Tinutul Secuiesc Székelyföld Seklerland

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1 Tinutul Secuiesc Székelyföld Seklerland 1

2 Romania - general information Official name: Romania Official language: Romanian. Geographical position: Romania is located in South Eastern Europe and borders Ukraine (in the North and East), the Republic of Moldavie (in the East), Hungary (in the West and North West), Serbia (in the South West) and Bulgaria (in the South). The country has a surface area of 238,391 km2. Flag: Blue, yellow and red in vertical stripes, arranged from left to roght respectively. Government: Bicameral parliamentary republic. European Status: Member of the European Union since 1 January Population: 21,733,556 inhabitants (2003), of whom 89% are Romanian. The principal minorities include Hungarians and Szeklers (Secui) (7.1%) and Roma (1.7%). Religions: Christian-Orthodox (86.8%), Catholic (5%), Graeco-Catholic (1%), Protestant (3.5%). Capital: Bucharest (2,064,000 inhabitants), first historical mention in Time zone: GMT +3 hours in summertime (from the last Sunday of March to the last Sunday of October), and GMT +2 hours for the rest of the year. Climate: Temperate continental. The average summer temperature is between 22 and 24 C, although maximum temperatures can reach 38 C. In winter, the average temperature is tipically below -3 C. Units of Measurement: Metric. 1 km=0.62 miles. National currency: LEU (plural: Lei). 1 Leu=100 Bani. Currently circulating banknotes: 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 200 and 500 Lei. Currently circulating coins: 1, 5, 10 and 50 Bani. Currency exchange: at banks and exchange offices in hotels, airports, railway stations, supermarkets and on main urban thoroughfares. Avoid changing money at unauthorised locations. Credit cards: Larger hotels, restaurants, shops and supermarkets in the major towns and cities typically accept credit cards (American Express, Master Card, Diners Club and Visa). The number of outlets accepting cards is increasing rapidly. Emergency Phone Number: 112 (throughout the country) Official Public Holidays: 1 December Romanian National Day, 1 and 2 January New Year, 1 May Labour Day, the first and the second day of Easter, 25 and 26 December Christmas. Publishers: Covasna County Council Harghita County Council Mures County Council Project editor: Nagy Balázs Design and layout: Kopacz Attila Photo by: Ádám Gyula, Asociația de Innovare și Icubare în Afaceri Harghita, Henning János, Hlavathy Károly, Siklódi Zsolt, Kovács Árpád, Kósa Ferenc, Kovács László Attila, Nagy Zsombor, Mihailă Alexandru, Muzeul Haszmann Pál Cernat, Plájás Betty, Plájás István, Pop Pál, Vargyasi Levente 2009

