3 study objectives 1. Explain the distinguishing features of managerial accounting. 2. Identify the three broad functions of management. 3. Define the three classes of manufacturing costs. 4. Distinguish between product and period costs. 5. Explain the difference between a merchandising and a manufacturing income statement. 6. Indicate how cost of goods manufactured is determined. 7. Explain the difference between a merchandising and a manufacturing balance sheet. 8. Identify trends in managerial accounting. 1-3
5 Managerial Accounting Basics Managerial accounting, also called management accounting, is a field of accounting that provides economic and financial information for managers and other internal users. Managerial accounting applies to all types of 1-5 businesses. Corporations Proprietorships Partnerships Not-for-profit
6 Managerial Accounting Basics Managerial Accounting Activities 1. Explaining manufacturing and nonmanufacturing costs and how they are reported in the financial statements. (Chapter 1) 2. Computing the cost of providing a service or manufacturing a product. (Chapters 2, 3, and 4) 3. Determining the behavior of costs and expenses as activity levels change and analyzing cost-volume-profit relationships within a company. (Chapters 5 and 6) 1-6
7 Managerial Accounting Basics Managerial Accounting Activities 4. Accumulating and presenting data for management decision making. (Chapter 7) 5. Determining prices for external and internal transactions. (Chapter 8) 6. Assisting management in profit planning and formalizing these plans in the form of budgets. (Chapter 9) 1-7
8 Managerial Accounting Basics Managerial Accounting Activities 7. Providing a basis for controlling costs and expenses by comparing actual results with planned objectives and standard costs. (Chapters 10 and 11) 8. Accumulating and presenting data for capital expenditure decisions. (Chapter 12) 1-8
9 Managerial Accounting Basics Comparing Managerial And Financial Accounting Illustration SO 1 Explain the distinguishing features of managerial accounting.
10 Managerial Accounting Basics Review Question Managerial accounting: a. Is governed by generally accepted accounting principles. b. Places emphasis on special-purpose information. c. Pertains to the entity as a whole and is highly aggregated. d. Is limited to cost data Solution on notes page SO 1 Explain the distinguishing features of managerial accounting.
11 Managerial Accounting Basics Management Functions Planning Directing Controlling Maximize short-term profit and market share Commit to environmental protection and social programs Add value to the business Coordinate diverse activities and human resources Implement planned objectives Provide incentives to motivate employees Hire and train employees Produce smoothrunning operation Keeping activities on track Determine whether goals are met Decide changes needed to get back on track May use an informal or formal system of evaluations 1-11 SO 2 Identify the three broad functions of management.
12 Managerial Accounting Basics Organizational Structure Illustration 1-2 Organization charts show the interrelationships of activities and the delegation of authority and responsibility within the company SO 2 Identify the three broad functions of management.
13 Managerial Accounting Basics Business Ethics All employees are expected to act ethically. Many organizations have codes of business ethics. Recent financial frauds: Enron, Global Crossing, WorldCom 1-13 SO 2 Identify the three broad functions of management.
14 Managerial Accounting Basics Business Ethics Creating Proper Incentives Systems and controls sometimes create incentives for managers to take unethical actions. Controls need to be effective and realistic SO 2 Identify the three broad functions of management.
15 Managerial Accounting Basics Business Ethics Code of Ethical Standards Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX) Clarifies management s responsibilities Requires certifications by CEO and CFO Selection criteria for Board of Directors and Audit Committee Substantially increased penalties for misconduct 1-15 SO 2 Identify the three broad functions of management.
16 Managerial Accounting Basics Review Question The management of an organization performs several broad functions. They are: a. Planning, directing, and selling. b. Directing, manufacturing, and controlling. c. Planning, manufacturing, and controlling. d. Planning, directing, and controlling Solution on notes page SO 2 Identify the three broad functions of management.
17 Managerial Accounting Basics Indicate whether the following statements are true or false. False True True 1. Managerial accountants have a single role within an organization, collecting and reporting costs to management. 2. Financial accounting reports are general-purpose and intended for external users. 3. Managerial accounting reports are special-purpose and issued as frequently as needed Solution on notes page SO 2 Identify the three broad functions of management.
