Shu-Ping Lin, Ph.D.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Shu-Ping Lin, Ph.D. E-mail: splin@dragon.nchu.edu.tw"

Transcription

1 Amino Acids & Proteins Shu-Ping Lin, Ph.D. Institute te of Biomedical Engineering ing Website: edu tw/pweb/users/splin/ Date:

2 Amino Acids Proteins are the basis for the major structural components of animal and human tissue Linear chains of amino acids residues Amino Acids (AA): 1 central carbon atom + 4 subgroups {amino group ( NH 2 ), carboxyl group ( COOH), hydrogen atom, and a distinctive side chain (R)} Organic molecules serve as chemical messengers between cells or function as important intermediates in metabolic processes. Different R groups Different properties and AA Mirror-image forms (stereoisomers) L and D-isomers Only L-amino acids are in proteins, D-amino acids are widely in bacterial cell walls. 300 AA in nature, but only 20 of these in proteins Not every protein contains all of the 20 AA types. All proteins have an AA containing sulfur Make peptides and Proteins

3 Synthesis of Polypeptides & Proteins Amino group join to carboxyl group and lose one water molecule Condensation reaction (amide synthesis reaction) Covalent bond between 2 amino acid residues is called a peptide bond or amide bond Form backbone of the polypeptides and expose side chains R Result in proteins with intricate 3D structures and a remarkable range of functions Polypeptides: linear polymers, a head-to-tail fashion, a sense of direction grow from amino group toward carboxyl group (Amine end (N terminal) is always on the left, while the acid end (C terminal) is on the right. First/Start amino acids in most polypeptides is the sulfur-containing amino acid, methionine (M, genetic code: AUG) Primary sequence of amino acids in polypeptide affects shape and function of proteins. Many proteins are single polypeptides. Other proteins are multiple polypeptides (form a complex), and multiple genes may be involved

4 Special Properties of Amino Acids Physical properties: a "salt-like" like behavior, a variety of structural parts which result in different polarities and solubilities Crystalline solids with relatively high melting points, and most are quite soluble in water and dinsoluble in non-polar solvents. In solution, the amino acid molecule appears to have a charge which changes with ph. Intramolecular neutralization reaction leads to a salt-like ion called a zwitterion. Amino acid has both an amine and acid group neutralized in the zwitterion i Neutral (unless there is an extra acid or base on the side chain) The amino acids in the zwitterion form: Carboxyl group can lose a hydrogen ion to become negatively charged. Amine group can accept a hydrogen ion to become positively charged.

5 Amino Acids with Hydrocarbon Chains Glycine (gly, G): simplest AA with a hydrogen atom as its side chain, fits into tight corners in the interior of a protein molecule Alanine (Ala, A): with a methyl group (CH 3 ) as its side chain 3~4 carbons long: Valine (Val, V), Leucine (Leu, L), and Isoleucine (Ile, I), hydrocarbon side chains pack AA together to form compact structures with few holes exposed to water and often interact with lipidcontaining membranes Proline (Pro, P): the bends of folded protein chains, 3-carbon-atom hydrocarbon side chain bound to both central carbon and nitrogen atom, very rigid, its presence creates a kink in a polypeptide chain

6 Aromatic Amino Acids Phenylalanine (Phe, F), Tryptophan (Trp, W) and Tyrosine (Tyr, Y): side chains of aromatic rings. Tryptophan (Trp, W) also contains a nitrogen atom in its side chain. Phenylalanine (Phe, F) and Tryptophan (Trp, W) are strongly hydrophobic. Tyrosine (Tyr, Y): less hydrophobic due to a hydroxyl group (a potential site of addition of a phosphate p group)

7 Amino Acids Containing Sulfur Cysteine (Cys, C) and Methionine i (Met, M): a sulfur atom in the side chains, hydrophobic Side chain of Cysteine is highly reactive Form a disulfide links play a special role in shaping some proteins Cysteine residues create folds and domains in the geometry of proteins. Methionine is the START codon in protein-coding genes.

8 Water-Loving (Hydrophilic) Amino Acids Serine (Ser, S) and Threonine (Thr, T): hydroxylated version of Alanine and Valine; hydroxyl groups are more reactive, hydrophilic, and potential sites of phosphate addition Lysine (Lys, K), Arginine (Arg, R), and Histidine (His, H): polar side chains containing nitrogen, highly hydrophilic Side chains of Lysine and Arginine are the longest of the 20 amino acids and normally positively charged. Histidine can be uncharged or positively charged and found in active sites of enzymes, where it can readily switch between these states to catalyze the making and breaking bonds

9 Hydrophilic Amino Acids Aspartate (Asp, D) and Glutamate (Glu, E): polar, negatively charged acidic side chains, carboxyl groups, exist at physiological ph Asparagine (Asn, N) and Glutamine (Gln, Q) are uncharged derivatives of Aspartate and Glutamate: amine group in place of carboxylate, polar molecules Amine group of Asn is a potential site of addition of sugar residues

10 20 Amino Acids 20 amino acids vary in size, charge, capacity to form hydrogen bonds with other molecules. Important determinant of the diversity of proteins Side chains which have pure hydrocarbon alkyl groups (alkane branches) or aromatic (benzene rings) are non- polar Hydrophobic, examples include valine, alanine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine.

11 Synthesis of 20 Amino Acids Bacteria: using carbon source and ammonium ions in water to synthesize 20 amino acids Plants: using nitrogen compounds and carbohydrates to make amino acids Animals: using sugars and ammonia to make amino acids Essential amino acids: amino acids that humans cannot synthesize, e 8 amino acids, 6 of them are hdophobi hydrophobic (large hydrocarbon side chains valine, leucine, and isoleucine; aromatic side chains phenylalanine and tryptophan; sulfur- containing methionine), 2 of them are hydrophilic (threonine and lysine) Essential amino acids can be obtained from diet, such as meat, fish, milk, and eggs. (Plant sources only contain a partial set of essential amino acids, such as beans (isoleucine and lysine).)