3 Tinutul Secuiesc este o regiune istorico-etnografică din centrul României, bine delimitată. În cele mai vechi documente, regiunea figurează sub denumirile Terra Siculorum şi Regnum Siculorum. În perioada , Ţinutul Secuiesc istoric reunea cinci scaune secuieşti Scaunul Odorheiului, Scaunul Ciucului, Trei Scaune, Scaunul Mureşului şi Scaunul Arieşului. În 1876, în locul scaunelor secuieşti au fost organizate comitate. Între , odată cu reorganizarea administrativ-teritorială a României, în locul comitatelor s-a constituit Regiunea Autonomă Maghiară, care, după un deceniu de existenţă, şi-a schimbat denumirea în Regiunea Mureş Autonomă Maghiară. Astăzi, Ţinutul Secuiesc include judeţele Harghita şi Covasna, precum şi o parte din judeţul Mureş, cu populaţie maghiară majoritară. Din punct de vedere etnic, secuii sunt maghiari, dar cu o conştiinţă istorică aparte, cu specificităţi etnografice şi de dialect, declarându-se, de regulă, maghiari, fiind vorbitori de limba maghiară. Cultura lor populară a păstrat substraturi arhaice care se regăsesc în tradiţii, în poezia şi arta populară. Muntele sacru al secuilor este masivul Harghita, vârful cel mai înalt având 1801m. Peste tot în zonă, în faţa călătorului se deschid privelişti spectaculoase, cu aşezări rustice ce se ascund la poalele Munţilor Harghita, staţiuni balneare cochete, pârtii de schi şi staţiuni turistice. Székelyföld Románia középső részének jól körülhatárolható történeti-néprajzi tájegysége. Régi oklevelekben Terra Siculo-rum és Regnum Siculorum néven szerepel. A történelmi Székelyföld től öt széket foglalt magában: Udvarhely-, Csík-, Maros-, Aranyos- és Háromszéket ban a székek helyén vármegyéket szerveztek és 1960 között Románián belül a Magyar Autonóm Tartományt, majd a Maros Magyar Autonóm Tartományt alkotta. Ma Hargita és Kovászna megye, valamint Maros megye többségében magyarok lakta részét jelenti. A székelyek a magyarság egyik, különleges történelmi tudattal, nyelvjárási és néprajzi sajátosságokkal rendelkező csoportja. Többségük magyarnak vallja magát. Gazdag népköltészetük, népművészetük és háziipari hagyományuk van. A székelyek szent hegye a Hargita, melynek legmagasabb pontja 1801 m. A természeti látványosságokban bővelkedő hegység keleti és nyugati előterében vendégszerető falvak, gyógyfürdők, sípályák és üdülőközpontok várják az ide érkezőket. Seklerland is a well-defined historical and ethnographical area of the central region of Romania. In old Latin documents it was written about as Terra Siculorum and Regnum Siculorum. Between 1437 and 1876 the historical Seklerland was formed of five districts: Udvarhelyszék, Csikszék, Háromszék, Marosszék and Aranyosszék. In 1876 some counties were established on their territories. Between 1952 and 1960 it formed the Autonomous Hungarian Province then the Maros Autonomous Hungarian Province within the territory of Romania. Nowadays it refers to the territories of Hargita and Kovászna counties as well as to those parts of Maros County, which are mainly inhabited by Hungarian population. From an ethnical point of view, the Seklers represent a group of population, whose members possess special historical consciousness as well as linguistic and ethnographical features. On the grounds of the spoken language, the vast majority of them consider themselves Hungarians, as it has been declared at national census. The folk art and culture of the Seklers populating the south-eastern part of Transylvania have preserved archaic layers. They have rich folk literature, art and household traditions. The Seklers`sacred mountain is the Hargita, whose highest peak is of 1801 m. In the eastern and western foregrounds of the mountain, rich in natural sights, there are hospitable villages, spas, ski slopes and resorts, waiting for the guests`arrival. 3

4 Tinutul Secuiesc este cunoscut şi ca un tărâm al legendelor. Populaţia de aici păst rează numeroase legende despre origini despre formarea lacurilor şi ridicarea cetăţilor, despre munţi, izvoare, stânci şi copaci seculari. Pădurile ascund taine iar pietrele vorbesc de vremuri apuse. Dintre toate locurile de legendă, cel mai frumos şi mai vizitat rămâne lacul Sfânta Ana cu ale sale misterioase împrejurimi. Situat în Masivul Ciomatu Mare, Sfânta Ana este singurul lac din Europa aşezat într-un crater vulcanic, care s-a păstrat intact. Format la o altitudine de 946 m, lacul are o lungime de 620m, o circumferinţă de 1737m şi o adâncime maximă de 7m. Lacul Mohos s-a format în conul mai înalt al vulcanului, la 1050 m. Tot micşorându-şi suprafaţa, locul s-a transformat încetul cu încetul într-o adevărată mlaştina alpină, presărată astăzi doar cu câteva mici lacuri. În această zonă pot fi admirate diverse plante carnivore, printre care şi Drosera rotundofolia. Imensele păduri din zona Carpaţilor de Curbură adăpostesc animale sălbatice rare şi ocrotite de lege, cum ar fi ursul brun carpatin ( Ursus arctos arctos), râsul (Lynx lynx carpatica) şi lupul cenuşiu (Canis lupus). 4