18 Managerial Accounting Basics Indicate whether the following statements are true or false. False False 4. Managers activities and responsibilities can be classified into three broad functions: cost accounting, budgeting, and internal control. 5. As a result of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, managerial accounting reports must now comply with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). True Top managers must certify that a company maintains Solution on notes page an adequate system of internal controls. SO 2 Identify the three broad functions of management.
19 Managerial Cost Concepts Managers should ask questions such as the following. 1. What costs are involved in making a product or providing a service? 2. If we decrease production volume, will costs decrease? 3. What impact will automation have on total costs? 4. How can we best control costs? 1-19 SO 3 Define the three classes of manufacturing costs.
20 Managerial Cost Concepts Manufacturing Costs Manufacturing consists of activities and processes that convert raw materials into finished goods. Illustration SO 3 Define the three classes of manufacturing costs.
21 Raw Materials Manufacturing Costs Materials Basic materials and parts used in manufacturing process. Direct Materials Raw materials that can be physically and directly associated with the finished product during the manufacturing process SO 3 Define the three classes of manufacturing costs.
22 Manufacturing Costs Materials Indirect Materials Raw materials that cannot be easily associated with the finished product. Not physically part of the finished product or they are an insignificant part of finished product in terms of cost. Considered part of manufacturing overhead SO 3 Define the three classes of manufacturing costs.
23 Manufacturing Costs Direct Labor Labor Work of factory employees that can be physically and directly associated with converting raw materials into finished goods. Indirect Labor Work of factory employees that has no physical association with the finished product or for which it is impractical to trace costs to the goods produced SO 3 Define the three classes of manufacturing costs.
24 Manufacturing Costs Manufacturing Overhead Costs that are indirectly associated with manufacturing the finished product. Includes all manufacturing costs except direct materials and direct labor. Also called factory overhead, indirect manufacturing costs, or burden SO 3 Define the three classes of manufacturing costs.
25 Manufacturing Costs Review Question Which of the following is not an element of manufacturing overhead? a. Sales manager s salary. b. Plant manager s salary. c. Factory repairman s wages. d. Product inspector s salary Solution on notes page SO 3 Define the three classes of manufacturing costs.
26 Product Versus Period Costs Product Costs Components: Direct materials Direct labor Manufacturing overhead Costs that are an integral part of producing the product. Recorded in inventory account. Not an expense (COGS) until the goods are sold SO 4 Distinguish between product and period costs.
27 Period Costs Product Versus Period Costs Charged to expense as incurred. Non-manufacturing costs. Includes all selling and administrative expenses SO 4 Distinguish between product and period costs.
28 Product Versus Period Costs Illustration SO 4 Distinguish between product and period costs.
29 Product Versus Period Costs A bicycle company has these costs: tires, salaries of employees who put tires on the wheels, factory building depreciation, wheel nuts, spokes, salary of factory manager, handlebars, and salaries of factory maintenance employees. Classify each cost as direct materials, direct labor, or overhead. Direct Materials Tires Wheel nuts Spokes Handlebars Direct Labor Salaries of employees who put tires on the wheels. Overhead Factory depreciation Factory manager salary Factory maintenance employees salary 1-29 SO 4 Distinguish between product and period costs.
30 Manufacturing Costs in Financial Statements Manufacturing Costs Under a periodic inventory system, the income statements of a merchandiser and a manufacturer differ in the cost of goods sold section. COGS 1-30 SO 5 Explain the difference between a merchandising and a manufacturing income statement.
31 Manufacturing Costs in Financial Statements Cost of Goods Sold Components (Periodic Inventory System) Illustration SO 5 Explain the difference between a merchandising and a manufacturing income statement.
32 Manufacturing Costs in Financial Statements Cost of goods sold sections of merchandising and manufacturing income statements Illustration SO 5 Explain the difference between a merchandising and a manufacturing income statement.