12 The Genetic Code mrna consists of a linear sequence of such 3-letter words called codons 4 3 =64 distinct codons Protein-coding genes all begin with a START codon and terminate with a STOP codon. START codon is methionine i (M) Arginine (R), leucine (L), and serine (S) are represented by 6 codons. Synonymous y Methionine i (M) and tryptophan (W) are represented by signal codons each. First 2 letters in a codon are primary determinants of AA identity GU- (valine), GG- (glycine) UorCas2 nd nucleotide Hydrophobic GU and GC 3 rd nucleotide is U or C Same amino acid CAU and CAC (Histidine)

13 Protein-Coding Gene DNA sequence representing the beginning segment of a protein-coding gene: The complement mrna sequence: mrna codons: AUG, AAC, GUU, and UAC MNVY

14 Sickle-Cell Mutation in Hemoglobin Sequence Hemoglobin molecules exist as single, isolated units in RBC, whether oxygen bound or not, RBCs maintain basic disc shape, whether transporting oxygen or not Oxy-hemoglobin is isolated, but de-oxyhemoglobin sticks together in polymers, distorting RBC Some cells take on sickle shape

15 Protein Function Proteins are key players in our living systems. Not every protein contains all of the 20 AA types. All proteins have an AA containing sulfur Each protein folds into a unique three-dimensional structure defined by its amino acid sequence. Protein structure t has a hierarchical nature. Protein structure is closely related to its function. Protein structure prediction is a grand challenge of computational biology. Manipulation of protein sequence through changes in amino-acid sequence is a tool in modern drug design. Protein structure usually described in terms of an organizational hierarchy: Primary structure: amino-acid sequence Secondary structure: spatial arrangement of amino acids that are near one another in the linear sequence Tertiary structure: spatial arrangement of amino acids, dividing line between secondary and tertiary structure is not precise Quaternary structure: more than one polypeptide chain exhibit an additional structure

16 Protein Structure Proteins are natural polymer molecules l consisting of amino acid units Primary structure (Amino acid sequence) Secondary structure α-helix, β-sheet Tertiary structure Three-dimensional structure formed by assembly of secondary structures Quaternary structure Structure formed by more than one polypeptide chains

17 Basic Structural Units of Proteins: Secondary Structure u The chemical nature of the carboxyl and amino groups of all amino acids permit hydrogen bond formation (stability) and hence defines secondary structures within the protein. The Rgrouphas an impact on the likelihood of secondary structure formation (Proline is an extreme case) Helices and sheets: regular secondary structures, but irregular secondary structures exist and can be critical for biological function α-helix turn right or left from N to C terminal: only right-handed are observed in nature, can be stretched for breaking and rearranging H- bond Elastic β-plated sheet: hydrogen bonding between elements and peptide linkages when the protein chains extend and lie next to another, forming flat sheets Secondary structures, α-helix and β-sheet, have regular hydrogen-bonding patterns. α-helix β-sheet

18 Three-Dimensional Structure of Proteins Tertiary structure: While backbone interactions define most of the secondary structure interactions, it is the side chains that define the tertiary interactions Disulphide p linkages between cysteines form the strongest covalent bond in tertiary linkages Quaternary structure: More than one polypeptide chain Noncovalent forces hold multiple polypeptide chains together to form protein complex Ionic bonds (i.e. Van der Waals forces: transient, weak electrical attraction of one atom for another), hydrophobic interactions (clustering of nonpolar groups), hydrogen bonds Quaternary structure Tertiary structure

19 3D Molecular Graphics of Scallop Myosin I α-helix: corkscrew-like righthanded, side chains (circular cylinder) extending outward from the peptide backbone of the helix β-plated sheet: aflat arrow pointing toward the carboxyl end of the peptide p C N

20 Gene A human cell contains about 100 million proteins of about 10,000 types These cells all possess the same protein-coding genes (~30,000), 000) but different cell types express different proteins of these genes Complexity of the organism Gene in vertebrate: Short sequences (exons) + long noncoding sequences (introns) Various spatial combinations of these exons correspond to different proteins. A gene can code for multiple proteins in higher forms of life. Complicating proteins: proteins with carbohydrate, lipid, phosphate, p and other types of attachments

Hands on Simulation of Mutation

Hands on Simulation of Mutation Hands on Simulation of Mutation Charlotte K. Omoto P.O. Box 644236 Washington State University Pullman, WA 99164-4236 omoto@wsu.edu ABSTRACT This exercise is a hands-on simulation of mutations and their

More information

Chemistry 201. Practical aspects of buffers. NC State University. Lecture 15

Chemistry 201. Practical aspects of buffers. NC State University. Lecture 15 Chemistry 201 Lecture 15 Practical aspects of buffers NC State University The everyday ph scale To review what ph means in practice, we consider the ph of everyday substances that we know from experience.

More information

-1- BIOS 100 - Fall, 2009 Exam I, 18 Sept, 2008 Michael Muller, Instructor

-1- BIOS 100 - Fall, 2009 Exam I, 18 Sept, 2008 Michael Muller, Instructor BIOS 100 - Fall, 2009 Exam I, 18 Sept, 2008 Michael Muller, Instructor Name: TA: This exam consists of 42 questions over 7 pages (the last page of which has the periodic table and Bloom s hierarchy). Please

More information

Microbial Nutrition And bacterial Classification Microbiology Unit-I. Muhammad Iqbal Lecturer KMU

Microbial Nutrition And bacterial Classification Microbiology Unit-I. Muhammad Iqbal Lecturer KMU Microbial Nutrition And bacterial Classification Microbiology Unit-I Muhammad Iqbal Lecturer KMU Objectives At the end of this lecture the students will be able to: Define key terms. Identify the basic

