Multicast in IPv6. David Larrabeiti López Departament of Telematic Engineering University Carlos III, Madrid ://www.uc3m.

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1 Multicast in IPv6 David Larrabeiti López Departament of Telematic Engineering University Carlos III, Madrid ://www.uc3m.es 1

2 Contents The Concept Applications IP multicast service model Multicast addressing IPv4 vs IPv6 Reserved multicast addresses Mapping to Link-level addresses Host-router interaction: : MLD Router-router router interaction: multicast routing Trends: : SSM Conclusions 2

3 The concept 3

4 The Concept... Unicast scenario 4

5 The Concept... Multicast scenario 5

6 Applications 6

7 Applications Multimedia: Telephony and Videoconference Groupware (CSCW) Radio/TV broadcast and VoD Games Group VR Data base replication simultaneous update Parallel computing e.g. Convey intermediate results,, GRID Real-time news stock market conference announcements 7

8 Applications II Network control info exchange routing protocols e.g. OSPF Resource seeks autoconfiguration: : DHCP agents Services: : NTP, GK, DNS,... ICMPv6 Neighbour discovery Router Advertisements/Solicitations 8

9 IP multicast service model 9

10 Standard IP multicast service model deliver packets to a set of hosts in the internet that had previously joined a given group connection-less, unordered unreliable delivery difference unicast - multicast packet: destination_address = group address individuals free to join/leave group at any time no restriction in # of members or groups. Sending to the group does not mean membership Multicast addresses Group management: : MLD Multicast Routing 10

11 Multicast addressing 11

12 IPv4 addresses vs IPv6 addresses IPv4 Unicast an ID for an interface explict assignment Broadcast limited: directed: <net>11..1 Multicast an ID For a set of interfaces. Deliver to all of them Clase D: Especial , IPv6 Unicast n per interface based on IEEE EUI-64 Multicast Anycast an ID for a set of interfaces. Deliver to the nearest one. undistinguishible from unicast Especial ::, ::1 12

13 IPv6 Multicast Addresses Format Prefix (FP) FLAGS (4) SCOPE (4) Group ID (80+32 bits) FLAGS 000T: T=1 Transient,, T=0 Well-known SCOPE 0 reserved 1 node-local scope 2 link-local local scope 5 site-local scope 8 organization-local scope E global scope F reserved -> rest unassigned 13

14 Reserved multicast addresses Node-Local Scope FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 All Nodes Address FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 All Routers Address Site-Local Scope FF05:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 All Routers Address FF05:0:0:0:0:0:1:3 All-dhcp dhcp-servers FF05:0:0:0:0:0:1:4 All-dhcp dhcp-relays Link-Local Local Scope FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 All Nodes Address FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:2 All Routers Address FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:4 DVMRP Routers FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:5 OSPFIGP FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:6 OSPFIGP DR FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:9 RIP Routers FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:B FF02:0:0:0:0:0:0:D FF02:0:0:0:0:0:1:2 Mobile-Agents All PIM Routers All-dhcp dhcp-agents Solicited-Node FF02:0:0:0:0:1:FFXX:XXXX Solicited Address Variable Scope Multicast Addresses FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:101 FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:0:129 NTP gatekeeper FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:2: FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:2:7FFD Multimedia Conference Calls FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:2:7FFE SAPv1 Announcements FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:2: FF0X:0:0:0:0:0:2:FFFF SAP Dynamic Assignments 14

15 Important multicast addresses ff01::1, ff02::1 All-nodes ff01::2, ff02::2, ff05::2 All routers Solicited Node address of a unicast address: SN( ( ) The SN of an IP address ending with... is:...xy:ztuv FF02:0:0:0:0:1:FFXY:ZTUV EVERY IPV6 NODE MUST: JOIN the SN associated to each unicast and anycast address of the node JOIN all-nodes 15

16 ICMPv6 Neighbour Discovery (rfc2461) ARP function generalized and included in ICMPv6 objetive: neighbour cache <IP2, IP2-link link_address> IPv6 must know the length of link-level level addresses based on multicast 135 Neighbour Solicitation parameters: : <IP2, [IP1_link link_address]> duplicate detection bidirectional reachability, react to changes LL(IP1)-> > SN(IP2) 136 Neighbour Advertisement LL(IP1) <-IP2< parameters: : <IP2, IP2-link_ unsolicited: fast updates -> all link_address> all-nodes Efecto lateral: emulación de multicast en medios NBMA rfc2491 IPv6 over Non-Broadcast Multiple Access (NBMA) 16