33 Manufacturing Costs in Financial Statements Review Question For the year, Red Company has cost of goods manufactured of $600,000, beginning finished goods inventory of $200,000, and ending finished goods inventory of $250,000. The cost of goods sold is a. $450,000. b. $500,000. c. $550,000. d. $600,000. Beg. Inventory $200,000 + COGs Manufactured 600,000 Goods Available for Sale 800,000 - End. Inventory 250,000 Cost of Goods Sold $550, Solution on notes page SO 5 Explain the difference between a merchandising and a manufacturing income statement.
34 Manufacturing Costs in Financial Statements Determining the Cost of Goods Manufactured Total Work in Process (1) cost of beginning work in process and (2) total manufacturing costs for the current period. Total Manufacturing Costs sum of direct material costs, direct labor costs, and manufacturing overhead in the current year. Illustration SO 6 Indicate how cost of goods manufactured is determined.
35 Manufacturing Costs in Financial Statements Cost of Goods Manufactured Schedule Illustration SO 6 Indicate how cost of goods manufactured is determined.
36 Manufacturing Costs in Financial Statements 1-36 SO 6 Indicate how cost of goods manufactured is determined.
37 Manufacturing Costs in Financial Statements Solution on notes page 1-37 SO 6 Indicate how cost of goods manufactured is determined.
38 Manufacturing Costs in Financial Statements Balance Sheet Inventory accounts for a manufacturer Illustration 1-9 The balance sheet for a merchandising company shows just one category of inventory SO 7 Explain the difference between a merchandising and a manufacturing balance sheet.
39 Manufacturing Costs in Financial Statements Balance Sheet Current assets sections of merchandising and manufacturing balance sheets Illustration SO 7 Explain the difference between a merchandising and a manufacturing balance sheet.
40 Manufacturing Costs in Financial Statements Review Question A cost of goods manufactured schedule shows beginning and ending inventories for: a. Raw materials and work in process only b. Work in process only c. Raw materials only d. Raw materials, work in process, and finished goods 1-40 Solution on notes page SO 7 Explain the difference between a merchandising and a manufacturing balance sheet.
41 Manufacturing Costs in Financial Statements Illustration: Suppose you started your own snowboard factory, KRC Boards. Here are some of the costs that your snowboard factory would incur. Assign the following costs: Illustration Solution on notes page SO 7 Explain the difference between a merchandising and a manufacturing balance sheet.
42 Manufacturing Costs in Financial Statements Illustration Solution on notes page
43 Manufacturing Costs in Financial Statements If KRC Boards produces 10,000 snowboards the first year, what would be the total manufacturing costs? Illustration Solution on notes page SO 7 Explain the difference between a merchandising and a manufacturing balance sheet.
44 Manufacturing Costs in Financial Statements Product Costing For Service Industries U.S. economy, in general, has shifted toward an emphasis on providing services rather than goods. Over 50% of U.S. workers are now employed by service companies. Trend is expected to continue in the future. Most of the techniques learned for manufacturing firms are applicable to service companies SO 7 Explain the difference between a merchandising and a manufacturing balance sheet.
45 Managerial Accounting Today The Value Chain Refers to all activities associated with providing a product or service. For a manufacturing firm these include the following: Illustration SO 8 Identify trends in managerial accounting.
46 Managerial Accounting Today Technological Change Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software programs designed to manage all major business processes. Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) manufacturing products with increased automation. Just-In-Time Inventory Methods Inventory system in which goods are manufactured or purchased just in time for sale SO 8 Identify trends in managerial accounting.
47 Managerial Accounting Today Quality Increased emphasis on product quality because goods are produced only as needed. Total Quality Management (TQM) - a philosophy of zero defects. Activity-Based Costing (ABC) Allocates overhead based on use of activities. Results in more accurate product costing and scrutiny of all activities in the value chain SO 8 Identify trends in managerial accounting.
48 Managerial Accounting Today Theory of Constraints Constraints ( bottlenecks ) limit the company s potential profitability. A specific approach to identify and manage these constraints in order to achieve company goals. Balanced Scorecard Evaluates operations in an integrated fashion. Uses both financial and non-financial measures. Links performance to overall company objectives SO 8 Identify trends in managerial accounting.