5 Székelyföld Seklerland a legendák földje. E táj népe legendákat őriz tavak kialakulásáról, várakról, hegyekről, forrásokról, sziklákról, évszázados fákról. Titkot rejtenek az erdők, régmúlt időkról beszélnek a kövek. Legendás helyeink egyik legszebbikke a Szent Anna-tó és környéke. A Csomád-hegycsoportban fekvő Szent Anna-tó Európa egyetlen nagy méretű, épen maradt krátertava. Tengerszint feletti magassága 946 m, kerülete 1737 m, legnagyobb mélysége 7 m. A Mohos-tó a vulkáni tölcsér magasabbik (1050 m) területén alakult ki. Itt Románia egyik legértékesebb és legnagyobb havasi tőzeglápja fogadja a látogatókat. Az egykori összefüggő vízfelületből mára csak tószemek maradtak. Növényritkaságai közé tartozik a rovarevő kereklevelű harmatfű (Drosera otundofolia). A Keleti-Kárpátok kanyarulatában fekvő régió kiterjedt erdőségei ritka és védettséget élvező vadállatoknak adnak otthont. Ilyenek a kárpáti barnamedve (Ursus arctos arctos), a hiúz (Lynx lynx carpatica) és a szürke farkas (Canis lupus). is the land of legends. The population of this region preserves legends about the formation of its lakes, fortresses, mountains, springs, cliffs and secular trees. Old secrets are hidden by dense forests, stones speak about ancient times. One of our most beautiful legendary places is Lake Saint Anna and its surroundings. The lake situated in the Csomád Mountains is the only large, well-preserved crater-lake in Europe. It lies at an altitude of 946 m above sea level, its circumference is 1737 m, and its maximum depth is 7 m. Lake Mohos was formed on the highest territory of the volcanic crater (1050 m). Here visitors can see one of the biggest and most valuable alpine turf bogs in Romania. Instead of the once continuous water surface there are only small lakes nowadays there. From among its rare plants the insectivore Drosera rotundofolia can be mentioned. The extensive forests in the region stretching in the curves of the Eastern Carpathians give home to rare and protected species of animals such as the brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos), the lynx (Lynx lynx carpatica) and the grey wolf (Canis lupus). 5

6 Baile Tusnad Situată la o altitudine de 650m, în partea sudică a Depresiunii Ciucului, între munţii Harghita şi Bodoc, într-un splendid defileu al Oltului, este cea mai mică staţiune balneară din ţară care a fost fondată pe la mijlocul secolului al XIX -lea. Staţiunea de renume european a fost declarată oraş în Climatul subalpin, aerul puternic ozonat, bogat în aerosoli şi ioni negativi fac ca staţiunea să dispună de un bioclimat tonic, favorabil reconfortării psihice și fizice. Staţiunea dispune de bază de tratament, unde se efectuează băi carbogazoase calde, îmachetări cu parafină, hidroterapii şi fizioterapii, gimnastică medicală, electroterapie. În staţiune se găsesc izvoare de ape minerale, mezotermale şi mofete fiind recomandată pentru tratamentul bolilor cardiovasculare, afecţiuni urologice şi a sistemului nervos. Se pot trata afecţiuni digestive, gastrite hipoacide, precum si hepato-colecistite cronice, boli metabolice şi neuro-endocrine. Băile sunt recomandate în afecţiuni cardiovasculare, tulburări de circulaţie, reumatice si nevroză astenică sau de suprasolicitare precum şi bolile ale aparatului locomotor. Începând din 1992, este gazda Universității de vară și a taberei studențești Tusványos care se organizează în luna iulie și fiind unul din cele mai prestigioase evenimente din Transilvania. 6

