largest American-owned mega yacht is the 'Limitless', with 96 m (315 feet) in length. Although almost all mega yachts are privately or states owned, an ever increasing number of these yachts is participating in the charter market, representing the 'high end' segment of the cruise market. All mega yachts have in common their customary design, their sophisticated outfitting with regard to gangways and pleasure boat equipment, their precious customary interior with real wood and precious stones, and their exterior glossy varnish based on a hand- made cementing and filling surface treatment procedure, and a passenger/ crew ratio well above one. The development of motor mega yachts took place in several distinct decades: A typical example of the pre-war decade is the motor yacht Savarona of Blohm + Voss (Fig. 5). With a length of 124 m (407 feet) she was and still is the largest privately owned yacht in the world. Commissioned in 1930, she is still in service after 73 years and following a re-engining from her original steam turbines towards modern diesel engines. Numerous 'classical' yachts of this decade are still in service. After world war II, such renowned mega yachts like Christina Onassis, Nabila and Carinthia V have been created. The summit of this contemporary development is the 1990 commissioned and Blohm + Voss built M.Y. Lady Moura (Fig. 6), a creation of 105 m (345 feet) of the Italian star architect Luigi Sturchio, who had also designed the Nabila before. Fig. 6: M.Y. Lady Moura Another mile stone in the post-war mega yacht development was the creation of the M.Y. Katana ex Eco, with her specially designed high-speed gas turbine powered CODAG propulsion plant. This vessel will be more detailed dealt with in chapter SYNERGIES OF NAVAL SHIPBUILDING AND MEGA YACHT BUILDING Naval shipbuilding of surface combatants of corvette or frigate-size and mega yacht building has proven to be a good combination for highly specialized modern shipyards. Both types of ships require a highly skilled inhouse work force, backed up by specialized subcontractors and technical expertise in the vicinity of the yard. Traditional European shipbuilding sites like Hamburg in Germany offer both, even strengthened by research institutions like the Hamburg Ship Model Test Basin (HSVA), the Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg (TUHH), and the classification society Germanischer Lloyd. Generally, the vessels have in common demanding requirements for the hydrostatic and hydrodynamic performance, for the structural design and construction of hull and superstructure, and for the propulsion arrangement with considerable emphasis to high speed, high power, low noise (signature) and vibration. Consequently, in order to make full advantage of the synergies between these two demanding products, the yard uses the same blue collar and white collar work force for both types of vessels. 4

5 For both types of vessels the yard uses the latest simulation based design technologies and creates the product in virtual reality, long before the actual start of the works. A common product data management (PDM)- system allows for a fast and reliable development of any new product, by keeping updated all construction data of past contracts including the 'lessons learned'. Given the fact that frigates, corvettes and mega yachts have similar dimensions and similar propulsion plants, the production sites can be optimized. Both type of vessels are generally constructed from thin steel (preferably higher tensile steel) material, with low tolerances for weight saving reasons. The weight saving issue is common for all naval vessels and most mega yachts; mega yachts in addition require very low fairing tolerances to allow for a smooth cementing and filling procedure prior to the application of the final glossy varnish. In order to best cope with these requirements, the Blohm + Voss shipyard e.g. has invested in a world-wide unique laser cutting and welding device (Fig. 7), which produces the entire flat steel sub-groups of the hull and superstructure of such vessels (approx. 80% of the vessel's structure). Fig. 7: Laser Cutting and Welding Plant Up to the final outfitting stage the construction blocks of a yacht and a frigate are very similar (Fig. 8); this figure shows on the left side a mega yacht under construction, compared to the same building stages of a frigate (right side). Large, covered floating docks are used for efficient and protected assembly and outfitting of these sophisticated ships. The ware house for buffer storage, outfitting work shops, management offices, canteen and other social facilities are arranged on the docks to allow for shortest possible access to and best supervision of the construction site. In case of a mega yacht construction, such covered floating docks are also used for the final painting and cementing phase, with facilities to keep the curing temperature constantly at minimum 15 centigrade in the entire shed, even during winter time. Fig. 8: Mega-yacht (left) and frigate (right) during construction - similarities 5

