Development of 3D Cadastre System to Monitor Land Value and Capacity of Zoning (Case study: Tehran)

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1 8 th International Congress on Advances in Civil Engineering, September 2008 Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, North Cyprus Development of 3D Cadastre System to Monitor Land Value and Capacity of Zoning (Case study: Tehran) S.H. Chavoshi, M.R. Delavar, V. Akbari and S.A. Hojjat Dept. of Surveying and Geomatics Eng., College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, Abstract With a population of an estimated 10 millions, Greater Metropolitan Tehran ranks as one of the world's largest capitals. The size of the city has also expanded to such an extent that size exceeds that of New York and London. Decision Support Systems (DSS) and 3D modeling can be used to monitor urban growth and its land value. DSS comprise a wide-range of computer-enabled applications that are based on some forms of analytical models, commonly linked to a database. Coupled with the visualization and spatial analysis facilities provided by a Geospatial Information System (GIS), a unifying framework can be developed to facilitate the use of advanced decision support technology across a wide range of stakeholders. The foundation for the development of GIS throughout a local government is cadastral data. The applications need to maintain the cadastral data known as the tax assessment role to evaluate land and building values. Cadastre systems with 3D visualizations are a framework to support comprehensive land-related information such as land use, buildings, income, density and population at the parcel level. This paper outline the visualization of complicated urban planning regulations in a 3D environment,investigate supporting local government to monitor land value in differ urban zones, compares the buildings and regulations on the 3D city model and simulates the proposed development plans. A 3D Cadastre application prototype was developed to visualize the existing state of a part of Tehran and to perform simulations of district development plan. In this application, a highresolution 3D city model is introduced and integrated with the 2D urban planning database. Keywords: Decision Support Systems, GIS, 3D Cadastre. 81

2 ACE Introduction With the rapid development of technologies in recent years, such as the laser scanner, the airborne sensor and 3D computer graphics, 3D-GIS has been emerged with reality. However, most of 3D-GIS applications tend to focus on visualization such as walk-through animations or scenic simulations. The application introduced in this paper was developed as one of prototypes, which were developed to demonstrate usability of 3D-GIS in various fields for example in cadastre. Traditionally, cadastral registration systems are parcel based systems. A whole country is divided into parcels, while rights and limited rights on property are established and registered on 2D land parcels. Although use of a property has always been related to 3D space -i.e. Use of land always has been in 3D the state of the art of techniques and the existing needs for cadastral registration and valuation in the past, has led to the development of a two-dimensional cadastral system (2D cadastral map), which has served its purposes for decades. Although property has been located on top of each other since ages, only since recently the question has been raised if cadastral systems should be extended into the third dimension. The growing interest for 3D cadastral registration is caused by a considerable increase of value of (private) property, by increasing situations with property on top of each other the apartments, cables and pipelines and underground parking places have grown considerably the last 40 years and by an upcoming 3D approach in other domains (3D GIS, 3D planning) which makes a 3D approach of cadastral registration technologically realizable. The Objectives of the application are: Visualize complicated urban planning regulations in the 3D way to be easily understood. Compare the existing buildings and the regulations on the 3D city model. Simulate the proposed urban development plans. Support local governments to monitor land value in city. 2 System Overview The application is composed of three components as described in Figure 1. 2D-GIS is utilized to view urban planning database, specify target areas and parameters for simulations. 3D-GIS is introduced to visualize the existing state of cities and results of analyses. Also, a CAD software package for building 3D model of urban is necessary, for example Arc scene (ESRI co.) 82

3 S.H.Chavoshi, M.R. Delavar Figure 1. Structure of application that used in this paper In continuous, we describe about software packages and their analyses (Table 1). Using this software due to solve complex analyses and solving different problem. Table 1. Shows software packages employed in this research.. Class Software Comment 2D-GIS Arc Map 3D GIS 3D Analyst, Arc Scene Data base Excel, access Iran, Tehran, Zone 18 3 Databases The application is based on the spatial database that considered for a zone of Tehran which consists of the following parts: 3D-Map database Urban Planning Database Base Maps In this paper we constructed 3D city model based on ArcGIS database described in Table 2. 2D polygons converted to 3D with attributes of building such as height. Also DEM (digital elevation model) is considered for representation of terrain clearly. These datasets are compiled on Arc Map and Arc Scene. 83