7 Tusnadfürdo Baile Tusnad A Hargita megyét déli irányban Kovászna megyével összekötő főút mentén, az Olt folyó szorosában fekvő nemzetközi jellegű gyógyhely és klimatikus üdülőhely a Szent Anna-tavat is rejtő Csomád-hegycsoport (1301 m) nyugati előterében alakult ki a 19. század második felében. Ásványvizeinek és gyógyfürdőjének köszönhetően 1968-ban várossá nyilvánították. A kis fürdőtelep hegyaljai klímája, negatív ionokban gazdag levegője, a lebilincselő táj már önmagában gazdag turisztikai tényező. Ehhez társul a változatos vegyi összetételű ásványvizek és a széndioxidos gázfürdők (mofetták) gyógyító hatása. A helyi kezelőbázisokban mozgásterápiára és gyógytornára, hidrotermoterápiára, víz alatti tornára, elektroterápiáára és masszázsterápiára van lehetőség. Tusnádfürdő a neurózisban, a szív- és érrendszeri-, a gyomor-, bél- és mozgásszervi bántalmakban, valamint a belső elválasztású mirigyek betegségeiben szenvedőknek kínál gyógyulási lehetőséget óta a település minden júliusban rangos nemzetközi nyári szabadegyetemnek és diáktábornak ad otthont. The health resort was formed in the second half of the 19th century in the western foreground of the Csomad Mountain (1301 m), where visitors can also see Lake Szent Anna. More precisely, it is located in the strait of the Olt River, along the highway which links Kovaszna County and the southern border of Hargita County. Due to its mineral water springs and medicinal baths it obtained its town rank in Its sub-alpine climate, the air rich in negative ions, and its breathtaking views are significant tourist factors. In addition, there are several mineral water springs of a rich chemical variety, and lots of mofettas (therapy with a mixture of gases whose most important component is carbon dioxide), which all have a significant healing effect. There are many curing opportunities such as kinetic therapy, physiotherapy, hydro thermotherapy, aqua gymnastics, electrotherapy and massage therapy. Tusnadfurdo is highly recommended for disorders of the nervous and vascular system, different heart diseases, disorders of the digestive systems as well as for different glandular disorders. Since 1992 the settlement gives home to important summer student camps and international summer university in July every year. 7

8 MIERCUREA CIUC Reşedinţa judeţului Harghita este citadela sporturilor de iarnă. Echipa de hochei pe gheaţă, ce activează de mai bine de opt decenii, este multiplă campioană naţională. Staţiunea Băile Harghita, situată la câţiva kilometri de oraş, îi aşteaptă pe iubitorii sporturilor de iarnă mereu pregătită cu mai multe pârtii de schi. Tot aici se organizează cel mai important eveniment sportiv internaţional de vară, Turul Ciclist al Ţinutului Secuiesc. De trei decenii, se organizează anual Festivalul de Muzică Veche, în curtea Cetăţii Mikó (Muzeul Secuiesc al Ciucului). Ansamblul Naţional Secuiesc Harghita este o formaţie de dans profesionist, scopul activităţii sale fiind salvarea şi promovarea folclorului muzical şi coregrafic maghiar din zonă, dar şi din Romînia. Localitatea Şumuleu este consemnată pe harta turistică şi prin celebra sărbătoare anuală a portului şi obiceiurilor secuieşti, Festivalul celor 1000 de Fete, unde an de an se întâlnesc tradiţiile populare specifice Ţinutului, iar din anul 2001, în cadrul Zilelor oraşului, se organizează Festivalul cartofului. Csíkszereda Hargita megye központja, a téli sportok fellegvára. A nyolc évtizedes múltra visszatekintő helybeli jégkorong csapat többszörös román bajnok. A városhoz tartozó Hargitafürdő sípályáival várja a téli sportok kedvelőit. Itt szevezik meg a térség legrangosabb nyári nemzetközi sporteseményét, a székelyföldi kerékpáros körversenyt. 8