6 5. MEGA YACHT KATANA ex ECO Until today, the mega yacht Katana (Fig. 9) is the largest yacht capable of speeds above 36 knots, with a length of 74,1 m (243 feet) and a displacement of 1,150 tons. Fig. 9 M.Y. Katana ex Eco The vessel summarizes many outstanding design features, and she is a very good example for synergies of naval and merchant ship design. Created by the British/ French renowned yacht designer Martin Francis for a demanding Mexican client, Blohm + Voss eventually was contracted to realize this project in close co-operation with the designer. It became very soon apparent, that the combined skills and experience of a naval shipyard would be necessary to make this ship a reality. She was the first yacht to show a 'naval type' appearance, and her spherically shaped windows made from toughened safety glass are unique till today. To allow for an acceptable compromise between a good hull form for high speed performance and transatlantic- range at economic speed, she carries a large wing foil to support the stern at slow speed. Most advanced, however, is the CODAG (Combined Diesel and Gas Turbine) plant. It consists of two high speed diesel engines of 3,700 kw each, driving steerable and reversible water jets on each side of the stern, and a center booster water jet driven by General Electric LM type gas turbine of 13,800 kw power. In 1991 this was the first gas turbine of this kind to be re-engineered for marine use on a vessel. A lot of ingenuity was put into her exhaust system; the gas turbine air intake is situated on the aft deck forward of the stowage area for the sport boats and the unique waterborne aircraft. The gas turbine exhaust is led through a rectangular duct right underneath this deck to a transom outlet near the waterline, avoiding a huge funnel-type outlet which would have not only spoiled the appearance, but also would have obstructed the interior space. In support of this idea, the exhaust outlets for the main and auxiliary diesel engine outlets were executed as underwater exhaust as well, with just a small bypass to a sculpture-like, small funnel stack for the starting up procedure and the harbor operation of these engines. 6. MEKO A-CLASS FRIGATES As addressed at the end of paragraph 2, it was the design of the motor / gas turbine driven Yacht Katana ex Eco, which gave the basic idea for a similar innovative arrangement of the propulsion system in the rear during the development of the MEKO A- Class Vessels. The practical experience gained with the yacht Eco concerning the ship s general arrangement, weight distribution, trim, low noise, exhaust plume, maneuverability and top speed was very encouraging. Furthermore, the complete basic and detailed engineering for the Yacht had been performed by the technical departments of Blohm+Voss, thus reducing the risk inherent to typical new designs in shipbuilding. Therefore, the new MEKO A-Classdesign started by integrating a similar propulsion system as on the Eco For economic reasons, it was decided to replace the waterjets for cruising speed by controllable pitch propellers. First time introduced to the expert public during the international MECON-Conference 1997 in Hamburg, the South African Navy placed a contract in 1999 (effective date 4/2000) for the delivery of four MEKO A 200 SAN Corvettes with a Consortium consisting of Blohm + Voss, Howaldtswerke- Deutsche-Werft, Thyssen Rheinstahl Technik, Thales Naval France and African Defense Systems. The MEKO Modularity Concept facilitates the Contract execution in two phases, the ship s system phase and the combat suite integration phase. The ship s system phase is conducted in Germany with the complete design, construction, procurement, integration and delivery of fully tested but unarmed Vessels to the South African Navy. The Ships will then be transferred to South Africa, where phase two of the Contract execution, the combat suite integration, testing and delivery of the complete Corvettes will take place. The MEKO A 200 for South Africa The main features of the MEKO A-200 SAN design (Fig. 10) are the advanced CODAG-WARP propulsion system, low overall signatures, low complement an increased habitability standard based on a new interior concept high payload to displacement ratio 6