More information

Isomers Have same molecular formula, but different structures

Isomers Have same molecular formula, but different structures Isomers ave same molecular formula, but different structures Constitutional Isomers Differ in the order of attachment of atoms (different bond connectivity) Stereoisomers Atoms are connected in the same

More information

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET KOLAGEN NATURALNY / NATURAL COLLAGEN

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET KOLAGEN NATURALNY / NATURAL COLLAGEN Page 1/5 1. SUBSTANCE IDENTIFICATION MANUFACTURER, IMPORTER OR DISTRIBUTOR IDENTIFICATION 1.1 Product name Trade name: Other Trade names: KOLAGEN NATURALNY Platinum, KOLAGEN NATURALNY Silver, KOLAGEN NATURALNY

More information

PMF IDENTIFICATION MS/MS VALIDATION

PMF IDENTIFICATION MS/MS VALIDATION PMF IDENTIFICATION MS/MS VALIDATION rammentazione dei Peptidi x n-i v n-i y n-i z n-i y n-i-1 -HN-CH-CO-NH-CH-CO-NH- R i a i b i c i wn-i CH-R R i+1 i+1 b i+1 low energy fragmentation d i+1 high energy

More information

Hiding Data in DNA. 1 Introduction

Hiding Data in DNA. 1 Introduction Hiding Data in DNA Boris Shimanovsky *, Jessica Feng +, and Miodrag Potkonjak + * XAP Corporation + Dept. Computer Science, Univ. of California, Los Angeles Abstract. Just like disk or RAM, DNA and RNA

More information

Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4)

Page 1. 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? (1) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? (1) (2) (2) (3) (3) (4) (4) 1. Which is the structural formula of methane? 6. Which hydrocarbon is a member of the alkane series? 7. How many carbon atoms are contained in an ethyl group? 1 3 2 4 2. In the alkane series, each molecule

More information

Module 6: Digital DNA

Module 6: Digital DNA Module 6: Digital DNA Representation and processing of digital information in the form of DNA is essential to life in all organisms, no matter how large or tiny. Computing tools and computational thinking

More information

Teacher Guide: Have Your DNA and Eat It Too ACTIVITY OVERVIEW. http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu

Teacher Guide: Have Your DNA and Eat It Too ACTIVITY OVERVIEW. http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu ACTIVITY OVERVIEW Abstract: Students build an edible model of DNA while learning basic DNA structure and the rules of base pairing. Module: The Basics and Beyond Prior Knowledge Needed: DNA contains heritable

More information

Evolutionary Divergence and Convergence, in Proteins.

Evolutionary Divergence and Convergence, in Proteins. Evolutionary Divergence and Convergence, in Proteins. EMILE ZUCKERKANDL Laboratoire de Physlsico-Chimie Colloidale du C. N. R. S., Montpellier France AND LINUS PAULING California Institute of Technology,

More information

1. Molecular computation uses molecules to represent information and molecular processes to implement information processing.

1. Molecular computation uses molecules to represent information and molecular processes to implement information processing. Chapter IV Molecular Computation These lecture notes are exclusively for the use of students in Prof. MacLennan s Unconventional Computation course. c 2013, B. J. MacLennan, EECS, University of Tennessee,

More information

Symmetric Stretch: allows molecule to move through space

Symmetric Stretch: allows molecule to move through space BACKGROUND INFORMATION Infrared Spectroscopy Before introducing the subject of IR spectroscopy, we must first review some aspects of the electromagnetic spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum is composed

More information

Analysis of structural dynamics by H/D-exchange coupled to mass spectrometry HDX-MS

Analysis of structural dynamics by H/D-exchange coupled to mass spectrometry HDX-MS Analysis of structural dynamics by H/D-exchange coupled to mass spectrometry () New Approaches in Drug Design & Discovery 2014 25 th of March 2014 Introduction What are the challenges in structure-based

More information

INTDUCTIN T LEWIS ACID-BASE CEMISTY DEINITINS Lewis acids and bases are defined in terms of electron pair transfers. A Lewis base is an electron pair donor, and a Lewis acid is an electron pair acceptor.

More information

Unit 11 Practice. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Unit 11 Practice. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: Unit 11 Practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Crystalline solids. A) have their particles arranged randomly B) have

More information

BIOLÓGIA ANGOL NYELVEN

BIOLÓGIA ANGOL NYELVEN ÉRETTSÉGI VIZSGA 2010. május 12. BIOLÓGIA ANGOL NYELVEN EMELT SZINTŰ ÍRÁSBELI VIZSGA 2010. május 12. 8:00 Az írásbeli vizsga időtartama: 240 perc Pótlapok száma Tisztázati Piszkozati OKTATÁSI ÉS KULTURÁLIS

More information

What is the difference between basal and activated transcription?

What is the difference between basal and activated transcription? What is the difference between basal and activated transcription? Regulation of Transcription I. Basal vs. activated transcription for mrna genes A. General transcription factor (TF) vs. promoterspecific

More information

Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria in Agriculture Now a Real Option Guy Webb B.Sc. REM Agricultural Consultant

Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria in Agriculture Now a Real Option Guy Webb B.Sc. REM Agricultural Consultant Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria in Agriculture Now a Real Option Guy Webb B.Sc. REM Agricultural Consultant The Pursuit of Protein and Profit All agricultural enterprises, in essence, are based on the pursuit

More information

Inside Hair: A Closer Look at Color and Shape

Inside Hair: A Closer Look at Color and Shape Inside Hair: A Closer Look at Color and Shape For the past decade women and men alike have had chemical treatments preformed on their hair. Consumers spend millions of dollars on hair care products such

More information

INTRODUCTION TO BACTERIA

INTRODUCTION TO BACTERIA Morphology and Classification INTRODUCTION TO BACTERIA Most bacteria (singular, bacterium) are very small, on the order of a few micrometers µm (10-6 meters) in length. It would take about 1,000 bacteria,

More information

Biological Sciences INDIVIDUAL PROGRAM INFORMATION 2015 2016. 866.Macomb1 (866.622.6621) www.macomb.edu

Biological Sciences INDIVIDUAL PROGRAM INFORMATION 2015 2016. 866.Macomb1 (866.622.6621) www.macomb.edu Biological Sciences INDIVIDUAL PROGRAM INFORMATION 2015 2016 866.Macomb1 (866.622.6621) www.macomb.edu Biological Sciences CREDENTIAL TITLE PROGRAM OPTIONS CREDIT HOURS REQUIRED Associate of Science Biological

More information

Part B 2. Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part.