49 Managerial Accounting Today Review Question Which of the following managerial accounting techniques attempts to allocate manufacturing overhead in a more meaningful manner? a. Just-in-time inventory. b. Total-quality management. c. Balanced scorecard. d. Activity-based costing Solution on notes page SO 8 Identify trends in managerial accounting.
50 Managerial Accounting Today e 1. All activities associated with providing a product or service. a 2. A method of allocating overhead based on each product s use of activities in making the product. Match the descriptions that follow with the corresponding terms. d 3. Systems implemented to reduce defects in finished products with the goal of achieving zero defects Solution on notes page SO 8 Identify trends in managerial accounting.
51 Managerial Accounting Today b 4. A performancemeasurement approach that uses both financial and nonfinancial measures, tied to company objectives, to evaluate a company s operations in an integrated fashion. Match the descriptions that follow with the corresponding terms. c 5. Inventory system in which goods are manufactured or purchased just as they are needed for use Solution on notes page SO 8 Identify trends in managerial accounting.
52 IBM has expanded beyond information technology into providing advisory services related to outsourcing, which it believes will be a $500 billion market. A U.S. professional association of certified public accountants requires that its members notify clients before they share confidential client information with an outside contractor as part of an outsourcing arrangement. 1-52
53 1-53 During a recent two-year period Ford Motor Co. inspected the working conditions at about 160 of the more than 2,000 foreign-owned plants in low-cost countries that supply it with outsourced parts. The McKinsey Global Institute predicts that white-collar overseas outsourcing will increase at a rate of 30% to 40% over the next five years. By 2015, the consultancy group Forrester predicts roughly 3.3 million service jobs will have moved offshore. On the other hand, Hewlett-Packard has begun to insource (bring back in-house) many of the manufacturing operations that it previously outsourced.
54 Interestingly, foreign firms doing business in the United States also hire a lot of Americans. In a recent year, U.S. subsidiaries of foreign companies employed approximately 5.3 million Americans. In comparison, in that same year 134,000 Americans lost their jobs due to outsourcing. 1-54
55 1-55 Suppose you are the managing partner in a CPA firm with 30 full-time staff. Larger firms in your community have begun to outsource basic tax-return preparation work to India. Should you outsource your basic tax return work to India as well? You estimate that you would have to lay off six staff members if you outsource the work. YES: The wages paid to Indian accountants are very low relative to U.S. wages. You will not be able to compete unless you outsource. NO: Tax-return data is highly sensitive. Many customers will be upset to learn that their data is being ed around the world.
56 Accounting Cycle for a Manufacturing Company The accounting cycle for a manufacturing company is the same as for a merchandising company when companies use a periodic inventory system. The journalizing and posting of transactions is the same. Preparation of a trial balance and the journalizing and posting of adjusting entries are the same. Some changes occur in using a worksheet and in preparing closing entries SO9 Prepare a worksheet and closing entries for a manufacturing company.
57 Accounting Cycle for a Manufacturing Company Illustration 1A-1 To illustrate the changes in the worksheet, we use the cost of goods manufactured schedule for Olsen Manufacturing SO9 Prepare a worksheet and closing entries for a manufacturing company.
58 Accounting Cycle for a Manufacturing Company Worksheet Illustration 1A SO9
59 Accounting Cycle for a Manufacturing Company Closing Entries Companies can prepare the closing entries from the worksheet. First prepare the closing entries for the manufacturing accounts SO9 Prepare a worksheet and closing entries for a manufacturing company.
60 Accounting Cycle for a Manufacturing Company Closing Entries 1-60 SO9 Prepare a worksheet and closing entries for a manufacturing company.
61 Accounting Cycle for a Manufacturing Company Closing Entries 1-61 SO9 Prepare a worksheet and closing entries for a manufacturing company.
62 Accounting Cycle for a Manufacturing Company Closing Entries After posting, the summary accounts show the following. Illustration 1A SO9 Prepare a worksheet and closing entries for a manufacturing company.
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