7 The MEKO A 200 SAN has the following main data: Fig. 10: MEKO A 200 SAN To achieve these design goals, the entire propulsion system was installed aft to get the amidships area free of machinery spaces. The next step was to remove the voluminous exhaust casing from the superstructure and to lead the exhaust gases via horizontal ducts to the aft or to the side of the ship s hull. The result is a larger area over the ships length for above deck weapon placement and increased space for operational and accommodation requirements (Fig. 11). The coherent areas available for payload and crew extend over 66% of the ship s length. In connection with a low crew number of only approx. 120 men and women, the general arrangement of the MEKO A 200 SAN offers ample space for accommodation and recreation rooms for all crew ranks. The typical crew cabin is about double the size as compared to a conventional Frigate or Corvette with the officers cabins having their private sanitary cell. Considering the long range and endurance of the Corvette, this feature is important. During the sea trials of the First of Class Vessel, a special aspect of the propulsion machinery arrangement in the aft ship emerged: it was noted, that the SAS Amatola was running very quiet and without any vibrations. The significantly low noise level mainly is a result of the lack of a vertical funnel amidships, which is a typical noise source on conventional naval ships with the noises from the exhaust and the machinery space ventilation outlets in the funnel being situated adjacent to the bridge and the CIC ( Combat Information Center). So comfort and habitability on board are additionally enhanced. Length overall 121 m Beam overall 16 m Draught 6 m Design Displacement 3,500 t Future Growth Margin 200 t Cruising Speed 18 kn (1 engine, 1 st gear) Cruising Speed 23 kn (2 engines, 2 nd gear) Maximum Speed 27+ kn (2 engines and gas turbine, 3 rd gear) Endurance 28 days Range at 16 kn 7,500 nm Complement (mixed gender) 100 (+24 Reserve) The MEKO A-200 Corvette s hull and superstructure are built from steel with extensive use of high tensile material. The underwater hull shape has been optimized in extensive tank tests for low resistance over the whole speed range, for good seamotion behavior as well as low speed loss within the rough sea conditions in South African waters. This good behavior is supported by the Corvette's length of 121 meters, the sharp edged, bulbous bow (advantageous for low sonar self noise as well as for educed resistance), a twin rudder arrangement, active fin stabilizers and the new propulsion system. The expected sea limited ship speed, for example, in sea state 6 is about 24 knots. The sea-keeping capabilities of the A-200 allow effective weapon engagement and helicopter operation including sea state 6. Survivability Features (Fig. 12) The MEKO A-200 design concept kept the proven basics of MEKO Technology and its self contained compartment independence for the seawater fire fighting, electrical distribution system, Integrated Platform Management System and the modular air conditioning / ventilation System. Bulkheads therefore subdivide the ship s hull into several watertight and airtight compartments. With the selected compartmentation, the vessel fulfills the 3- resp. 4-compartment status against flooding. Fig. 11: MEKO A-200 SAN (Generous, coherent space available for operations and accommodation Fig. 12: Survivability Features 7

8 Low Weight Splinter Protection Panel ( Fig. 13) A further new survivability feature is the installed Low Weight Splinter Protection Panel System. The panels consist of a special Kevlar and Ceramic combination system that is bolted to the inner side of the ships shell. The panels protect vital and hazardous areas against penetration of splinters or other ballistic projectiles. Fig. 14: Low RCS Signature through X-Shape Fig. 13: Low Weight Splinter Protection Panel Signature Reduction The MEKO A-200 incorporates several measures to keep the ship s signatures as low as possible in the areas of Magnetic, Radar Cross Section, Acoustic and Infra Red. The magnetic signature is reduced by the installed tri-axial degaussing system. RCS Reduction The RCS signature has been significantly reduced by the X-shape of the hull and the clean superstructure, which avoids strong reflection at any one angle of incidence (see Fig. 14). Computer simulations were used to design the current optimized structural angles. Clean superstructure in this regard means that above the waterline the hull shape continues in the RCS optimized X-shape because of the totally enclosed forecastle and the quarterdeck. All fairleads as well as the anchor pocket will be closed by doors. The ship s embarkation areas and the ship s boats areas are totally covered by removable nets. The complete superstructure has been optimized with the same regard to the stealth design. Underwater Noise Reduction The acoustic signature is kept low by the streamlined shaping of the hull, especially with the sharp bow design. This has been optimized with special regards to the performance of the hull mounted sonar. Figure 15 shows the approx. 7m model which was used during extensive tank test investigations in the early design phase. After tank testing the same model was put into the cavitation tank to increase the cavitation inception speed. Figure 16 shows the real hull shape of the first corvette during docking. Further acoustic measures are the encapsulated and elastic mounted propulsion- and generator engines with its similarly elastic mounted ancillary systems as used as standard for MEKO platforms. Fig. 15: Tank Testing Model of MEKO A 200 8