Part B 2. Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part. Part B 2 Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part. 51 [1] Allow 1 credit for 3 Mg(s) N 2 (g) Mg 3 N 2 (s). Allow credit even if the coefficient 1 is

More information

Biological One-way Functions

Biological One-way Functions Biological One-way Functions Qinghai Gao, Xiaowen Zhang 2, Michael Anshel 3 gaoj@farmingdale.edu zhangx@mail.csi.cuny.edu csmma@cs.ccny.cuny.edu Dept. Security System, Farmingdale State College / SUNY,

More information

Chapter 20: Antimicrobial Drugs

Chapter 20: Antimicrobial Drugs Chapter 20: Antimicrobial Drugs 1. Overview of Antimicrobial Drugs 2. Antibacterial Drugs 3. Antiviral Drugs 4. Drugs for Eukaryotic Pathogens 1. Overview of Antimicrobial Drugs Antibiotics An antibiotic

More information

Full length genome characterisation of Hepatitis B virus isolates at Dr George Mukhari hospital in Pretoria, South Africa. Rindidzani Edith Magobo

Full length genome characterisation of Hepatitis B virus isolates at Dr George Mukhari hospital in Pretoria, South Africa. Rindidzani Edith Magobo Full length genome characterisation of Hepatitis B virus isolates at Dr George Mukhari hospital in Pretoria, South Africa. By Rindidzani Edith Magobo Submitted in fulfilment of the requirement for the

More information

The Structures of Life

The Structures of Life The Structures of Life U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES NIH Publication No. 07-2778 National Institutes of Health Reprinted July 2007 National Institute of General Medical Sciences http://www.nigms.nih.gov

More information

A Revolution in Computer Science Technology- How to Store Data in Bacterial-DNA

A Revolution in Computer Science Technology- How to Store Data in Bacterial-DNA A Revolution in Computer Science Technology- How to Store Data in Bacterial-DNA SAI PRIYA K.S Student / Department of B.E., Computer Science & Engineering Velammal Engineering College, India. Saipriya.ks@gmail.com,

More information

Lectures 2 & 3. If the base pair is imbedded in a helix, then there are several more angular attributes of the base pair that we must consider:

Lectures 2 & 3. If the base pair is imbedded in a helix, then there are several more angular attributes of the base pair that we must consider: Lectures 2 & 3 Patterns of base-base hydrogen bonds-characteristics of the base pairs How are double helices assembled?? Figure 13 Let us first examine the angular characteristics of base pairs. Figure

More information

DNA as a Mass-Storage Device: 1

DNA as a Mass-Storage Device: 1 DNA as a Mass-Storage Device Robert J. Robbins Johns Hopkins University rrobbins@gdb.org DNA as a Mass-Storage Device: 1 Goals of the Genome Project Sequence the Genome equivalent to obtaining an image

More information

What makes cells different from each other? How do cells respond to information from environment?

What makes cells different from each other? How do cells respond to information from environment? What makes cells different from each other? How do cells respond to information from environment? Regulation of: - Transcription - prokaryotes - eukaryotes - mrna splicing - mrna localisation and translation

More information

Automotive Base Oil Presentation

Automotive Base Oil Presentation Automotive Base Oil Presentation What is a Base Oil? The refined petroleum mineral or synthetic material that is produced by a refinery to a required set of specifications. A lubricant s quality can depend

More information

Finding Better Leads using Molecular Fields

Finding Better Leads using Molecular Fields Finding Better Leads using Molecular Fields Sally Rose, Tim Cheeseright, Cresset BioMolecular Discovery Ltd 2D drawings are a ubiquitous representation for molecular structures. Despite this, they provide

More information

Program of Study: Bachelor of Science in Forensic Science

Program of Study: Bachelor of Science in Forensic Science Program of Study: Bachelor of Science in Forensic Science Program Description The Bachelor of Science in Forensic Science is designed for students who are interested in analyzing or collecting and processing

More information

Immunohematology JOURNAL OF BLOOD GROUP SEROLOGY AND EDUCATION

Immunohematology JOURNAL OF BLOOD GROUP SEROLOGY AND EDUCATION Immunohematology JOURNAL OF BLOOD GROUP SEROLOGY AND EDUCATION VOLUME 16, NUMBER 3, 2000 Immunohematology JOURNAL OF BLOOD GROUP SEROLOGY AND EDUCATION VOLUME 16, NUMBER 3, 2000 C O N T E N T S A review:

More information

PROPERTIES OF THE HAIR AND SCALP

PROPERTIES OF THE HAIR AND SCALP PROPERTIES OF THE HAIR AND SCALP 1. The scientific study of hair, its diseases and care is called: a. dermatology c. biology b. trichology d. cosmetology 2. The two parts of a mature hair strand are the

More information

Synthetic Biology: DNA Digital Storage, Computation and the Organic Computer

Synthetic Biology: DNA Digital Storage, Computation and the Organic Computer Synthetic Biology: DNA Digital Storage, Computation and the Organic Computer Alex Widdel University of Minnesota, Morris 1 / 27 Outline Overview of Synthetic Biology 1 Overview of Synthetic Biology 2 3