9 Három évtizedes múltra tekint vissza a Mikó vár (Csíki Székely Múzeum) udvarán megtartott Régizene Fesztivál. A térség és a tágabb értelemben vett romániai magyarság folklórkincsének meg népi hagyományainak megőrzését és továbbadását a nemzetközi hírnévnek örvendő Hargita Nemzeti Székely Népi Együttes végzi. A népviselet és a néptánc továbbélését szolgálja a július első vasárnapján a Csíkszeredával egybeépült Csíksomlyón megtartott 1000 székely leány napja. A városnapok alkalmával 2001 óta gasztronómiai szempontból érdekes pityókafesztivált is szerveznek. MIERCUREA CIUC The centre of Hargita County, the citadel of winter sports. The local ice hockey team, having a history of eight decades, is multiple Romanian champion. Hargitafürdő, which is part of the town, waits for fans of winter sports with its ski slopes. The most prestigious international summer sports event of the region (the bike race) is also organized here. The Festival of Medieval Music organized in the courtyard of Mikó fortress (Csiki Sekler Museum) has also got a three- decade history. The National Sekler Folk Group Hargita, owner of international fame, have preserved and transmitted the folk treasure and traditions of the Hungarians living in Romania, and, in broader meaning, those of the whole Hungarian nation. The festival named The Day of the 1000 Sekler Maidens, being celebrated in Csiksomlyó (a settlement fused with Csikszereda) on the first Sunday of July, also keeps folk dances and national costumes alive. On the occasion of the Town Days The Festival of Potatoes has been organized since 2001, which is considered to be interesting from gastronomical point of view.

10 Şumuleu În trecut, a fost cel mai important centru religios şi de studii din Ţinutul Secuiesc, până în 1876 fiind reşedinţa Scaunelor Ciucului, Gheorghenilor şi Casinului. Biserica şi mănăstirea franciscanilor din Şumuleu constituie un străvechi loc de pelerinaj al Secuimii catolice şi al ceangăilor din Moldova. Complexul baroc de la Şumuleu aflat în nord-estul oraşului Miercurea-Ciuc, la poalele dealului Şumuleul Mic este unul dintre cele mai importante monumente istorice din Transilvania Biserica a fost construită în stil baroc, în perioada , în locul bisericii gotice vechi, din care au mai rămas doar fragmente ce au fost zidite în pereţii bisericii actuale. Piesa centrală a bisericii actuale este Statuia Maicii Domnului Făcătoare de Minuni, aşezată în altarul principal. Conform specialiştilor, statuia datează din secolul XVI, este sculptată dintrun trunchi de tei, iniţial vopsit, ulterior aurit, şi este cunoscută drept cea mai mare sculptură votivă din lume, având o înălţime totală de 227 cm. Csíksomlyó a múltban Székelyföld egyik legjelentősebb vallási és oktatási központja, 1876-ig Csík-, Kászon és Gyergyószékek székhelye volt. Ma a Kárpát-medence legtöbb embert vonzó búcsújáró helye. Neve egybefonódik az itt több mint 600 éve megtele- 10

11 pedett Szent Ferenc-rendi szerzetesek történetével, ezen keresztül pedig az Erdélyben egyedülálló szakrális műemlék együttessel és a több százezer székelyföldi, moldvai és magyarországi római katolikus és más felekezetű hívet ide vonzó pünkösdi búcsúval. A kéttornyú barokk kegytemplom egy korábbi gótikus épület helyén között épült. Legnagyobb kincse az 1500-as évek elején készült 227 cm magas Mária-szobor, melyhez több csoda fűződik. Şumuleu In the past until 1876, Csiksomlyó, one of the most significant religious and educational centres in Seklerland, used to be the centre of Csik, Kászon and Gyergyó districts. Currently it is a place of pilgrimage, which attracts most people living in the Carpathian Basin. Its name mingles with the history of the Franciscan monks who settled in the region more than 600 years ago, with that of the ensemble of sacred monuments unique in Transylvania and with the Pentecostal saints` day, which attracts thousands of Catholic followers and members of other churches from Seklerland, Moldavia and Hungary. The two-towered Baroque devotional church was built between on the spot of another former Gothic building. Its most valuable treasure, the statue of Mary (227 cm), made at the beginning of the 1500s, is spoken about as having magical healing powers. 11