9 The MEKO A-200 SAN Corvettes have been equipped with the unique CODAG-WARP propulsion. CODAG-WARP means Combined Diesel And Gas turbine Waterjet and Refined Propellers (Fig. 18). Fig. 16: MEKO A-200 SAN in Dock IR Signature Reduction The Infra-Red (IR) signature has been significantly reduced by removing the traditional funnel, which eliminates the critical hot spot that most ships have amidships. The exhaust gases are instead led aft as shown for the combined gas turbine and diesel engine exhaust - or to ship s side just above or below the waterline. All exhaust gases are cooled by seawater injection to drop the temperature at the outlets. Exhaust System Design and Exhaust Cooling (Fig. 17) The use of the proven air-conditioning concept using a large portion of re-circulating air will avoid hot spots normally caused by exhausted air. Further measures like a suitably insulated shell above the waterline including machinery spaces will minimize localized heat transfer and the associated hot spots. Fig. 18: CODAG-WARP Propulsion System Each of the two 16 V diesel engines has a maximum continuous rating of 6 MW and is coupled via main gears and shafting to a five-blade controllablepitch propellers. Via the cross-connection gearbox, located in front of the main gears, both shafts can be driven by one diesel engine only. The main gears are equipped with a shiftable three stage gearing to provide optimum thrust with the diesel engines running in their most efficient operating point. On the centerline a gas turbine with a maximum power of 20 MW is coupled via a compact reduction gear to the waterjet. The water jet can be used as the only propulsion unit or together with the diesel plant in the so-called CODAG-WARP Mode up to maximum vessel speed. Extensive model propulsion tests have been conducted, see Fig. 19. Fig: 19: WARP-Configuration / Waterjet Fig. 17: Exhaust System Design and Exhaust Cooling CODAG-WARP Propulsion System Adjacent to the propulsion machinery, four diesel generators of 550 kw each are located to provide the electrical power. Figure 19 also depicts the realized WARP- Configuration and shows massive bucket of the large waterjet, which is designed for reversing thrust. Im- 9

10 pressive is the figure of just a few seconds to turn direction of 20 MW thrust from ahead to astern. This feature will give the MEKO A 200 SAN Corvette one of the shortest stopping distances of her class. Full control and monitoring of the propulsion and ship s service systems is possible via the integrated platform management system. The unique arrangement of the propulsion system with the three-stage shiftable cross-connected gears offers a wide variety of operating modes, see Fig. 20: Fig. 21: Weapon and Sensor Configuration Weapons for Anti-Surface Warfare 1 x 76 mm gun on the foreship 2 x 20 mm cannon for close-in engagement of small targets and 8 x Exocet MM40 as anti ship missiles amidships Fig. 20: Operating Modes Manoeuvre Mode The entire propulsion system can be operated in fully automatic modes. Port and Starboard diesel engine are connected to the propellers via the main gears in second stage. Both system run totally independent of each other. The max ship speed in this mode is approx. 23 kn. Economic Mode The economic mode is used for long-distance cruising. The Port or Starboard diesel engine is connected via the main gears in first stage and the cross connection to both propellers. The other diesel engine is in stand by. The max ship speed in economic mode is approx. 18 kn. Gas Turbine Mode The propulsion mode with only the gasturbine and the waterjet operating should be used only as backup/ emergency mode. A ship speed of approx. 23 kn will be reached in this mode. CODAG-WARP Mode Within the CODAG-WARPmode, the two diesel driven propeller shafts and the gas turbine driven waterjet system produce maximum power output rendering a ship s top speed of well above 27 kn. Weapons for Anti-Air Warfare: 16 x SAM will provide defense against aircraft and missiles A 35 mm high rate of fire twin gun, located on the aft deck, will provide for anti-missile defense. Sensor Systems The main sensor is a Medium Range Surveillance and Target Radar on the forward mast. An optical Radar Tracker System forward and an Electro-Optical Tracker System aft, deliver tracking information in passive mode. Target designation sights, systems for electronic warfare and a navigation radar complete the sensor suite. Helicopter Facilities Behind the aft superstructure covering the large hangar, the 27m long landing area provides generous space for large helicopter operations (Fig. 22). The landing deck is contracted for the SUPER LYNX helicopter but is able to accommodate a 10 t helicopter or two 5 t helicopters and allow for helicopter operation at day and night. This improves surveillance and attack capabilities of the Corvette. The hangar area includes workshops, stores and maintenance facilities as well as re-fuelling and re- arming capabilities. Weapon and Sensor Configuration The combat system has been designed to fit the vessels role of maritime surveillance and operation with the emphasis on surface warfare in a defensive role, see Figure