More information

Molecular Engineering for Solar Energy Conversion and Lighting Materials

Molecular Engineering for Solar Energy Conversion and Lighting Materials 193 Figure 5.1 Schematic representation of photochemical water splitting (artificial photosynthesis). Five fundamental components are needed: (1) an antenna for light harvesting, (2) a charge-separation

More information

Non Specific Binding (NSB) in Antigen-Antibody Assays

Non Specific Binding (NSB) in Antigen-Antibody Assays Non Specific Binding (NSB) in Antigen-Antibody Assays Chem 395 Spring 2007 Instructor : Dr. James Rusling Presenter : Bhaskara V. Chikkaveeraiah OUTLINE Immunoassays Introduction Factors contributing to

More information

Why Are Proteins Charged? Networks of Charge Charge Interactions in Proteins Measured by Charge Ladders and Capillary Electrophoresis

Why Are Proteins Charged? Networks of Charge Charge Interactions in Proteins Measured by Charge Ladders and Capillary Electrophoresis Proteins DOI: 10.1002/anie.200502530 Why Are Proteins Charged? Networks of Charge Charge Interactions in Proteins Measured by Charge Ladders and Capillary Electrophoresis Irina Gitlin, Jeffrey D. Carbeck,

More information

The DMD/PhD Program at UMDNJ-New Jersey Dental School And The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

The DMD/PhD Program at UMDNJ-New Jersey Dental School And The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences The DMD/PhD Program at UMDNJ-New Jersey Dental School And The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences I. Introduction Dental research is rapidly changing the face of clinical dentistry. Dental health and

More information

Overview on EFSA data requirements for the safety evaluation of food enzymes applications

Overview on EFSA data requirements for the safety evaluation of food enzymes applications Overview on EFSA data requirements for the safety evaluation of food enzymes applications Fidel Toldrá and Klaus-Dieter Jany EFSA CEF Panel Info session on Food Enzymes applications Parma, 27 May 2014

More information

HEPATITIS B VIRUS GENE MUTATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH HBEAG SEROCONVERSION CHENG YAN. (Ms. Medicine Beijing Medical University, China) A THESIS SUBMITTED

HEPATITIS B VIRUS GENE MUTATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH HBEAG SEROCONVERSION CHENG YAN. (Ms. Medicine Beijing Medical University, China) A THESIS SUBMITTED HEPATITIS B VIRUS GENE MUTATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH HBEAG SEROCONVERSION CHENG YAN (Ms. Medicine Beijing Medical University, China) A THESIS SUBMITTED FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY DEPARTMENT OF

More information

UOP Adsorbents COMPREHENSIVE PORTFOLIO TO REMOVE CONTAMINANTS FROM A VARIETY OF SOURCES. UOP Adsorbent Solutions

UOP Adsorbents COMPREHENSIVE PORTFOLIO TO REMOVE CONTAMINANTS FROM A VARIETY OF SOURCES. UOP Adsorbent Solutions UOP Adsorbents COMPREHENSIVE PORTFOLIO TO REMOVE CONTAMINANTS FROM A VARIETY OF SOURCES UOP Adsorbent Solutions When you invest in UOP Adsorbents, you gain more than simply a contaminant removal product.

More information

VLLM0421c Medical Microbiology I, practical sessions. Protocol to topic J10

VLLM0421c Medical Microbiology I, practical sessions. Protocol to topic J10 Topic J10+11: Molecular-biological methods + Clinical virology I (hepatitis A, B & C, HIV) To study: PCR, ELISA, your own notes from serology reactions Task J10/1: DNA isolation of the etiological agent

More information

The microscope is an important tool.

The microscope is an important tool. KEY CONCEPT Microscopes allow us to see inside the cell. BEFORE, you learned Some organisms are unicellular and some are multicellular A microscope is necessary to study most cells The cell theory describes

More information

Nature-Based Products

Nature-Based Products The following examples should be used in conjunction with the 2014 Interim Eligibility Guidance. They replace the examples issued with the March 2014 Procedure For Subject Matter Eligibility Analysis Of

More information

Control of Gene Expression

Control of Gene Expression PER EIG 8 ontrol of Gene Expression n organism s D encodes all of the R and protein molecules that are needed to make its cells. Yet a complete description of the D sequence of an organism be it the few

More information

WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS

WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS BY: SHAMSUL AZAHARI ZAINAL BADARI DEPARTMENT OF RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND CONSUMER STUDIES FACULTY OF HUMAN ECOLOGI UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS Include vitamin

More information

Version 1 2015. Module guide. Preliminary document. International Master Program Cardiovascular Science University of Göttingen

Version 1 2015. Module guide. Preliminary document. International Master Program Cardiovascular Science University of Göttingen Version 1 2015 Module guide International Master Program Cardiovascular Science University of Göttingen Part 1 Theoretical modules Synopsis The Master program Cardiovascular Science contains four theoretical

More information

Landmark Lesson Plan: Man and Materials through History

Landmark Lesson Plan: Man and Materials through History Landmark Lesson Plan: Man and Materials through History Grades: 9-12 Subject areas: Chemistry, Materials Science, Polymers and History Based on The Development of Bakelite, a National Historic Chemical

More information

INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY. Production hosts for real-life feedstock utilization

INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY. Production hosts for real-life feedstock utilization Selection of production hosts for real-life feedstock utilization Karl Rumbold (karl.rumbold@tno.nl) INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Industrial Biotechnology is the application of biotechnology for the processing

More information

Analysis of gene expression data. Ulf Leser and Philippe Thomas

Analysis of gene expression data. Ulf Leser and Philippe Thomas Analysis of gene expression data Ulf Leser and Philippe Thomas This Lecture Protein synthesis Microarray Idea Technologies Applications Problems Quality control Normalization Analysis next week! Ulf Leser:

More information

Bachelor s Programme in Agricultural and Environmental Management Study line: Environmental Management. Total Study description 2011-2013

Bachelor s Programme in Agricultural and Environmental Management Study line: Environmental Management. Total Study description 2011-2013 Bachelor s Programme in Agricultural and Environmental Management Study line: Environmental Management Total Study description 2011-2013 Table of contents: 1. The Programme... 3 2. Total study overview...