12 Cheile Bicazului reprezintă una dintre cele mai atrăgătoare zone turistice ale Ţinutului Secuiesc. Aici se află Lacul Roşu, un lac de baraj natural care s-a format prin 1837, în urma unor alunecări de teren. La atmosfera cu totul specială a locului contribuie mulţimea brazilor de odinioară, din care au rămas doar trunchiurile dezgolite ce ies din apă străpungând imaginea Micului Suhard reflectat în oglinda lacului. Construit în perioada Renaşterii, Castelul Lázár, din localitatea Lăzarea, este una dintre cele mai impunătoare reşedinţe nobiliare din Ardeal. În acest castel şi-a petrecut copilăria principele Bethlen Gábor ( ), nume cu rezonanţă în istoria Transilvaniei. Azi, Lăzarea este un important centru de întâlnire şi de creaţie pentru artiştii plastici din toată ţara. La începutul lunii septembrie, la Gheorghieni se organizează Zilele cailor, pentru păstrarea şi reînvierea tradiţiilor legate de creşterea cailor şi de arta echitaţiei. În România, 40% din apa minerală îmbuteliată provine din Ţinutul Secuiesc. Această regiune este rezerva naturală de apă minerală a Europei. Staţiunea balneoclimatică Borsec este una dintre cele mai frumoase zone din România. Apa minerală de aici a fost botezată Regina apelor minerale, la originea acestui renume aflându-se împăratul Franz Joseph al Austriei. La un concurs organizat în 2004 în America, apa din Borsec a câştigat locul I la categoria rezervată apelor minerale. Székelyföld természeti szépségeinek felfedezése során egyik legizgalmasabb kalandot a Békási-szoros bejárása ígéri. Itt található az ország egyik leglátogatottabb természeti ritkasága, az 1837-ben földcsuszamlás révén keletkezett Gyilkos-tó. Gyergyószárhegyen a Lázár-kastély az erdélyi reneszánsz kori építészet egyik legbecsesebb emléke. Ebben a főúri udvarban nevelkedett Bethlen Gábor ( ) erdélyi fejedelem. A településen több mint három évtizede képzőművészeti alkotótábor működik. A székelyföldi lovas hagyományok erősítése céljából szeptember elején Gyergyószentmiklóson lovas napokat szerveznek. A Romániában palackozott ásványvizek több mint 40 %-a Székelyföldről származik. Ez a régió Európa borvíz nagyhatalma. Borszék az ország egyik legszebb fekvésű fürdőhelye. Az itteni vizet nevezte Ferenc József császár a borvizek királynőjének ben az Amerikai Egyesült Államokban a szénsavval dúsított ásványvíz kategóriában aranyérmet nyert. While discovering the natural beauty of Seklerland, one of the most exciting adventures is visiting the Strait of Békás. Lake Gyilkos, which was formed sequel to a landslide in 1837, is one of the most visited rarities in the country. 12

13 The Lázár Castle in Gyergyószárhegy is one of the most treasured memories of the Renaissance architecture in Transylvania. It is this noble court where Transylvanian prince Bethlen Gábor ( ) was brought up. Camps of creative fine arts have been organized on the settlement for more than three decades. In order to enforce the tradition of Sekler Cavalry, Gyergyószentmiklós is responsible for organizing the celebration of the Days of Cavalry on September 1. More than 40% of the bottled mineral water in Romania comes from Seklerland. This region is the Great Power of mineral waters in Europe. Borszék is one of the most beautiful spas in the country. Its springs were named Queen of Mineral Waters by Emperor Ferenc József. In 2004 the mineral water of Borszék won gold medal in the category of fizzy mineral waters in the United States. 13

14 Valea Trotuşului este o altă zonă etnografică specială din Ţinutul Secuiesc, cu aşezări de ceangăi înşirate pe vale şi în văile pâraielor afluente. Tradiţia spune că prima aşezare a fost ridicată pe teritoriul actualului Ghimeş-Făget. Ceangăii de aici au păstrat portul, tradiţiile şi muzica populară specifice zonei. În plus, datorită condiţiilor geografice, aici s-au mai păstrat şi forme arhaice de cultivare a pământului. Porţile secuieşti sculptate, scrise, împodobite cu multiple motive populare au devenit simbolul Secuimii. În localitatea Satu Mare din judeţul Harghita, se găsesc cele mai multe porţi secuieşti (în jur de 200), tipice pentru ţinutul Odorheiului. În afară de sculptori talentaţi, în satele secuieşti mai sunt de găsit şi alţi meşteri populari: dogari, rotari, olari, împletitori de coşuri şi pălării de paie. La Crişeni funcţionează un Muzeu al pălăriilor de paie.