11 the electrical power supply and 37 % spare capacity for cooling requirements. The Corvette has been designed for a 25% spare in cable trays and bulkhead and deck penetrations for additional combat suite cable runs. Fig. 22: Spacious Helicopter Landing Area Transport Routes and Modular Storage Since much emphasis was put on day-to-dayhandling of the MEKO A-Class, a large lift and staircase enable horizontal and/or vertical access from the main RAS position at amidships to the store areas. This access is further facilitated by the wide alleyways through the Vessel, being made possible by the more generous available space for crew and storage. As a further enhancement of outfit flexibility, the amidships deck area has allocated space and supports for two standard ISO TEU containers for special transport requirements Future Growth Capabilities As depicted in Figure 23, the A-Corvettes provide space, weight and stability growth margins to cater for future refit capabilities of combat equipment or other systems. The design solution of the A-class bears space for sensors and weapons which is kept free or will be upgraded at a later stage after commissioning and is based on the Modular MEKO Concept. Fig. 23: MEKO A-200 Corvette Future Growth Capabilities For potential future equipment the Corvettes are constructed up to the so called Fitted For But Not With, FFBNW - status. As an example, the installation of the torpedo launching, handling and stowage systems is possible at any time and without engineering changes. Therefore a growth margin capability of approximately 200 tons is provided, 20 % spare within Conclusion MEKO A 200 SAN The new MEKO A-Class Vessels have realized significant design improvements. They provide the unique CODAG-WARP propulsion arranged in the aft of the Vessel, which offers good space utilization within the Vessel hull, low weight, economic cruising and quick acceleration to sprint speed. quiet and vibration-free running and high living comfort because of the propulsion arrangement remote from the crew and operational spaces and the omitted vertical funnel amidships. significantly enhanced habitability by the generous space available for the crew of 120 as well as for the payload. optimized hull lines which mean efficient operation and high maneuverability even in rough sea conditions. With its large unreplenished range, the MEKO A-200 SAN is able to operate independently for surveillance of the long coastlines of the South African Waters. Besides the advantage of easy repair and exchange of modularized systems, the MEKO Modularity, together with the decisive future growth margins in space and weight, provide flexibility for upgrading or retrofitting single Combat System Modules or even complete mission packages onto the Vessel without major alterations to the ship s structure. 7. THE "A"- CLASS MEGA YACHT DEVEL- OPMENT In 12 years of operation, the motor yacht Eco has proven to be an extremely successful design. Any new design of a large gas-turbine driven motor yacht has to be measured against her performance. In 1998, Blohm + Voss started a new design process for a fast yacht of similar size, and a thorough analysis was done to select the best propulsion plant (Table 1). As it becomes obvious from the table, there are numerous options available: With regard to propulsion, one has to select between fixed pitch or controllable pitch propellers in twin screw or triple screw arrangement, Z-drives, podded drives, water jets and combinations of these. With regard to the engines, there are gas turbines and diesel engines, which can either be engaged in a diesel- geared or diesel- electric mode. With regard to the gears, there are combination gears to distribute the power to several propulsive units, and direct or shifted gears available. For 30 kn top speed, a power of 14,000 kw was required, and for 18 kn cruising speed a power of 11

12 4,000 kw would be needed. In order to improve both the efficiency of the propulsion plant at cruising speed as well as the maneuvering of the vessel, a combination of 2 CP- propellers and a center water jet booster has finally been chosen for the project as best alternative. In favor of a low weight solution, a shifted gear was chosen rather than a diesel electric plant to allow the propellers to operate with design pitch in all modes like high speed mode, cruising speed mode and maneuvering. The stern wing foil was kept in order to maintain the stabilizing effect both in roll as well as in pitch motion (Fig. 24). Fig. 25: Virtual project study of a 76 m gas turbine motor yacht Fig. 24: Yacht- project - Propeller/ Waterjet- combination The final design of the 76 m gas turbine yacht is shown in Fig. 25. The positive results of the full scale sea trials of the first MEKO A-class Frigate encouraged Blohm + Voss to develop on this proven basis a 121 m gas turbine yacht. The ranking of this yacht with regard to performance, space allocation and size is shown in Table 2. With a displacement of 3 times that of an Eco- class motor yacht, she offers an accommodation area which is nearly 5 times larger, or nearly 70 % of the interior space of the large motor yacht Lady Moura. Her GE LM type gas turbine allows this truly large yacht to drive at top speeds of 30 kn, in combination with a very efficient service speed capability and maneuverability. This yacht design makes use of the propulsion plant and exhaust arrangement of the MEKO A-class frigate development. Because of this compact engine room arrangement and the avoidance of large engine casings and funnel arrangements, a generous general arrangement of the interior spaces can be allocated (fig. 26). The exterior styling can be adapted to any taste, especially to an exterior styling concept keeping the naval appearance of the yacht's origin. 12