More information

Made in the USA exclusively for JEUNESSE 650 Douglas Avenue Altamonte Springs, FL 32714 407.215.7414 JEUNESSEGLOBAL.COM

Made in the USA exclusively for JEUNESSE 650 Douglas Avenue Altamonte Springs, FL 32714 407.215.7414 JEUNESSEGLOBAL.COM Made in the USA exclusively for JEUNESSE 650 Douglas Avenue Altamonte Springs, FL 32714 407.215.7414 JEUNESSEGLOBAL.COM The statements contained herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.

More information

Hands-on exercises on solvent models & electrostatics EMBnet - Molecular Modeling Course 2005

Hands-on exercises on solvent models & electrostatics EMBnet - Molecular Modeling Course 2005 Hands-on exercises on solvent models & electrostatics EMBnet - Molecular Modeling Course 2005 Exercise 1. The purpose of this exercise is to color the solvent accessible surface of a protein according

More information

INTERATOMIC DISTANCES IN COVALENT AMOLECULES ANAD RESONANCE BETWEEN TWO OR MORE LEWIS ELECTRONIC

INTERATOMIC DISTANCES IN COVALENT AMOLECULES ANAD RESONANCE BETWEEN TWO OR MORE LEWIS ELECTRONIC VOL. 18, 1932 CEMISTRY: L. PA ULING 293 INTERATOMIC DISTANCES IN COVALENT AMOLECULES ANAD RESONANCE BETWEEN TWO OR MORE LEWIS ELECTRONIC STR UCTUR.8S BY LINuS PAULING GATES CEMICAL LABORATORY, CALIFORNIA

More information

AMMONIA AND UREA PRODUCTION

AMMONIA AND UREA PRODUCTION AMMONIA AND UREA PRODUCTION Urea (NH 2 CONH 2 ) is of great importance to the agriculture industry as a nitrogen-rich fertiliser. In Kapuni, Petrochem manufacture ammonia and then convert the majority

More information

Use of Ionic Liquids in Produced Water Clean Up

Use of Ionic Liquids in Produced Water Clean Up Use of Ionic Liquids in Produced Water Clean Up NGOTP Upstream Environmental Technology Review Wednesday, February 25, 2004 Houston, TX David DePaoli Joe Birdwell, Sheng Dai, Huimin Luo, Joanna McFarlane

More information

Where Is My Lone Pair?

Where Is My Lone Pair? Where Is My Lone Pair? Goal: In this tutorial we'll learn how to determine which orbital contains a lone pair. This is important for resonance, conjugation, and aromaticity. To master this subject you'll

More information

DP419 RNAsimple Total RNA Kit. RNAprep pure Series. DP501 mircute mirna Isolation Kit. DP438 MagGene Viral DNA / RNA Kit. DP405 TRNzol Reagent

DP419 RNAsimple Total RNA Kit. RNAprep pure Series. DP501 mircute mirna Isolation Kit. DP438 MagGene Viral DNA / RNA Kit. DP405 TRNzol Reagent Overview of TIANGEN Products DP419 RNAsimple Total RNA Kit DP430 RNAprep pure Kit(For Cell/Bacteria) DP315/DP315-R TIANamp Virus DNA/RNA Kit DP431 RNAprep pure Kit (For Tissue) Silica-membrane Technology

More information

Empirical Formula: (C 14 H 20 NO 11 Na) n Chemical name : Sodium Hyaluronate

Empirical Formula: (C 14 H 20 NO 11 Na) n Chemical name : Sodium Hyaluronate Rev. 02 of 06/12/12 Raw Material Data Sheet Page 1/ 5 PHYLCARE SODIUM HYALURONATE LW Cosmetic grade (I) Supplier name BIOPHIL ITALIA S.p.a. Via Celeste Milani, 26/28 21040 Origgio (Va) Italy (II) INCI

More information

Enrollment Services: Rev 12/11/2012 1

Enrollment Services: Rev 12/11/2012 1 Enrollment Services: Rev 12/11/2012 1 Purpose of This Guide Page 3 CSULB Major Specific Requirements Page 4 Using ASSIST to Determine Course Equivalencies Between CSULB and California Community Colleges

More information

Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions

Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions Chapter 17 An example of equilibrium: Acid base chemistry What are acids and bases? Every day descriptions Chemical description of acidic and basic solutions by Arrhenius

More information

Oasis HLB Cartridges and 96-Well Plates

Oasis HLB Cartridges and 96-Well Plates CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION II. SAMPLE PRE-TREATMENT a. Biological Samples b. Solid Samples: Soil, Whole Foods, Tissue c. Aqueous Samples: Water, Beverages d. Non-Aqueous Liquid III. SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION

More information

CHAPTER 6: ACID-BASE AND DONOR-ACCEPTOR CHEMISTRY

CHAPTER 6: ACID-BASE AND DONOR-ACCEPTOR CHEMISTRY 82 Chapter 6 Acid-ase and Donor-Acceptor Chemistry CATER 6: ACID-ASE AD DR-ACCETR CEMISTRY 6.1 Acid ase Definition a. Alr 3 r Lewis b. Cl 4 C 3 C Lewis, rønsted-lowry c. i 2+ 3 Lewis d. Cl 3 Lewis e. S

More information

BIOENGINEERING. BACCALAUREATE PROGRAM This program leads to the degree, Bachelor of Science in Engineering with a major in Bioengineering