17 IPv6 Multicast over Ethernet IPv6 datagram encapsulated in an Ethernet frame Mapping IPv6 multicast addresses to Ethernet multicast addresses: Dirección IPv6 multicast ff xy zt uv ws xy zt uv ws Dirección ethernet association not unique!! IP must discriminate according to the whole address whether it is an actual receiver of the multicast frame 17

18 Host-router interaction: : MLD 18

19 IPv6 Group Management MLD : Multicast Listener Discovery (RFC2710) MLD enables each IPv6 router to learn which multicast addresses have listeners on each of its directly attached links Keeps a list: : < interface, multicast_address address, timeout > Compulsory Funcionality included in ICMPv6 there is no IGMP-v6 19

20 IPv4 vs IPv6 Control planes ICMPv6 ICMP IGMPv2 ND MLD IPv4 IPv6 ARP Broadcast ethernet Multicast ethernet Multicast 20

21 MLD Messages Type Code Checksum Max Response Delay Reserved Multicast address ICMPv6 MLD messages 130 Group Membership Query General Query Multicast-Address Address-Specific Query 131 Report 132 Done Max response delay (ms) (in query) interval for Reports 21

22 Example: ICMPv6 MLD General Query V=6 TClass=0 Flow Label = 0 PayloadLength NH=0 HopL=1 Source = fe80::260:97ff:feba:bf81 Destination = ff02::1 (all-nodes) NH=58 HextL=0 Type=5 Len=2 Value=0 (MLD) 1 (PadN) 0 Type=130 Code=0 Checksum=0 Max Resp Delay=1000 Reserved = 0 Multicast address = 0 22

23 MLD Multicast packet flow Lan querier query(0) ff02::1 report (mcast_addr) mcast_addr 23

24 MLD Lan querier query (mcast_addr) mcast_addr done (mcast_addr) ff02::2 24

25 Router-router router interaction: multicast routing 25

26 Multicast routing Communication between routers: Exchange group membership information Compute a spanning tree for each group Routers listen to all the groups Multicast routing protocols: Dense Mode DVMRP PIM-DM MOSPF Disperse Mode CBT PIM-SM 26

27 Multicast routing & IPv6 PIM for IPv6 Implementation in KAME RPC = Reverse Path Check Link-Local Local addresses, like IGP protocols: : RIPNG, OPPF6 Avoid multiple Link-local BGP4+ global unicast addresses Scoping in address causes trouble Differences multicast-unicast unicast : organisation-local unicast scope should match multicast scope PIM Register Candidate-RP RP-Advertisement to Bootstrap Router (BSR) 27

28 MBONE Experimental Multicast Backbone Uses for videoconferencing Tunnels mbone tools: vic, vat, sdr sdr, wb,,...ported to IPv6 28

29 Multicast/Unicast tunnels Enable interconnection of multicast islands through non- multicast networks Multicast net Non- Multicast network Tunnel Multicast net Example: : IPv6 on IPv6 unicast encapsulation dst=dir IP unicast, NH = IPv6 (41) dst=dir IP mcast, NH = UDP (17) UDP header.. 29

30 Trends 30

31 Source-Specific Specific Multicast (SSM) many-to to-many problem too complex Concept re-focus on: few-to to-few (closed videoconferences): PIM-SM + MSDP 1-to to-many (broadcast content delivery networks): SSM ideas moving to IPv6 receivers suscribe a Channel = < S, G > rather than a group G routing based on destination + source address Advantages no need to manage globally unique groups alocation is local to the source base for access control: : only S sends to <S,G> No need for RP en PIM-SM nor MSDP between domains to notify active sources 31

32 SSM Elements IGMPv3 -> > MLDv2 PIM-SSM -> > PIM-SSM for IPv6 compatible with a PIM-SM backbone Subrange reserved for SSM: IETF Drafts <draft-ietf-ssm-overview-02.txt> <draft-ietf-pim-sm-v2-new-04.txt> Proyecto IST GCAP Implementación KAME IGMPv3 under development = IGMPv2 adapted to SSM New messages: 1. GROUP_SOURCE_REPORT(S,G) => Inclusion: ({S},G) 2. GROUP_SOURCE_LEAVE(S,G) => Exclusion:({S},G) 32

33 Conclusions 33

34 Conclusions Multicast service important for its applications growing native support in research networks limited commercial development today Protocols Fundamental element in IPv6 signaling, resource location Evolution parallel to development in IPv4 not essential differences : administrative scoping VS hop-limit future: : SSM 34

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