15 A Tatros folyó felső folyása mentén, valamint a belé siető patakok völgyeiben fekvő Gyimes vidéke Székelyföld különleges magyar néprajzi tájegysége. Az itt élő csángók megőrizték népviseletüket, népzenéjüket és népszokásaikat. A földrajzi viszonyoknak köszönhetően a gazdálkodás archaikus formái figyelhetők meg. A galambdúcos faragott és faragott-festett nagykapuk a székelység szimbolumává váltak. Olyan település is van Székelyudvarhely közelében, mint Máréfalva, ahol az ilyen kapuk száma 200 körüli. Az ügyes kezű fafaragókon kívül a székely falvakban számos népi mester tevékenykedik, mint például kádárok, kerékgyártók, kosárfonók, szalmakalap készítők, fazekasok, szövő aszszonyok. Kőrispatakon szalmakalap múzeum működik. The region of Gyimes, situated along the upper stream of the Tatros River and the streams flowing into it, is considered to be unique from the viewpoint of Hungarian ethnography. The Hungarian-speaking inhabitants have preserved their national costumes, folk music and folk traditions. Due to geographical conditions one can notice archaic forms of economy. The lofted, carved and painted gates have become symbols of the Sekler nation. There is a settlement near Székelyudvarhely, called Máréfalva, where the number of such gates exceeds 200. Besides gifted wood-carvers, there are some other folk artists in the Sekler villages, such as coopers, basket-weavers, cart-makers, boater-makers, potters and weavers. There is a museum in Kőrispatak which exhibits boaters (straw hats). 15

16 Odorheiu Secuiesc Al doilea oraş după mărime şi număr de locuitori din judeţul Harghita, centrul economic şi spiritual al Ţinutului Secuiesc, care se află astăzi în plină dezvoltare. Pe vremuri a fost reşedinţa Scaunului Odorheiului, apoi reşedinţa Comitatului Odorheiu. Cel mai vechi monument istoric este Capela Jézus, ridicată în secolul XIII. În centrul oraşului este amplasată statuia scriitorului, istoricului şi etnografului Orbán Balázs ( ), personalitate marcantă a secuilor. Mormântul său de la Băile Szejke a devenit loc de pelerinaj. Muzeul Haáz Rezső găzduieşte variate colecţii de istorie şi etnografie şi organizează anual diverse evenimente culturale, dintre care merită reţinut Târgul Meşteşugarilor cel mai mare târg de meşteşuguri din Ţinutul Secuiesc. Székelyudvarhely Hargita megye második legnépesebb városa, Székelyföld dinamikusan fejlődő gazdasági-szellemi központja. Hajdan Udvarhelyszék anyavárosa, majd Udvarhely vármegye székhelye volt. Legrégebbi épülete a XIII. századi Jézus-kápolna. Központjában áll a legnagyobb székelyként számon tartott Orbán Balázs ( ) író, néprajzi gyűjtő, polihisztor szobra, akinek sírja a közeli Szejkefürdőn zarándokhellyé vált. A Haáz Rezső Múzeum néprajzi, helytörténeti és képzőművészeti kiállításokkal várja a látogatókat. Itt szervezik meg minden júliusban a Míves Emberek Sokadalmát, Székelyföld egyik legnagyobb kirakóvásárát. Odorheiu Secuiesc It is the second widely populated town in Seklerland, the centre of the dynamically developing economical and cultural region. In the past it used to be the centre of Udvarhely district. Its oldest building is the Chapel of Jesus built in the 13th century. In the centre of the town there is the statue of Orbán Balázs ( ), considered to be the most famous Sekler, writer, ethnographer, Renaissance man, whose tomb located in Szejkefürdő, has become a place of pilgrimage. Visitors are awaited by the Haáz Rezső Museum with ethnographical, historical and graphical exhibitions. It is this museum, where the fair of ethnographers, historians and graphic artists is organized every July. The fair is considered to be one of the biggest fairs in Seklerland. 16