BIOENGINEERING. BACCALAUREATE PROGRAM This program leads to the degree, Bachelor of Science in Engineering with a major in Bioengineering BIOENGINEERING BACCALAUREATE PROGRAM This program leads to the degree, Bachelor of Science in Engineering with a major in Bioengineering College of Engineering and Computing MIAMI UNIVERSITY 2014-2015

More information

Nephrology (Renal Medicine)

Nephrology (Renal Medicine) Nephrology (Renal Medicine) Dr Shabbir Moochhala Consultant Nephrologist, Royal Free Hospital, London Cystinuria Patient Day 1 st Feb 2014 Nephrologist Urologist The Kidney designed for the job The body

More information

Indhold og vurdering af højværdistofferi tang

Indhold og vurdering af højværdistofferi tang Indhold og vurdering af højværdistofferi tang (specielle lipider/pufa, mineraler, vitaminer, aminosyrer ) Susan L. Holdt, Goncalo.S. Marinho, Irini Angelidaki DTU Fødevareinstituttet/DTU Miljø Konference

More information

Quantitative proteomics background

Quantitative proteomics background Proteomics data analysis seminar Quantitative proteomics and transcriptomics of anaerobic and aerobic yeast cultures reveals post transcriptional regulation of key cellular processes de Groot, M., Daran

More information

Chemistry 2014 Scoring Guidelines

Chemistry 2014 Scoring Guidelines AP Chemistry 2014 Scoring Guidelines 2014 The College Board. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. Visit the College

More information

Role of Branched Chain Amino Acids in the Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy

Role of Branched Chain Amino Acids in the Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy World Journal of Medical Sciences 3 (2): 60-64, 2008 ISSN 1817-3055 IDOSI Publications, 2008 Role of Branched Chain Amino Acids in e Management of Hepatic Encephalopay 1 1 1 1 2 Aftab Ahmed Soomro, Bikha

More information

Methionine Supplementation of Low-Protein Broiler Diets: Influence upon Growth Performance and Efficiency of Protein Utilization

Methionine Supplementation of Low-Protein Broiler Diets: Influence upon Growth Performance and Efficiency of Protein Utilization International Journal of Poultry Science 5 (6): 569-573, 006 ISSN 68-8356 Asian Network for Scientific Information, 006 Methionine Supplementation of Low-Protein Broiler Diets: Influence upon Growth Performance

More information

Using Computer Animation and Illustration Activities to Improve High School Students Achievement in Molecular Genetics

Using Computer Animation and Illustration Activities to Improve High School Students Achievement in Molecular Genetics JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN SCIENCE TEACHING VOL. 45, NO. 3, PP. 273 292 (2008) Using Computer Animation and Illustration Activities to Improve High School Students Achievement in Molecular Genetics Gili Marbach-Ad,

More information

BIOCHEMISTRY THE CAREER GUIDE FOR 16-18 YEAR OLDS CONSIDERING THEIR OPTIONS

BIOCHEMISTRY THE CAREER GUIDE FOR 16-18 YEAR OLDS CONSIDERING THEIR OPTIONS BIOCHEMISTRY THE CAREER GUIDE FOR 16-18 YEAR OLDS CONSIDERING THEIR OPTIONS THE IMPACT OF BIOCHEMISTRY Over the past 100 years, biochemists have been responsible for a huge number of important scientific

More information

F1 Generation. F2 Generation. AaBb

F1 Generation. F2 Generation. AaBb How was DNA shown to be the genetic material? We need to discuss this in an historical context. During the 19th century most scientists thought that a bit of the essence of each and every body part was

More information

Antioxidant activity

Antioxidant activity WHAT DOES IT DO? Antioxidant activity The term antioxidant refers to the ability of numerous vitamins, minerals and other phytochemical products to protect against the harmful effects of highly reactive

More information

DNA sequencing. Dideoxy-terminating sequencing or Sanger dideoxy sequencing

DNA sequencing. Dideoxy-terminating sequencing or Sanger dideoxy sequencing DNA sequencing Dideoxy-terminating sequencing or Sanger dideoxy sequencing Tools DNA template (single stranded) Specific primer (usually 17-23 mer, free 3 -OH) dntps DNA polymerase capacity of polymerizing

More information

STUDY AT. Programs Taught in English

STUDY AT. Programs Taught in English STUDY AT CONTACT Office for International Students, Zhejiang Normal University Address: 688 Yingbin Avenue, Jinhua City, Zhejiang Province, 321004, P.R. China Tel: +86-579-82283146, 82283155 Fax: +86-579-82280337

More information

Dicer Substrate RNAi Design

Dicer Substrate RNAi Design INTEGRATED DNA TECHNOLOGIES, INC. Dicer Substrate RNAi Design How to design and order 27-mer Dicer-substrate Duplex RNAs for use as RNA interference reagents The following document provides a summary of

More information

NMR Chemical Shifts of Common Laboratory Solvents as Trace Impurities

NMR Chemical Shifts of Common Laboratory Solvents as Trace Impurities 7512 J. Org. Chem. 1997, 62, 7512-7515 NMR Chemical Shifts of Common Laboratory Solvents as Trace Impurities Hugo E. Gottlieb,* Vadim Kotlyar, and Abraham Nudelman* Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University,

More information

Solutions. A Chem1 Reference Text Stephen K. Lower Simon Fraser University. 1 Solutions 2

Solutions. A Chem1 Reference Text Stephen K. Lower Simon Fraser University. 1 Solutions 2 Solutions A Chem1 Reference Text Stephen K. Lower Simon Fraser University Contents 1 Solutions 2 2 Types of solutions 2 2.1 Gaseous solutions.................................... 4 2.2 Solutions of gases