4 ACE2008 parcel Table 2. Demonstrates 3D database Contents Description Attributes Comments Polygon features describing Buildings Land use Area Floor Height Population Kinds of Density Nearness to (airport School, roads ) Evaluated value for parcels based on based price of parcel for difference zones. Shape file Terrain Terrain Model Grayscale value GRID In order to simulate urban development plans, it is necessary to utilize urban planning database including regulations. 4 Application Functions In the 2D view, users can view various layers for urban planning, such as building height control districts, land use zoning areas and district planning areas. Also, it is possible to query various zoning information at a specified point on the map (Figure 2). Figure 2. 2D view and identify tool 84

5 S.H.Chavoshi, M.R. Delavar Similar to 2D view, users can view urban planning information in the 3D view. Various layers are displayed on the 3D city model using Arc Scene, as shown in Figure 3. Figure 3. 3D City model and representation utility in this zone 5 Evaluate Block Capacity This application enables users to evaluate the capacity of specified block. Urban planning regulations can be visualized in the 3D view, which control allowable height of buildings in the block. Also, the difference between existing building height and regulations can be computed and visualized. Figure 4 shows procedures of simulation. Figure 4. Shows procedures of simulation used in this paper 85

6 ACE Exports The simulated scenes can be exported from ArcScene to VRML format so that planners could publish results of analyses on the Internet (Figure 5). 7 Conclusion Figure 5. Publish results of analyses on the internet A 3D-GIS application for instance in field cadastre was developed in order to evaluate urban space efficiently and to provide information about urban planning to local communities. This application enables users to visualize complicated urban planning information in 3D way, to evaluate allowable capacity of block and to simulate building plans. With visualization and analysis capability, 3D-GIS is considered as a powerful tool to solve various issues which modern cities confront. References Benhamu M. and Doytsher Y. 2003: Toward a Spatial 3D Cadastral in Israel. In: Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Vol. 27, pp Kaufman J. and D. Steudler 1998: Cadastre 2014, Vision for a Future Cadastral System. In: Proceedings of FIG Commission 7. pp Pilouk, M. (1996): Integrated modelling for 3D GIS, PhD thesis, ITC, The Netherlands. Pullar, D.V. Pullar, D.V. and M.J. Egenhofer (1988): Toward formal definition of topological relations among spatial objects, in: Proceedings of the Third International symposium on SDH, Sydney, Australia, pp Rokos D. 2001: Conceptual Modeling of Real Property Objects for The Hellenic Cadastre. Proceedings of international workshop on 3D Cadastres, Registration of properties in strata, Delft, The Netherlands, November

7 S.H.Chavoshi, M.R. Delavar Stoter, J.E. and H.D. Ploeger, 2002, Multiple use of space: current practice and development of a 3D cadastre. In: E.M. Fendel, K. Jones, R. Laurini and M. Rumor (eds.), Proceedings of UDMS 02 23rd Urban Data Management Symposium, 30 Years of UDMS, Looking Back, Looking Forward (Prague, Czech Republic, 1-4 October 2002), Prague, pp. I.1-I.16. CDrom. Stoter, J.E. and P.J.M. van Oosterom, 2002, Incorporating 3D geo-objects into a 2D Geo-DBMS. In Proceedings FIG, ACSM/ASPRS, Washington D.C. USA, April Stoter, J.E. and B. Gorte, 2003, Height in the cadastre, integrating point heights and parcel boundaries. In Proceedings FIG Working Week, Paris, France, April Stoter, J.E. and H.D. Ploeger, 2003, Registration of 3D objects crossing parcel boundaries, FIG Working week 2003, April, Paris, France. Stoter, J.E., Salzmann, M.A., Where do cadastral needs and technical possibilities meet? In: Cadastral Systems III, 3D Cadastres. In: P.J.M. van Oosterom and C.H.J. Lemmen (eds.); Computers, Environment and Urban Systems (CEUS), July 2003, Volume 27 no. 4, pp ISSN: Zlatanova, S., 2000, 3D GIS for urban development. Ph.D. Dissertation, ITC, Publication 69, Enschede, the Netherlands, 222 pp. 87

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