13 PROJECT GT- MOTORYACHT PRIME MOVER OPTIONS Estimated power for 30 kn max. speed: Approx kw Estimated power for 18 kn cruising speed: Approx kw Existing plant ECO : 1 GT LM 1600, kw; 2 DE kw each (GT = Gas Turbine; DE = Diesel Engine) Project ECO II Propulsion Engines Pros/Cons: - Efficiency Existing, 3 WJ (1 fixed, 2 reversible/ steerable) OPT 1 (Twin Screw) 2 propeller FP or CP, 2 rudder OPT 2 (WJ/Twin Screw) 1 WJ (Booster), 2 propeller FP, 2 rudder OPT 3 (as above) OPT 4 1 WJ (Booster), 2 propeller CP, 2 rudder OPT 5 (WJ/Twin Z- Drive) 1 WJ (Booster), 2 Z-Drives (FP; CP not available) OPT 6 (Triple Screw) Triple screw CP, 2 rudder OPT 7 (Two Podded Propeller) 2 podded propeller (FP) OPT 8 (CODAG-WARP) WARP- 1 WJ, 2 refined CP propeller 1 GT, 2 DE - reduced efficiency in cruising mode 1 GT, 2 DE on combination -not possible; propeller gear cavitation/ overload Because of off-design pitch in various modes 1 GT, 2 DE -not possible; DE overload in cruising mode 1 GT/ diesel-electric -good efficiency in cruising mode 1 GT, 2 DE -not possible; propeller cavitation because of off-design pitch -not possible; same as OPT 2 applies GT3 DE (wing 2.5 MW, Booster 10 MW) -good efficiency in cruising mode, but add. drag of sailing propeller cavitation/ vibration of propeller because of off-design pitch 1 GT/ diesel-electric -not possible; pods sensitive to cavitation at high speed 1 GT, 2 DE, combination gear/ shifted gear -same as OPT 3 applies Table 1: Prime mover options for a fast motor yacht Manoeuvring Weight Price - reduced manoeuvring performance in harbor -good maneuverability -good maneuverability -good maneuverability - low weight - basis for comparison -higher weight -higher weight -higher price -higher price in case of air blow propeller to reduce vibration MEGA YACHTS - COMPARISION KATANA ex Eco "A"- class Mega Yacht Lady Moura Length over all 74.1 m (243,0 ft) 121,0 m (397,0 ft) 105,0 m (344,5 ft) Beam over all 11.2 m (36.7 ft) 16,3 m (53,5 ft) 18,5 m (60,7 ft) Design draught 3.2 m (10.5 ft) 4,4 m (14,4 ft) 5,5 m (18,0 ft) Speed 36 kn 30 kn 20 kn Design Displacement 1,150 t 3,500 t 5,800 t Accommodation Total Area, 730 sqm (7,860 sqft) 3,590 sqm (38,640 sqft) 4,930 sqm (53,070 sqft) Main Engines 1 x 13,800 kw + 2 x 1 x 20,000 kw + 2 x 5,920 2 x 5,500 kw 3,700 kw kw Total 21,200 kw 31,840 kw 11,000 kw Table 2: Mega Yachts, Comparison 13

14 An diese Stelle kommt ein überarbeites Bild! Fig. 25: "A"-Class Mega Yacht, General Arrangement 8. SUMMARY Since more than 70 years Blohm + Voss has made very positive experience of synergies between naval ship construction and mega yacht construction. Both products have always been and will remain to be at the forefront of the technical development. Frigates, corvettes and mega yachts can favorably be constructed in common production facilities by the same blue collar and white collar workforce. A typical development using synergies between the two product lines has been presented using the example of the latest in-house development MEKO A-Class and the development of the advanced high-speed mega yacht Eco. The next generation products are already under development based on the good full-scale performance of these innovative vessels. Considering the ever fiercer competition, Blohm + Voss will intensify this line of product mix. 14

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