More information

Abiel biotech COMMITTED TO R&D PRODUCTION MARKETING OF INNOVATIVE AND HIGH QUALITY LYTIC ENZYMES

Abiel biotech COMMITTED TO R&D PRODUCTION MARKETING OF INNOVATIVE AND HIGH QUALITY LYTIC ENZYMES Applicazioni Biomediche ed Industrali di Enzimi Litici Abiel biotech COMMITTED TO R&D PRODUCTION MARKETING OF INNOVATIVE AND HIGH QUALITY LYTIC ENZYMES COLLAGENASE ABIEL The new face of tissue dissociation

More information

Preventing Data Loss by Storing Information in Bacterial DNA

Preventing Data Loss by Storing Information in Bacterial DNA Preventing Data Loss by Storing Information in Bacterial DNA Mohan S Department of Information Vinodh S Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Jeevan F R Department of Information ABSTRACT

More information

Multiobjective Robust Design Optimization of a docked ligand

Multiobjective Robust Design Optimization of a docked ligand Multiobjective Robust Design Optimization of a docked ligand Carlo Poloni,, Universitaʼ di Trieste Danilo Di Stefano, ESTECO srl Design Process DESIGN ANALYSIS MODEL Dynamic Analysis Logistics & Field

More information

Yuri Pevzner. 18136 Lembrecht way Tampa, FL 33647 Phone: (610) 216-5465 E-mail:yuri_pevzner@email.com

Yuri Pevzner. 18136 Lembrecht way Tampa, FL 33647 Phone: (610) 216-5465 E-mail:yuri_pevzner@email.com Yuri Pevzner 18136 Lembrecht way Tampa, FL 33647 Phone: (610) 216-5465 E-mail:yuri_pevzner@email.com Career Objective: Computational Chemistry/Chemoinformatics Software Engineer position in a scientific

More information

A Can of Bull? Do Energy Drinks Really Provide a Source of Energy?

A Can of Bull? Do Energy Drinks Really Provide a Source of Energy? A Can of Bull? Do Energy Drinks Really Provide a Source of Energy? Objectives by Merle Heidemann, Division of Science and Mathematics Education, Michigan State University Gerald Urquhart, Lyman Briggs

More information

CEM, First in Microwave Peptide Synthesis

CEM, First in Microwave Peptide Synthesis CEM, First in Microwave Peptide Synthesis In 2002, a CEM biochemist named Jonathan Collins presented his concept of a microwave-assisted peptide synthesis system to several colleagues. Collins concept

More information

The Use of Mean Kinetic Temperature (MKT) in the Handling, Storage, and Distribution of Temperature Sensitive Pharmaceuticals

The Use of Mean Kinetic Temperature (MKT) in the Handling, Storage, and Distribution of Temperature Sensitive Pharmaceuticals The Use of Mean Kinetic Temperature (MKT) in the Handling, Storage, and Distribution of Temperature Sensitive Pharmaceuticals Robert H. Seevers, Ph.D., Jeffrey Hofer, & Paul Harber Eli Lilly and Company

More information

TECHNICAL BULLETIN. HIS-Select Nickel Affinity Gel. Catalog Number P6611 Storage Temperature 2 8 C

TECHNICAL BULLETIN. HIS-Select Nickel Affinity Gel. Catalog Number P6611 Storage Temperature 2 8 C HIS-Select Nickel Affinity Gel Catalog Number P6611 Storage Temperature 2 8 C TECHNICAL BULLETIN Product Description HIS-Select Nickel Affinity Gel is an immobilized metalion affinity chromatography (IMAC)

More information

Molecular dynamics of a biophysical model for b 2 -adrenergic and G protein-coupled receptor activation

Molecular dynamics of a biophysical model for b 2 -adrenergic and G protein-coupled receptor activation Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling 25 (2006) 396 409 www.elsevier.com/locate/jmgm Molecular dynamics of a biophysical model for b 2 -adrenergic and G protein-coupled receptor activation Lester

More information

Equilibria. Unit Outline

Equilibria. Unit Outline Acid Base Equilibria 17Advanced Unit Outline 17.1 Acid Base Reactions 17.2 Buffers 17.3 Acid Base Titrations 17. Some Important Acid Base Systems In This Unit We will now expand the introductory coverage

More information

Membrane Filtration Technology: Meeting Today s Water Treatment Challenges

Membrane Filtration Technology: Meeting Today s Water Treatment Challenges Membrane Filtration Technology: Meeting Today s Water Treatment Challenges Growing global demand for clean water and increasing environmental concerns make membrane filtration the technology of choice

More information

Living with Alcohol by Steven Wm. Fowkes

Living with Alcohol by Steven Wm. Fowkes Living with Alcohol by Steven Wm. Fowkes Alcohol is everywhere within Western culture. Since the dawn of recorded history, the art of fermenting fruit and grain into wine and beer has been a much-prized

More information

Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam

Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Name: Class: Date: Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Acids generally release H 2 gas when they react with a.

More information

There is a word for you: chocoholic,

There is a word for you: chocoholic, There is a word for you: chocoholic, when you need chocolate. Nothing else will do. Just thinking about hot fudge drizzling over ice cream raises your spirits. You crave a truffle, a Kit-Kat, a mug of

More information

Chemistry at Work. How Chemistry is used in the Water Service

Chemistry at Work. How Chemistry is used in the Water Service Chemistry at Work How Chemistry is used in the Water Service WATER TREATMENT Everyday, more than 100 water treatment works in Northern Ireland put approximately 680 million litres of water into the supply

More information

Acid-Base Extraction.

Acid-Base Extraction. Acid-Base Extraction. Extraction involves dissolving a compound or compounds either (1) from a solid into a solvent or (2) from a solution into another solvent. A familiar example of the first case is

More information

Using Family History to Improve Your Health Web Quest Abstract

Using Family History to Improve Your Health Web Quest Abstract Web Quest Abstract Students explore the Using Family History to Improve Your Health module on the Genetic Science Learning Center website to complete a web quest. Learning Objectives Chronic diseases such

More information