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1 Formal models of bank cards for free Fides Aarts, Joeri de Ruiter and Erik Poll Digital Security, Radboud University Nijmegen

2 Introduction Active learning on bank cards Learn state machines of implementations Dutch, German, Swedish and UK debit and credit cards All implementations of EMV standard 2 / 25

3 EMV Standard for payment cards Started in 1993 by EuroPay, MasterCard and Visa Over 1 billion cards in use Required for Single Euro Payments Area (SEPA) Over 700 pages of specifications EMV-CAP for online banking 3 / 25

4 EMV transaction Initialisation Cardholder verification Card authentication Offline PIN SDA / DDA / CDA Transaction Online / offline Confirmed by cryptogram (TC / AAC / ARQC) 4 / 25

5 Learning LearnLib used Implementation of adapted L* algorithm Deterministic Mealy machine M = (I,O,Q,q0,δ,λ) Equivalence queries approximated Random (1000 traces of length 10-50) W-Method 6 / 25

6 Learning Custom test harness for EMV smartcards In total 15 different commands Input symbols: commands Output symbols: status words (optionally with cryptogram type) 7 / 25

7 Test harness Java Around 300 lines of code Standard library for communication with smartcards Separate method for each input symbol Parameters fixed Random number PIN code Variations of instructions Bank's secret key unknown 8 / 25

8 Commands SELECT GET PROCESSING OPTIONS Initialisation GET DATA Correct / incorrect parameters Existing / non-existing data READ RECORD Existing / non-existing records VERIFY Cardholder verification INTERNAL AUTHENTICATE Card authentication GENERATE AC 6 variations Transaction 9 / 25

9 Results Learned 33 models for 16 cards Between 855 and 1695 membership queries Less than 20 minutes to construct final hypothesis 4 to 8 states learned Most cards did not follow state machine specified by MasterCard No security problems found 10 / 25

10 Results 11 / 25

11 Results 12 / 25

12 Results 13 / 25

13 Maestro cards Rabobank Maestro Volksbank Maestro 14 / 25

14 EMV-CAP 15 / 25

15 EMV-CAP 16 / 25

16 Error handling 17 / 25

17 Data authentication 18 / 25

18 Data authentication 19 / 25

19 Data authentication 20 / 25

20 Learning the ATC Application Transaction Counter Possible for card supporting GET DATA for ATC Added a mapper around test harness Request ATC before and after every command 21 / 25

21 Result 22 / 25

22 Using these diagrams Reverse engineering Fuzzing or model-based testing Manual inspection of correctness and security Use as basis for automated fuzz testing Formal verification Use as basis for model checking 23 / 25

23 Conclusion Obtained useful models for EMV cards Gives insight in different design decisions Helpful in security or compliance evaluations Most cards did not follow state machine specified by MasterCard Applicable for any smartcard application 24 / 25

24 Conclusion Obtained useful models for EMV cards Gives insight in different design decisions Helpful in security or compliance evaluations Most cards did not follow state machine specified by MasterCard Applicable for any smartcard application Thanks for your attention! 25 / 25

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