17 Situată pe versantul vestic al Harghitei, localitatea alpină Vărşag este cunoscută ca un centru unde se ciopleşte şindrila şi unde construcţiile păstrează caracteristicile arhitecturii populare. A Hargita nyugati előterében fekvő Székelyvarság zsindelykészítő központ. Ezen a havasi szórványtelepülésen a székelyföldi népi építészet jellegzetességei és a hagyományos gazdálkodási módok figyelhetők meg. Székelyvarság, lying in the western foreground of the Hargita Mountain, is the centre of shingle-making. This alpine sparse settlement has preserved the forms of traditional husbandry and the peculiarities of folk architecture of Seklerland. 17

18 Localitatea Inlăceni a fost inclusă pe Lista Patrimoniului Mondial, datorită numeroaselor monumente de arhitectură rurală, pentru a căror păstrare se derulează proiecte finanţate din fonduri locale sau europene. Centrul localităţii este dominat de o biserică fortificată, monument istoric. Sanctuarul bisericii păstrează câteva elemente gotice, plafonul este ornamentat cu 88 casete pictate în Pe una dintre casete, pictorul a scris numele său şi mottoul credinţei unitariene cu rune secuieşti. Pe teritoriul Ţinutului Secuiesc au rămas multe vestigii ale acestui fel de scriere, care este încă folosit de sculptorii în lemn. Sajátos településszerkezetének, népi építészeti emlékeinek és műemlék templomának köszönhetően Énlaka a Kulturális Világörökség részét képezi. A belterület közepén magasodik a kőfallal kerített unitárius templom. Szentélye gótikus emlékeket őriz, hajóját 1668-ból való 88 virágmintás festett kazettából álló deszkamennyezet díszíti. Az egyik kazettán a festő saját nevét és az unitáriusok jelmondatát a székelyek ősi írásjeleivel, rovásírással örökítette meg. Ennek az írásmódnak Székelyföldön számos emléke maradt fenn és elsősorban a fafaragók ma is használják. Due to its characteristic form of organization, its memories of folk architecture and its church monument, Énlaka is part of the Cultural World Inheritance. On the left side of the inner court there is a Unitarian church surrounded by a stone wall. Its sanctuary preserves Gothic memories; its shuttle is decorated with sunken paneled ceiling (made of 88 patterns of floral decoration). On one of the panels one can see the painter s own name and the Unitarian motto carved with the Seklers` ancient runes. This way of writing has several memories all over Seklerland and it is still used nowadays mainly by wood-carvers. 18

19 Praidul este un loc important de exploatare a sării. Pe timpul verii, este una dintre cele mai căutate staţiuni turistice, datorită salinei şi băilor mezotermale. În apropiere, se află localitatea Corund, arhicunoscută datorită produselor de olărit. Drumul principal capătă în fiecare zi atmosfera unui târg al olarilor, unde meşterii locali îşi vând produsele. Parajd a regió fontos sóbányászati helye. Nyári időszakban a sóbányájának és gyógyfürdőjének köszönhetően az egyik legforgalmasabb székelyföldi üdülőhely. Közelében található a fazekas termékeiről hires Korond, ahol a Fő út mentén a népművészeti termékekből állandó kirakó vásár van. Parajd is an important salt-mining place of the region. Due to its salt-mine and spa it is one of the most visited resorts in Seklerland during the summer. Nearby there is Korond, famous for its pottery, where there is a permanent folk art exhibition along the main street of the settlement. 19

20 www. harghitacounty.ro Tinutul Secuiesc Székelyföld Seklerland

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